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1. attain [transitive] formal
1. to succeed in achieving something after trying for a long time:
More women are attaining positions of power.
2. to reach a particular level, age, size etc:
Share prices attained a high of $3.27.
After a year she had attained her ideal weight.
attainable adjective:

3. Analogy
This target should be attainable.
analogy plural analogies [uncountable and countable]
something that seems similar between two situations, processes etc
1. analogy with/to/between
analogies between human and animal behaviour
2. draw/make an analogy (=make a comparison)
She drew an analogy between childbirth and the creative process.
3. by analogy with
Dr Wood explained the movement of light by analogy with (=using the analogy of) the
movement of water.

anticipate [transitive]
1 to expect that something will happen and be ready for it:
Sales are better than anticipated.
anticipate changes/developments
The schedule isn't final, but we don't anticipate many changes.
anticipate problems/difficulties
We don't anticipate any problems.
A good speaker is able to anticipate an audience's needs and concerns.
anticipate (that)
This year, we anticipate that our expenses will be 15% greater.
It is anticipated that the research will have many different practical applications.
anticipate doing something
I didn't anticipate having to do the cooking myself!
2 to think about something that is going to happen, especially something pleasant:
Daniel was eagerly anticipating her arrival.
3 to do something before someone else:
Copernicus anticipated in part the discoveries of the 17th and 18th centuries.
anticipatory formal adjective:
the anticipatory atmosphere of a big college football game

1 [countable usually singular, uncountable] a desire for food:
All that walking has given me an appetite for dinner.
I seem to have lost my appetite lately.
Symptoms include headaches, tiredness and loss of appetite
Let's just say he's got a healthy appetite.
spoil/ruin your appetite
Don't eat that cake now; you'll spoil your appetite.
2 [countable] a desire or liking for a particular activity
appetite for
She has an amazing appetite for knowledge.
People seem to have an insatiable appetite (=always wanting more of something) for news of
any kind.

to state firmly that something is true:
French cooking, she asserted, is the best in the world.
assert that
1. He asserted that nuclear power was a safe and non-polluting energy source.
assert your rights/independence/superiority etc
to state very strongly your right to something:
Native Americans asserting their rights to ancestral land
assert yourself
1. to behave in a determined way and say clearly what you think:
Women began to assert themselves politically.
assert itself
2. if an idea or belief asserts itself, it begins to influence something:
National pride began to assert itself.

attribute something to somebody/something
phrasal verb
1. to believe or say that a situation or event is caused by something:
The fall in the number of deaths from heart disease is generally attributed to
improvements in diet.
2. if people in general attribute a particular statement, painting, piece of music etc to
someone, they believe that person said it, painted it etc:
a saying usually attributed to Confucius
3. to believe or say that someone or something has a particular quality:
One should not attribute human motives to animals.
attribution noun [uncountable]

1. of or designating manual industrial work or workers
2. of those who work for wages especially manual or industrial laborers; "party of the
propertyless proletariat"- G.B.Shaw

8. clarify past tense and past participle clarified, present participle clarifying, third
person singular clarifies [transitive]
1 formal to make something clearer or easier to understand [ clarification]
clarify issues/a statement/matters etc
Could you clarify one or two points for me?
Reporters asked him to clarify his position (=say exactly what his beliefs are) on welfare
clarify how/what etc
The report aims to clarify how these conclusions were reached.
2 to make something cleaner or purer by heating it:
clarified butter

9. clarification [uncountable and countable] formal

the act of making something clearer or easier to understand, or an explanation that makes
something clearer:
There have been a number of official changes and clarifications.
clarification on/of
Email us if you require further clarification on how to order.
seek/ask for clarification
I asked for clarification on the legal position.

10. collaborate [intransitive]
1 to work together with a person or group in order to achieve something, especially in science
or art [ collaborator]
collaborate on
The two nations are collaborating on several satellite projects.
collaborate with
During the late seventies, he collaborated with the legendary Muddy Waters.
collaborate to do something
Researchers are collaborating to develop the vaccine.
collaborate in (doing) something
Elephants collaborate in looking after their young.
2 to help a country that your country is fighting a war with, especially one that has taken
control of your country [ collaborator]
collaborate with
Vigilantes began combing the city for anyone known to have collaborated with the enemy.

