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A Conceptual Green-ICT Implementation Model

Based-on ZEN and G-Readiness Framework


Marcel
Faculty of Engineering & Computer Science
Krida Wacana Christian University (UKRIDA)
Jakarta, Indonesia
marcel@ukrida.ac.id
Abstract ICT is no longer simply be a supporting tool, but
as an integral part of the business itself, a strategic role. As well
as for the education area, higher education institution (HEI) is
one-of that use fairly large of the ICT solution. Since there is a
positive correlation between ICT usage and economic growth
potential, arising new issues to the environment. There is an urge
to balance between the usage of ICT and environmental
awareness. Indonesia as one of the emerging economic powers
want to participate in the greening movement, but the problem
arises when there is still no formal regulation / framework yet.
Furthermore, ICT also has not been seen as one of the aspects
that need to be given a special attention in greening movement.
There are several frameworks available for green-IT, but the
question is how can we adopt it for HEI case in Indonesia? This
paper as a preliminary study, try to correlate one of the green-IT
framework, named G-readiness framework with ZEN
framework, an Indonesia national framework for ICT adoption
in HEI. The study found that both the frameworks are mutually
relevant. The derived model use 5 domains of G-readiness that
represent critical success factors for green-IT initiatives correlate
with ZEN framework attributes as practical implementation
checklist. From the correlation process, we add one new domain,
named Value, so the derived model has total six domains
(Attitude, Policy, Practice, Technology, Governance and Value).
Keywordsgreen ICT; conceptual model; higher education;
ZEN framework; G-Readiness framework

I.

INTRODUCTION

ZEN framework is a self-assessment tool developed by


three Indonesia professors, namely: Prof. Zainal A. Hasibuan,
Ph.D; Prof. Dr. Richardus Eko Indrajit; and Prof. Ir. Nizam
MSc., Ph.D [10]. It was used as a national framework to
measure e-readiness for higher education institution in
Indonesia. It measures the capabilities of the institution to
adopt ICT for their operational and academic purposes.
Introduced in 2008, ZEN framework has been used widely by
more than 500 institutions of HEIs (Higher Education
Institutions) in Indonesia. They're using it as national standard
for ICT adoption for academic environment. Another
interesting fact, TELKOM as Indonesia' state-owned
communication company found that HEI as the biggest
national users of broadband internet connection (Study
conducted on 2008) [10].

Indonesia itslef has designed a green ICT roadmap that act


as national policy and also organized some conferences in year
2010. The roadmap had goal to reduce the emission at 26% in
2020 and has possibility to be increase up to 41% with
international involvement [6]. Its interesting to know that
government strategy has not yet put IT / ICT as one of the
factor that has potential environmental issue [7]. At the same
time, ICT readiness framework for HEI like ZEN, indirectly
also contribute to the acceleration of ICT usage. Furthermore,
the increasing of ICT usage also contributes to higher energy
consumption where electricity is the main power source. There
is a pressure for HEIs to find balance between exploitation for
benefit and environmental responsibility related to their ICT
usage, and green ICT adoption is one of the solution on how
they can use ICT in responsible way [4][8]. In addition,
Suryawanshi and Narkhede [1] also outline that adoption of
green ICT not only support for environmental responsibility
but also cost effectiveness. The benefits of green ICT cover
three fundamental aspects: environmental, social and
economic [3][5].
Since theres no previous study conducted on how far the
Indonesia HEI implemented green-ICT, and no formal
standard / framework that regulate and guide Indonesia HEI
to adopt green-ICT, arising a question, how can we develop a
conceptual implementation model to adopt green-based ICT.
This paper try to answer that question by correlate ZEN
framework and G-Readiness Framework [9] (Proposed by
Molla and Cooper from RMIT University, Australia).
II. THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
A. Concept of Green-IT / Green-ICT
In the context of this paper, the term of green-IT has the
same meaning as green ICT. Green ICT aims to achieve a
balance between benefits optimization of ICT to the
environmental impact as a result of its usage. The scope of
green-ICT should cover the full-life of ICT lifecycle (pre- and
post-). Interesting to note that most of green-ICT activities
was focusing on the 'use-phase', associated with reducing
energy consumption. We can't ignore the importance of
'production-phase' which is the biggest part that contribute to

