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Protecting Transmission Lines

Terminated into Transformers


Elmo Price and Roger Hedding, ABB Inc.

Abstract Transmission lines that are terminated into


transformers are applications where the line and transformer
cannot be separated by a circuit breaker and are therefore in
the same zone of protection.
These applications may be
addressed with either current differential or line distance
protection. In either case the implementation of separate
transformer differential protection isolating the protection
zone is recommended. The line protection application needs
to consider the instrument transformer locations and
transformer winding connections at the transformer end. This
paper will discuss the application considerations for both line
differential and distance schemes for lines terminated into
transformers and provide application guidelines.

Figure 1(a) illustrates the preferred method of protection


where the transformer and line protection are separated into
two separate protection zones, transformer and line
protection. The transformer differential protection
connection as shown in figure 1(a) is always recommended.
The application of either line protection scheme needs to
consider the instrument transformer quantities . . . VL, VH,
IL, IH, that are available at the transformer end as shown in
figure 1(b).
Application considerations for both line differential and
distance schemes utilizing the various instrument
transformer connections are discussed below.

Index TermsProtection, transformers, transmission lines

II. PREFERRED PROTECTION SCHEME USING VH AND IH

I. INTRODUCTION

Before discussing the application considerations for


either the distance or current differential schemes on
transformer terminated lines, we want to first look at the
preferred method to protect this configuration. The
preferred method utilizes the high [or line] side instrument
transformers as shown in figure 1(a). This scheme
separates the line and transformer into two separate
protection zones, both of which trip breakers at Busses G
and R. Both the transformer and line protection operate
high-speed. Relays G and R will detect internal line faults
and trip the respective circuit breakers at Busses G and R.
The transformer differential relay, 87T, will detect faults
internal to the transformers protection zone. An 87T trip
will trip the breaker at Bus G and initiate a transfer trip via
a communication channel to the breaker at Bus R.
Using this approach, line and transformer faults can be
easily discriminated. This allows automatic or manual
reclosing to be performed for tripping that results only from
line faults. Since it is desirable not to reclose (energize) a
faulted transformer, 87T operations should block reclosing
at both line ends.
Using the ideal method of figure 1(a) allows the selection
and application of the line protection scheme somewhat
independent of the transformer effects, the only
consideration being the open zero sequence source
impedance for a transformer delta winding on the line side
as shown in figure 2(d).

Transmission lines are sometimes terminated directly


into transformers without a power circuit breaker separating
them. The direct connection is typically on the
transformers high voltage winding and is done to avoid the
cost of the circuit breaker and associated apparatus often
including instrument transformers. A typical transmission
line terminated into a transformer is shown in figure 1. The
line and transformer configuration is generally protected by
either a line current differential or line distance scheme and
transformer differential scheme.

Figure 1. Transmission line terminated into a transformer on the high


voltage side

978-1-4244-4183-9/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE

276

leads low voltage side by 30.

III. TRANSFORMER EFFECTS


When line [or high voltage] instrument quantities are not
available the line protection zone will include the power
transformer, therefore, the effects of the transformer will
have to be evaluated for both line distance and differential
applications. The effects can best be determined by having
some knowledge of transformer operation and analyzing
the system one-line diagrams and associated symmetrical
component sequence circuits of figures 2 and 3. A review
of these subjects indicates the following areas of evaluation
when using low voltage (source G) instrument
transformers:
A. Transformer impedance
B. Phase shift across transformer for all fault types
C. Transformer turns ratio including effect of tapchanger
D. The effect of winding connections (delta, wye) on
ground current paths (zero sequence circuit)
E. Transformer energization inrush current

A. Transformer impedance
Transformer impedances are of importance when
applying distance protection or any function that
computes impedance. Transformer impedances are
provided by the manufacturer in percent on the MVA
base of the measured (tested) windings. The measured
impedance values are generally accurate to within about
1%. The impedance of course needs to be converted to
the same base ohms on which the transmission line ohms
are expressed and appropriately incorporated into
protection settings.

kVL
RCL

RVL
kVL
RCL

RVL
VL

kVH

ZG1

+j30

1:e

ZG2

Positive

mZL1

(1-m)ZL1

ZR1

mZL2

Negative

VH2
n

(b) Positive and negative sequence circuits of system diagram

ZR2

ZG0

ZT

(b) Positive and negative sequence circuits of system diagram

(1-m)ZL0

mZL0

mZL0

Zero

ZR0

(1-m)ZL0

ZR0

IL0

ZT

ZR2

x
VH2

VL2

(1-m)ZL2
x

Negative

(1-m)ZL2

mZL2

IL2

VH0

VL0

(c) Zero sequence circuit for Wye-wye connection

IL0 =0

IH0

ZG0

VH0

VL0 =0
Zero

(c) Zero sequence circuit for Wye-delta connection

Zero

ZT

ZG0

ITL0
VL0
Zero

ZT

VL2

n
-j30

ZR1

IL2

1:e

(1-m)ZL1

VH1

VL1

ZG2

VH1

ZG0

mZL1

VL1

ZT

ZT
IL1

RELAY R

IL1

Positive

RELAY R

(a) System one-line diagram

ZT

RVH
VH

IH

(a) System one-line diagram

RELAY G

ZG1

RELAY G

RVH
VH

IH

IL

RCH

IL

VL

RCH

kVH

mZL0
ITH0 =0
VH0

(1-m)ZL0

ZR0

VL0

ZTL0 ZTH0

mZL0

ITL0

ITH0

ITM0

ZTM0 VH0

(1-m)ZL0

ZR0

VR0
n

(d) Zero sequence circuit for Wye-wye-delta connection

Figure 3. Sequence network models of line with non phase shifting ANSI
transformer connections showing alternate zero sequence circuits for Wyewye and Wye-wye-delta transformations. High voltage (line) side is in
phase with low voltage side. In this example the delta winding is not
loaded and is provided as a grounding source only.

