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29/10/2016

24hourDietaryRecall(24HR)AtaGlance|DietaryAssessmentPrimer

HomeInstrumentProfilesIntroduction24hourDietaryRecall

24hourDietaryRecall(24HR)AtaGlance
Purpose
Toobtaindetailedinformationaboutallfoodsandbeveragesconsumedonagivenday.

Description
A24hourdietaryrecall(24HR)isastructuredinterviewintendedtocapturedetailedinformationaboutall
foodsandbeverages(andpossibly,dietarysupplements)consumedbytherespondentinthepast24hours,
mostcommonly,frommidnighttomidnightthepreviousday.Akeyfeatureofthe24HRisthat,when
appropriate,therespondentisaskedformoredetailedinformationthanfirstreported.Forexample,a
respondentreportingchickenfordinnerorasandwichforlunchwouldbeaskedaboutthepreparationmethod
andtypeofbread.Thisopenendedresponsestructureisdesignedtopromptrespondentstoprovidea
comprehensiveanddetailedreportofallfoodsandbeveragesconsumed.
Inadditiontootherdetaileddescriptors,suchastimeofdayandsourceoffood,portionsizeofeachfoodand
beverageiscaptured.Foodmodels,pictures,andothervisualaidsmaybeusedtohelprespondentsjudge
andreportportionsizeandmayimproveaccuracy.
Dietaryrecallstypicallyaskaboutfoodsandbeveragesfirst,beforequestionsondietarysupplements.
A24HRusuallyrequires20to60minutestocomplete.
Standardizedautomatedinterviewingsystemsthatincludemultiplepasses,suchastheUSDA'sAutomated
MultiplePassMethod,andtheUniversityofMinnesota'sNutritionDataSystemforResearch ,havebeen
developedtofacilitatecompleterecalls.Thesesystemsincludenearlycompleteautomatedcodingthatis
supplementedbymanualcodingforreportedfoodsorbeveragesnotinthedatabase.
24HRsaretypicallyadministeredbyatrainedinterviewer,butautomatedselfadministeredtools,suchasthe
NationalCancerInstitute'sAutomatedSelfAdministered24HourDietaryAssessmentTool(ASA24),alsoare
available.

UtilityofData
24HRdatacanbeusedtoassesstotaldietaryintakeand/orparticularaspectsofthediet:
The24HRyieldsdetailedinformationonfoodsandbeveragesconsumedonagivenday.The
totalamountofeachspecificfoodandbeverageconsumediscaptured.
Similartypesoffoodandbeverageitemsreported,suchassoupsorsugarsweetened
beverages,canbegrouped.Totalsforeachgroupcanthenbesummed.
Ifdataarelinkedtoanutrientcompositiondatabase,nutrientintakefromfoodsandbeverages
canbedetermined(LearnMoreaboutFoodCompositionDatabasesfor24hourDietaryRecalls
andFoodRecords).However,totalnutrientintakecannotbeascertainedunlessdietary
supplementintakedataalsoarecollected(LearnMoreaboutDietarySupplementsand
EstimatingTotalNutrientIntakes).
Ifdataarelinkedtoadatabasethattranslatesfoodsandbeveragesintofoodgroupequivalents,
suchastheFoodPatternsEquivalentsDatabase,foodsandbeveragesreportedcanbe
disaggregatedintotheircomponentingredients,whichcanthenbeconvertedtoequivalent
amountsofrelevantguidancebasedfoodgroups(Formoreinformation,readafactsheeton
FPEDproductsandassociateddatafilesoritsapplicationtodietaryanalysis .).Thisprovides
informationabouttheconsumptionoffoodgroupsofparticularinterest,suchastotalintakeof
fruits,vegetables,oraddedsugars.
Ifinformationsuchasnamesofeatingoccasions,timingandlocationsofmealsandsnacks,
sourcesoffoodandbeverages,andotheractivitiessuchasTVandcomputeruseduringmealsis
collected,the24HRcanyieldcontextualinformation,suchasmealandsnackpatterns,
consumptionoffoodsandbeveragefromhomeandawayfromhome,andactivitiesduringmeals.
24HRscanbeusedtodescribeapopulation'sintake(e.g.,thecrosssectionalstudyWhatWeEatin
Ameri
America/NationalHealthandNutritionExaminationSurvey
)(seeChoosinganApproachforDietary
Assessment).
Meanusualintakescanbeestimatedwithasingleadministration.
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29/10/2016

24hourDietaryRecall(24HR)AtaGlance|DietaryAssessmentPrimer

Collectingarecallforatleasttwononconsecutivedaysallowsapplicationofstatisticaltechniques
toestimateusualdietaryintakedistributionsforagroup(forexample,toanswerresearch
questionssuchastheproportionaboveorbelowsomethreshold)(LearnMoreaboutUsual
DietaryIntake).
24HRscanbeusedtoexaminerelationshipsbetweendietandhealthorothervariables,inwhichdietis
theindependentvariable(seeChoosinganApproachforDietaryAssessment).
Sometimes,theyareusedasareferenceinstrumenttovalidateorcalibrateestimateswhen
anotherlessdetailedassessmentinstrument,suchasafoodfrequencyquestionnaire(FFQ),is
usedasthemaindietaryassessmentinstrument.
Withtheadventofselfadministeredautomated24HRs,24HRspotentiallycanbeusedasamain
dietaryassessmentinstrumentwithorwithoutanFFQfordiethealthstudies,includinginlarge
prospectivestudies.
Thenumberandtimingofthe24HRsneededdependsontheobjectives.
24HRscanbeusedtoexaminerelationshipsbetweensomefactoranddiet,inwhichdietisthe
dependentvariable(seeChoosinganApproachforDietaryAssessment).
24HRscanbeusedtoevaluatetheeffectivenessofaninterventionstudytochangediet.Thepotential
fordifferentialresponsebiasduetothepossibilitythattheinterventiongroupandcontrolgroupmay
reporttheirdietsdifferently,especiallyfollowinganinterventionshouldbeconsidered.However,while
thistypeofbiasisaconcernforallselfreportinstruments,itmaybelessproblematicwith24HRsthan
withotherinstruments(seeChoosinganApproachforDietaryAssessment).
Thenumberandtimingofthe24HRsneededdependsontheinterventiondesignandthe
objectives.

LimitationsofData
Therequirementsofcompletinga24HRmaylimitparticipationinsomegroups,leadingtopotential
selectionbias.
Becauseasingleadministrationofa24HRisunabletoaccountfordaytodayvariation,twoormore
nonconsecutiverecallsarerequiredtoestimateusualdietaryintakedistributions.Multiple
administrationsarealsorecommendedwhen24HRsareusedtoexaminedietandhealthorother
variables.

SalientFeaturesComparedtoOtherSelfReportInstrumentsMethods
Foranataglancecomparisonofthemajorfeaturesofselfreportinstrumentsforassessingdiet,includingthe
24HR,seetheComparingDietaryAssessmentInstrumentstable.
Capturescurrentshorttermdiet(incontrasttoFFQandscreener).
Typicallyintervieweradministered(incontrasttoFFQ,foodrecord,andscreener),butautomatedself
administered24HRsareavailableandbecomingmorewidelyused.
Reliesonspecificmemory(incontrasttoFFQandscreener,whichrelyongenericmemory,andfood
record,whichdoesnotrelyonmemory).
Ifrecallsareunannounced,theyarenotaffectedbyreactivity(incontrasttofoodrecord)(LearnMore
aboutReactivity).
Itsmajortypeofmeasurementerrorisrandomversussystematic(incontrasttoFFQandscreener)
(seeKeyConceptsaboutMeasurementError).

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