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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Regional Office No. VIII
Division of Northern Samar
Bugko, Mondragon, Northern Samar
21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World
1. Which of these works is written in Middle English?
1 The Merchant of Venice
2 The Canterbury Tales
3 Songs of Innocence and of Experience
4 The Importance of Being Earnest
2. Which Victorian writer is known for his dramatic monologues?
1 Alfred Lord Tennyson
2 Robert Browning
3 Oscar Wilde
4 Charles Dickens
3. Which period is the golden age of lyric poetry?
1 Elizabethan Period
3 Victorian Period

2 Romantic Period
4 Twentieth Century Period

4. In what language is Beowulf written? _________________

5. Which writers use the stream of consciousness technique in their works?
1 Thomas Stearns Eliot
2 James Joyce
3 Virginia Woolf
4 William Butler Yeats
6. Which plays are written by the Bard of Avon?
1 Macbeth
3 The Importance of Being Earnest

2 King Lear
4 Hamlet

7. Arrange the literary periods of English literature chronologically.

Middle English Literature Old English Literature
Elizabethan Literature
The Victorian Literature

The Romantic
The 20th Century Literature

Beowulf (An Excerpt)

LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings
of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,
we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!
Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,
from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,
awing the earls. Since erst he lay
friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:
for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve, till before him the folk, both far and near,
who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate, gave him gifts: a good king he!
To him an heir was afterward born,
a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
to favor the folk, feeling their woe
that erst they had lacked an earl for leader
so long a while; the Lord endowed him,
the Wielder of Wonder, with worlds renown.
Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands.
8. The word whale-path is an example of a kenning. What does it refer to?
1 the sea
2 dry land
3 a whale
4 a road
My Last Duchess (An Excerpt)
By Robert Browning

Thats my last Duchess painted on the wall,

Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now: Fr Pandolfs hands
Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
9. Whose voice does the poet assume in his work?
1 the duchess
3 the duke

2 the poet himself

4 the painting

Sonnet 18
By William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summers day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summers lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or natures changing course, untrimmed;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owst,
Nor shall death brag thou wandrest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to Time thou growst.
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
10. What does the pronoun this refer to in the last line of the sonnet?
1 the sonnet itself
2 the speaker
3 summertime
4 the person being addressed by the speaker
11. Who wrote the first detective story? ____________
12. Which of these writers wrote symbolical tales?
1 Sherwood Anderson
3 Washington Irving

2 Ernest Hemingway
4 Nathaniel Hawthorne

13. Which of these writers was known for the poem Thanatopsis?
1 Anne Sexton
2 William Cullen Bryant
3 E. E. Cummings
4 Emily Dickinson
14. Group the works of fiction according to the period in which they were published.
Death in the Woods

The Cask of Amontillado The Killers

19th Century

Rip Van Winkles

20th Century

15. Group the poets according to the period in which they became known.
Ezra Pound
Robert Frost
Emily Dickinson Walt Whitman

19th Century

Wanting to Die (An Excerpt)

By Anne Sexton

20th Century

Since you ask, most days I cannot remember.

I walk in my clothing, unmarked by that voyage.
Then the almost unnameable lust returns.
Even then I have nothing against life.
I know well the grass blades you mention,
the furniture you have placed under the sun.
But suicides have a special language.
Like carpenters they want to know which tools.
They never ask why build.
17. What do you call this kind of poetry? Select your answer.
1 suicide poetry
2 personal poetry
3 private poetry
4 confessional poetry
Mending Wall (An Excerpt)
By Robert Frost
Something there is that doesn't love a wall,
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun;
And makes gaps even two can pass abreast.
The work of hunters is another thing:
I have come after them and made repair
Where they have left not one stone on a stone,
But they would have the rabbit out of hiding,
To please the yelping dogs. The gaps I mean,
No one has seen them made or heard them made,
But at spring mending-time we find them there.
18: Which of these statements is true about the poem?
1 The poem has a regular rhythm but no rhyme.
2 The poem has no regular rhythm, but it has rhyme.
3 The poem has no regular rhythm and rhyme.
4 The poem has a regular rhythm and rhyme.
Because I could not stop for Death (An Excerpt)
By Emily Dickinson
Because I could not stop for Death,
He kindly stopped for me;
The carriage held but just ourselves
And Immortality.
19: What figure of speech is used in the stanza?
1 hyperbole
3 metaphor

2 simile
4 personification

The Cask of Amontillado (An Excerpt)