the footprint [11][12]. Furthermore, outlining the use-phase,


Buchalcevova [13] proposed 2 approaches of green-ICT:
Green of ICT focus on reduce negative impacts on the
environment caused by ICT usage, e.g. manufacturing
(using environmental friendly materials), daily usage
(using low power consumption devices) and disposal of
ICTs (Possibility of recycle / reuse).
Green by ICT using ICT proactively to reduce
environment impacts for other sectors, more on innovation
by ICT (e.g. smart building, e-learning, e-commerce, video
conference, paperless office).
From HEI perspectives, the focus will be on the use phase,
covering green 'of' ICT that focus on purchasing equipment
with green-aware capabilities or properties, and also green 'by'
ICT that focus on innovation, directing HEI to utilize
technologies for better energy-efficient activities. [14].
Furthermore, Supaporn and Nakata define green-ICT as a
combination of several activities: strategy formulation,
practice and outcomes measurement with goals of
environmental sustainability [15]. We can conclude then, that
green-IT / green-ICT is not only talk about technical matters,
it also talks about policies / regulations, and furthermore a
governance (strategies, roles and responsibilities) [16].

C. ZEN Framework
Table 2 shows the ZEN framework criteria (We called it
domain) and attributes.
TABLE II. ZEN FRAMEWORK DOMAINS AND ATTRIBUTES

B. G-Readiness Framework
Molla and Cooper [9] propose a framework, named Greadiness, that contains 4 dimensions (interrelated perspectives)
of green-IT. It represents a lifecycle of IT: start from sourcing
(provision), delivery of services (including operations), and end
of life policy.
TABLE I. G-READINESS FRAMEWORK DOMAINS AND DIMENSIONS [9]

They considered green IT as an integral part to optimize


benefit of the IT usage but at the same time minimize its
negative environmental impact. The G-readiness framework
was proposed by them as a guidance for the institution to be
success on green IT adoption based-on proposed dimensions.
The framework also has 5 domains that defines critical success
factors for green IT initiatives, they are: attitude, policy,
practice, technology and governance (Table 1).

From table 2, we can see that ZEN framework only give


small portion that specific talk about green IT (Attribute T40:
eGreen Sustainable ICT). But if we see thoroughly with new
perspective of green-IT (Holistic way), ZEN framework can
give us more complete perspectives for green-IT adoption. We
choose ZEN as our based framework, combine with GReadiness framework based-on 3 considerations: fact that ZEN
framework widely adoption; the attributes was developed
based-on HEI requirements in mind; its usage as a national ereadiness measurement tools for Indonesia HEI.

III. DOMAIN 1: ATTITUDE


For domain attitude, G-readiness framework covers IT
attitude (Represent IT leaders) and business attitude (Business
leaders) [9]. Attitude talk about awareness, about concern and
about care. Handy, Whiddett and Hunter [17] outline this
domain as a defining factor, it influences the acceptance
willingness of the stakeholders. From ZEN framework, we can
add domain stakeholders profile and top management
commitment from domain suprastructures as part of the
attitude. Since the key motivation of this domain, mainly on IT
leaders (IT attitude) and business leaders (Business leaders),
then we can also define the drivers [18]:

computer devices, government compliance related to


disposal / recycle of broken components / equipment).
I NS TI TUTI ON AL PO LI CY

I T S OUR CI NG /
P R OC UR EM EN T

I T OP ERA TI ONS
& S ER V IC ES

I T END - OF - LI F E

1) Economic, refers to the operational cost efficiency of the


institutions business process.
2) Regulatory, refers to regulations compliance.
3) Ethical, refers to social responsibility.
Sometimes the initiative should start from the IT, Atos
Consulting [19] identify three characteristics of IT managers
to engage in green IT: idealist; opportunist; controller. Fig. 1
show the relationship between G-readiness and ZEN
framework for domain attitude, the drivers are economic,
regulatory and ethical factors.
- Economic
- Regulatory
- Ethical

D R IV E R

AT T I T U D E

Fig. 1. G-Readiness & ZEN Framework for Attitude.


IV. DOMAIN 2: POLICY
Policy talk about plan and regulation including the
incentives that guides the practices. G-readiness framework
covers three attributes sourcing, operations, and end-of IT
life:
1) IT sourcing policy, focus on procurement policy, vendor
selection for equipment and services that support
environmentally sustainable computing. Covering the
purchasing process (e.g. implementation of e-purchasing,
digital documents to minimize paper use) and decision to
buy technologies that support green-IT (e.g. purchase
server, desktops, laptops and network equipment that
support green IT).
2) IT operations and services policy, focus on services
delivery that put environmental impact as a concern. (e.g.
implementation of PC power management, policy on
equipment usage)
3) IT end-of-life policy, focus collect and dispose of old or
unwanted IT equipment in safely and responsible way.
(e.g. policy to donate the unused but still in good condition

Fig. 2. G-Readiness & ZEN Framework for Policy.