11. collaboration
1 [uncountable and countable] when you work together with another person or group to
achieve something, especially in science or art:
The company is building the centre in collaboration with the Institute of Offshore
collaboration between
a collaboration between the two theatres
collaboration with
The project has involved collaboration with the geography department.
2 [uncountable] when someone gives help to a country that their country is fighting a war
with, especially one that has taken control of their country

12. collaborative
work effort//project etc collaborative
a job or piece of work that involves two or more people working together to achieve

13. collate

1 formal to gather information together, examine it carefully, and compare it with other
information to find any differences
collate information/results/data/figures
A computer system is used to collate information from across Britain.
2 to arrange sheets of paper in the correct order [= sort]
collation noun [uncountable]


14. combat past tense and past participle combated, present participle combating
to try to stop something bad from happening or getting worse - used especially in news
combat inflation/crime/racism etc
To combat inflation, the government raised interest rates.
new strategies for combatting terrorism

15. combat
1 [uncountable] fighting, especially during a war
in combat
Corporal Gierson was killed in combat.
We flew over 200 combat missions.
training in unarmed combat (=fighting without weapons)
mortal combat (=fighting until one person kills another)
hand-to-hand combat (=fighting in which you are close enough to touch your opponent)
combat aircraft/jacket/boots etc

16. combat fatigue [uncountable]

a type of mental illness caused by the terrible experiences of fighting in a war or battle
[ post-traumatic stress disorder]:
These treatment methods enabled 80 percent of combat-fatigue-affected troops to return to
Related topics: Computers

17. compatible
1 if two pieces of computer equipment are compatible, they can be used together, especially when they
are made by different companies [ compatibility]:
The new software is IBM compatible (=can be used with IBM computers).
2 able to exist or be used together without causing problems [ compatibility]

18. with compatible

Stephen's political views often weren't compatible with her own.
3 two people that are compatible are able to have a good relationship because they have similar opinions
or interests [ compatibility]

19. compatibility [uncountable]
1 technical the ability of one piece of computer equipment to be used with another one,
especially when they are made by different companies
compatibility with
the system's compatibility with Windows software
2 the ability to exist or be used together without causing problems:
compatibility of flavours
3 the ability to have a good relationship with someone because you have similar interests,
ideas etc:

20. compelling
compelling reason/argument/case etc
an argument etc that makes you feel certain that something is true or that you must do
something about it:
1. Lucy had no compelling reason to go into town.
2. The court was presented with compelling evidence that she'd murdered her husband.
3. very interesting or exciting, so that you have to pay attention:
4. His life makes a compelling story.
compelling need/desire/urge (to do something)
a strong need, desire etc to do something, making you feel that you must do it:
He felt a compelling need to tell someone about his idea.
compellingly adverb
Related topics: Finance

21. compensate
1 [intransitive] to replace or balance the effect of something bad:
Because my left eye is so weak, my right eye has to work harder to compensate.

compensate for
Her intelligence more than compensates for her lack of experience.
2 [transitive] to pay someone money because they have suffered injury, loss, or damage:
the government's promise to compensate victims of the flood

compensate somebody for something

The firm will compensate workers for their loss of earnings.

22. comply past tense and past participle complied, present participle complying, third
person singular complies [intransitive] formal
to do what you have to do or are asked to do [ compliance, compliant]
comply with
Failure to comply with the regulations will result in prosecution.
The newspaper was asked by federal agents for assistance and agreed to comply.

23. comprehend [intransitive,transitive not in progressive]

to understand something that is complicated or difficult [= understand, grasp;
She cannot comprehend the extent of the disaster.
I did not fully comprehend what had happened.
comprehend what/how/why etc
It may be hard to comprehend how much this gift means for my country.
comprehend that
Finally, she comprehended that he wanted his pay.
! In spoken English and ordinary written English, it is more usual to use understand.