By Edgar Allan Poe
The thousand injuries of Fortunato I had borne as I best could, but when he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge.
You, who so well know the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however, that I gave utterance to a threat. At length I
would be avenged; this was a point definitely settled
but the very definitiveness with which it was resolved, precluded the idea of risk. I must not only punish, but punish
with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally unredressed when the
avenger fails to make himself felt as such to him who has done the wrong.
20. Right at the beginning, the narrator tells the reader that he is going to take revenge on a character named
Fortunato. Which of these statements tells his main reason?
1 The narrator suffered injuries caused by Fortunato.
2 The narrator was offended by Fortunato.
3 The narrator is drunk with anger towards Fortunato.
4 The narrator and Fortunato have some unfinished business together.
21. What is the other name of European Literature? ____________
22. Write the umbrella term for the languages comprising the European Literature. ___________
23. Sophocles is a tragic playwright. What kind of plays did he write? _______________
27: Complete the following analogy.

Odysseus : The Odyssey : : ___________: The Iliad

The Necklace (An Excerpt)
By Guy de Maupassant
She was one of those pretty and charming girls born, as though fate had blundered over her, into a family of artisans.
She had no marriage portion, no expectations, no means of getting known, understood, loved, and wedded by a man
of wealth and distinction; and she let herself be married off to a little clerk in the Ministry of Education. Her tastes
were simple because she had never been able to afford any other, but she was as unhappy as though she had married
beneath her; for women have no caste or class, their beauty, grace, and charm serving them for birth or family, their
natural delicacy, their instinctive elegance, their nimbleness of wit, are their only mark of rank, and put the slum girl
on a level with the highest lady in the land.
28. Which of these statements about the woman can be inferred from the passage?
1 She was a contented fellow.
2 She was an ordinary woman.
3 She was a good wife.
4 She was a patient person.
31. Literary works produced in the given countries are part of Latin American Literature except for one. Which
country is it?
1 Chile
2 Peru
3 Spain
4 Mexico
32. This art form combines unrelated images or events in a very strange and dreamlike way. What is this art form?
33. In this genre, elements of fantasy or myth are included in seemingly realistic fiction in a matter-of-fact manner.
What genre is this? ___________
36. All writers were known for their works of fiction except for one. Which one did not write fiction?
1 Mario Vargas Llosa
2 Pablo Neruda
3 Miguel Angel Asturias
4 Alejo Carpentier
37. Complete the following analogy:
Gabriel Garcia Marquez is to Colombia as Isabelle Allende is to _____.
One Hundred Years of Solitude (An Excerpt)
By Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buenda was to remember that distant afternoon
when his father took him to discover ice. At that time Macondo was a village of twenty adobe houses, built on the
bank of a river of clear water that ran along a bed of polished stones, which were white and enormous, like
prehistoric eggs. The world was so recent that many things lacked names, and in order to indicate them it was
necessary to point. Every year during the month of March a family of ragged gypsies would set up their tents near
the village, and with a great uproar of pipes and kettledrums they would display new inventions.
38. What literary technique is used to introduce the village of Macondo in the narrative?
1 flashback
2 imagery
3 point of view
4 setting
The House of Spirits (An Excerpt)
by Isabel Allende
They had also grown accustomed to the youngest daughter's prophecies. She would announce earthquakes in
advance, which was quite useful in the country of catastrophes, for it gave them a chance to lock up the good dishes
and place their slippers within reach in case they had to run out in the middle of the night.
Which of these statements can be inferred from the passage?
1 The family members thought that the youngest daughters prophecies were an inconvenience.
2 The family members were getting annoyed by the youngest daughters prophecies.
3 The family members took the youngest daughters prophecies as normal occurrences.
4 The family members were tolerant of the youngest daughters prophecies.
One Hundred Years of Solitude (An Excerpt)
By Gabriel Garcia Marquez
This time, along with many artifices, they brought a flying carpet. But they did not offer it as a fundamental
contribution to the development of transport, rather as an object of recreation. The people at once dug up their last
old pieces to take advantage of a quick flight over the houses of the village.
Based on the excerpt, which statements are likely true about the flying carpet?
1 The flying carpet is only a prop.
2 The flying carpet is a viable means of transport.
3 The flying carpet is fake.
4 The flying carpet is for recreational use.

Asian literature includes works produced in the following languages except one. Which one is it?
1 Filipino
2 French
3 Chinese
4 Hindi
Which of the following Asian languages are vernacular languages of India?
1 Japanese
2 Chinese
3 Hindi
4 Sanskrit
This was the golden age of art and literature in Chinese history. _________
Identify the body of literature to which each work belongs.
The Narrow Road to the Deep North


Japanese Literature

Identify the body of literature to which each writer belongs.