VH0
n

(d) Zero sequence circuit for Delta-wye connection

Figure 2. Sequence network models of line and ANSI two-winding phase


shifting transformer connections showing alternate zero sequence circuits
for Delta-wye and Wye-delta transformations. High voltage (line) side

277

3) Wye-wye connection
The zero sequence circuit for this connection is figure
3(c). There is no phase shift between high and low voltage
windings. Zero sequence quantities can be measured on the
source G side that can represent somewhat accurately the
quantities present on the line side of the transformer. There
will be a difference in per unit voltages VL0 and VH0 due to
the transformer impedance voltage drop, but this is
effectively measured by distance units. This voltage drop
has no effect on current differential protection.

B. Phase shift
Figure 2 shows that there is a voltage and current angle
phase shift across a delta-wye or wye-delta connected
transformer. The high voltage (line side in this figure)
quantities lead the low voltage (source G) quantities by 30
for both connections. This is based on ANSI standard
connections. The effect of this phase shift needs to be
accounted for to insure correct voltage and current
measurement and protection operation.
C. Turns ratio including effect of tap-changer
The transformers turns ratio including the effect of the
tap changer needs to be considered for both line distance
and differential protection when the transformer is in the
line protection zone. The turns ratio needs to be known for
proper application. The tap changer changes the
transformer turns ratio and this affects both impedance and
current differential measurement.
For distance relaying, the line and transformer
impedances must sometimes be combined and this needs to
be done so very carefully. The line impedance in ohms that
is connected to the high voltage winding, for example, can
be easily calculated on another of the transformers
windings base simply by multiplying the impedance by the
square of the actual turns ratio at the tap position of
interest. The transformer impedance, however, is the
leakage impedance between two windings and when
expressed on a particular winding base cannot be totally
reflected across the transformer except at the transformer
tap position (ratio) at which that specific impedance was
measured by test. Therefore, the actual tested impedance at
the tap position of interest must be used. This information
is generally provided on the transformers nameplate or
with test data provided by the transformers manufacturer.
For line differential protection the range of the tap
changer must be considered when setting the minimum
differential pickup level. The application of modern
protection schemes to dynamically follow tap changer
position greatly improves sensitivity to internal faults of
differential schemes.

4) Wye-delta-wye connection
The zero sequence circuit for this connection is figure
3(d). There is no phase shift between high and low voltage
winding quantities. There is, however, a delta winding that
provides a ground current path. Zero sequence quantities
can be measured on the source G side of the transformer
although they will be different than those on the line side.
There will be a difference in per unit voltages VL0 and VH0
due to the transformer impedance voltage drop, but this is
effectively measured by distance units. There will also be a
difference in per unit currents IL0 and IH0 due to the
transformer ground current, ITM0, through the transformer
ground impedance ZTM0. This will affect both line distance
and differential measurement.
E. Transformer energizing inrush current
When a power transformer is energized, high
magnetizing current flows for several cycles in the
transformer winding that is energized and no magnetizing
current flows in other windings. This is a differential
current within the transformer referred to as inrush current
and is characterized by a high peak current with
considerable harmonic content, particularly 2nd and 5th.
Generally, transformer differential protection provides
harmonic restraint to prevent undesired operations upon
energization. When energizing a transformer terminated
line the effects of inrush current need to be addressed.
Line differential protection must still address the
differential current produced by transformer energization.
Also, the effect of the magnetizing inrush current on
overcurrent and distance unit operations should be of
concern.
Transformer magnetizing current at energization is, in
the worst case of high residual flux, limited by the
energized windings air core reactance, i.e. the winding coil
reactance without the iron core. Air core reactance is a
function of the transformer design and can be smaller than
the transformers leakage reactance between the windings
that is used for through-fault short circuit calculations.
Given that this it is possible, settings for direct trip phase
overcurrent functions based on transformer leakage
impedance may be exceeded upon transformer
energization. Considerable ground current may also exist
due to unbalanced phase magnetizing inrush current. This
will be particularly true for cases where ground overcurrent
units that are part of line protection are set low to look into

D. Ground current path


The zero sequence circuits of figures 2 and 3 show the
different issues depending on the winding connection.
1) Wye-delta connection
The zero sequence circuit for this connection is figure
2(c). Zero sequence quantities cannot be measured on the
source G (low voltage) side although they will be present
on the line (high voltage) side of the transformer.
2) Delta-wye connection
The zero sequence circuit for this connection is figure
2(d). Zero sequence quantities can be measured on the
source G side for reverse faults; they cannot be measured
for faults on the line side of the transformer.

278

Fault direction is determined from the ct location


therefore faults in the transformer can be detected by
impedance measurement.. The apparent impedance for a
fault in the transformer is the ratio of VH to IL. VH is a
function of the fault current flowing into the transformer
fault from Bus R and IL flows into the fault from Bus G.
The apparent impedance can be calculated for faults on
both high and low voltage terminals of the transformer to
determine the impedance setting to cover transformer
faults. Normally only partial coverage of the transformer is
provided with instantaneous zone-1 tripping. Either zone 2
or 3 may be appropriately set to provide backup
transformer coverage.
Since faults on the line and in the transformer cannot be
discriminated with distance measurement, auto reclosing
should not be applied.

the transformer. Depending on the transient nature of


voltages that accompany the energizing inrush current,
distance units operating instantaneously may be affected.
Therefore, momentary blocking logic at transformer
energization is recommended. This could be in the form of
a 2nd harmonic block, a momentary current pickup
multiplier set higher than maximum inrush current or other
logic to prevent tripping on excessive phase or residual
current
produced
by
transformer
energization.
Undervoltage supervision might be considered on all
distance units including time-delayed to prevent operation
due to extended inrush time. Also, logic that can distinguish
a pre-existing fault from inrush at energizing should be
employed.
IV. CONSIDERATIONS FOR LINE DISTANCE APPLICATIONS
The reach of a distance relay is measured from the
location of the voltage transformers; the fault direction is
sensed from the location of the current transformers. As
previously discussed, using the instrument transformers on
the line side of the power transformer, VH and IH, are
preferred. However, economic or other considerations may
dictate the use of the either one or both the instrument
transformers measuring the low side (Source G) quantities
VL and IL. Therefore, careful consideration must be given
to the placement of the vts and cts for these line distance
applications. The following is a discussion of these
considerations. The appendix provides a summary of the
application considerations for the available instrument
transformer connections.

