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Full Depth Reclamation

Applications
Benefits
Design
Construction
Testing
Performance

APPLICATIONS

Cement-Based Pavement
Materials

Cement Content

Roller-Compacted
Concrete

Conventional
Concrete

No Wea
ring Co
u

Soil-Cement
CementTreated
Base

Wearin
g

Course
Require
d

Flowable Fill
Full-Depth
Reclamation

Cement-Modified
Soil

Cast

Rolled

Water Content

rse Req
uired

Concrete

Soil-Cement

Cementitious Gel or Paste

Hydration Products

coats all particles


fills voids

all particles not coated


voids not filled
linkages bind soil
agglomerations together

Soil-Cement Materials in a
Pavement Section

Cem
Full ent-Tre
-Dep
a
th R ted Ba
ecla
s
mat e
ion
Cem
ent
-Mo
d i fi
ed
S

oil

Challenges Facing
Tennessee
s Roadways
Tennessees

Continuing Growth
Rising Expectations from Users
A Heavily Used, Aging System
Environmental Compatibility
Changes in the Workforce
Funding Limitations

Rural Interstates - Growth


700

Percent Growth (%)

650%
600

LOAD

500

400

300

200

ADT

150%

100

Source: Highway Statistics 2000

20
00

19
98

19
96

19
94

19
92

19
90

19
88

19
86

19
84

19
82

19
80

19
78

19
76

19
74

19
72

19
70

Definition of Reclamation
Method of flexible pavement reconstruction that
utilizes the existing asphalt, base, and subgrade
material to produce a new stabilized base course for
an asphalt, chip seal, or concrete wearing surface.

Alternative Terms:
Full-Depth Recycling (FDR)
Cement Recycled Asphalt and Base (CRAB)
Cement-Treated Base (CTB)
Cement-Treated Existing Roadway Materials (C-TERM)
Cement Stabilized Reclaimed Base (CSRB)

How do you know if you have


a base problem and not just
a surface deficiency?

Pavement Distress

Alligator Cracking

Pavement Distress

Rutting

Pavement Distress

Excessive Patching

Pavement Distress

Base Failure

Pavement Distress

Potholes

BENEFITS

Advantages of Reclamation
Use of in-place materials
Little or no material hauled
off and dumped
Maintains or improves
existing grade
Conserves virgin material
Saves cost by using
in-place investment
Saves energy by reducing
mining and hauls
Environmentally friendly

Reclamation: A Logical Choice


Most highway systems now in place
Emphasis on maintenance/rehabilitation
Most roads are local, low-volume,
unpaved or flexible pavements
Possible strategies:
Thick structural overlays
Removal and replacement
Reclamation with cement and thin overlay

Rehabilitation Strategies
Solution
Thick
structural
overlays

Advantages
New pavement structure
Quick construction
Moderate traffic disruption

Removal and New pavement structure


replacement Eliminates failed base/subgrade
Maintain existing elevation

Reclamation
with cement

New pavement structure


Fast construction cycle
Minimal traffic disruption
Minimal material in/out
Conserves resources
Maintains existing elevation
Low cost

Disadvantages
Elevation change
Large quantity of materials
Old base may still need fixing
High cost
Long construction cycle
Increased congestion
Weather delays
Large quantity of materials in
Old materials dumped
High cost
Subgrade may still need
fixing
Shrinkage cracks may reflect

Engineering Benefits
Increased Rigidity
Spreads Loads
Eliminates Rutting
Below Surface
Reduced Moisture
Susceptibility
Reduced Fatigue
Cracking
Thinner Surface Pavement
Section
Retards Reflective
Cracking

Increased Rigidity Spreads


Loads
100 psi

100 psi

4 psi
15 psi

Unstabilized Granular Base

Cement-Stabilized Base
Soil-Cement
Cement-Treated Base

Reduced Moisture Susceptibility


High water table
Unstabilized Granular Base

Moisture infiltrates base


Through high water table
Capillary action
Causing softening, lower strength,
and reduced modulus

Cement-Stabilized Base

Cement stabilization:
Reduces permeability
Helps keep moisture out
Maintains high level of strength
and stiffness even when saturated

Cement stabilization
is NOT a substitute
for proper drainage!

Reduced Fatigue Cracking


Asphalt
Surface

Unstabilized Base

High deflection due to


low base stiffness
Results in high surface strains
and eventual fatigue cracking

Cement-Stabilized
Base

Higher stiffness of
cement-stabilized
base produces lower
deflections
Resulting in lower
surface strains and
longer pavement life

Thinner Pavement Section

Unstabilized Granular Base

Cement-Stabilized Base
Cement-Treated Base
Full-Depth Reclamation

Example: A typically accepted rule-of-thumb is that 8 inches of


crushed stone base is equal to 6 inches of mixed-in-place CTB.

Retards Reflective Cracking

DESIGN

Know Whats Out There!

