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Auxetics: From Foams to

Composites and Beyond


Fabrizio Scarpa,
f.scarpa@bristol.ac.uk

www.bris.ac.uk/composites

Contents
Introduction
Foams
Honeycombs and truss-cores
Composites
Nano-auxetics
Conclusions

Acknowledgements

Special thanks for their contribution to:

A. Bezazi, M. Bianchi, P. Pastorino, M. Ruzzene, C. Lira, C. D. L.


Remillat, L. G. Ciffo, M. R. Hassan, T. L. Lew, A. Spadoni, K.
Saito, C. W. Smith, W. H. Bullough, H. Abramovitch, M. Burgard,
M. Hoffmeister, M. Celuch, K. E. Evans, F. C. Smith, R. Neville,
C. Coconnier, S. Jacobs, J. Martin, M. Bruckner, A. Alderson, K.
Alderson, P. Innocenti, A. Lorato, Y. H. Tai,
J. Yates, K. Worden, A. B. Spencer and G. Tomlinson

Introduction
From the Greek auxetos: that can expand
Indicates Negative Poissons ratio (NPR) materials

1 0.5

Homogeneous, isotropic solid

E1 21 E2 12

3 FR 2 1 2

16 Et 3

2 23

Special orthotropic solid


Central deflection
of a clamped
circular plate

Hardness increase
with NPR the
material wraps
around the indenter

Synclastic curvature easy


manufacturing of dome-shaped
structures
(University of Bolton, 2008)

Introduction
Fibril Hinging

(microporous UHMWPE
and PFTE - GoreTex)

A. Alderson, K. E. Evans, J. Mater. Sci. 1997, 32, 2797.

(courtesy of Azon.com)

Introduction
Rotating rectangles

(Courtesy of Professor Joseph Grima, http://home.um.edu.mt/auxetic/properties.htm)

J.N. Grima et al., Adv.


Mater., 12 (2000)1912;
A. Alderson et al.,
International Patent No.
PCT/GB98/03281 (1998).

Used to prototype smart filters for chemical processes.


Possible explanation of auxetic behaviour in some forms of a-crystobalite

Introduction

r
t

(D. Prall and R. Lakes, Int. J.


Mech. Sci., 39, 305-314, 1996)

LL
RR

30 o L r t r b L
Rotations of the nodes induce
bending of the ligaments
Isotropic in-plane properties ( = -1)

Foams

Strain dependent tensile Poissons ratio


(Scarpa, et al. Phys. Stat. Solidi B, 242(3) 2005, 681-694 )

Foams
1. Multiaxial compression

4. Relaxation of
the sample

Conventional
PU based foam

3. Cooling

2. Annealing

Foams
Conventional PU foam

Auxetic ( = -0.26)

Non-auxetic iso-density

Foams
Compression is the most
significant manufacturing
parameter for
auxetic foams.

(M. Bianchi, F Scarpa, C W Smith. J. Mat. Sci. 43(17), 5851)

Foams
80
70

Conventional
r = 0.95

Iso density

60
3

Auxetic

Energy U [mj/cm

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

25000

50000
Number of cycles N

75000

100000

Smart auxetic foams


(F. Scarpa, W. A. Bullough and P.
Lumley, IMechE Proc. Part C, 216,
2004)

Doping auxetic foams with magnetorheological


fluids can provide a tuned acoustic absorber
with shift peak varying with the intensity of an
external magnet

Shape Memory effect


Auxetic Sample

Returned
Sample

Shape Memory effect

(Bianchi M., Scarpa F, Smith C. W.,


2010. Acta Mater. 58(3), 858)

SEM images of
(a)conventional,
(b)1st auxetic,
(c)returned from
auxetic and
(d) 2nd auxetic
open-cell PU
based foam

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Foams New manufacturing process


New manufacturing process
for Auxetic foams
(Bianchi M., Scarpa F. Banse M. Smith C. W., 2011. Acta
Mater. 59(2), 686)

Foams Vibration transmissibility


9
8

Auxetic
Conventional

|XR|

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
50

100

[Hz]

150

200

Centre-symmetric honeycombs

4 2

c
22 cos cos sin 2 sin

Flexible topology to enhance


the mechanical and thermal
conductivity performance

Centre-symmetric honeycombs
INCONEL 617 core
Conduction radiation problem

Point A

Point B

Time 0 s uniform 273 K


Time 20 s 1400 K at upper face
PPR configurations

In upper surfaces,
temperatures are lower for
auxetic configurations

NPR
configurations

(Innocenti P., Scarpa F, 2009. J. Comp. Mat. 43(21), 2419)