2) Considerations based on transformer winding


connections at Bus G
a)

If the transformer windings are wye-wye then there are


no further considerations, as there are no limitations for
phase or ground relaying.
b)

1) General considerations at Bus G


Using these connections the impedance reach is still
measured from the high or line side voltage transformer
providing VH and the zone-1 setting is .9ZL (90% zone-1
line coverage is assumed).
The low side current transformer ratio must include the
power transformer ratio to compute the correct secondary
impedance on the high side base.

Z SEC

kVL
kVH

RVH

Z PRI

Wye-wye-delta, figure 3(d)

If the transformer is Wye-wye with a delta tertiary


winding for grounding then the effect of the ground current
ITMO (figure 3(d)) must be dealt with for current and
distance measurement. Having access to the high voltage
neutral ct allows direct measurement of the line zero
sequence residual current (3I0) for overcurrent protection,
ground directional measurement and pilot functions.
Having access to the delta winding cts or the sum of the
high and low voltage neutral cts that produce 3ITM0 will
allow summation of, or recombining with microprocessor
techniques, ITM0 and the low side phase currents to produce
the equivalent high side phase currents.
With no access to the neutral or delta winding cts, ITM0 is
not measurable and the infeed effect on the ground distance
measurement needs to be determined before applying. The
apparent zero sequence line impedance measured from the
high voltage side of the transformer for a remote ground
fault at Bus R is expressed in equation 2.

A. Using VH and IL

RCL

Wye-wye, figure 3(c)

(1)

VH 0 VR0
Z L0
I TH 0

(2)

V H 0 V R 0 I TH 0

Z L0 K T Z L0
I TL 0
I TL 0

(3)

KT 1

Z G 0 Z TL 0
Z TM 0

Z L 0 K T Z L 0
Figure 4. Instrument transformer connections VH and IL

279

(4)
(5)

in phase (positive sequence) currents then the -30 phase


shift in negative sequence current is accounted for.
Negative sequence directional and overcurrent units will
accurately perform. If using a compensation factor in a
microprocessor relay to correct the measured negative
sequence current angle then you should confer with the
relays manufacturer to determine the correct
implementation to assure proper operation of negative
sequence elements.
In general there are no issues with phase distance and
directional unit operations in response to multiphase faults.
The response of the phase-to-phase distance unit to two
phase-to-ground faults is very accurate, however, it may be
supervised or controlled by phase selection logic that relies
on accurate zero sequence voltage and current
measurement.
In these cases where zero sequence
quantities cannot be used assurances should be made that
the phase-to-phase distance units will operate correctly.

ZL0 is the line zero sequence impedance. When the


apparent impedance is measured using VH0 and IL0 the
results will be as shown in equation 3. Equation 3 shows
that using VH0/IL0 the distance measurement underreaches
in per unit as the fault always appears further away than it
actually is. Therefore the use and setting of under and
overreaching distance zones must be carefully considered.
If all impedance quantities are constant then one could
substitute ZL0 for ZL0 to calculate the residual zero
sequence current compensation factor used for ground
reach settings. However the value of the transformer
current distribution factor KT is affected by changes in the
source impedance ZG0 and possible changes in the
transformer impedances ZTL0 and ZTM0 due to tap changes.
Therefore the following rules apply for using the minimum
and maximum values Min(ZL0) and Max(ZL0).
1.
2.
3.

Use Min(ZL0) to assure correct underreaching for


all measured ZL0 values.
Use Max(ZL0) to assure correct overreaching for
all measured ZL0 values.
Calculate the residual compensation factor, Kn
(a.k.a., Kr, K0), for each ground distance zone
setting appropriately using the above values.

d)

It is indeed possible that some application criteria for


setting zone reaches cannot be met, in which case ground
distance measurement with zero sequence compensation for
that zone should not be used.
c)

Delta-wye, figure 2(d)

The phase shift between high and low voltage


transformer windings need to be accounted for as discussed
above with the Wye-delta connection.
Zero sequence current will not flow on the low or high
side for line faults on the high side. Therefore, ground
distance, directional and overcurrent units using zero
sequence quantities will not work. Negative sequence
directional and overcurrent units, however, will perform
accurately with the appropriate phase shift correction.
B. Using VL and IL

Wye-delta, figure 2(c)

For Wye-delta transformer connections there is a 30


phase shift between IH and IL that needs to be corrected.
For ANSI connected transformers the high side quantity
leads the low side quantity by 30, therefore, 30 is added to
the measured low side current IL angle.
This is
accomplished with delta connected cts on the transformer
wye winding or auxiliary cts. Delta connected cts also
block the availability of zero sequence current for possible
use by the relay. The correction may also be done with
correction factors available in microprocessor relays. The
implementation of the phase shift without blocking the
availability of zero sequence current may be preferred.
Zero sequence current cannot be measured for line faults
when using the transformer low side current transformers
measuring IL. Therefore, ground distance measurement
with zero sequence compensation should not be used. Also,
zero sequence directional and zero sequence (ground)
overcurrent relays cannot be relied upon unless there is
access to the high side neutral ct.
Negative sequence current flowing through the
transformer is not blocked by the wye-delta transformation
as zero sequence current is, however, the negative sequence
current, IH2, lags IL2 by 30 for the ANSI standard
transformer connection. If the cts are connected delta on the
transformers wye winding to provide the + 30 phase shift

1) General Considerations
This is generally the more practical connection when
both line side vts and cts cannot be used. It is more
convenient with both VL and IL to compute and use the
primary impedances on the low voltage (VL) base. The
impedance reach is measured from the low or bus side
voltage transformer providing VL and the impedance setting
must include the transformer impedance ZT. Transformer
impedances are calculated very accurately; therefore the
zone-1 reach is set at 0.99 ZT + .9ZL. The ZT multiplier .99
is used to allow for almost 1% positive error in the ZT
measurement (i.e. actual impedance is ZT/0.99, but ZT is
measured).

