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ca 07502108166
Unit 1 (Page 2)
3 grammar Verbs followed by Gerund (page 3)
Admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, cant stand, cant help, consider, delay, deny, discuss, dislike,
enjoy, escape, fancy, finish, go, imagine, involve, keep, mention, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practise,
quit, reject, resist, risk, stop, suggest, understand, waste.
Using the gerund form after these verbs.
Gerund is the ing form of a verb it acts as a noun and uses as the same ways noun is used. It might come as a
subject or object of the verb. aldoskys@yahoo.ca

S + V + Gerund + C+ Clause.
Sara enjoys playing the guitar in a party where she knows everyone..
I avoid going to a party where I have to sing and dance.

S+ Aux V+ not+ Ver + Gerund + C.

Sara doesnt mind postponing her travelling to help her sister studying.
Sardar doesnt mind expressing his point view in the class.
She will go shopping on Friday.

Use the gerund form after these expression containing prepositions.


S + V + prepositions + Gerund + C.
Sara admitted to having drunk two cup of liquor.
Dana apologised for not introducing his girlfriend to his cousin.
Most AUK students complained about not being treated fairly.
Sardar insisted on paying the bail.

S + Be V + prepositions + Gerund + C.
Sardar is eager about playing the guitar.

Some expression are always followed by gerunds.


Sardar had fun organizing the celebration. Rema had a good time preparing the food.
Sara has trouble time getting his homework done. Sara has a tough time getting his homework done.
Sam is busy preparing the lunch at this moment.
My mother never worried about cleaning up after my sick brother.

Use infinitive after these verbs.


Afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, care, choose, claim, condescend, dare, decide,
demand, deserve, determine, endeavour, expect, fail, guarantee, happen, have, help, hesitate, hope, intend,
learn, long, manage, mean, need, neglect, offer, ought, plan, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, refuse,
resolve, seem, stop, swear, ten, threaten, trouble, undertake, used, volunteer, vow, want, wish, would like,
would love, would prefer.
S + V + infinitive + O or C.
We hope to see you next week.
She failed to pass the exam.
S+ Auxil + not+ V+ infinitive + O or C.
She cant afford to live in this apartment.

Use the gerund or the infinitive after these verbs.


Advise, allow, begin, cant bear, cant stand, continue, forbid, hate, like, love, prefer, permit, start.

S + V + Gerund or infinitive + O, C.
Sara cant stand being alone in the class.

Sara cant stand to be alone in the class.

The sky began to rain.

The sky began raining.

Reama loves inviting her friends over.

Reama loves to invite her friends over.

Sara continued to study at the AUK.

Sara continued studying at the AUK.

She hates getting up early in the morning.

She hates to get up early in the morning.

Sardar doesnt like to invite all her friends.

Sardar doesnt like inviting all her friends.

3- Noun Clauses after Be (page7)

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A clause is a part of a sentence which contain both subject and a predicate (Verb). Mostly prepositions are
used in the sentences.
Phrases + preposition + Be V+ S + V + O.
Subject + preposition + Be V + object clause (S +V+ O)
The disadvantage with having a young brother is that I always have to take him out.
The problem of living with my parents is that I have come home early.

(The downside of, the upside of, the hard part about, the good thing about, the only thing about, the
trick to, the secret to, the difficulty with) are phrases introducing noun clauses.
The downside of living in apartment is that the person doesnt have an access to gardening.
The hard part of being alone in the family is that I have to depend on myself.
The trick to living in a bigger house is that the person has more privacy.
One difficulty with being the eldest brother is that everyone in the family depending on him.

A gerund phrases follows phrases ending with a preposition.


Phrase + preposition + Gerund+ Be ve + Clause
the secret of getting along with your friends is that you have to respect them.
The trouble of not being in a big city is that you have fewer chances for better job.
The upside of a small family is that you always need someone to spend time with.
The only thing about working students is that they have less time to study.

Unit 2 Mistakes and mysteries. (Page 11)

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3) Past modals and phrasal modals of obligation


S+ modal + have + PP + C + Clause.
She should have studied for her final exam, but she did not study.
I should have thought about my friend when he needed my assistance.
S+ was or were+ modal + V+ ing+ O or C + Clause.
She was supposed to be taking the garbage out, but she asked her brother to do instead.
S+ was or were+ modal + V+ O or C + Clause.
They were supposed to take an exam, but they did not attend the class.
I was supposed to hand in my essay, but I forgot to do it.
S+ past modal + V + O or C + Clause.
Sara had to work all the day, but she did not go to the factory.
University students should wear uniform when they attend the college.
S+ did + not +modal +V +O or C.
She did not have to study for the exam because it so easy for her.
I did not have to go to the party, but I wanted to see my friends.
S + past simple + that+ S + past modal + V+
She thought that she needed to save more money.