Li Bai
Du Fu
Japanese Literature


Indian Literature

Chinese Literature

Complete the following analogy:

Mahabharata : Vyasa : : Ramayana : _______
Complete the following analogy:
Du Fu : _______ : : Hitomaro : ________
A Haiku by Basho
A snowy morning-by myself,
chewing on dried salmon.
Which statements can be said about the image? Select multiple answers.
1 It shows a very cold morning.
2 It shows a moment during wintertime.
3 It shows a solitary man.
4 It shows a very poor man.
A Poem by Du Fu
The river's blue, the bird a perfect white,
The mountain green with flowers about to blaze.
I've watched the spring pass away again,
When will I be able to return?
What does the persona likely feel about his situation?
1 contentment
3 excitement
The Story of the Potter
From the Panchatantra

2 fear
4 weariness

The potter was no real warrior, and he feared going into the battleground. All the preparations for battle made him
tense. But he was resolved to prove himself as a warrior in the battleground.
While inspecting, the king noticed the potter. He took him aside and asked, "O Warrior, fighting which battle did you
get this deadly scar?"
The potter replied, "O king, this scar was not caused by any wound by any sword. Being a potter by profession
myself, my home was full of pots. One night, I tripped after drinking more than I should have, I tripped over them
that caused this wound. Due to improper attention, the wound left this big scar."
When the king heard the truth, he felt embarrassed for his earlier decision. He asked his soldiers, "He is a potter,
who has deceived me by pretending to be a warrior. Drive him away from the army!"

The potter fell on his knees, and pleaded to the king, "O King, please do not do this. Have mercy on me, for I am
sure I will be able to prove my bravery on the battleground. Please give me a chance to prove my worth."
The king replied, "You may have excellent qualities, and you may be brave. But you do not possess the qualities
required on the battleground. When the other warriors will come to know that you are only a potter, they will
ridicule you. You will get yourself killed on the battleground! It is better if you leave, and return to your home."
The potter understood the king's advice, and left the palace immediately.
Which statement of moral fits the fable?
1 Be someone you are not and live with it.
3 Deceive someone powerful and reap the reward.

2 Tell the truth and face the consequences.

4 Tell the truth and own up to the lie.

All of these writers are Nigerian except

1 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
3 Wole Soyinka

2 Chinua Achebe
4 Nadine Gordimer

Which of these writers were Nobel laureates? Select multiple answers.

1 Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
2 Nadine Gordimer
3 Chinua Achebe
4 Wole Soyinka
What kind of drama is A Dance of the Forests by Wole Soyinka? __________
All of these statements about African Literature are true except one. Which one is it?
1 African Literature includes works produced by African writers in English.
2 African Literature includes works produced in Afro-Asiatic and African languages.
3 African Literature does not include works by white South African writers like Nadine Gordimer.
4 African Literature has common themes like colonial oppression and pride in African past.
Match each literary work to its writer.
Things Fall Apart
A World of Strangers
Purple Hibiscus
A Dance of the Forests
Chimmanda Ngonzi Adichie
Chinua Achebe
Nadine Gordimer
Wole Soyinka
Which novels were banned in South Africa?
Select multiple answers.
1 Julys People
3 Americanah

2 The Late Bourgeois World

4 Burgers Daughter

Achebes Things Fall Apart and the other two novels that followed form The African Trilogy. What are those
novels? Select multiple answers
1 Americanah
2 Arrow of God
3 No Longer at Ease
4 Half of a Yellow Sun
In Wole Soyinkas poem The Telephone Conversation, the woman who owns the apartment asks the African man
about his skin color. What do her questions reveal about her?
Select your answer.
1 The woman is amused by the idea that the African might have very dark or very light complexion.
2 The woman is only being careful of men in general, African or not, who will rent out her apartment.
3 The woman is considerably concerned about letting the African man rent her apartment because of his skin color.
4 The woman is simply interested in the African mans skin color.
Which of these statements is true for the two women characters in the short story A Private Experience by
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie? Select your answer.
1 Both women are worried about their loved ones.
2 Both women are religious.
3 Both women are mothers.
4 Both women are educated.
Words or phrases that express meanings in a nonliteral way are referred to as figurative language or _______.
1 figures of relationship
2 figures of speech
3 figures of sound
4 figures of emphasis

Onomatopoeia and alliteration are classified as ______. Select your answer.

1 figures of sound
2 figures of reference
3 figures of relationship
4 figures of emphasis
Which of the following are figures of emphasis?
1 Metonymy
3 Paradox

2 Hyperbole
4 Synecdoche

Which of the following figures of speech is used in the passage below?