Related topics: Education

24. comprehension
1 [uncountable] the ability to understand something [= understanding; comprehend]

comprehension of
They don't have the least comprehension of what I'm trying to do.
The research project will focus on children's comprehension of pretence.
Why you let her talk you into doing such a foolish thing is beyond my comprehension (=impossible for me
to understand).
2 [uncountable and countable] an exercise given to students to test how well they understand written or
spoken language:
new methods of testing reading comprehension
a comprehension task
Related topics: Biology, Birth

25. conceive
1 [intransitive and transitive] formal to imagine a particular situation or to think about something in a
particular way
(cannot) conceive of (doing) something
Many people can't conceive of a dinner without meat or fish.
conceive that
He could not conceive that anything really serious could be worrying his friend.
conceive what/why/how etc
I can hardly conceive what it must be like here in winter.
conceive of something/somebody as something
Language may be conceived of as a process which arises from social interaction.
2 [transitive] to think of a new idea, plan etc and develop it in your mind:
Scientists first conceived the idea of the atomic bomb in the 1930's.
3 [intransitive and transitive] to become pregnant:
fertility treatment for women who have difficulty conceiving

26. conceivable
able to be believed or imagined [ inconceivable]:
It is conceivable that you may get full compensation, but it's not likely.
We were discussing the problems from every conceivable angle.
conceivably adverb:
Conceivably, interest rates could rise very high indeed.

27. conclusive
showing that something is definitely true [ inconclusive]
conclusive proof/evidence/findings etc
The investigation failed to provide any conclusive evidence.
conclusively adverb


28. condemn [transitive]

to say very strongly that you do not approve of something or someone, especially because you think it is
morally wrong:
Politicians were quick to condemn the bombing.
condemn something/somebody as something
The law has been condemned as an attack on personal liberty.
condemn somebody/something for (doing) something
She knew that society would condemn her for leaving her children.

to give someone a severe punishment after deciding they are guilty of a crime

condemn somebody to something

He was found guilty and condemned to death.

Force to do something
if a particular situation condemns someone to something, it forces them to live in an unpleasant way or
to do something unpleasant
condemn somebody to (do) something
people condemned to a life of poverty
His occupation condemned him to spend long periods of time away from his family.

not safe
to state officially that something is not safe enough to be used:
an old house that had been condemned
condemn something as something
The pool was closed after being condemned as a health hazard.

29. conformity [uncountable]
1 behaviour that obeys the accepted rules of society or a group, and is the same as that of
most other people:
an emphasis on conformity and control
conformity to
conformity to social expectations.
in conformity with something
formal in a way that obeys rules, customs etc:
We must act in conformity with local regulations.

30. conjecture formal

1 [uncountable] when you form ideas or opinions without having very much information to
base them on:
What she said was pure conjecture.
There has been some conjecture about a possible merger.
2 [countable] an idea or opinion formed by guessing [= guess, hypothesis]:
My results show that this conjecture was, in fact, correct.
conjectural adjective
Related topics: Politics

31. consensus [singular, uncountable]

an opinion that everyone in a group agrees with or accepts

consensus on/about
a lack of consensus about the aims of the project
consensus that
There is a consensus among teachers that children should have a broad understanding of the world.
The EU Council of Finance Ministers failed to reach a consensus on the pace of integration.
the current consensus of opinion
The general consensus was that technology was a good thing.
the consensus politics of the fifties.

33. constrain [transitive]

1 to stop someone from doing what they want to do
constrain somebody from doing something
Financial factors should not constrain doctors from prescribing the best treatment for patients.
2 to limit something:
Poor soil has constrained the level of crop production.

Women's employment opportunities are often severely constrained by family commitments.

34. con.straint
1 [countable] something that limits your freedom to do what you want [= restriction]
constraint on
Constraints on spending have forced the company to rethink its plans.
the constraints of family life
financial/environmental/political etc constraints
There have been financial and political constraints on development.
constraints on somebody/something impose/place
constraints imposed on teachers by large class sizes
2 [uncountable] control over the way people are allowed to behave, so that they cannot do
what they want:
freedom from constraint
Related topics: Chemistry

35. contaminated
water, food etc that is contaminated has had a harmful substance added to it
contaminated food/blood/water supplies etc
The infection was traced to contaminated food.

Related topics: Chemistry, Environment and waste

36. contaminate [transitive]

to make a place or substance dirty or harmful by putting something such as chemicals or poison in it:
Drinking water supplies are believed to have been contaminated.
to influence something in a way that has a bad effect:
He claims the poster ads have 'contaminated Berlin's streets'.