Centre-symmetric honeycombs
Shape memory alloy honeycombs

Centre-symmetric honeycombs
Nonlinear in-plane properties SMA honeycombs

(Hassan MR, Scarpa F, Mohamed NA. Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 2009 20: 897-905 )

Zero honeycombs (SILICOMB)

(Lira C, Scarpa F, Tai Y H, Yates J R,


2011. Comp. Sci. Tech. In press)
(Lira C, Scarpa F, M. Olszewska and M.
Celuch, 2009. Phys Status Solidi B 246,
2055)

Gradient honeycombs

(Lira C, Scarpa F., 2010. Comp. Sci. Tech. 70(6), 930)


(Lira C., Scarpa F. Rajasekaran R., 2011. J. Int. Mat.
Syst. Struct. In press)

Kirigami/Origami honeycombs

(Saito
Porto,
(Saito
J. Int.

K,. Neville R. Scapa F., ICCS16


28-30 June 2011)
K., Agnese F., Scarpa F, 2011.
Mat. Syst. Struct. In press)

Chiral structures
Developed using RTM techniques for maritime sandwich applications
Core with polyester/glass fibre
Superior specific compressive and shear strength compared to analogous cores
in marine constructions
Possibility of embedding sensors (PZT, MFCs) for SHM or other monitoring
applications
Flat or curved panels easily manufactured with no in-plane buckling stresses
Developed and commercialised by CHISMATECH (Catania, I)

(Scarpa F., 2010. Comp.


Sci. Tech. 70.
CHISMACOMB Special
Issue)

Chiral structures
Truss-core beam
Applied torque

Deformed configurations for excitation at resonant frequencies:


Numerical
Localized deformations

Localized deformations

1150 Hz

1120 Hz
Experimental

(Spadoni A,. Ruzzene M., Scarpa F, 2006. J. Int. Mat. Syst. Struct.
17(11), 941)

Chiral structures

Deflection vs Velocity at 15

2.5

Eppler420 for racecar wing design

Vertical Deflection (mm)

2
Experimental
FEA Inviscid
FEA Viscous

1.5

0.5

(Bornengo D., Scarpa F., Remillat C D L., 2005.


IMechE Part G: J. Aerospace Eng. 219,185)
(Martin J. et al, 2008. Physica Status Solidi B
245(3), 570)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Velocity (m/s)

Chiral wingbox provides continuous


camber variation with a stiff bending
airfoil

SS

A
st
riu
m

AR

6m

6m

A
6m
st
ro
m
es
A
h
st

ro
9m
m
C
es
hi
ra
h
lD

12
ep
m
lo
C
y
hi
a
b
ra
l
e
lD

ep
3m
lo
C
ya
hi
bl
ra
e
lD

ep
6m
C
l
o
hi
y
ab
ra
lD
le

ep
9m
lo
ya
bl
e

12
m

SM

3m

6m

LR

B
R

Fo
ld
ab
le
Th
Ti
ps
in
Sh
el
lP
an
el

ES
A

Deployable SMA antenna demonstrator

Packed to Deployed Area Ratio

Weight to Area Ratio

Auxetic composite laminates


(K Anderson, V R Simkins, V L Coenen, P J Davies, A Alderson, K Evans. Phys. Stat Solidi B, 242(3), 509 (2005) )

= -0.156

= 0.086

Static load/displacement curves


0.6

Name0

Stacking sequence

Name

Stacking sequence

Name

Stacking sequence

ST 1

[ 2 ]s

ST 11

[ 33 / ]s

ST 21

[ 10 / ]s

ST 2

[02 / ]s

ST 12

[ 35 / ]s

ST 22

[ 15 / ]s

ST 3

[902 / ]s

ST 13

[ 37 / ]s

ST 23

[16 / ]s

ST 4

[- /+ /- /+/]s

ST 14

[ 40 / ]s

ST 24

[ 17 / ]s

ST 5

[ / 02]s

ST 15

[ 45 / ]s

ST 25

[ 18 / ]s

ST 6

[ /902 ]s

ST 16

[ 50 / ]s

ST 26

[ 19 / ]s

ST 7

[ 20 / ]s

ST 17

[ 60 / ]s

ST 27

[ 21 / ]s

ST 8

[ 25 / ]s

ST 18

[ 70 / ]s

ST 28

[ 22 / ]s

ST 9

[ 27 / ]s

ST 19

[ 80 / ]s

ST 29

[ 23 / ]s

ST 10

[ 30 / ]s

ST 20

[ 5 / ]s

ST 30

[24 / ]s

ST 8
0.3

ST 10
ST 12

ST 14

13

20

40

60

80

100

ST 15
ST 16

-0.3

ST 17
ST 18
-0.6

ST 19
Carbon

-0.9
[Degrees]