Fig. 2 show the relationship between G-readiness and ZEN
framework for policy. Most of attributes in domain
suprastructure of ZEN framework are suitable with policy.
Institutional policy should cover full cycle of IT equipment
and services lifetime. Suryawanshi and Narkhede on their
study, describe 7 critical success factors for green-ICT
adoption [20] as follows:
1) Optimum Utilization of Resources
2) Stakeholders Involvement
3) Renewable Energy
4) Energy Conservation
5) Institutional Policy
6) Committee for Green-ICT Initiatives
7) Legislation
V. DOMAIN 3: PRACTICE
There is a high correlation between practice and policy, on
policy we talk about planning and regulation, but practice is
about realization (concrete applicable action). There is a
difference between aspiration and real implementation of
green IT. The practices should cover the lifetime of the IT
process [9][14][21][24][25]. Practice readiness also cover the
same three attributes sourcing, operations and end-of IT life.
Suryawanshi, Narkhede and Nirmala [22] guide us to
general practices for implementation of green-ICT that
applicable for education institutions as follows:
Recycling of IT equipment, also talk about disposal
Consolidation for printing for paper reduction
Power management policy for equipment
New flexible working style policy, like adoption of remote
work or teleworking
Adoption of thin computing solution
Implementation of measurement and mechanism to control
and evaluate energy consumption by IT

Their study found that those practices will lead the institution
to some of benefits like: Reduce in energy cost; decrease
carbon footprint, hazardous ICT waste; regulation compliance;
and sustenance of ICT.
Policy itself is not enough without concrete steps, we need
mechanisms approaches to ensure it will become an integral
part of activities, e.g. regular monitoring / assessment, made it
as a part of KPI (Key Performance Indicator) that relate to
incentives, having personnel as green-ICT champion [23]. One
thing to be consider about practice is manpower quality, lack
of skills on manpower lead to fail or ineffective realization of
green-IT initiatives [24][25]. Here are some findings (lessons
learned) of study conducted by Wabwowa, Wanyembi,
Omuterama and Omieno [23]:
Lack of skills (Apply for top management and ICT staff)
related to green-ICT is one of the significant factor that
affect the success level of green ICT implementation.
Make sure people are having good understanding
(including benefits for them) before asking for their
support.

server, storage, desktop computer, network devices and even


additional equipment like scanner, printer, multi-function
copier, etc. Furthermore, for software category, it should cover
software and business process, e.g. more efficient software,
more efficient algorithm, better resource allocation, and more
efficient business process.

Fig. 3. Policy and Practice Relationship.


Fig. 3 shows policy and practice relationship as as an
incremental cycle. Organization define an applicable policy,
realize it as paractices and improve the result based on their
experience, so we can see it as a continuous improvement
exercise. The same attributes of ZEN framework from domain
policy are reusable for domain practice (T02, T04, T05, T06,
T07, T08 and T09).
VI. DOMAIN 4: TECHNOLOGY
Domain technology talks about ICT technology that gives
low minimal impact to the environment, including but not
limited to: technology that help to reduce energy consumption
and at the same time increase the efficiency of its usage (e.g.
multicore processors, high efficiency power-supply, datacenter
virtualization), non-hazardous materials / safer materials (e.g.
mercury free equipment) [16][23][24][25][26]. We believe that
by having the right infrastructure technology as a key success
factor of green-ICT in the area of technology [9]. Rossi [27]
also highlights that billions of dollars are being spent for ICT
equipment energy consumption worldwide, and there is a
tendency to increase every year, this indirectly lead that IT is
one of massive energy-consumer and gives negative impact to
the environment.
Its interesting to notice that most of the concern of the
technology aspect is on server and data-center power
consumption, we agree that server and data-center facility is
component that consume most of the electrical power, but it is
also important to note that desktop computer / PC also
contribute to large power consumption, especially when we
talk about HEI, the quantity of desktop PC used on work area
(used by staff) and the computer labs [28]. Talking about
technology, for hardware category the scope should cover

Fig. 4. G-Readiness & ZEN Framework for Technology.