2) Modals with multiple uses (Page 15)

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To express degrees of certainty, use must (not) cant, could (not) might (not) or may (not)
S+ Be V+ O + that + S + modal + have+ PP+ C.
Sara was sure that the boy must have broken the window.
I am confident that the car must have caused the accident.
S+ modal+ have+ been+ PP+ by noun.
The accident must have been caused by the drunk driver.

To express obligation, advice, or opinion, use should (not) Do not use must (not) have for obligations,
or opinions about the past.
S+ should+ have+ PP+ C. (obligation)
The student should have studied more for the final exam.
S+ should+ V+ C. (advice)
The security company should think of a way to protect its clients.
S+ should+ not+ have+ PP+ Gerund+ C. (opinion)
The students should not have been sitting so long in the classroom.

Very certain
S+ modal + have + PP + C.
There was a car accident last night. The driver must have lost control while driving.
Sara is on a vacation for one month. You could not have seen her at the party.

Uncertain
Sara usually at her work by 9 in the morning. She might, could, may have gotten sick.
Sam was supposed to come to the party. He may, might not have gotten the invitation letter.
Giving opinions or advice present or future, must (not) have to, have got to, had better, should (not).
S+ have got to + V + O or C.

S+ had better + not + V + O or C.

Teachers have got to watch students in playground. The teachers had better not to use punishment in the
school.

Unit 3 Exploring new cities (Page 19)

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3) Defining and non-defining relative clauses


A defining relative clause defines or gives essential information about a noun.
The information is very important to distinguish the target. Who, Which, When can be substituted by
that and, therefore, no comma is added.
S+ V+ O + who, which, when ( that) + S+ V+ O.
The teacher who (that) teaches grade five English in AUK is from United State.
The winter is the season when (that) most Duhok citizens complain about the unstable electricity
power.

The non-defining relative clause presents an extra information about the sentence and could be left
out with infect the sentence position. Comma is added because Which or who cant be substituted by
that.
S+ V+ C, Which V+ C.
Danar, who teaches English for fifth grade in American University, is from California, US.
People of Kurdistan celebrated NewRoze, which continue to be a national day for Kurds.
Erbil has many tourist places, which includes the Hawleer Citadel.

4) Connecting contrasting ideas. (Page 23)

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Showing unexpected results.


Adverb clauses + S+ V+ O, + S + V+ O.
Even though it was raining, I went for a walk.
Although it was raining, I went for a walk.
Thought it was raining, I went for a walk.
Sardar is poor, while his brother is very rich.
Sardar is vegetarian, whereas his wife eats meat.
S + V+ O.

Transition + S+ V + O.

It was very cold. However, Azad went swimming in the river.


It was very cold. Nevertheless, Sardar went swimming in the river.
It was very cold. Nonetheless, Sam went for a walk.

Sara likes to live in Duhok. On the other hand she hates the noisy neighbourhood of the city.
S + V+ O + despite or in spite of + phrase.
Sara has difficulty communicating in English despite all her years studying in England.
Sara has difficulty communicating in English in spite of all her years studying in England.
S + V+ O, despite the fact that or in spite the fact that + S + V + O.
Sara failed the exam despite the fact that she studied all the week for the exam.
Sara failed the exam in spite of the fact that she studied all the week for the exam.
S + V + O +, but or yet + S + V+ O.
It was raining, but Sam went for a walk.
It was raining, yet Sam went for a walk.

Unit 4 Early birds and night owls. (Page 29)

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3) Reducing time clauses. The time clause could be reduced when the two sentences subjects are the
same.
Adverb + S+ V+ O, S + V+ O.

Adverb +V ing + O, S+ V+ O.

After Sam went home, he wrote a letter.

After going home, Sam wrote a letter.

Before Sardar left for school, he ate breakfast.

Before leaving for school, Sardar ate breakfast.

While Azad was driving, he felt asleep.

While driving, Azad felt asleep.

Sam got sick right after he ate the cake.

Sam got sick right after eating the cake.

NO CHANGE WHEN HAVING TWO SENTENCES WITH TWO DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.


While Sam was driving, Azad felt asleep.

While Sam was driving, Azad felt asleep.