Figure 5. Instrument transformer connections VL and IL

This connection method has a disadvantage of limiting


the line protection (reach) when ZT is large compared to ZL.

280

phase-to-phase fault to Relay G when measuring


impedance with low side quantities, the phase-to-phase
distance unit will provide some limited coverage. The
phase-to-phase units will underreach the phase-to-ground
fault location. Figure 6 shows the percent underreach as a
function of the total (transformer and line) residual current
compensation factor, Kn. For example, with Kn 0f 0.5 the
unit will underreach 55%, i.e. it will measure 9 for a
phase-to-ground fault located at 4 . It is apparent from
the curve of figure 6 that adequate coverage of line phaseto-ground faults cannot be provided for zone-1 applications
and is seriously questionable for zone-2 applications.

Assuming the measured ZT has no error, the effective line


reach from the transformer high side will be .9ZL - .01ZT.
For a ZT/ZL ratio of 10 the effective line reach will be .8ZL.
If the transformer has a tap changer then its effect on the
power transformer ratio needs to be included. The
minimum secondary impedance needs to be computed for
setting zone-1 and other under reaching zones to assure no
tripping for faults at Bus R or further. Also, the maximum
secondary impedance needs to be computed for setting
zone-2 and other overreaching zones to assure complete
detection of faults on the line near and at Bus R. Note that
the effect of the tap-changer for this case not only changes
the value of ZL as seen from the low side, but it also
changes the value of ZT.
Since faults on the line and in the transformer cannot be
discriminated with distance measurement, auto reclosing
should not be applied.

80
% Underreach

70

2) Considerations based on transformer winding


connections
a)

Wye-wye, figure 3(c)

40
30
20
0
0

V L 0 V R 0 Z TL 0 I TL 0 ( Z TH 0 Z L 0 ) I TH 0

(6)

VL 0 VR 0
Z ' L 0 Z TL 0 K T Z TH 0 Z L 0
I TL 0

(7)

0.5

1.5

Residual Current Compensation Factor, Kn

Wye-wye-delta, figure 3(d)

Figure 6. Percent underreach of units using delta side voltage


transformers for G line faults. % Underreach = 100(1-fault/measured).
The curve is calculated with a Kn angle = 0. Kn = (Z0-Z1)/3Z1

As discussed in section IV.A.2.b the effect of the


transformer current distribution factor, KT, due to the
ground path provided by the delta winding must be
considered. Equation 7 shows the apparent zero sequence
line and transformer impedance as measured from the low
voltage bus side instrument transformers.

d)

Delta-wye, figure 2(d)

For Delta-wye transformer connections there is a 30


phase shift. However, there is no requirement for phase
shift correction with three-phase distance relays that
compute phase distance using line current and phase-tophase voltages. Also, the same limitations on ground
relaying with zero sequence quantities apply as discussed in
section IV.A.2.d.
Negative sequence directional and
overcurrent units, however, will perform accurately.
C. Using VL and IH

KT is as defined in equation 4 and is subject to change


due to variances in source impedance ZG0 and the
transformer branch impedances, ZTL0, ZTH0 and ZTM0, that
are subject to change due to tap changer variances. Again,
the use and setting of under and overreaching distance
zones must be carefully considered. The same rules using
Min(ZL0) and Max(ZL0) of section IV.A.2.b apply.
c)

50

10

If the transformer windings are wye-wye then there are


no further considerations, as there are no limitations for
phase or ground relaying.
b)

60

1) General Considerations
Using these connections the impedance reach is
measured from the low or bus side voltage transformer
providing VL and the impedance setting must include the
transformer impedance ZT.

Wye-delta, figure 2(c)

For Wye-delta transformer connections there is a 30


phase shift. However, there is no requirement for phase
shift correction with three-phase distance relays that
compute phase distance using line current and phase-tophase voltages. Also, the same limitations on ground
relaying with zero sequence quantities apply as discussed in
section IV.A.2.c.
Negative sequence directional and
overcurrent units, however, will perform accurately.
Since a phase-to-ground fault on the line will appear as a

Figure 7. Instrument transformer connections VL and IH

The zone-1 reach is set at .99 ZT + .9ZL.

281

The

angle. The correction may also be done with correction


factors available in microprocessor relays.
For Wye-delta transformer windings zero sequence
voltage cannot be measured for line faults, regardless of the
high or low side delta winding location, when using the low
side voltage, VL. Therefore, ground distance units and zero
sequence directional units requiring zero sequence voltage
polarization cannot be applied. For this connection any
transformer neutral current or zero sequence current
[derived from phase currents] is indicative of a fault on the
line or beyond Bus R. Non-directional zero sequence
overcurrent detection may be used to indicate ground fault
direction.
Negative sequence voltage appears on both sides of the
transformer; however, VH2 lags VL2 by 30 for the ANSI
standard transformer connection. If the phase angle
correction for phase currents with high side delta connected
cts is applied as discussed in section IV.A.2.c then the
negative sequence phase angle is accounted for. The
correction may also be done with compensation factors
available in microprocessor relays.

disadvantages of having the transformer impedance in the


zone-1 setting as discussed in section IV.B.1 still apply.
The high or line side current transformer ratio must
include the power transformer ratio to compute the correct
secondary impedance on the low side base. If the
transformer has a tap changer then its effect on the power
transformer ratio needs to be included.

RCH
Z SEC

kVH
kVL

RVL

Z PRI

(8)

Fault direction is determined from the ct location


therefore faults in the transformer cannot be detected. In
this case faults on the line and in the transformer can be
discriminated with distance measurement; therefore the
application of auto reclosing may be applied, but only after
careful consideration.
2) Considerations based on transformer winding
connections
a)

d)

Wye-wye, figure 3(c)

If the transformer windings are wye-wye then there are


no further considerations, as there are no limitations for
phase or ground relaying.
b)

Wye-wye-delta, figure 3(d)

As discussed in section IV.A.2.b the effect of the


transformer current distribution factor, KT, due to the
ground path provided by the delta winding must be
considered. Equation 10 shows the apparent zero sequence
line and transformer impedance as measured from the low
voltage bus side instrument transformers.

