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Articulations &

Body Movements
By: Bambam, Cin, Mai, and Pizza

Functional

1. Synarthosis

Categories
of Joints

2. Amphiarthrosis
3. Diarthrosis

Synarthosis
An immobile or almost
immobile joint

Ex.

Satures of the skull

Surround and
Protect the brain

Epiphyseal plates of long bones

Ex.

Amphiarthrosis

Slightly mobile joint

Ex.

Symphysis Pubis

Ex.

Intervertebral Discs

Diarthrosis

Freely mobile

Ex.

The Carpals of the


Wrists

Ex.

Knee Joint

Structural

1. Fibrous

Categories
of Joints

2. Cartilaginous
3. Synovial

Fibrous joints

Fibrous connective tissues play an important role to help the bones of fibrous joints.
No cavity/spaces between the bones >> fibrous joints do not move at all.
Synarthroses (immovable).
3 types: 1. Sutures
Found in the skull.
Possess short fibers of connective tissue that hold the skull bones
tightly in place.
2. Syndesmoses
-

Found in bones that are connected by a band of connective tissue.


More movement than in a suture.

3. Gomphoses
-

Found between teeth and their sockets.


Tooth is connected to socket by connective tissue called Periodontal
ligament.

Cartilaginous

Bones are connected by cartilage

2 types:

Synchondroses

connected by hyaline cartilage

Found in epiphyseal plates of children

Symphyses

Connected by fibrocartilage

Found at joints between vertebrae and pubic bones

Amphiarthroses: provide only slight movement

Synovial

Classified as diarthroses ( allows for free movement )

Have space between adjoining bones

filled with synovial fluid

Lubricates the joint

Reducing friction between bones

Allowing greater movement.

Synovial

Surround by articular capsule

Composed of connective tissue

Allow movement

Resistance to dislocation

Possess ligaments >> hold bones together

Ex: knees, elbows and shoulders

Types of
synovial
joints

1. Plane joints
2. Hinge joints
3. Pivot joints
4. Condyloid joints
5. Saddle joints
6. Ball and socket joints

Plane joints

Articular surfaces are flat

Allow gliding movements in many


directions

Only examples of nonaxial joints

Examples: intercarpal joints,


intertarsal joints, joints between the
articular processes of vertebrae.

Hinge joints

Articular surfaces are pulley shaped

Provide stability to the joint

Uniaxial joints allow flexion and


extension only

Examples: elbow joint, ankle joint,


interphalangeal joint

Pivot joints

Rounded end of one bone protrudes


into a ring

Formed by central bony pivot

Can only move in a vertical axis

Uniaxial joints

Examples: Superior and inferior


radioulnar joints, median atlantoaxial
joint

Condyloid joints

Articular surface of one bone fits into


another complementary depression

Both articular surfaces are oval

Biaxial joint allows all angular motions

Examples: Wrist joint,


metacarpophalangeal joint (knuckle)

Saddle joints

Similar but provide greater movement than condyloid joints

Has both concave and convex surface

Biaxial joint

Example: carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

Ball & Socket joints

Spherical/hemispherical head of one bone articulates with another cuplike socket

Multiaxial joints allow freely moving synovial joints

Examples: shoulder, hip joints

APPENDIX

Nonaxial

Allows for no movement in any plane

Examples: Plane joints

Uniaxial

Occurring around one axis, allow


movement only in one plane

Example: pivot and hinge joints

Biaxial

Movement around two planes.

Side to side

Back and forth

Multiaxial

Allowing movements in more than 2


directions (many movement in any
plane)

Examples: Ball and socket joints