NO CHANGE WITH ever since, as soon as (once), until, whenever (every time), from the moment, till,
as, the last time.
Adverb + S+ V+ O, S + V+ O.
Ever since Sam was a student, he had difficulty reading.
As soon as (once) Sara finished her school, she started to help her mom.
Whenever (Every time) Sam has an exam, he drinks a lot of coffee.
From the moment Sardar worked for the company, he has been getting home late.
The last time Sara went to the party, she was in grade 11.
S + V+ O, + Adverb + S+ V+ O.
Azad doesnt leave the office until (till) the job is done.
Sardar listens to music while (as) he is driving.

3) Clauses stating reasons and conditions (Page 33)

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Adverb + S+ V+ O, + S+ V+ O.
Even if doesnt influence the main clause.
Even if it is very cold, Sam is going to swim.
Considering that introduces cause and reasons that explain the main clause.

Sardar is lucky he can finish the exam in two hours considering that most students need three hours.
As long as introduces a condition on which the main clause depends on.
Students can keep the borrowed book as long as no one need the book.
Unless introduces something that must happen in order to avoid a consequence.
I am going to school tomorrow unless it is a statutory holiday.
In case introduces an undesirable circumstance that needs to be taken into consideration.
Sara will stay in our house in case you need help with your math.
Only if introduces a condition that must be met for the main clause to be true.
The trip will be postponed only if it snows very hard.
Sara only studies if she has an exam.
Now that (because now) introduces a change in general circumstances that explains the main clause.
Now that the school is over, Sara is going to have a long trip. Because now Sara has no job, she will not be
able to pay her bill.
Whether or not introduces a condition that might or might not happen in the meantime doesnt
influence the main clause.
Sam is going to go surfing tomorrow whether or not it is cold. .
Sam is going to go surfing tomorrow whether it is cold or not.
Provided that/ providing that (if) condition must be met for the main clause to be true.
Provided that you will behave well, Sam is going to help you.
Providing that you are going on vacation, I will go, too.

Unit 5 Communication (Page 37)

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2) Infinitive and gerund phrases.


It + Be V + adject/noun + infinitive + phrase.

Gerund + S+ Be V + adject/noun.

It is impolite to make fun of a handicap.

Making fun of a handicap is impolite.

It is a wise decision to learn another language.

Learning another language is a wise decision.

It is considered rude to disturb elder people.

Disturbing elder people is considered rude.

S + Be V+ PP + for + phrase+ to +V+ phrase.

Gerund +phrase+Be V + adjec/noun+ phrase.

It is customary for politicians to give a speech.

Giving a speech is customary for politicians.

S + BeV+ PP + not +to + V+ O + clause.

Gerund+ noun + Clause+ Be V+ PP + adjec.

It is considered impolite not to thank a person who helped you.


Not thanking a person who helped you is considered impolite.

(Glad, happy, sad, pleased) are adjectives constructed as the person has it or lacked them.
S + Be V+ Adjective+ to + V+ Clause.
Most students are excited and down to see their semester is over.
Workers are always excited to have a break.

3) Reported Speech. (Page 41)


Direct

Today

Reported That

Now

Yesterday

Then

The day
before

day

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Days
ago
Days
before

Last
week
The
week
before

Next
Tomorrow Here this
year
The
The next
There That
following day
year

These

Those

S+ Be V+ Adject + Noun. Simple present

S+ V + S +Be V+ adject + Noun. Simple past

It is a sunny day.

He said (that) it was a sunny day.

S+ Be V+ V ing+Adject + Noun. Present continue S+ V+ S +BeV+ V ing+ adject + Noun. Past continue
Sara is driving a new car.

He said(that) Sara was driving a new car.

S+ has/ have+ PP+ C. Present perfect

S+ V+ S +had+ PP+ C. Past perfect

Sardar has gone to Paris yesterday.

He said (that) Sardar had gone to Paris the day before.

S+has/have+ been+V ing+C. present perfect cont. S+had+ been+V ing+C. past perfect continue
They have been studying since yesterday.

He claimed they had been studying since the day


before.

S+will+ V+C. Future simple

S+ would+ V +C. Future past simple

Sam will go Erbil tomorrow.

He said (that) Sam would go to Erbil the next day.

S+Be V+ V ing+to+ V+C. Future simple

S+ Be V+ V ing + to+ V+ C. Future past simple

Sam is going to fix his vehicle tomorrow.

He said Sam was going to fix his vehicle the next day.

S+ had+ PP+ C. Past perfect

S+ V+ S +had+ PP+ C. Past perfect

We had never been to Cairo before.

He claimed that they had never been to Cairo before.

Modals
Modals can, may, have to, and do not have to are changed while reporting them, but might, and should are
not changed in the report speech.
S+ Modal+ V+ C. Present modal

S+ V+ S+ modal +V+ C. Past modal

Sam can study with me.

She said Sam could study with her.

Sara doesnt need to pay me back.