D. Protection considerations at Bus R


Auto-reclosing cannot be applied when using the
transformer bus side cts for protection at Bus G. When
auto-reclosing is not used the zone-1 setting for Relay R at
Bus R (Figure 1) can be set to cover 100% of the line and
look into the transformer impedance. A setting of ZL + .5ZT
would accomplish this. It is assumed that the transformer
has it own protection and does not rely on Relay Rs zone-1
to provide instantaneous tripping. If auto-reclosing is to be
applied then zone-1 should be set normally.
Zones 2 and 3 can be easily set to overreach the
transformer and provide backup protection for both line and
transformer faults.

V L 0 V R 0 Z TL 0 I TL 0 ( Z TH 0 Z L 0 ) I TH 0 (9)
VL 0 VR 0
Z
Z ' L 0 TL 0 Z TH 0 Z L 0
I TH 0
KT

(10)

KT is as defined in equation 4 and is subject to change


due to variances in source impedance ZG0 and the
transformer branch impedances, ZTL0, ZTH0 and ZTM0, that
are subject to change due to tap changer variances. Again,
the use and setting of under and overreaching distance
zones must be carefully considered. The same rules using
Min(ZL0) and Max(ZL0) of section IV.A.2.b apply.
c)

Delta-wye, figure 2(d)

The phase shift between high and low voltage


transformer windings needs to be accounted for as
discussed above with the Wye-delta connection.
Zero sequence current will not flow on the low or high
side for line faults on the high side. Therefore, ground
distance, directional and overcurrent units using zero
sequence quantities will not work. Negative sequence
directional and overcurrent units, however, will perform
accurately.

E. Communication assisted pilot schemes


The communication assisted schemes reviewed here are
permissive overreaching transfer trip (POTT), permissive
underreaching transfer trip (PUTT), directional comparison
blocking (DCB), directional comparison unblocking
(DCUB) and direct underreaching transfer trip (DUTT). It
is assumed the reader has a basic understanding of these
schemes. Essential to correct operation of any of the
directional comparison schemes is the ability to determine
correct fault direction either by phase-distance, ground-

Wye-delta, figure 2(c)

For Wye-delta transformer connections there is a 30


phase shift between IH and IL that needs to be corrected.
Since we are computing primary ohms on the low side (VL)
base we will need to shift IH by -30 assuming an ANSI
standard connected transformer. The correction may be
done with high side delta connected cts or auxiliary cts, but
connected to subtract 30 from the high side phase current

282

(3I0) measurement. Since forward distance measurement


cannot be provided, pilot tripping for forward faults must
be provided with a non-directional ground overcurrent
function that overreaches Bus R. It must be provided with
a blocking coordination timer that allows the receipt of a
blocking signal from Bus R. The remote Relay R cannot
detect a forward ground fault beyond the transformer
toward source G. Therefore, all forward single-phase-toground faults from Relay R will not receive a blocking
signal and correct tripping will result. The DCB scheme
will work correctly for this case, but with the normally
expected security limitations on loss of channel.
Not having forward ground distance zone-1 tripping the
above schemes may best be described as communication
dependent rather than communication assisted. The loss of
communications results in over-tripping or time delayed
backup tripping. Given the complexity a simple DUTT
scheme at Bus R might be preferred. Setting zone-1 at Bus
R to look well into the transformer at Bus G will provide
complete line coverage and sending a direct transfer trip to
the breaker at Bus G will effect high-speed tripping. Using
a DUTT scheme in this manner precludes the use of autoreclosing.
For loss of communication channel the
protection at G will have to trip on overcurrent backup.

distance or ground-overcurrent measurement. Distance


units of Relay G would be set overreaching or
underreaching as previously defined for the appropriate
pilot scheme. It is assumed that there is sufficiently low
source impedances at Busses G and R such that
measurement issues of Relay G are due to the transformer
winding connection or instrument transformer location. If
measurement units are properly set correct fault direction
discrimination for multiphase faults is easily obtained. The
primary issues of Relay G will be obtaining correct
directional discrimination for phase-to-ground faults.
There are no issues at Relay R beyond that of normal line
protection applications without a transformer.
1) Wye-wye and Wye-wye-delta, figure 3
There are no special considerations beyond normal pilot
scheme application for these transformer winding
connections. All necessary quantities are measurable on
both sides of the transformers. Assurances should be made
to provide correct overreaching and/or underreaching as
discussed in section IV.A.2.
2) Wye-delta, figure 2(c)
a)

Using VL and IH (Cts on Wye)

In this case the residual current, 3I0, is measurable by


Relay G for forward (line and source R) faults provided cts
are wye connected and phase angle correction is in the
microprocessor relay. However, accurate distance and
directional measurement of forward faults are not
obtainable due to the inability to measure V0. Also, reverse
phase-to-ground faults are not detectable. This is of no
consequence for POTT and DCUB schemes where reverse
fault sensing is not necessary for correct operation.
However, the inability of forward distance measurement
precludes the use of PUTT schemes where the accurate
operation of an underreaching ground distance zone is
required to send a permissive signal to Relay R.
Ground distance measurement and correct directional
measurement are not essential to have correct POTT and
DCUB operation for this configuration. Residual ground
current is only available for a ground fault on the line or
beyond Bus R or in the transformer. Therefore, a
permissive [or unblock] can be sent to Relay R when there
is a measurable non-directional ground overcurrent (3I0)
that overreaches Bus R. It should be kept in mind,
however, that there will be no zone-1 ground tripping
availability in case of pilot communication channel outages
and backup tripping on ground overcurrent will have to be
provided.
Reverse fault detection by Relay G is normally required
to send a block signal to Relay R for the DCB scheme to
prevent tripping. In this case ground current measured at
Relay G is non-directional in the forward direction, but
does not exist for faults in the reverse direction on the Bus
G side of the transformer. Therefore, a blocking signal
from Relay G will never be sent based on ground current

b)