37. contamination noun [uncountable]

radioactive contamination

Related topics: Chemistry, Environment and waste


38. contaminant [countable] formal
a substance that makes something dirty:
environmental contaminants

39. contend
[intransitive] to compete against someone in order to gain something
contend for
Three armed groups are contending for power.
Inevitably, fights break out between the members of contending groups.
[transitive] to argue or state that something is true
contend (that)
Some astronomers contend that the universe may be younger than previously thought.
contend with something
phrasal verb
to have to deal with something difficult or unpleasant:
The rescue team also had bad weather conditions to contend with.

40. contention
1 [countable] formal a strong opinion that someone expresses
somebody's contention that
Her main contention is that doctors should do more to encourage healthy eating.
2 [uncountable] formal argument and disagreement between people
source/area/point of contention
The issue of hunting is a source of contention.
in contention
Owen' goal kept England in contention.
out of contention
no longer having a chance of winning something:
Injury has put him out of contention for the title.


Related topics: Business Basics, Crime

41. contract [countable]

1 an official agreement between two or more people, stating what each will do
contract with/between
Tyler has agreed a seven-year contract with a Hollywood studio.
His contract is to be terminated by mutual consent.
What are the legal consequences of breaking a contract?
Mr Venable informed me the club would not be renewing my contract.
The firm operates schools under contract to state education authorities.
Employees who refuse to relocate are in breach of contract.

subject to contract number

if an agreement is subject to contract, it has not yet been agreed formally by a contract

informal an agreement to kill a person for money:

They put a contract out on him and he's in hiding.
Related topics: Birth, Linguistics, Grammar

42. contraction
1 [countable] medical a very strong and painful movement of a muscle, especially the muscles around the
womb during birth
2 [uncountable] the process of becoming smaller or narrower:
the contraction of metal as it cools
3 [countable] a shorter form of a word or words:
'Haven't' is a contraction of 'have not'.


43. converse [intransitive] formal
to have a conversation with someone
converse with
She enjoyed the chance to converse with another French speaker
converse formal (noun)
the converse of a fact, word, statement etc is the opposite of it:
Some teachers welcomed the change; but for the majority of teachers, the converse was true.

44. conversely
used when one situation is the opposite of another:
American consumers prefer white eggs; conversely, British buyers like brown eggs.
Related topics: Law

45. convict [transitive]

to prove or officially announce that someone is guilty of a crime after a trial in a law court [ acquit]
convict somebody of something
She was convicted of shoplifting.
convict somebody on something
He was convicted on fraud charges.
a convicted murderer

Related topics: Nature, Earth Sciences, Geology

46. crater [countable]

1 a round hole in the ground made by something that has fallen on it or by an explosion:
craters on the moon's surface
2 the round open top of a volcano


47. credible
deserving or able to be believed or trusted
credible explanation/story/account etc
He was unable to give a credible explanation for his behaviour.
Her excuse was barely credible.
credible threat/challenge/force etc
Can Thompson make a credible challenge for the party leadership?
a credible alternative to nuclear power

48. credibility

1 the quality of deserving to be believed and trusted
damage/undermine somebody's credibility (as something)
The scandal has damaged his credibility as a leader.
credibility of
There are serious questions about the credibility of these reports.
gain/lose credibility
Predictions of economic recovery have now lost all credibility.
credibility gap
the difference between what someone says and what they do:
a credibility gap between the Government's promises and their achievements.

49. crucial
something that is crucial is extremely important, because everything else depends on it
crucial to
This aid money is crucial to the government's economic policies.
crucial in/to doing something
The work of monks was crucial in spreading Christianity.
play a crucial role/part in something
The city of Mycenae played a crucial role in the history of Greece.
The conservation of tropical forests is of crucial importance.
crucially adverb

50. curb [transitive]

to control or limit something in order to prevent it from having a harmful effect:
measures to curb the spread of the virus.


51. debris [uncountable]
1 the pieces of something that are left after it has been destroyed in an accident, explosion
She was hit by flying debris from the blast.
2 technical pieces of waste material, paper etc
plant/garden/industrial etc debris
Clean the ventilation ducts to remove dust and insect debris.

52. debris [uncountable]

1 the pieces of something that are left after it has been destroyed in an accident, explosion
She was hit by flying debris from the blast.
2 technical pieces of waste material, paper etc
plant/garden/industrial etc debris
Clean the ventilation ducts to remove dust and insect debris.