He said Sara didnt need to pay him back.

No change when having past modal.


Sardar might come to the party.

He said Sardar might come to the party.

Should Azad be penalized?

He asked Azad if he should be penalized.

Questions
Auxil + S+ V+ C. Simple past

S + V+ O+ if + Clause. Past perfect

Did Azad study for the exam.

I asked Azad if he had studied for the exam.

Wh + Auxil +S + C? Present continue

S+ V+ O + Wh + S+ Auxil + C. Past continue

Where is Sara going?

I asked sam where Sara was going.

Commands
Auxil + C?

S+ V+ O + to Auxil + C.

Do your homework!

He ordered me to do my homework!

Do nt stay late!

The father advised his son not to stay late!


The father said not to stay late!

Do not watch TV today.

My mother ordered me not to watch TV that day.


She said not to watch TV that day.

No change in the noun clause when the report verb is present, present perfect or future, and when
reporting a general truth or a fact.

General truth
S+ V+ C.

S+ V+ S+ V+ C. No change.

The water boils at 100 Celsius.

She said the water boils at 100 Celsius.

The world is round.

Sam said the world is round.

No change for immediate reports.


Sara wants to go home now.

He said that Sara wants to go home then.

Sara wants to go home now.

He says that Sara wants to go home now.

Unit 6 What is the real story? (Page 45)

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2) Present perfect VS. Simple past.


Present perfect is used when an event started from the past and has completed recently without giving
a specific time where the result influence the present by putting emphasis on the result. Having these
phrases indicates to the perfect time (already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now).
S+ has/have+ phrase +PP+ C.
Sardar has already booked his flight. Sam and Sara have never been to Beirut.
Simple past is used when an event competed in a specific time. Having these phrases (ago, in a time before
now, yesterday, a minutes ago, the other day, last week).
S+ was/were + O+ time frame.

S+ V ed+ C + time frame.

She was a student last year.

Sara worked for the company two years ago.

S+ V irregular + O + time frame.


They cut the trees yesterday.

3) Present perfect VS. present perfect continuous.


Present perfect continuous is used when an event countinuous in a specific time and stoped recently or just
stopped having relation with now.
S+ has/have + been+ V ing+C.
Last year, Sara went to London, and since then she has been studying English.
Sardar has been working out in the last two week while his brother was a way.
Sardar has never been abroad and he has always been dreaming to imgrate to Canada.

Present perfect with passive or stative verbs (be, love, have).


Children have always loved McDonals.

6A) Present perfect is used to report a reoccurred past event, and an action which has an influence on the
present, or might still relevant to it. (Page 116)
Students have taken three exams this year.

Sara has been very caution as result of the car accident.

6A) Verbs (live, work, study, give, take lesson, teach) expresses the idea of continuous action. They might
be in present perfect or present perfect continuous.
Sara has lived in Erbil for twenty years.

Sara has been living in Erbil for twenty years.

Sam has taken some English classes in the UK.

Sam has been taking some English classes in the UK.

6B) Adverbs with the simple past and past perfect. (Page 117)

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Simple past and past perfect to express different of time relationship.


Adverb+ S+ past V+ C, +S+ had+ PP+ C.
When Sam arrived at the school, the exam had already started.
Adverb+ S+ past V+ C, S+ past V+ C.
When Sam arrived at the school, the exam started.

Simple past or past perfect is used when the adverb (before) is used to makes sequences of events clear
Adverb + S+ past V+ C, S+ past V+ C.
Before Sam went out, he called his mother.
Adverb+ S+ past V+ C, +S+ had+ PP+ C.
Before Sam went out, he had called his mother.

Yet and already can be used with past perfect and present perfect to indicate event took place before now.
Sam had already started teaching English when he was in China.
Sara has already eaten breakfast before she goes to school.
Sardar hadnt finished the work yet when the manager called him.

3) Adverbs with the simple past and past perfect. (Page 49)
(afterward, later, the next day) are used with the simple past to describe an action occurred at later time.
Adverb, + S+ V + O.
When our neighbour found, I was late for school. Afterwards, he offered me a ride.
We had an exciting party. The next day, I was so tierd that I couldnt go to the school.

(when, as soon as, the moment) are used in describing two events occurring at the same time.
Adverb + S+ V + O,+ S+ V+ O.
As soon as Sam heard the ring, he answered the phone.

Sam answered the phone as soon as he heard the ring.

The moment Sara saw the accident, she called the police. Sara called the police the moment saw the accident.

(up until then, before that, until that time) are used in describing event was true or it occurred before
another event in the past.
S+ V+ O or C.

Adverb, + S+ V + O.