All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players;
They have their exits and their entrances,
from As You Like It by William Shakespeare
Select your answer.
1 simile
3 metaphor

2 synecdoche
4 hyperbole

Which of the following correctly states why literary writers use figures of speech? Select your answer.
1 Literary writers use figures of speech to puzzle the readers.
2 Literary writers use figures of speech to enhance the artistic quality of their works.
3 Literary writers use figures of speech to make their works popular.
4 Literary writers use figures of speech to lengthen their works.
Which of the following best completes the given analogy?
metonymy : relationship :: ________: ________
Select your answer.
1 metaphor : sound
3 emphasis : oxymoron

2 sound : alliteration
4 paradox : emphasis

Which of the following figures of speech is used in the sentence below?

The bubbly baby babbled busily as Bobby bustled about his bassinet.
1 synecdoche
2 onomatopoeia
3 alliteration
4 hyperbole
Carrie likes figures of speech, and her friends know she has a tendency to use oxymora in casual conversations.
Which of the following is she likely to say when she finds that a friend of hers is unusually quiet? Select your
1 Have you turned mute all of a sudden?
2 You're like a completely different person today.
3 You're so silent today that it scares me.
4 Your deafening silence today perplexes me.
Among the following sentences, which does not use a figure of relationship? Select your answer.
1 I died of fright when, as I was walking along the dark hallway, he suddenly appeared in front of me.
2 Would you please lend me a hand so that we could finish this task right away?
3 She walked onto the stage and found a hundred pairs of eyes staring at her, waiting for her to speak.
4 Rachel's tears were like waterfalls as she wished her parents good-bye at the airport.
Olivia is writing a poem, and she wants it to have auditory imagery so that the reader could imagine hearing every
twang and noise referred to in the poem. Which of the following should Olivia use in her poem? Select your answer.
1 alliteration
2 simile
3 onomatopoeia
4 metonymy
They refer to methods writers use in their works to convey meanings and add artistic value. ____________
These are essential to a story as writers utilize these components to serve as the structure of and to develop a story.
Select your answer.
1 catharsis
2 foreshadowing
3 literary techniques
4 literary elements
Which of the following sets of words refers to literary elements? Select your answer.
1 plot, catharsis, setting
2 anaphora, dialogue, setting
3 setting, theme, characters
4 characters, cliff-hanger, hamartia
All statements describe anaphora except. Select your answer.
1 It is also called tragic flaw.
2 It is also called epanaphora.
3 It is used to stir emotions among the audience.
4 It adds rhythm to a particular line or paragraph.
Which of the following is true about the antihero? Select your answer.

1 The protagonist has dignity.

2 The protagonist is brave.
3 The protagonist does not possess the traits expected of a hero. 4 The protagonist possesses the traits
expected of a hero.
It is derived from a Greek word which means purgation or purification. Select your answer.
1 epanaphora
2 hamartia
3 tragedy
4 catharsis
Which of the following is not true about the stream of consciousness? Select your answer.
1 The plot is developed based on the characters recollection of past events.
2 It is also called interior monologue.
3 It uses dialogue to explain certain situations.
4 It is a common technique employed by Modern writers.
What the Thunder Said (An Excerpt)
By T. S. Eliot
After the torchlight red on sweaty faces
After the frosty silence in the gardens
After the agony in stony places
The shouting and the crying
Prison and palace and reverberation
Of thunder of spring over distant mountains
He who was living is now dead
We who were living are now dying
With a little patience
The passage is an example of _______. Select your answer.
1 hamartia
3 anaphora

2 cliff-hanger
4 stream of consciousness

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (An Excerpt)

By Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
No, said Snow White, I dare not take anything. Are you afraid of poison, said the old woman, look, I will cut the
apple in two pieces, you eat the red cheek, and I will eat the white. The apple was so cunningly made that only the
red cheek was poisoned. Snow White longed for the fine apple, and when she saw that the woman ate part of it she
could resist no longer, and stretched out her hand and took the poisonous half. But hardly had she a bit of it in her
mouth than she fell down dead. Then the queen looked at her with a dreadful look, and laughed aloud and said,
white as snow, red as blood, black as ebony-wood, this time the dwarfs cannot wake you up again.
Which of the following techniques best describe the excerpt? Select your answer.
1 foreshadowing
2 hamartia
3 catharsis
4 antihero
Gollum was a notable character from J. R. R. Tolkiens Lord of the Rings. He was portrayed as a creature who
constantly struggles between good and evil. What can you infer about Gollum? Select your answer.
1 He is a villain.
2 He is an antihero.
3 He is a hero.
4 He is just another creature.
It refers to the authors life and the social, political, and economic conditions that influenced and shaped it. _______
In analyzing a text based on its biographical context, a reader __________. Select your answer.
1 compares the literary work to other works
2 identifies the images used by the author
3 gathers relevant facts about the authors life
4 examines the style and techniques used by the
When you read a text based on its biographical context, you engage in a __________. Select your answer.
1 gender criticism
2 biographical criticism
3 formalist criticism
4 psychoanalytic criticism
Which of the following should not be considered in reading through a biographical context? Select your answer.
1 social
2 figurative language
3 political
4 educational background
Which of the following tells why we should consider gathering information about the authors literary influence(s)?
Select your answer.
1 It develops the readers critical thinking skills.