53. defer past tense and past participle deferred, present participle deferring [transitive]
to delay something until a later date [= put back]
defer something until/to something
Further discussion on the proposal will be deferred until April.
The committee deferred their decision.
deferment noun [uncountable and countable]
deferral noun [uncountable and countable]

defer to somebody/something
phrasal verb
to agree to accept someone's opinion or decision because you have respect for that person:
I will defer to your wishes.
Related topics: Tax

54. tax-deferred American English

not taxed until a later time:
tax-deferred savings


55. deficient formal
1 not containing or having enough of something:
Women who are dieting can become iron deficient.
deficient in
patients who were deficient in vitamin C
2 not good enough:
Our prisons are our most deficient social service.
Related topics: Anthropology

56. demography [uncountable]

the study of human populations and the ways in which they change, for example the study of how many
births, marriages and deaths happen in a particular place at a particular time

demographer noun [countable]

Related topics: Literature, Nature, Physics


57. dense
1 made of or containing a lot of things or people that are very close together [= thick]

dense undergrowth/forest/woodland/jungle etc

A narrow track wound steeply up through dense forest.
dense rurally-based population
2 difficult to see through or breathe in

dense fog/smoke/cloud
dense black smoke
3 informal not able to understand things easily [= stupid]:
Am I being dense? I don't quite understand.
4 a dense piece of writing is difficult to understand because it contains a lot of information
or uses complicated language
5 technical a substance that is dense has a lot of mass in relation to its size:
Water is eight hundred times denser than air.
densely adverb:
a densely populated area

denseness noun [uncountable]

Related topics: Physics, Measurement

58. density [uncountable]

1 the degree to which an area is filled with people or things

density of
the size and density of settlements
areas of high population density
2 technical the relationship between the mass of something and its size.


59. depict [transitive] formal
to describe something or someone in writing or speech, or to show them in a painting, picture
a book depicting life in pre-revolutionary Russia
depict somebody/something as something
The god is depicted as a bird with a human head.
depiction noun [uncountable and countable]

60. deter past tense and past participle deterred, present participle deterring [transitive]
to stop someone from doing something, by making them realize it will be difficult or have
bad results [ deterrent]:
The company's financial difficulties have deterred potential investors.
deter somebody from (doing) something
The security camera was installed to deter people from stealing.
! Do not say 'deter someone to do something'. Say deter someone from doing something.

61. deterrent [countable]

1 something that makes someone less likely to do something, by making them realize it will
be difficult or have bad results:
The small fines for this type of crime do not act as much of a deterrent.
deterrent to/for/against
Window locks are an effective deterrent against burglars.
the deterrent effect of prison sentences
nuclear deterrent
the nuclear weapons that a country has in order to prevent other countries from attacking it
deterrence noun [uncountable]

62. deteriorate


1 to become worse:
Ethel's health has deteriorated.
America's deteriorating economy
deteriorate into something
to develop into a bad or worse situation:
The argument deteriorated into a fight.
deterioration noun [uncountable]


63. deviate [intransitive]
to change what you are doing so that you are not following an expected plan, idea, or type of
deviate from
The plane had to deviate from its normal flight path.
Related topics: Maths

64. deviation
1 [uncountable and countable] a noticeable difference from what is expected or acceptable

deviation from
deviation from the normal procedure
2 [countable] technical the difference between a number or measurement in a set and the average of all
the numbers or measurements in that set.

65. differentiate
1 [intransitive and transitive] to recognize or express the difference between things or people
[= distinguish]
differentiate between
It's important to differentiate between fact and opinion.
differentiate something from something
It's sometimes hard to differentiate one sample from another.
2 [transitive] to be the quality, feature etc that makes one thing or person clearly different
from another [= distinguish]:
What differentiates these two periods of history?
differentiate something from something
Its unusual nesting habits differentiate this bird from others.
3 [intransitive] to behave differently towards someone or something, especially in an unfair
way [= discriminate]
differentiate between
a policy which differentiates between men and women
differentiation noun [uncountable]
socio-economic differentiation


66. diffident
shy and not wanting to make people notice you or talk about you
diffident manner/smile/voice etc
diffident about
He was diffident about his own success.
diffidently adverb
diffidence noun [uncountable]