Using VH or VL and IL (Cts on Delta)

In this case ground current cannot be measured by Relay


G for forward or reverse faults, therefore, special scheme
logic may be considered. The special scheme logic could
include the use of negative sequence voltages and currents
to provide correct directional discrimination of forward and
reverse unbalanced faults. This assumes that the zero
sequence source impedances, ZG0 and ZR0, at Busses G and
R as shown in figure 2(c) are small enough to measure
negative sequence quantities for single-phase-to-ground
faults. This logic would apply to POTT and DCUB where
overreaching permissive [or unblock] is normally allowed
with ground current, and DCB where detection of reverse
faults at Busses G and R can be made with negative
sequence quantities. PUTT schemes cannot be applied for
the same reasons previously stated above. The negative
sequence directional logic would need to be applied at both
line terminals. Given the complexity a simple DUTT
scheme at Bus R might be preferred.
3) Delta-wye, figure 2(d)
a)

Using VL and IH (Cts on Delta)

In this case with cts on the transformers delta winding


side, ground current cannot be measured by Relay G for
forward or reverse faults. Therefore, the same
considerations stated immediately above apply.
b)

Using VL and IL

In this case ground current and accurate distance


measurement cannot be made by Relay G for forward
faults. Reverse measurement is however accurate. PUTT
schemes cannot be applied because accurate forward

283

turns ratio, typically 10%, in order to regulate transformer


secondary voltage. The effects of a load tap changer on the
transformer turns ratio is generally accounted for in the
differential operating current [sensitivity] setting. The
ability of modern protection to dynamically follow tap
changer position allows improved sensitivity to internal
faults of differential schemes.
Also many current only systems (e.g. phase
comparison, etc.) are immune to the effects of tap changing.
It is, however, recommended to investigate the possible
effects to assure proper application.

ground distance measurement cannot be made. For POTT


and DCUB schemes weak end infeed logic may be applied
at Relay G to resolve the inability to detect forward ground
faults.
DCB schemes will not work correctly for this case with
conventional logic and scheme logic using negative
sequence quantities for directional discrimination of
unbalanced faults would be appropriate. This assumes that
the zero sequence source impedances, ZG0 and ZR0, at
Busses G and R as shown in figure 2(c) are small enough to
measure negative sequence quantities for single-phase-toground faults. The negative sequence directional logic
would need to be applied at both ends. Given the
complexity a simple DUTT scheme at Bus R might be
preferred.

C. Zero sequence currents due to external faults


As mentioned in section IV.C, transformers with delta
windings create special problems with respect to measuring
zero sequence currents on both sides of the transformer. In
the case of a line current differential relay applied to the
Delta-wye transformer (figure 2(a, b, d)) with wye
connected low voltage windings, an external single phaseto-ground fault on the low side of the transformer will
result in currents flowing in the local, low side cts serving
Relay G, but no ground fault current is measured in the
remote Relay R using line cts. This results in a differential
current and differential relay operation. Several ways have
been used to handle this. One classical way is to connect
the current transformers on the low side of the transformer
in delta which creates a zero sequence trap. Some modern
line current differential relays have settings for zero
sequence current subtraction to compensate for the zero
sequence current due to an external fault.
In the case of a Wye-delta transformer (figure 2(a, b, c)
with a delta connected low voltage winding, an external
single phase-to-ground fault on the bus side of the remote
Relay R will result in ground fault current flowing in the
remote cts serving Relay R, but no ground fault current is
measured in the local Relay G using line cts. Therefore, the
appropriate zero sequence filtering needs to be done at
Relay R.
In the case of a Wye-wye-delta transformer (figure 3(a,
b, d) where the delta tertiary winding provides a zero
sequence path within the differential zone, an external
ground fault at either Bus G or R will result in a differential
current. Either zero sequence filtering at both terminals or
setting the minimum differential operating current level
above the maximum zero sequence infeed, ITM0, is required.

V. CONSIDERATIONS FOR CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL


APPLICATIONS

As previously noted the implementation of separate


transformer differential protection is always recommended.
Also, when protecting the line using IH for line current
differential relay applications there are no issues, as the
transformer is not within the lines differential zone. When
using IL the transformer is within the current differential
zone and introduces additional application considerations.
The four main concerns when using line current differential
protection when a transformer is in the protected zone are:
transformer inrush current, the phase shift across the
transformer, the transformer turns ratio, and zero sequence
current flowing on one side of the transformer and not the
other due to external ground faults.
A. Phase shift across transformer
In order for a line current differential relay to work
properly, the local and remote currents should add up to
zero under non fault conditions. Wye-wye connected
transformers present no problem to the differential relay
since the currents on both sides of the transformer are in
phase. However, with any other transformer connection,
there is a phase shift that the line current differential relay
must take into account. Classically, this is done by
connecting the current transformers on the low side of the
transformer to compensate for the phase shift, or use
auxiliary cts to do the same. In some modern line current
differential relays, the transformer winding configuration is
one of the settings. In this case, the phase compensation is
done in the relay software.

D. Inrush current
When a power transformer is energized, high current
flows for several cycles in the transformer winding that is
energized and no inrush current flows in other windings. If
low side cts are used, then a transformer energized from the
line (high voltage) side will have inrush current flowing on
the high side but not the low side. This results in a
differential current and relay operation. A way around this
is to desensitize the relay by setting the minimum
differential operating current above this inrush differential

B. Transformer turns ratio


The power transformer turns ratio will change the
amount of current in the bias and operate circuits. This ratio
can be compensated for with a ct selection. Some modern
line current differential relays compensate for this
internally, by inputting the transformer high side and low
side voltages in the relay settings.
Load tap changers provide variance in the transformer

284

current. In analog line current differential relays this is all


that can be done. In some modern line current differential
relays that transmit sample data between terminals, each
terminal can extract the fundamental, 2nd and 5th harmonics
from the sampled currents, and block the differential
operation while the harmonics are higher than a preset
level. When the harmonics subside, the differential element
is again allowed to operate.