2 It reveals the authors lack of originality.

3 It helps reader to understand a literary work thoroughly.
4 It may have caused an impact to the author and in his or her work(s).
Which of the following is not true about literature? Select your answer.
1 It is based on orchestrated events.
2 It is a form of expression.
3 It only focuses on the authors life.
4 It is based on real events.
All statements describe analyzing a text through a biographical context except . Select your answer.
1 It is important to know the educational institutions the author has attended.
2 It is important to know what is on the authors mind while writing the text.
3 It is important to know the literary or philosophical movement that existed during the authors time.
4 It is important to know the authors literary background.
If a biographical approach refers to the reading strategy one employs in reading a text, then biography refers to
Select your answer.
1 a fictional account about the authors life
2 a superficial account about the authors life
3 a detailed account about the authors life
4 a partial account about the authors life
Nestor Vicente Madali N. V. M. Gonzalez was born on September 8, 1915 in Romblon, Romblon. At the age of
five, his family moved to Mindoro. He attended the Mindoro High School from 1927 to 1930 and the National
University, but he was not able to obtain a degree. His first essay was published in the Philippine Graphic. He was
also an editor for the Manila Chronicle and Evening News Magazine.
The passage about N. V. M. Gonzalez is a _________. Select your answer.
1 fiction
2 biography
3 biographical context
4 biographical analysis
Mi ltimo adis is a poem written by Jose Rizal a day before he was executed in Bagumbayan. Based on this
information, what can you infer about the author? Select your answer.
1 He was prepared to die.
2 He remained optimistic despite of his suffering.
3 He passed the torch to Andres Bonifacio.
4 He encouraged the people to fight against the
When was English introduced as a language of learning in the Philippines? Select your answer.
1 1925
2 1935
3 1901
4 1941
In this period of the development of Philippine Literature in English, Filipino writers were believed to be gaining
full command of English. What do you call this period? Select your answer.
1 period of American colonialism
2 period of apprenticeship
3 period of emergence
4 period of public education
What do you call a word or phrase that has a different meaning from its literal meaning? ______________
Which of these statements tells the consequence of English being the official medium of instruction in public
schools during the American Colonial Period? Select your answer.
1 Filipinos were exposed to the Anglo-American culture and ways of thinking.
2 Filipinos saw that Anglo-American literature was superior to their native and Spanish colonial literatures.
3 Filipinos easily embraced the new language.
4 Filipinos wrote original and interesting stories using the new language.
Why is Dead Stars by Paz Marquez-Benitez a significant work in Philippine Literature in English? Select your
1 It shed light on the genuine attempt of a Filipino writer to express her ideas clearly in a foreign language.
2 It provides evidence that the newly established American public education system in the Philippines was
indeed effective.
3 Its story and the handling of the language were fully developed.
4 It was written by a woman, and it made Paz Marquez-Benitez stand out among male writers of her time.
How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (An Excerpt)
By Manuel E. Arguilla
She stepped down from the carretela of Ca Celin with a quick, delicate grace. She was lovely. She was tall. She
looked up to my brother with a smile, and her forehead was on a level with his mouth.
Question 6: What effect do the different lengths of the sentences in the text create? Select your answer.
1 The text sounds less poetic and more prosaic.
2 The text sounds choppy and quick.
3 The text sounds easy and graceful.
4 The text sounds awkward and unusual.

