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The application of science to immediate, real-life problems. The discipline deals with the art
or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
1. Military history humanities discipline within the scope of general historical
recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies,
their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships.
2. Military engineering the art and practice of designing and building military works
and maintaining lines of military transport and communications.
3. Applied physics physics intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is
usually considered as a bridge between "pure" physics and engineering.
4. Optics branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light,
including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or
detect it.
5. Nanotechnology study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale.
Generally, nanotechnology deals with developing materials, devices, or other
structures possessing at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometres.
Quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale.
6. Nuclear technology technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. Among
the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear
weapons. It has found applications from smoke detectors to nuclear reactors, and from
gun sights to nuclear weapons.
7. Accounting process of communicating financial information about a business entity
to users such as shareholders and managers.
8. Management getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives
using available resources efficiently and effectively.
9. Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations
raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks
entailed in their projects.

10. Marketing social and managerial processes by which products, services and value
are exchanged in order to fulfil individuals' or group's needs and wants. These
processes include, but are not limited to, advertising, promotion, distribution, and
Systematic observation of natural phenomena solely for the discovery of unknown laws
relating to facts; the study of science alone, not including its relations to other subjects
1. Astronomy - the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets,
and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earth's atmosphere (such as
the cosmic background radiation)
2. Anthropology - the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural
development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind
3. Economics - the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption
of goods and services, or the material welfare of humankind
4. Psychology - the science of the mind or of mental states and processes
5. Sociology - the science or study of the origin, development, organization, and
functioning of human society; the science of the fundamental laws of social relations,
institutions, etc.
6. Mathematics - the study of the measurement, properties, and relationships of
quantities and sets, using numbers and symbols
7. Political Science - a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics
and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour
8. . Physics - the study of matter and its motion through space and time and all that
derives from these, such as energy and force.
9. Biology - the study of living organisms.
10. Chemistry - the science concerned with the composition, behavior, structure, and
properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions


Physics is the fundamental branch of science that developed out of the study of nature and
philosophy known, until around the end of the 19th century, as "natural philosophy". Today,
physics is ultimately defined as the study of matter, energy and the relationships between
them. Physics is, in some senses, the oldest and most basic pure science; its discoveries find

applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic
constituents of the natural world. The other sciences are generally more limited in their scope
and may be considered branches that have split off from physics to become sciences in their
own right. Physics today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics.
At the end of the 19th century, physics had evolved to the point at which classical mechanics
could cope with highly complex problems involving macroscopic situations; thermodynamics
and kinetic theory were well established; geometrical and physical optics could be understood
in terms of electromagnetic waves; and the conservation laws for energy and momentum (and
mass) were widely accepted. So profound were these and other developments that it was
generally accepted that all the important laws of physics had been discovered and that,
henceforth, research would be concerned with clearing up minor problems and particularly
with improvements of method and measurement. However, around 1900 serious doubts arose
about the completeness of the classical theoriesthe triumph of Maxwell's theories, for
example, was undermined by inadequacies that had already begun to appearand their
inability to explain certain physical phenomena, such as the energy distribution in blackbody
radiation and the photoelectric effect, while some of the theoretical formulations led to
paradoxes when pushed to the limit. Prominent physicists such as Hendrik Lorentz, Emil
Cohn, Ernst Wiechert and Wilhelm Wien believed that some modification of Maxwell's
equations might provide the basis for all physical laws. These shortcomings of classical
physics were never to be resolved and new ideas were required. At the beginning of the 20th
century a major revolution shook the world of physics, which led to a new era, generally
referred to as modern physics.
Human knowledge of biology began with prehistoric people and their experiences with edible
vs. inedible, or even poisonous, plants, habits of animals and how best to capture them, etc.
This information was verbally passed on to the next generation. People knew about medicinal
and poisonous plants and knew that a heartbeat meant that someone or some animal was
alive. They knew that babies were in some way connected with sexual intercourse.
Early on, much basic knowledge had been accumulated by the Egyptians and Babylonians.
They also began writing down this knowledge to preserve it and communicate it to those who
followed after. By as early as 8500 BC, there is evidence that in Mesopotamia humans raised
domesticated goats, sheep, and cereal grains. The Babylonians were quite knowledgeable in a