Despite her nerve, Sara want to sail again. Up until then Sara had never been on a ship.
Sam draguated last year.

Before that he had never been into prom school.

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Unit 7 the information age (Page 55)

3) Passive of present continuous, present perfect, and future. The passive is used when the emphasis is on
object of the action, and it is not important to know who done the job.
S+ V +O.

O + Be V+ PP + by + S.

Sam eats the sandwitch.

The sandwitch is eaten by Sam.

Sara washed the dishes.

The dishes were washed by Sara.

S+ will + V +O.

O + will +be +PP + by + S.

Sardar will fix the car.

The car will be fixed by Sardar.

Present continuous is used for ongoing action.


S+ Be V+ V ing+ O.

O + Be V+ being + PP + by +S.

Sam is cleaning the windows.

The windows are being cleaned by Sam.

Sara was organizing the party.

The party was being organized by Sara.

Present perfect is used for a recently completed action.


S +has/have +PP + O.

O + has/ have+ been +PP + by + S.

Fans have downloaded more music this year.

More music has been downloaded this year by fans.

S +had +PP + O.

O + had + been +PP + by + S.

Big truks had destroyed the city streets.

The city streets had been destroyed by big trucks.

Future perfect is used for an action will start in the future.


Oil low prices will infect more families.

More families will be infected by Oil low prices.

More people are going to use online shopping.

Online shopping is going to be used by more people.

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7A) Passive of present continuous, present perfect, and future. (Page 118)
If the subject requires to be emphasized, it is preferred to use an active voice. Otherwise, passive is
favorited when the doer is unknown or obvious from text.
A hacker sent a harmful viruse into the AUK website. A harmful viruse was sent into the AUK website.
AUK is offering many college courses online.
Many college courses are being offered online.

Barack Obam delivered the union speech. Active is more effective than passive.

The passive of present perfect is favorited instead of present perfect continuous.


Students have been downloading more articles this year than ever.
More articles have been downloaded this year than ever by students.
More articles will have been downloaded by this time next year.

3) Negative and tag questions for giving opinions. (Page 59)

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Tag question or negative question is used when offering an opinion and an invitation to react.
S+ Be V+ V ing+ Clause, + Be V+ not+ pronoun?
It is amazing how much time students can spend surfing the net, isnt it?
Be V+ not+ S+ Gerund+ Clause?
Isnt it amazing how much time students can spend surfing the net?
S+ V+ Adject+ Clause, + Auxil+ not+ pronoun?
It appears that students are having difficulties understanding the lecture, doesnt it?
Auxil+ not+ S+ V+ Clause?
Doesnt it appear that students are having difficulties understanding the lecture?
S+ Modal+ be+ adject+ if + S + V+ C,+ modal+ not+ pronoun?
It would be fascinating if every student had his own tutor, would not it?
Modal +not +S+ Adject+ if+ S+ V+ C?
Would not it be fascinating if every student had his own tutor?
The university should provide more services to the students, shouldnt the university?
Shouldnt the university provide more services to the students?
Dont you think is used to construct a negative or tag question.
It is very helpful, dont you think?

Dont you think that is very helpful?

7B) To present an opinion use negative and tag questions. (Page 119) aldoskys@yahoo.ca 07502108166
S+ Be V+ C, + didnt you think?
The presidents speech was full of threating, didnt you think?
Didnt you think S+ Be V+ C?
Didnt you think the presidents speech was full of threating?
S+ Auxil+ C, + Auxil+ not+ pronoun?
The presidents speech was full of threating, wasnt it?
The president has given a speech full of threating, hasnt he?

A pronoun can be used in the tag question when the subject is (somebody, someone, everybody,
everyone, nobody, no one).
Indefinite pronoun+ Auxil+ C, dont they?
Everyone in our class has a cellphone, dont they? Yes, they do.
Indefinite pronoun+ has/ have+PP+ C, + has/ have+ they?
Someone has accessed into the university computer system, havent they? Yes, they have.
Hasnt someone accessed into the universitys computer system?
Somebody had broken into the professors room, hadnt they? Yes, they had. No, they hadnt.
Handnt somebody broken into the professors room?

When the subject is (nobody, nothing) affirmative tag question is recommended. No, negative is added
to the tag question because the
Nobody/ nothing + V+ C, + Auxil + they?
Nobody responded to the angry man, did they? Yes, they did. No, they didnt.
Nobody/ nothing + has/have/V+ C, + Auxil + they?
Nothing has been done so far to stop the terrorist, have they?

Unit 8 Putting the mind to work. (Page 63)

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3) Reduced relative clauses could be done by omitting the relative pronoun and the auxiliary verb, or
changing the verb into gerund, or substituting the relative pronoun by with.
S+ Be V+ C.
A person is able to convince others.