3.

4.
5.

E. Combined differential relay


As was stated earlier, it is highly recommended to have a
separate transformer differential relay to protect the
transformer. It is possible with some modern relays to put a
communications module in the transformer differential
relay, and have it send the current data samples to a line
current differential relay at the remote terminal. The remote
line current differential relay would perform the line current
differential function and send a transfer trip over the same
channel when appropriate. This is shown in figure 8. Also,
redundant high-speed or backup distance protection could
also be provided.

6.

7.

*Impedance backup

Bus G

ZT

CT1

Bus R
CT2

ZL

*
87T

Sampled current data from CT2

Transformer Differential
Scheme

87L/21
Line Current
Differential
Scheme

.Figure 8. Shared Currents between relays


8.

VI. CONCLUSIONS
When protecting transmission lines terminated into
transformers it is preferred to use line side instrument
transformers so that line protection can be implemented
independent of the effects of a transformer within the line
protection zone. When the transformer is within the
protection zone, it should always have its own differential
protection. Two methods for protecting the combined line
and transformer zone were reviewed, line distance and line
differential. Line differential would be the simpler and
more reliable of the two schemes if simultaneous tripping
of all terminal breakers is required on internal faults. A
summary of the issues with each application follows.

impedance is used for setting under reaching and the


maximum impedance for overreaching zones.
When transformer impedance is part of the distance
measurement and is much larger than the line
impedance there can be significant error in line
impedance measurement accuracy.
Appropriately desensitize or block overcurrent and
distance units during transformer energization.
There are no additional issues with Wye-wye
connected transformers other than those identified in
items 1 4.
With Wye-wye-delta connected transformers, the
infeed effect of ground current due to the delta
tertiary winding needs to be included in the residual
current compensation factor computation for the
line-transformer impedance combination.
For Delta-wye or Wye-delta connected transformers:
There is a phase shift in the measured
impedance that must be accounted for where the
cts and vts are not on the same side of the
transformer.
There are generally no issues with phase current,
directional or distance measurement. Phase-tophase distance units operate independent of zero
sequence quantity measurement.
Ground fault current, direction and distance
cannot be accurately measured if at all and can
not reliably be used for line protection.
Phase distance units on the delta side will
respond to line faults on the wye side, but will
significantly underreach the fault location.
3I0, if available, or I2 backup tripping is
required.
Auto-reclosing can only be used when cts are on the
line side.

B. Communication assisted line distance schemes


The following are the more significant issues using line
distance communication assisted (pilot) schemes when the
transformer is within the protected zone:
1. With Wye-wye or Wye-wye-delta connected
transformers there are no issues with any scheme
other than assuring correct ground distance zone
settings.
2. For Wye-delta or Delta-wye connected transformers:
PUTT cannot be applied
POTT, DCUB and DCB can with careful
application operate with non-directional 3I0 or
directional I2 measurement.
Setting the remote and
Using a DUTT scheme at Relay R, with zone-1
set to cover the line and look well into the
transformer at Bus G, is the simplest approach.
Auto-reclosing cannot be applied with this
implementation of DUTT.

A. Line Step-distance
Following are the more significant issues using stepdistance when the transformer is within the protected zone:
1. The secondary impedance base for relay settings
must be computed with the transformer ratio when
the cts and vts are not on same side of transformer.
2. When the transformer is in the protection zone the
effect of load tap-changing on impedance settings
needs to be considered. The minimum secondary

285

TABLE A-2. LINE STEP-DISTANCE APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

C. Line current differential


The following are the more significant issues using line
current differential schemes when the transformer is within
the protected zone:
1. Must evaluate the effect of load tap-changing on the
minimum differential pickup.
2. Must evaluate the effect of transformer inrush on the
minimum differential pickup or appropriately
restrain differential tripping during transformer
energization.
3. Other than identified in items 1 - 2, there are no
additional issues with Wye-wye connected
transformers.
4. With Wye-wye-delta connected transformers infeed
of ground current due to the delta tertiary winding
needs to be evaluated as to its effect on differential
operation.
5. For Delta-wye or Wye-delta connected transformers:
There is a phase shift in low side current that
must be accounted for.
Zero sequence current filtering must be
provided.

Connection
VH
IH

VH

IL

R= RCL/(RT*RVH)

Z1 = .9ZL
Z2 = 1.2 ZL

RT = kVH/kVL; Will vary with tap changer position.


Set Z1 with minimum R considering transformer tap position.
Set Z2 with maximum R considering transformer tap position.
Distance is measured from VH, direction from IL, will detect
transformer and line faults.
YY connections have no additional issues.
YY connections must deal with I0 infeed when setting
distance zones.
Y and Y require winding phase angle corrections, no zero
sequence (ground distance or directional) relaying. Backup for
ground faults with I2.
No auto-reclosing.

VL

IH

R= RCH*RT/RVL

Z1 = .99ZT + .9ZL
Z2 = .99ZT + 1.2ZL

RT = kVH/kVL; Will vary with tap changer position.


Set Z1 with minimum R considering transformer tap position.
Set Z2 with maximum R considering transformer tap position.
Accuracy issues where ZT >> ZL.
Distance is measured from VL, direction from IH, will detect
only line faults.
YY connections have no additional issues.
YY connections must deal with I0 infeed when setting
distance zones.
Y and Y require winding phase angle corrections. No zero
sequence relaying, consider I2.

TABLE A-1. LINE DIFFERENTIAL SCHEME APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

Transformer Connection: Wye-wye


Effect of tap-changer
Effect of transformer turns ratio
Effect of transformer inrush

Transformer Connection: Wye-wye-delta

VL

Effect of tap-changer
Effect of transformer turns ratio
Effect of I0 infeed
Effect of transformer inrush

IL

R= RCL/RVL

Z1 = .99ZT + .9ZL
Z2 = .99ZT + 1.2ZL

R will vary with tap changer position.