number of areas of science: their knowledge of astronomy was very advanced by even 1500
BC or earlier.
Early peoples did not compartmentalize their lives and knowledge like we do. They saw
themselves as part of the whole world around them and everything as integrated and working
in harmony. For them, then, their religious beliefs and their scientific thought/knowledge
were all the same, and not two separate things like they are for most of us. The
Mesopotamian and Egyptian religions looked at the world around them as a very personal
You with whom they could interact in the same sorts of ways that they could interaction
with other people. Thus, the world around them was both their gods and made through the
actions of their gods. Because of this, it was not OK to question things to ask how/why.
Things were the way they were because that was the personality and traits of that god,
someone who could be offended by a prying human and who might retaliate against this sort
of invasion of privacy or questioning of authority. The primeval Chaos was a god who
created people and nature and the other gods. These people were just as capable as us of
thinking logically and drawing conclusions but often did not do so because it didnt fit with
their experience of reality. In contrast, we see the world around us as a very impersonal it
with which it unthinkable to have any sort of personal relationship. Because modern science
distinguishes between subjective and objective and teaches us that objective is good and
subjective is bad, this creates for us an increasingly wide gulf between our perceptions of
phenomena and the concepts by which we explain them. For example, we see the Sun rise
and set just as people have done for thousands of years, but we think of this in terms of the
Earths rotation.
The history of chemistry represents a time span from ancient history to the present. By 1000
BC, civilizations used technologies that would eventually form the basis to the various
branches of chemistry. Examples include extracting metals from ores, making pottery and
glazes, fermenting beer and wine, extracting chemicals from plants for medicine and
perfume, rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze.
The protoscience of chemistry, alchemy, was unsuccessful in explaining the nature of matter
and its transformations. However, by performing experiments and recording the results,
alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry. The distinction began to emerge when a clear
differentiation was made between chemistry and alchemy by Robert Boyle in his work The

Sceptical Chymist (1661). While both alchemy and chemistry are concerned with matter and
its transformations, chemists are seen as applying scientific method to their work.
Chemistry is considered to have become an established science with the work of Antoine
Lavoisier, who developed a law of conservation of mass that demanded careful measurement
and quantitative observations of chemical phenomena. The history of chemistry is intertwined
with the history of thermodynamics, especially through the work of Willard Gibbs.
In 1903, Mikhail Tsvet invented chromatography, an important analytic technique. In 1904,
Hantaro Nagaoka proposed an early nuclear model of the atom, where electrons orbit a dense
massive nucleus. In 1905, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed the Haber process for
making ammonia, a milestone in industrial chemistry with deep consequences in agriculture.
The Haber process, or Haber-Bosch process, combined nitrogen and hydrogen to form
ammonia in industrial quantities for production of fertilizer and munitions. The food
production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing
fertilizer. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the BornHaber cycle as a method for
evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Haber has also been described as the "father of
chemical warfare" for his work developing and deploying chlorine and other poisonous gases
during World War I.
In 1905, Albert Einstein explained Brownian motion in a way that definitively proved atomic
theory. Leo Baekeland invented bakelite, one of the first commercially successful plastics. In
1909, American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan - who had studied in Europe under
Walther Nernst and Max Planck - measured the charge of individual electrons with
unprecedented accuracy through the oil drop experiment, in which he measured the electric
charges on tiny falling water (and later oil) droplets. His study established that any particular
droplet's electrical charge is a multiple of a definite, fundamental value the electron's
charge and thus a confirmation that all electrons have the same charge and mass.
Beginning in 1912, he spent several years investigating and finally proving Albert Einstein's
proposed linear relationship between energy and frequency, and providing the first direct
photoelectric support for Planck's constant. In 1923 Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize
for Physics.
In 1909, S. P. L. Srensen invented the pH concept and develops methods for measuring
acidity. In 1911, Antonius Van den Broek proposed the idea that the elements on the periodic
table are more properly organized by positive nuclear charge rather than atomic weight. In

1911, the first Solvay Conference was held in Brussels, bringing together most of the most
prominent scientists of the day. In 1912, William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
proposed Bragg's law and established the field of X-ray crystallography, an important tool for
elucidating the crystal structure of substances. In 1912, Peter Debye develops the concept of
molecular dipole to describe asymmetric charge distribution in some molecules.