S+ Be V+ C.
Someone could make a a good politician.

S+ relative pronoun + Be V+ C + Auxil+ C.


Someone who/that is able to convince others could make a good politician.
S+ C + Auxil+ C.
Someone able to convince others could make a good politician.
A person might be a good candidate for office work. Someone has computer and administrative skills.
A person who/that has computer and administrative skills might be a good candidate for office work.
S+ Gerund + C + Auxil+ C.
A person having computer and administrative skills might be a good candidate for office work.
S+ With + C + Auxil+ C.
A person with computer and administrative skills might be a good candidate for office work.

3) Non defining relative clauses as sentence modifiers.


Non-defining relative clause with (wich) is used to comment on the whole sentence.
S+ V+ O, + Relative clause.
Sardar works three jobs, which means he has no time for partying.
My teacher is lazy, which is why I have hired a tutor to help me understand the subject.

8 A) Reduce telative clauses.

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A relative clause with (Be V) can be reduced similarly to defining relative clause.
S, + relative clauses+ auxiliary V + C.
Sadam Hussien, who was the meanest dictators in Iraq, was convicted of murder in his teenhood.
Sadam Hussien, the meanest dictators in Iraq, was convicted of murder in his teenhood.
Leion Messi, who is well known for his contribution in the success of Barcelona team, has suffered in
his childhood .
Leion Messi, well known for his contribution in the success of Barcelona team, has suffered in his
childhood .

8B) Non-defining relative clauses as sentence modifiers. (Page 121)


(surprise, depress, encourage, suggest (that), contribute to, result in) are verbs describing emotion
which followed by an object.
My parents always praised my education, which encourages me to get a higher education.

3) Clauses and phrases showing contrast and exception (Page 71) aldoskys@yahoo.ca 07502108166
Use except (that), except (for), and except for the fact (that) to show and exceptions.
S+ V+ O, except (that) S+ V+ C.
Both Kurds and Arabians drink tea, except (that) Kurds drink darker tea.
Kurds and Arabians are different, except for the way they greet their guests.
Kurds people typically eat more, except for the fact that they work less hours.
Phrase, + except for / with the exception of + S+ V+ C.
Everybody in the company, except for the part time workers, should attend the meeting.
Everybody in the company, with the exception of the part time workers, must attend the meeting.
(whereas, especially) are use to show contrast idea.
Whereas fancy big car is favored in Kurdistan, a small economy car is in Holland.

(except for, with exception of) are used to show an exception within group. (Page 122)
Everyone +phrase , + except for/ with the exception of + S+ V+ C.
Everone in the company, except for the parttime workers have to attend the meeting today.
Everone in the company, with the exception of the parttime workers have to attend the meeting today.

3) Past habitual with used to and would. (Page 75)

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(Used to, would) both are used to describe past actions or events that are no longer true. However,
would is not used with stating verbs as live, be, have, or like.
S + used to+ V+ O or C.
Sardar used to smoke cigarette.
S + did+ not + used to+ V+ O or C.
Exams didnt use to be so hard as it is today.
State Ve + O + S+ would + V+ C?
Remember the way she would explain the lesson?
S + would + V+ C+ , but+ S + would + not + V + C.

Sara would brows some good books, but her mother wouldnt let her read it.
Did you use to, is used to ask questions about repeated events in the past.
Did you use to + V+ to + V+ C + Clause.
Did you use to work in a factory when you were a teen?
Did you use to live in one bedroom with a roommate for over 10 years?
Did you use to, is used to guess about a repeated events in the past.
Didnt you use to + V+ to + V+ C + Clause.
Didnt you use to study at the university library after the school.

Unite 10 the art of complaining. (Page 81)

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Clause is a group of words having a subject and predicate. Dependent Clause requires an independent
clause in order to have a complete sentence having a clear meaning, and they usually starts with (although,
since, if, when, and because).
Adjective Clause modifies the noun or pronouns, and appearing after the noun or pronoun, beginning with
(who, whom, which, that). Who or that may not appear in the sentence, but they can be implied. They come
after the subject or the object.
The boy who studies the Physics is from our city.

Adverb Clause modifies the verbs, and they can appear anywhere in the sentence. The adverbs indicates
where, why, and at what conditions.
When the doorbill rings, we know there is someone at the door.