ST 3

(E H Harkati, A Bezazi, F Scarpa, K Alderson, A Alderson. Phys. Stat Solidi B, 244(3), 883 (2007) )

Auxetic composite laminates


3-point bending (T300-914 prepreg)

(Bezazi A., Boukharouba W., Scarpa F, 2009. Physica Status Solid B 246(9), 2102)

Auxetic composite laminates


3-point bending (T300-914 prepreg)

(Bezazi A., Boukharouba W., Scarpa F, 2009. Physica Status Solid B 246(9), 2102)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures


Weakening of C-C bonds strength NPR in SWCNTs
(Jindal P., Jindal VK, 2006. J. Comp. Theor. Nanosci. 3(1), 148)

NPR effect when bond angle variation dominant


deformation mechanism modification of force
constants and bond length equilibrium
(Yao, YT, Alderson A, Alderson K., 2007. Paper presented at Auxetics 2007
@ Malta)

Evidence of in-plane NPR in


buckypapers when mixing
SWCNTs and MWCNTs
(Hall, LJ et al, 2008. Science, 320, 504)

Other possible
mechanisms?

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures


Missing rib model (MRM) to explain
NPR in open cell foams
(C. W. Smith, J. N. Grima and K E Evans, 2000. Acta Mater. 48, 4349)

Vacancy defects induced by electronic or ion irradiation


(Telling, R. H. et al, 2003. Nature Mat. 2, 333)
(Ajayan, PM, Ravikumar, V, Charlier, JC, 1998. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1437)
(Mielke, SL, et al, 2004. Chem. Phys. Lett. 390, 413)

Uniaxial mechanical
properties depending on %
of vacant atoms
(Sammalkorpi M et al. 2004. Phys. Rev. B 70, 245416)

CNT and graphene mechanical properties

(F Scarpa and S Adhikari, 2008. J. Phys. D: App. Phys., 41, 085306)


(Scarpa F., Adhikari S., Phani A S, 2009. Nanotechnology 20 065709)
(Scarpa, FL, L. Boldrin, Peng, H-X, Remillat, CDL & Adhikari, S., 2010. Applied Physics Letters, 97,
151903)
(R. Chowdhury, Adhikari, S, CY Wang & Scarpa, FL., 2010 Comp. Mat. Sci., 48, 730)
(E.I. Saavedra Flores, Adhikari, S, Friswell, MI & Scarpa, FL, 2011. Comp.Mat. Sci., 50, 1083)
(Scarpa, FL, J. W. Narojczyk & K. W. Wojciechowski., 2011., Physica Status Solidi B, 1, 82
(Chowdhury R, Adhikari S, Rees P., Wilks S. P., Scarpa F., 2010. Phys. Rev. B 83, 045401)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures

FE nonlinear tensile loading


simulations applied strain 1.e-3
Random generation for vacancies
Elements attached to vacant
atoms desactivated (ekill utility)
Combinations of SWCNT aspect
ratio, radius and % of vacant
atoms considered
12800 MC simulations

(F Scarpa, S Adhikari, C Y Wang 2009. J. Phys. D: App. Phys., 42(14), 142002)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures

Mean Youngs modulus ratio and standard deviation Youngs modulus ratio for
armchair (n,n). = 2 % NRV; = 1.5 % NRV; = 1 % NRV; = 0.5 % NRV

(F Scarpa, S Adhikari, C Y Wang 2009. J. Phys. D: App. Phys., 42(14), 142002)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures

Probability density functions for nrz in


(n,n) tubes (R = 0.426 nm, AR=5)

Distribution of the standard deviations


for (n,n) configurations (pristine nrz
between 0.29 and 0.16)

(F Scarpa, S Adhikari, C Y Wang 2009. J. Phys. D: App. Phys., 42(14), 142002)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures


(F Scarpa, S Adhikari, C Y Wang 2009. J. Phys. D: App. Phys., 42(14), 142002)

(6,0) rz = -0.41
Evidence on NPR in defective CNTs found in NI-CNT systems
(Smolyanitsky A, Twari V K, 2011. Nanotechnology 22 085703)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures

(Ma Y et al, 2010. App. Phys. Lett. 97 061909)

Nano-auxetics in carbon structures

(Chen L et al, 2009. App. Phys. Lett. 94 253111)

Conclusions
Auxetics and NPR can be engineered at different scales
Use of auxetic materials and structures needs lateral
thinking multidisciplinary research
There is scope for R&D activities at different TRLs
from blue sky to manufacturing of commercial
prototypes

Conclusions

Thank you for


your attention!