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CHAPTER 2

Literature Review

An accident cant be predicted. It may be happen within a few seconds or more. It does
not mean that accident only occurred from injury or fatal, also damaged equipment and
materials can be included especially injuries that gives a hint attention as stated by Hinze,
1997. This all accidents affected due to nature of damage that should be take an action.
For this accident that prevent the materials and equipments from being damaged may
produce less injuries in the future construction accidents.

2.1.1 Accident Causation Model

Accidents prevention is the maximum primary of all safety control paradigms. Many
of the researchers tried to understand accidents in industrial by introduce the accident
causation model (Abdelhamid and Everett, 2000 ). The objectives of this model is to
provide tools for safe accident prevention. As described by Heinrich ( 1980 ) as An
integrated program, a series of coordinated activities, directed to control of unsafe
personal performance and unsafe mechanical conditions, and based on certain
knowledge, attitudes and abilities . The model that reached higher accident causation
known as Domino Theory that was invented by Heinrich ( 1930 ) and multiple causation
theory that was constructed by Petersen in 1971.

2.1.2 Domino Theory

In 1930, accident causation was pioneered by Heinrich in 1930, discussed accident


causation theory, the interaction between man and machine, the acts and attitudes , the
management role in accident prevention, the cost of accident and finally the effect of
safety on efficiency.

Heinrich researched the accident causation model into five dominoes which are
ancestry and social environment, fault of person, unsafe act and/or mechanical or
physical hazard, accident and injury. This five-domino model suggested that through
inherited or acquired undesirable traits, people may commit unsafe act or cause the
existence of mechanical or physical hazards that may result the injury ( Abdelhamid and
Everett, 2000 ). This can be summarized into two points which are people are the
fundamental reason behind accidents and managements should be responsible for the
accident prevention. From this statement, the management shall take this action to
provide a safe environment to worker for preventing them from accident.

However, in the late 1960s the domino sequence was updated by Bird to reflect
the management relationship that involved with the causes and effect of all incidents
and accidents that could downgrade business operation ( Heinrich et al, 1980 ). This
Heinrichs views were criticized for oversimplifying the control of human behaviour
in causing accidents and versus unsafe condition ( Zeller 1986 ). This theory put Bird

has the concept of Dominos theory as Heinrich does but the elements are different.
Bird updated into five elements which are lack of control ( management ) , basic
causes ( origin ) , immediate cause ( symptoms ) , incidents ( contact ) and people
( property loss ) .

Afterwards, Birds theory has been updated by Adam ( 1971) and Weaver
( 1971 ) that has put latest version of Domino Theory. Adams theory focus on
organizational factors that cause accident. Those include are organizational targets,
appraisal device, requirements of measurement, chain of command, span of control,
delegation of responsibility and authority, layout of the computing device, gadget, the
method of reworking uncooked cloth into output and /or the procedure of providing
the offerings. Somehow, he stressed on the important to recognized the root of unsafe
acts or conditions which eventually emphasized on bigger management roles in
preventing accident ( Heinrich et al, 1980 )

2.1.3 Multiple Causation Model