Noun Clauses are a modifier, therefore, they are not subordinator like adverbs and adjectives. They start
with relative pronoun (that, which, who, whoever, whomever, whose, what, whatsoever). The clause
function as the subject, subject complement, direct object, or object of a preposition. They require another
independent sentence to complete sentence.
Whoever comes first to the party will have the honor to be the host.
A relative Clause describes the noun and doesnt have a complete thought. The relative has a subject and
verb, and starts with a relative pronoun or adverb. The relative functions as an adjective answering the
question about the noun.

3) Relative clauses and noun clauses. (Page 81)

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The relative clause comes as the subject or object of a sentence.


One thing + Clause + Be V + S + Clause.
One thing that drives me crazy is a taxi driver who doesnt obey the speed limit law.
The thing (that) I will not stand is a teacher who/ that fovers a student over another.

Relative clause and a noun clause starting with a question word of (when).
S+ (that) Clause + Be V+ When + Clause.
The thing (that) I loved is when a teacher offers help to every student needed.
One thing (that) worries me is when every politician lies in their campaigning.

10 A) Relative clauses and noun clauses. (Page 124)

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(who, that, which) relative pronouns can be omitted when comes as object relative clauses, and only
required when functioning as the subject of the relative clauses.
S+ V+ C.

S+ V+ O.

Sara stayed at the hotel.

Her cousin recommended the hotel.

S+ V+ C (that) V+ O.
Sara stayed at the hotel (that) her cousin recommended.
(who, that, which) relative pronouns are necessary when functioning as subject of the relative clauses.
S+ V+ C.

S+ V+ O.

My borther never cleans his room.

Sara has a brother.

S+ V+ O + who +V+ O.
Sara has a brother who never cleans his room.

3) Simple and complex indirect questions. (Page 85)


(I wonder, I would like to know, I cant understand) phrases are used with simple indirect questions.
Auxil + S+ V+ C?
Will the government ever listen to their citizens demands?
I wonder + if + S+ Auxil + C.
I wonder if the government will ever listen to their citizens demands.

Complex indirect questions begins and ends with clauses and phrases with Be V.
Auxil + S+ V+ C?

My big concern+ Be V+ Whether + S+ V+ C.

Will Sam be able to access the computer lab?

My big concern is whether Sam will be able to access


the computer lab.

How + Auxil+ S+ V+ C?

How S + Auxil+ V+ C+ Be V+ Adject+ C.

How will Sam be able to buy a car?

How Sam will be able to buy a car is beyond my


imagination.

10 B) Simple and complex indirect questions. (Page 125)

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A clause starts with an indirect question of a statement word order, the sentence is a statement ending
with a period.
Wh/How + Auxil + S+ V+ to+ V+ O?

Do you have any idea+ Wh/ How+ S+ Auxil+ V+ to+V+O?

How long will it take to fix my car?

Do you have any idea how long it will take to fix my car?

When can Sam go to pay her phone bill?

Could you tell us when Sam can go to pay her phone bill?

How + Auxil + S+ V+ C?

Dont you wonder + how+ S+ Auxil+ V+ C?

How can a bad company stay in business for a long time?


Dont you wonder how a bad company can stay in business for
a long time.

Unit 11) Values. (Page 89)

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3) Present unreal conditional with unless, only if, and even if.
The speakers decision changes when (unless) is used in the sentence.
S+ Auxil+ not +V + O+ unless+ S+ V+ C.
I wouldnt forgive the violater unless she apologized publicly.
S+ Auxil+V + O+ unless+ S+ Be V+ C.

S+ Auxil+V + O+ only if + S+ V+ C.

I would go swimming unless it is very cold.

We would cancel the out door party only if it rains.

(Even if) results clause followed by unexpected result.


Even if the sky rains cats and dogs, I am going to go swimming.

11 A) (If so) the positive, and (if not) the negative shortened conditional can be used in a spoken or
informal English. (Page 126)
Would + S+ V+ C+ if+ S+ V+ C? If so, Wh+ Auxil + S+ V?
Would you get mad if a stranger criticized your national tradition? If so, what would you do?
Would you trust a friend if he had betrayed and lied to you many times? If so, would you confront him?
Auxil + S+ V+ C? If not, S+ Auxil + V+ O or C.
Are you afread to express your feeling for your boss publicly? If not, you should take the chance and do it
before it is too late.

2) Wishes and regerts. (Page 93)

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Wishes in present and future time, (wish) with past simple, past continuous, or could/ would with verb
used.
S+ Wish + S + V + C.
I wish Sam had enough courage to propose for his neighbour.
S+ Wish + S + could/ would+ V + C.
I wish Sardar could have the chance to propose for his neighbour.

Wish with past perfect is used for regrets in the past.


S+ Wish + S+ had+ PP + C.

S+ Wish + S+ had+ not+ PP + C.

I wish she had applied for the job at the company.

