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# FCE 421: FLUID MECHANICS IIB

S. K. NGARI

## COURSE GENERAL INFORMATION

Objectives
Develop insight into the basic physical principles that
govern the water flows in open channels
Develop analytical and mathematical skills needed to
describe and predict open-channel flow behaviour using
modern computational tools
Develop an ability to effectively to effectively apply these
principles and skills to the engineering solutions of
problems in open-channel systems
At the end of the course the student will be able to:

## Estimate flows using Manning's equation

Apply Froude number and specific energy relationships
Predict hydraulic jump
Obtain flow measurements in channels
Describe backwater curve

Course Content

## Introduction to Open channel flow

Uniform flow in open channels
Development of friction formulae
Economical sections.

## Non-Uniform flow in open channels

Energy considerations
Specific energy.
Rapidly varied flow
Occurrence and position of hydraulic jumps.

## Critical depth meters

Weirs and flumes.

Type of surface curves

## Shallow water waves, surges in open channels.

Laboratory work:
Flow over Venturi Flume,
Flow over hydraulic Jump,
Backwater Curve measurements

COURSEWORK ASSIGNMENTS
There will be five tutorial exercises during the
semester. Deadlines will be given to you for each
exercise. The exercises are as follows:
1.
Uniform Flow
2.
Non-uniform flow: energy principles:
specific energy
3.
Rapidly varied flow the hydraulic jump
4.
Critical depth meters
5.

RECOMMENDED TEXTBOOKS

Douglas, J-F., Gasiorek, J.M and Swatfield, J.A., (1979 or later editions,). Fluid
Mechanics
Douglas, JF 1970 Pan 1 & 2. Solutions of problems in Fluid Mechanics
Lomax W.R. and Saul, A.J 1986 Laboratory Work in Hydraulics
Bruce, R. Munson, Donald F. Young and Theodole H. Okiish (1994): Fundamentals
of Fluid Mechanics.
Victor L. Streeter, E. Benjamin Wylie and Keith, Y, Bedford (1998): Fluid
Mechanics, Ninth Edition, WCB, McGraw Hill.
Khurmi, R.S 1980: A Text book of fluid mechanics
Fluid Mechanics Eighth Edition. Featherstone, R.F, and Nalluri C. 1985. Civil
Engineering. Hydraulics. Essential theory with worked examples.
Francis, J R.D and Minion, P., 198-4. Civil Engineering, Hydraulics
Massey, BS. 1975. Mechanics of Fluid;
Francis. J R.D., 1969. A text book of Fluid Mechanics for Engineering students
Lewitt, E N. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics
Giles, Ranald V 1983. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Dugdale & Morfett, 1983. Mechanics of Fluids
Thoma D Jordan Jr. 1980. A Handbook of Gravity - Flow Water Systems UNICEF.
Hwaiig, N.H.C. & Hita Carlos E. 19: Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering
Systems
Finnemore, E.J. and Franzini, J.B. (2002): Fluid Mechanics with Engineering
Applications. 10th Edition, Mac Graw Hill.

## ORGANIZATION OF THE COURSE

The organization of the course will be lectures
and tutorial/laboratory sessions. Attendance to all
parts cannot be over-emphasized and will be
monitored by registering the attendance. You are
encouraged to take advantage of the tutorial
sessions for help with coursework or anything
else connected with the course and your
progress.