67. diminish
1 [intransitive and transitive] to become or make something become smaller or less
[= reduce]:
The party's share of the electorate has diminished steadily.
These drugs diminish blood flow to the brain.
2 [transitive] to deliberately make someone or something appear less important or valuable
than they really are:
Don't let him diminish your achievements.
But that's not to diminish the importance of his discoveries.
diminishing returns
when the profits or advantages you are getting from something stop increasing in relation to
the effort you are making

68. discriminate
1 [intransitive] to treat a person or group differently from another in an unfair way
discriminate against
Under federal law, it is illegal to discriminate against minorities and women.
discriminate on the grounds/basis of something
It was found that the company still discriminated on the basis of race in promotions.
2 [intransitive and transitive] to recognize a difference between things [= differentiate]
discriminate between
Newborn babies can discriminate between a man's and a woman's voice.
discriminate something from something
the process of learning to discriminate fact from opinion

69. dispersal [uncountable and countable]

the process of spreading things over a wide area or in different directions:
the role of birds in the dispersal of seeds



70. distort
1 [intransitive and transitive] to change the appearance, sound, or shape of something so that
it is strange or unclear:
Tall buildings can distort radio signals.
2 [transitive] to report something in a way that is not completely true or correct:
His account was badly distorted by the press.
3 [transitive] to change a situation from the way it would naturally be:
an expensive subsidy which distorts the market
distorted adjective:
His face was distorted in anger.
distortion noun [uncountable and countable]
a gross distortion of the facts.

71. diverse
very different from each other:
subjects as diverse as pop music and archaeology
diversely adverb

72. diversity
1 [uncountable] the fact of including many different types of people or things
cultural/ethnic/linguistic etc diversity
The curriculum will take account of the ethnic diversity of the population.
2 [singular] a range of different people, things, or ideas [= variety]
diversity of
a diversity of opinion.
Related topics: Business Basics, Economics


73. diversify

past tense and past participle diversified, present participle diversifying, third

person singular diversifies

1 [intransitive and transitive] if a business, company, country etc diversifies, it increases the range of
goods or services it produces

diversify (away) from

farmers forced to diversify away from their core business

diversify into
The company is planning to diversify into other mining activities.
We need to diversify the economy.
2 [intransitive and transitive] to change something or to make it change so that there is more variety:
User requirements have diversified over the years.
3 [intransitive] technical to put money into several different types of investment instead of only one or
diversify into
Spread the risk by diversifying into dollar bonds.
diversification noun [uncountable]
diversificatiodin of the rural economy

74. dwindle [intransitive]

also dwindle away to gradually become less and less or smaller and smaller:
The elephant population is dwindling.
His money had dwindled away.
dwindle to
The stream has dwindled to a trickle.
dwindling adjective:
dwindling resources

Related topics: Electrical


75. electrode [countable]
a small piece of metal or a wire that is used to send electricity through a system or through a person's
The monkeys have electrodes implanted into the brain to measure their brain activity.

76. elite [countable]

a group of people who have a lot of power and influence because they have money,
knowledge, or special skills
political/social/economic etc elite
the domination of power by a small political elite
a struggle for power within the ruling elite.

77. elitist
an elitist system, government etc is one in which a small group of people have more power
and advantages than other people:
an elitist education system
elitism noun [uncountable]
elitist noun [countable]
Related topics: Advertising and Marketing

78. endorse [transitive]

1 to express formal support or approval for someone or something
endorse a proposal/an idea/a candidate etc
The Prime Minister is unlikely to endorse this view.
2 if a famous person endorses a product or service, they say in an advertisement that they use and like it
3 to sign your name on the back of a cheque to show that it is correct
4 [usually passive] British English if your driving licence is endorsed for a driving offence, an official record
is made on it to show that you are guilty of the offence.

79. endorsement noun [uncountable and countable]

celebrity endorsements
the official endorsement of his candidacy.


80. endure
1 [transitive] to be in a difficult or painful situation for a long time without complaining:
It seemed impossible that anyone could endure such pain.
endure doing something
He can't endure being apart from me.
2 [intransitive] to remain alive or continue to exist for a long time:
friendships which endure over many years.

81. enduring
continuing for a very long time:
the enduring appeal of Shakespeare's plays
enduring hatred
enduringly adverb:
an enduringly popular performer
Related topics: Crime and Law.