How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (An Excerpt)

By Manuel E. Arguilla
"You are Baldo," she said and placed her hand lightly on my shoulder. Her nails were long, but they were not
painted. She was fragrant like a morning when papayas are in bloom. And a small dimple appeared momently high
on her right cheek. "And this is Labang of whom I have heard so much." She held the wrist of one hand with the
other and looked at Labang, and Labang never stopped chewing his cud. He swallowed and brought up to his mouth
more cud and the sound of his insides was like a drum.
Question 7: What makes this piece of text distinctly Filipino? Select your answer.
1 It uses a short, simple statement that indicates Filipino practicality.
2 It uses images and scents that exist in the rustic Philippine countryside.
3 It uses a flourish of words that melodramatic Filipinos tend to enjoy.
4 It uses the summer season, which happens all-year-round in the Philippines.
In the short story Dead Stars, a character named Julia Salas is described as a woman with inner beauty. In Alfredo
Salazars eyes her beauty is seen this way: The lure was there, of naturalness, of an alert vitality of mind and body,
of a thoughtful, sunny temper, and of a piquant perverseness which is sauce to charm.
Which of these statements does not describe the woman in the excerpt? Select your answer.
1 The woman was a perfect physical specimen of female beauty.
2 The woman had an indescribable allure and magnetic charm.
3 The woman possessed a natural loveliness that was very attractive.
4 The woman had a joyful and sweet personality mixed with playfulness.
How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (An Excerpt)
By Manuel E. Arguilla
"Give me the rope, Baldo," my brother Leon said. "Maria, sit down on the hay and hold on to anything." Then he put
a foot on the left shaft and that instant, Labang leaped forward. My brother Leon laughed as he drew himself up to
the top of the side of the cart and made the slack of the rope hiss above the back of Labang. The wind whistled
against my cheeks and the rattling of the wheels on the pebbly road echoed in my ears.
In this passage, the author uses simple language to convey meaning. What makes it simple? Select your answer.
1 The writing is very smooth.
2 The words are familiar.
3 The characters are relatable.
4 The tone is very dull.
How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife (An Excerpt)
By Manuel E. Arguilla
The sun was in our eyes, for it was dipping into the bright sea. The sky was wide and deep and very blue above us:
but along the saw-tooth rim of the Katayaghan hills to the southwest flamed huge masses of clouds. Before us the
fields swam in a golden haze through which floated big purple and red and yellow bubbles when I looked at the
sinking sun.
Question 10: How is the setting described?
Select your answer.
1 The author uses symbols found in nature to create an interesting juxtaposition with the Philippine hills and forests.
2 The author uses the vibrant native landscape as an appropriate metaphor for his affection and love for his
3 The author describes a local rural setting with images that are familiar to Filipinos.
4 The author creates an unsettling and mysterious atmosphere by setting the scenes at dusk when it is dark and
(The mention of Katayaghan hills allows the reader to picture a pastoral setting filled with
Question 1: A literary text can be influenced by the authors society and culture as well as the authors life and
language. What do you call this background of the text?
(Context is the background of the text which may have been influenced by the authors life,
language, society, and culture.)
Question 2: All statements are true for both Bienvenido Santos and N. V. M. Gonzalez except one. Which one is it?
Select your answer.
1 They studied in American universities.
2 They were both naturalized American citizens.
3 They wrote about the Philippines.
4 They published works in English.

(Bienvenido Santos became an American citizen in 1976, while N. V. M. Gonzalez remained

Question 3: Complete the following analogy:
Immigrant Blues : Scent of Apples : :The Tomato Game : ___________
(In 1980 Immigrant Blues was included in Bienvenido Santoss short story collection Scent
of Apples, published by the University of Washington Press. In 1993, the The Tomato Game
was published along with other works in the collection The Bread of Salt and Other Stories.)
Question 4: What is the subject of the short story Immigrant Blues by Bienvenido Santos?
Select your answer.
1 the culture shock of immigrants in America
2 the challenges of losing someones spouse
3 the loss of identity of old men as they age
4 the hardships that Filipino immigrants face
(The story is about the woes of the Filipinos living abroad. Like the characters Seniang,
Antonietta, and Monica, Filipino women living abroad are forced to resort to desperate
measures like marrying a stranger for citizenship so that they would not be deported.)
Question 5: Which statement best describes Alipio, the main character in the short story Immigrant Blues?
Select your answer.
1 Alipio is miserable about his life, and he thinks of ending it to join his wife.
2 Alipio is hopeless romantic and deeply devoted to his late wife Seniang.
3 Alipio is old and weary of the world, and he desperately wishes for relief.
4 Alipio is lonely, and he needs company.
(Though lonely and old, Alipio is neither weary of the world nor miserable. He was devoted to
his wife when she was alive. With her gone, he needs company.)
Question 6: What is the subject of the short story The Tomato Game?
Select your answer.
1 a man who deceives his fellow countrymen for money
2 a man who arranges marriage for others for a fee
3 a man who takes advantage of the mail order bride industry
4 a man who makes a living out of unmarried mens desires
(Basically, the story is about a man named Sopi who calls himself Importer-Exporter of
Brides, someone who arranges marriage for others for a fee. However, he does not do it
honestly or out of his goodness. He uses people for his personal gain.)
Question 7: Which statement best describes the narrator of the short story The Tomato Game?
Select your answer.
1 His is an opportunistic businessman.
2 He is a willing teacher.
3 He is an unsuspecting victim.
4 He is a person with conscience.
(Hearing about the arrangement between the old man and the young woman made the
narrator angry. Later on, when he realized his role in Sopis scheme, he felt terrible.)
In the story Immigration Blues, Antonietta was working on Alipio for her sister Monica. She was dropping hints
during their conversation. The most obvious one was when Alipio was telling the two women how he and Carlito
had impressed women before with their gallantry and that they were fools on fire. Antonietta responded with less
subtlety by saying, Im sure you still got some of that fire.
Question 8: What does this reveal about Antoniettas character?
Select your answer.
1 She was genuinely fond of Alipio.
2 She was candid.
3 She was a little vulgar.
4 She was desperate.
(In the story Immigration Blues, Antonietta was working on Alipio for her sister Monica so
that he would agree to marry her when he finally learned why they were there. She gave
him compliments, and the least subtle one is her statement, Im sure you still got some of
that fire.)
Question 9
Later in the short story The Tomato Game, the narrator realized his role in Sopis scheme. As hinted by Sopi, he
would need the narrators help as he was a lecturer at Transpacifica University. The old man had already paid eight