I wish Sam hadnt given up his plan to join us.

Regretingthe past, use if with the past perfect and could or would have with the past participle.
If +S+ past participle + C, + S+ Could + PP+ C.
If I had focused more on my schooling, I could granted abetter job in the computer business.
If +S+ past participle + C, + S+ Have+ Could + PP+ C.
If I had paid more attention to my carreer,I could have gotten a higher position in this company.

If only is used for strong wishing about the present or future, for strong regrets about the past. The
main clause is omitted when if only clause is used.
If only my degree would consider granting me a better position!

11 B) Wishes and regrets. (Page 127)

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( not enough, more, less, better, intensifier, really and very) the comparative words are used for
wishes and regrets.
S+ Auxil +not + V+ comparative + C.

S+ wish+ S+ had+ PP+ comparative+ C.

I didnt have enough sleep last night.

I wish I had enough sleep last night.

S+ Auxil +not + V+ comparative + C.

S+ wish+ S+ past V+ comparative+ C.

I dont understand too much about technology.

I wish I had a better knowledge of technology.

S+ past V+ comparative + C.

S+ wish+ S+ had+ PP+ comparative+ C.

I spent too many days traveling around.

I wish I had spent few days traveling around.

I ate too much food at the party last night.

I wish I had eaten less to avoid stomach pain.

S+ past V+ comparative + C.

If only + S+ had+ PP+ comparative+ C.

I wasted too much time watching TV.

If only I had spent less time, I would studied more.

S+ past V+ comparative + C.

If only + S+ had+ PP+ comparative+ C.

I got a little mad at my classmate yesterday.

If only I hadnt gotten so mad at my classmate


yesterday.

Unit 12 moving around. (Page 97)

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Future perfect and future perfect continuous.


Future perfect stressing that something will be accomplished or achieved in a specific time in future.
Time frame+ S+ future perfect + C.
By this time next week , our team will have played 20 match without losing a game.
When the mail arrives, Sara will have sold my hous and deposited the money to my account.
Time frame+ S+ Be V + going to + V+ PP + C.
Next week , Sam is going to have worked for three years for Mazi company.
After two days, you are going to have lived in my apartment for two years.

Future perfect continuous stressing out the duration of an event in progress at a certen point at a
future time.
Time frame+ S+ future perfect continuous + C.
By this time next month, Sam will have been studying for over 200 hours.

3) Mixed conditions. (Page 101)


Had/ hadnt with participal, and would/ wouldnt are used to talk about hypothetical events occurred
at a past time which have an effection on the present time.
If+ S+ past participal+ C, + S+ Would + adverbal + have+ C.
if she hadnt spent too much time watching TV, she would still have some time for studying.

12 B) Mixed conditionals. (Page 129)

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Conditional could appear in various forms. Describing a situation in the past affects past situation, the
present, or the future.
Situation

If clause

Result clause

Example

Present/future ture

Present

Simple present

If I have time, I go to the beach everytime.

Future

If I have time, I will go to the beach everytime.

Be V+ going to+ V

If I have time, I am going to go surfing.

Simple past

Would+ simple V

If I had time, I would go to the beach.

Unreal in the past

Past perfect

Would have+ PP

If I had gotten time, I would have gone to the beach

Effecting on the present

Past perfect

Would+ have

If I had studied, I would have a better job.

Effecting on the future

Past perfect

Would + simple V

If Sam had studied, he would be in university next

Would be + V ing

year.

Unreal in the present/


future

If Sam hadnt taken a vacation, he would be working


on his project by Septmeber.

Noun phrases and Noun clauses


Phrases + V + O,C.
His presentation was amazing. Noun phrase as a subject
S + V + phrases.
I like his presentation . Noun phrase as an object.
Clause + V + C.
Pronoun S+V + C.
What he said was amazing. Noun clause as a subject.
S + V + Clause.
S + V+ pronoun S + V.
I liked what he said. Noun clause as an object.
S + V + preposition + Phrase
I listened to his presentation.
S + V + preposition + pronoun + S + V.
I listened to what he said.

Having noun clause after Be


Phrase + preposition + phrase + V + that + Clause (S + V+ O, C.)
The good thing of having a close friend is (that) he/she could help me when I need a hand.
The one thing about living in a dormitory is (that) the student is close to the classrooms.
The advantage of having a car is (that) the person could travel anywhere at anytime.
S + modal + be + ing + C.
Clause + S + modal + have + pp+ C.
S + modal + have + been + pp + C.
S + modal + have + been + ing + C.
She must be working the whole day.
She must have missed the bus.
I cant meet him because I must go to the hospital right now.
She must have been studying the whole week.