Fig.4 shows relationship between ZEN and G-Readiness
framework. For technology (G-Readiness) it covers IT
infrastructure (Green-of-IT) and business infrastructure (Greenby-IT). From ZEN perspective, attributes T10 T14 covers for
IT infrastructure, and attributes T18 T28 for business
infrastructure.
Here are some ways in which higher education institutions
can green-up their computer systems (IT infrastructure) [28]:
Using efficient computer applications.
Implement power management techniques.
Centralization of all the desktop computers in the labs.

Formulize IT plan that integrates green-ICT.


Publicizing the green computing to the students and staffs.
By using server virtualization technologies.
By setting IT equipment into sleep-mode during idle / offusage in-order to cut power consumption.
By purchasing only energy star compliant products.
By using intranet technology for posting internal
information, virtual schooling, elearning.
Only print documents when needed and draft mode setting.
Dispose of equipment properly.
Using multi-function devices for printing consolidation to
reduce paper waste and power use.

as part of IT strategic plan and roadmap. There is a positive


correlation between good ICT governance with value that come
from ICT investment, while maintain risk in accepted level.
[32] We need to emphasize the importance of giving special
portion of IT governance with green awareness for successful
implementation of green-IT / green-ICT initiatives. Another
concern of successful implementation of green-IT initiatives
comes from Wabwoba, Omuterama, Wanyembi and Omieno
[24], their study shows that developing country has lower level
of green-ICT readiness. Its also improtant to note that
governance covers the higher level (tactical, strategic), green
IT not only needs to be implemented, but also needs to be
managed and governed. Higher level of green ICT readiness
comes from the combination of good quality of governance,
supported by qualified human resources.

VII. DOMAIN 5: GOVERNANCE


Governance of green IT talks about accountability, control
and at the same time as a part of overall IT governance. It
defines the managing and governing aspect of green IT
initiatives [9][24]. Governance also talk about directing and
managing of resource allocation, e.g. a define budget to
implement green-ICT and metrics to measure the impacts of
green-ICT initiatives [30]. G-readiness for governance can be
measured using the following indicators [9][24]:
Clear defined of roles, structures, responsibilities,
accountability and control for green-IT initiatives.
Existence of standards or procedures that guide the process
to develop green-IT initiatives.
Availability of metrics to assess the impact.
Resources allocation for green-IT.
Top management support (Business and IT) for green-IT
initiatives across the institution.
The responsibility of IT in electricity costs.
Since governance approach is very dependent on
organization characteristics, then organization must formulate
their own approach while stick on governance best practices
for green ICT [30]. There are many external and internal
factors involved, e.g. organizational settings (flow and
structure of decision making), regulatory where organization
operates, socio-cultural, and adopted technology [31]. Greadiness itself for domain governance cover two main
attributes: IT governance and environment governance. Since
we saw it as a whole (Holistic way), then we can conclude that
this governance domain as an approach of IT governance with
green-IT awareness.

VIII. DOMAIN 5: VALUE


As an addition of the 5 existing domains (Adopted from Greadiness framework), we also propose 1 additional domain,
name: Value. This domain will focus on benefits
identification that comes from green-ICT adoption for the
institution. ZEN framework with its attributes T29 T33 can
be used as guidance to measure the value (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6. Proposing Domain Value.


Fig. 7 shows the derived model with 6 domains. Value
comes from good governance that comes from good attitude,
clear defined policy, good practice and correct technology
investment.

Fig. 7. Derived Model with 6 Domains.


IX. CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 5. G-Readiness & ZEN Framework for Governance.


Fig. 5 shows relationship between G-Readiness and ZEN
framework. ZEN framework doesnt specify the needs for
specific committee for environmental governance, but see it as

ZEN framework as an Indonesia national e-readiness


framework for ICT implementation on HEI has a potential
room to be upgraded as a guidance best practices for
green ready ICT implementation for HEI in Indonesia.
When combining G-readiness and ZEN framework, we can
use G-readiness as a thinking / theoretical / logical
framework that guide our focus for green-ICT adoption,
and using ZEN framework as our checklist for the action

implementation. Furthermore, since ZEN framework was a


local framework, then we can hope that this framework
already adjusted with the local condition and requirements
for ICT adoption, especially for Indonesia HEI.
From the relationship process, we can see that ZEN
framework attributes can covers all of the G-readiness
attributes. It means we can improve ZEN framework as a
green-ICT framework for HEI, we dont see ICT and green
initiatives as a two separate objectives but as a holistic
solution. We also add one domain, named Value that also
covered by ZEN framework with focus on value
measurement of green-ICT adoption.

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