Set Z1 with minimum R considering transformer tap position.
Set Z2 with maximum R considering transformer tap position.
Accuracy issues where ZT >> ZL.
Distance and direction are measured from low voltage.
YY connections have no additional issues.
YY connections must deal with I0 infeed when setting
distance zones.
Y and Y requires no phase angle correction for impedance
measurement. No zero sequence relaying, consider I2.
No auto-reclosing.

Transformer Connection: Wye-delta

Setting
Z1 = .9ZL
Z2 = 1.2 ZL

Preferred connection. Can apply line protection separately


without influence of transformer.
Distance and direction are measured from high voltage and will
detect only line faults.

VII. APPENDIX

ZSEC = R*ZPRI
R= RCH/RVH

Effect of tap-changer
Effect of transformer turns ratio
Effect of transformer phase shift
Effect of transformer inrush
I0 filtering or correction

Transformer Connection: Delta-wye

Effect of tap-changer
Effect of transformer turns ratio
Effect of transformer phase shift
Effect of transformer inrush
I0 filtering or correction at remote terminal

Cts are on low voltage (Bus G) side

286

Y Delta (high voltage) wye (low voltage)


Y Wye (high voltage) delta (low voltage)
YY Wye (high voltage) wye (low voltage)
YY Wye (high voltage) wye (low voltage) delta
(tertiary)

TABLE A-3. COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTED LINE DISTANCE SCHEME


APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS

REFERENCES

Transformer Connection: Wye-wye

[1]

No issues

[2]

Transformer Connection: Wye-wye-delta

[3]

No issues other than assuring correct ground distance zone


settings to account for transformer ground current

Transformer Connection: Wye-delta


VL
IH Cts on wye side

[4]

Phase distance operations for all schemes okay.


No ground impedance zone or directional measurement.
3I0 is measurable and only flows on line (wye) side faults.
PUTT cannot be applied.
POTT, DCUB and DCB useable with non-directional 3I0 at G
only.
High-speed tripping is dependent on communication system
Backup tripping for ground faults is 51N only.
DUTT: set zone-1 at R to cover line and look into transformer
at G and transfer trip to G, no auto-reclosing.

IL

VH or VL

BIOGRAPHIES
Elmo Price is currently a Regional Technical Manager
for the Substation Automation and Protection Division of
ABB. He received his BSEE degree in 1970 from Lamar
University in Beaumont, Texas and his MSEE degree in
Power Systems Engineering in 1978 from the University of
Pittsburgh. He began his career with Westinghouse in
1970, which was consolidated into ABB in 1988. He has
worked in many power engineering and management
assignments. He has two patents and has authored or
coauthored numerous papers primarily focusing on
protection application.
Elmo is a registered professional engineer and a member
of the IEEE and the Power System Relay Committee and
serves on the Line Protection Subcommittee.

Cts on delta side

Phase distance operations for all schemes okay.


No ground impedance zone or directional measurement.
3I0 is not measurable for forward or reverse faults.
PUTT cannot be applied.
POTT, DCUB and DCB useable with directional I2 for
unbalanced faults, requires sufficiently low zero sequence
source ZR0.
High-speed tripping is dependent on communication system
Backup tripping for ground faults is I2 only.
DUTT: set zone-1 at R to look into transformer at G and
transfer trip to G, no auto-reclosing.

Roger A. Hedding is currently a Regional Technical


Manager for the Substation Automation and Protection
Division of ABB. He received his BSEE degree in
Electrical Engineering from Marquette University in 1971.
He joined Westinghouse.
In 1981 he received the
Outstanding Engineer of the Year Award from
Westinghouse for his achievements. In 1996 he was
presented with the ABB Award of Excellence for Product
Development. In his current position he is responsible for
the application, and technical issues associated with ABB
relaying products. He is also responsible for the technical
support of High Voltage relays in North America. He has
authored and coauthored several technical papers in the
area of protection.
He is a senior member of IEEE, a member of IEEE
Power Systems Relaying Committee, Past Chairman of the
Line Protection Subcommittee, and secretary elect of the
PSRC. His areas of interest include golf and travel with his
wife.

Transformer Connection: Delta-wye


VL
IH Cts on delta side

Phase distance operations for all schemes okay.


No ground impedance zone or directional measurement.
3I0 is not measurable for forward or reverse faults.
PUTT cannot be applied.
POTT, DCUB and DCB useable with directional I2 for
unbalanced faults, requires sufficiently low zero sequence
source ZR0.
High-speed tripping is dependent on communication system
Backup tripping for ground faults is I2 only.
DUTT: set zone-1 at R to look into transformer at G and
transfer trip to G, no auto-reclosing.

IL

VH or VL

W. A. Elmore, Protective Relaying: Theory and Application, Marcel


Decker, Inc., New York, NY, 1994.
J. L. Blackburn, Symmetrical Components for Power Systems
Engineering, Marcel Decker, Inc., New York, NY, 1993.
E. Price, T. Einarsson, The Performance of Faulted Phase Selectors
Used in Transmission Line Distance Applications, 62nd Annual
Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference, May 21-23, 2008,
Atlanta, Georgia.
J. Mooney, S. Samineni, Distance Relay Response to Transformer
Energization: Problems and Solutions, 60th Annual Conference for
Protective Relay Engineers, March 27 29, 2007, Texas A&M
University, College Station, Texas.

Cts on wye side

Phase distance operations for all schemes okay.


No ground impedance zone or directional measurement.
3I0 only flows on reverse bus (wye) side faults.
PUTT cannot be applied.
POTT and DCUB can use weak end infeed logic.
DCB useable with special directional I2 for unbalanced faults
requires sufficiently low source ZR0.
High-speed tripping is dependent on communication system.
Backup tripping for ground faults is I2 only.
DUTT: set zone-1 at R to look into transformer at G and
transfer trip to G, no auto-reclosing.

287