82. enforce [transitive]

1 to make people obey a rule or law
enforce a law/ban etc
Governments make laws and the police enforce them.
Parking restrictions will be strictly enforced.
2 to make something happen or force someone to do something
enforce something on somebody
It is unlikely that a record company would enforce its views on an established artist.
enforceable adjective:
The recommendations are not legally enforceable.

83.enforcement [uncountable]
when people are made to obey a rule, law etc:
law enforcement.


84. entity plural entities [countable]
formal something that exists as a single and complete unit [ being]:
The mind exists as a separate entity.

85. ent repreneur [countable]

Related topics: Business Basics
someone who starts a new business or arranges business deals in order to make money, often in a way
that involves financial risks
entrepreneurial adjective

of or relating to an entrepreneur; "entrepreneurial risks"

willing to take risks in order to make a profit.

86. envisage [transitive]

to think that something is likely to happen in the future:
The scheme cost a lot more than we had originally envisaged.
envisage doing something
I don't envisage working with him again.

87. eradicate


to completely get rid of something such as a disease or a social problem

eradicate something from something
We can eradicate this disease from the world.
an attempt to eradicate inflation
This problem has now been completely eradicated.
eradication noun [uncountable]
Related topics: Geology, Geography


89. erode also erode away [intransitive and transitive]
1 if the weather erodes rock or soil, or if rock or soil erodes, its surface is gradually
The cliffs are being constantly eroded by heavy seas.
The rocks have gradually eroded away.
2 to gradually reduce something such as someone's power or confidence:
Our personal freedom is being gradually eroded away.
Repeated exam failure had eroded her confidence.

90. erosion [uncountable]

1 the process by which rock or soil is gradually destroyed by wind, rain, or the sea:
the problem of soil erosion
the erosion of the coastline
2 the process by which something is gradually reduced or destroyed
erosion of
the gradual erosion of our civil liberties.

91. ethical

[no comparative]
1 relating to principles of what is right and wrong [= moral]
ethical issues/questions/problems
The use of animals in scientific tests raises difficult ethical questions.
The president must have the highest ethical standards.
2 morally good or correct [ unethical]:
I don't think it's ethical for you to accept a job you know you can't do.
ethical investment policies (=investing only in businesses that are considered morally
ethically adverb

92. ethical

[no comparative]
1 relating to principles of what is right and wrong [= moral]
ethical issues/questions/problems
The use of animals in scientific tests raises difficult ethical questions.
The president must have the highest ethical standards.
2 morally good or correct [ unethical]:
I don't think it's ethical for you to accept a job you know you can't do.
ethical investment policies (=investing only in businesses that are considered morally


93. evoke

to produce a strong feeling or memory in someone:
The photographs evoked strong memories of our holidays in France.
His appearance is bound to evoke sympathy.
Her speech evoked a hostile response.
evocation noun [uncountable and countable]
The poem is an evocation of lost love.

94. exacerbate


to make a bad situation worse:

The recession has exacerbated this problem.
I don't want to exacerbate the situation.
exacerbation noun [uncountable]

95. exemplify

past tense and past participle exemplified, present participle

exemplifying, third person singular exemplifies [transitive] formal
1 to be a very typical example of something:
The building exemplifies the style of architecture which was popular at the time.
2 to give an example of something:
Problems are exemplified in the report.

96. exert [transitive]

1 to use your power, influence etc in order to make something happen:
They exerted considerable influence within the school.
Environmental groups are exerting pressure on the government to tighten pollution laws.
exert yourself
2 to work very hard and use a lot of physical or mental energy:
He has exerted himself tirelessly on behalf of the charity.

97. exhibit
1 [intransitive and transitive] to show something in a public place so that people can go to see
it [= show]:
Her paintings have been exhibited all over the world.
2 [transitive] formal to clearly show a particular quality, emotion, or ability
exhibit signs/symptoms/behaviour etc
a patient who is exhibiting classic symptoms of mental illness.


98. facilitate

[transitive] formal

to make it easier for a process or activity to happen:

Computers can be used to facilitate language learning.
facilitation noun [uncountable]

99. flora [uncountable]

all the plants that grow in a particular place or country:
Tourism is damaging the flora and fauna (=plants and animals) of the island.

100. fauna [uncountable and countable] technical

all the animals living in a particular area or period in history