hundred dollars for Tonys tuition in advance. Towards the end of the letter, the narrator tells Greg what Sopi said to
him when they left the farm. Sopi said, To think that that old man hasnt even met the boy.
What does Sopis statement likely suggest?
Select your answer.
1 Sopi knows how the narrator could help him with the boy.
2 Sopi clearly knows how to help the old man.
3 Sopi has plenty of opportunities to exploit the old man.
4 Sopi has other plans for both the old man and the boy.
(Sopi is manipulative and scheming. Knowing that the old man has money to spend, he is
likely looking for ways to profit from him.)
Question 10: What common theme do Bienvenido Santoss Immigrant Blues and N. V. M. Gonzalezs The
Tomato Game have?
Select your answer.
1 Filipino hospitality
2 Filipino immigrant experience
3 Filipino camaraderie
4 Filipino family ties
(The characters in both stories by Bienvenido Santos and N. V. M. Gonzalez are Filipino
immigrants. The focus of each story is their experiences in the US.)

Question 1: What kind of thinking is required in critical reading?

(Critical reading refers to reading for academic or professional purpose which requires
application of critical thinking skills.)
Question 2: Which of the following is not a critical reading strategy?
Select your answer.
1 comparing and contrasting related texts
2 translating a text to another language
3 previewing a text
4 contextualizing a text
(In reading a text critically, you can preview it, contextualize it, or compare and contrast it
with another text. On the other hand, translating a text to another language has an entirely
different purpose.)
Question 3: This critical reading strategy involves the examination of the readers personal responses to the text.
What is this strategy?
Select your answer.
1 making an outline
2 asking questions about a text
3 evaluating the argument made in a text
4 reflecting on a text
(A readers reflection upon a text is his or her response to it. He or she can relate the new
learning to a previous learning or to his or her own beliefs.)
Question 4: Which of the following is not the purpose of critical reading?
Select your answer.
1 Readers read texts critically to learn more about culture and society.
2 Readers read texts critically to learn new information.
3 Readers read texts critically for better understanding of their meaning.
4 Readers read texts critically for amusement.
(Unlike reading for pleasure, critical reading allows a reader to understand the meaning of a
text better and to learn new information, often about culture and society.)
Question 5: Which of the following is not true about the importance of critical reading in literature?
Select your answer.
1 Critical reading develops ones critical thinking skills and makes one keen to details.
2 Critical reading enables readers to write a critical review or analysis of a piece of literature.
3 Critical reading is done to make a literary work popular.
4 Critical reading enables readers to understand and appreciate a piece of literature further.
(Critical reading does not aim to make a literary work popular. It is done to understand and
appreciate a piece of literature further and to develop readers critical thinking skills.)
Question 6: Below are some questions that can be asked about a short story:


Who are the main characters?


Where is the story set?


What is the conflict in the story?

What is the purpose of the questions?