Manholes
Gas Lines
Water Lines
Power Lines
Overheads

Laboratory Tests

Sieve Analysis (ASTM C136)


Atterberg Limits (ASTM D4318)
Moisture-Density (ASTM D558)
Durability Tests
Wet-Dry (ASTM D559)
Freeze-Thaw (ASTM D560)

Soluble Sulfates (ASTM D516)


Compressive Strength (ASTM D1633)

Mix Design Proportioning


Obtain representative samples of roadway material
Typically up to 50% Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP)
Meeting the gradation requirement is the key
Pulverize to anticipated gradation
100% passing 75 mm (3)
95% passing 50 mm (2)
55% passing 4.75 mm (#4)
Estimate cement content
Usually 4 to 6%
By weight of dry material
Run moisture/density curve
Standard Proctor
(ASTM D558)

Moisture/Density Relationship
125
Dry Density (lb/cf)

Maximum Dry Density

120
115
110
105

Optimum Moisture Content

100
5%

7%

9%

11%

13%

Moisture Content

ASTM D558

15%

17%

Strength Determination
Unconfined Compressive Strength Testing

ASTM D1633
Used by most State DOTs and the FAA
Simple and quick procedure
7-day strengths ranging
from 300 psi to 400 psi
(2.1 MPa to 2.8 MPa) are
generally recommended
Proven support under heavy
traffic conditions
Proven durability in both
wet/dry and freeze/thaw
environments

Strive for a Balance Between


Strength and Performance

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
ESTIMATE CEMENT CONTENT
USUALLY 4 % TO 6% BY DRY
WEIGHT OF MATERIAL
7 DAY COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
TARGET 300 TO 400 PSI.
RUN MOISTURE DENSITY CURVE TO
DETERMINE OPTIMUM MOISTURE
DESIGNED PAVEMENT LIFE

Two Methods for Determining


the Thickness of
FDR Pavements
AASHTO Method
Based on layer coefficients

PCA Method
Based on a mechanistic approach

Thickness Design
AASHTO
Use layer coefficients 0.12 to 0.30
Compare with granular base 0.06 to 0.18
Design Equation:
Structural Number = a1D1+ a2D2++ anDn
Layer
Coefficient

a1
a2

D1
D2

a3

D3
3-Layer Pavement Section

Thickness Design
PCA
Mechanistic method
Based on subgrade
strength, material
type, axle loads,
and frequencies
Publication EB068:

Thickness Design for


Soil-Cement Pavements

5.75
in

CONSTRUCTION

Easy Construction Process!

Processing
Compaction
Finishing
Curing
Surfacing

Inside a Reclaimer

Inside an Asphalt Zipper

Pulverization
Pulverize mat to
appropriate gradation
Typically 1 or 2 passes

Material Removal

Excess material is
removed from roadway
(rare occasions)

Cement Spreading
Cement is spread
on top of roadway
in measured amount

Blending of Materials
and Moisture Addition
Cement is
blended into
pulverized,
reclaimed
material and,
with the
addition of
water, is
brought to
optimum
moisture

Grading and Compaction


Material is
graded to
appropriate
Plan line,
grade, and
cross-sections,
and then
compacted to
97% minimum
standard
Proctor density
TDOT SP 304
FDR.

Curing
Bituminous
Compound

Water

Surfacing
Excellent base or
subbase for either
a rigid or flexible
pavement structure
Surface course
is applied last
Conventional
Concrete
RollerCompacted
Concrete
Hot-Mix Asphalt
Chip Seal
Microsurfacing

Summary of Time Limits


Begin compaction immediately after FDR
ingredients are mixed together.
No material should be left un-compacted
for more than 60 minutes
All compaction operations completed
within 2 hours
All base construction operations completed
within 4 hours

TESTING

Primary Testing Requirements


Gradation

A common minimum
gradation requirement
is for 100% to pass
the 3-inch (75 mm),
95% to pass the
2-inch (50 mm), and
55% to pass the No. 4
(4.75 mm) sieves
(ASTM C136).

Moisture

Density

A common moisture
requirement is to be
within 2% of the
laboratory established
optimum moisture
content (ASTM D558).

A common density
requirement is to be
97% established
laboratory standard
Proctor density TDOT
SP 304 FDR.

Secondary Testing Requirements


Thickness

Stiffness

Stability

Requirements for
base depths can vary
from as little as 4
inches (100 mm) up
to 1 foot (300 mm)
depending on
governing agency.

Measures in-place
engineering values
using structural layer
stiffness, klbf/in
(MN/m) and Youngs
Modulus of a material,
kpsi (MPa).

FDR base MUST be stable


before next pavement
course is constructed!
Proof-rolling is a commonly
accepted practice.

PERFORMANCE

Actual Core Samples


of Reclaimed and Stabilized
Failed Asphalt Pavements

Completion
(urban)

Completion
(rural)

Reclamation -vs- New Base


180

Truck Trips
(Number)

12
4500

Material (tons)

300
2700

Landfill (cy)

0
3000

Diesel (gal)

500

1 Mile of 24-wide, 2-lane road with a 6-inch base

New
FDR

strength

Strength Gain with Age

time

More Advantages
Minimizes inconvenience for both
homes and businesses
Less construction/transportation equipment
Fast operation
Can apply local
traffic almost
immediately

The BIGGEST Advantage!

Versatility through use of portland cement

Stabilizes many materials


HMA or surface treatments
gravel or crushed stone bases
sands, silts, and plastic clays
combinations of all materials

Portland Cement is probably the closest thing we


have to a universal stabilizer.
Chemical Stabilization Technology for Cold Weather
United States Army Corps of Engineers
September 2002

TDOT
Special Provision
SP 304 FDR
Full Depth Reclamation of
Flexible Pavement
(Rev. 1-14-05)

for additional information, please visit our website at

www.strongroads.info
www.cement.org/pavements