Select your answer.
1 evaluation
2 comprehension
3 comparison and contrast
4 reflection
(In reading a literary text like a short story, one can ask questions about the text to
understand and remember its important details.)
By F. Scott Fitzgerald
A. John T. Unger, a sixteen-year-old boy from a wealthy family, was on his way to his school, the St. Midas
Preparatory School, the most exclusive and expensive in the world.
B. John met a student named Percy.
C. Percy invited John to spend the summer with him and his family, and John agreed.
D. On their way to Percys family estate, he revealed to John that his father was the wealthiest man in the world
because he had a diamond the size of the Ritz-Carlton Hotel.
E. John discovered that Percy was telling the truth.
Question 7: The list contains the events that happened in the story. What do you call it?
Select your answer.
1 outline
2 reflection
3 summary
4 comparison
(The given outline is a plot outline. It is a list of events that happened in the story. Making
such list helps a reader understand the story better.)
Question 8: Which questions allow the learners to reflect on a reading text?
Select multiple answers and then press Answer.
1 What happened in the beginning of the story?
2 Which character would you like to have as a friend and why?
3 What is the overall tone of the short story?
4 What event or place in the story reminds you of your life and why?
(The questions "Which character would you like to have as a friend and why" and "What
event or place in the story reminds you of your life and why" allow a reader to connect with
the text as he or she reflects on it. On the other hand, the questions in "What is the overall
tone of the short story" and "What happened in the beginning of the story" check the
readers comprehension.)
These next stories are written in what, were I of imposing stature, I should call my "second manner." "The Diamond
as Big as the Ritz," which appeared last summer in the "Smart Set," was designed utterly for my own amusement. I

was in that familiar mood characterized by a perfect craving for luxury, and the story began as an attempt to feed
that craving on imaginary foods.
One well-known critic has been pleased to like this extravaganza better than anything I have written. Personally I
prefer "The Offshore Pirate." But, to tamper slightly with Lincoln: If you like this sort of thing, this, possibly, is the
sort of thing you'll like.
Question 9: Suppose a reader wants to find out more information about the period in which the the book Tales from
the Jazz Age was produced. Which topics would he or she likely look into?
Select multiple answers and then press Answer.
1 The Jazz Age
2 America in the 1920s
3 The Diamond Trade throughout History
4 The History of Ritz Hotel
(A literary text is often contextualized; it is produced in a certain place in a certain period of
time. To understand it, a reader should look into the date and place where it is produced.
Regarding the production of Fitzgeralds Tales from the Jazz Age, he can look more
information about the Jazz Age and the America in the 1920s.)
These next stories are written in what, were I of imposing stature, I should call my "second manner." "The Diamond
as Big as the Ritz," which appeared last summer in the "Smart Set," was designed utterly for my own amusement. I
was in that familiar mood characterized by a perfect craving for luxury, and the story began as an attempt to feed
that craving on imaginary foods.
One well-known critic has been pleased to like this extravaganza better than anything I have written. Personally I
prefer "The Offshore Pirate." But, to tamper slightly with Lincoln: If you like this sort of thing, this, possibly, is the
sort of thing you'll like.
This story was inspired by a remark of Mark Twain's to the effect that it was a pity that the best part of life came at
the beginning and the worst part at the end. By trying the experiment upon only one man in a perfectly normal world
I have scarcely given his idea a fair trial. Several weeks after completing it, I discovered an almost identical plot in
Samuel Butler's "Note-books."
The story was published in "Collier's" last summer and provoked this startling letter from an anonymous admirer in
I have read the story Benjamin Button in Colliers and I wish to say that as a short story writer you would make a
good lunatic I have seen many peices of cheese in my life but of all the peices of cheese I have ever seen you are the
biggest peice. I hate to waste a peice of stationary on you but I will."
Written almost six years ago, this story is a product of undergraduate days at Princeton. Considerably revised, it was
published in the "Smart Set" in 1921. At the time of its conception I had but one ideato be a poetand the fact
that I was interested in the ring of every phrase, that I dreaded the obvious in prose if not in plot, shows throughout.
Probably the peculiar affection I feel for it depends more upon its age than upon any intrinsic merit.


When this was written I had just completed the first draft of my second novel, and a natural reaction made me revel
in a story wherein none of the characters need be taken seriously. And I'm afraid that I was somewhat carried away
by the feeling that there was no ordered scheme to which I must conform. After due consideration, however, I have
decided to let it stand as it is, although the reader may find himself somewhat puzzled at the time element. I had best
say that however the years may have dealt with Merlin Grainger, I myself was thinking always in the present. It was
published in the "Metropolitan."
Question 10: Suppose a reader wants to understand why Fitzgerald classified The Diamond as Big as the Ritz as
fantasy. Which critical reading strategy is the most suitable to use?
Select your answer.
1 Preview the short story.
2 Evaluate the argument made in the short story.
3 Know the context of the short story.
4 Compare and contrast the short story with another one.
(By comparing and contrasting the story The Diamond as Big as the Ritz with any one of
the stories classified as fantasies, the reader can see the similarities of the stories and
eventually conclude why they were classified as such.)