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Analisi dello stato di funzionamento

di turbine a gas

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Gas turbine operation optimization


GT on-condition maintenance
Maintenance costs
Management costs (Non-scheduled stops )
Process interruption (Availability )

Gas Path
Analysis

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Trend value calculation

Measurement
acquisition

Normalized
value

2
Measurement validation

Database
Acceptable
measurement?

Measurement
expected value

YES

Normalized value
Trend Analysis

4-5
Gas Path Analysis
Determination of HIs

Qualitative information on
gas turbine Health State

6
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Quantitative information
on gas turbine Health State

Decisional process

NO

The diagnostic process


1

Trend value calculation

Measurement
acquisition

Normalized
value

2
Measurement validation

Database
Acceptable
measurement??

Measurement
expected value

NO

YES

Normalized value
Trend Analysis

4-5
Gas Path Analysis
Determination of HIs

Qualitative information on
gas turbine Health State

Quantitative information
on gas turbine Health State

Decisional process

9 Field measurements

8 Measurement accuracy

9 Thermodynamic Cycle Program

8 CP tuning

9 Health Indices

8 Measurement number

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

The diagnostic process (1/4)


1

Measurement
acquisition

Normalized
value

Database
Measurement
expected value

Field measurements Qm

Cycle Program
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Expected values Qm

Normalized value

Qm
Q = '
Qm
*
m

The diagnostic process (2/4)


1

Measurement
acquisition

Trend value calculation


Normalized
value

Database
Measurement
expected value
1.20
p2*

Outlet compressor pressure normalized data

1.10
1.00
0.90
0.80
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

The diagnostic process (3/4)


1

Measurement
acquisition

Trend value calculation


Normalized
value

2
Measurement validation

Database
Measurement
expected value

Acceptable
measurement?

NO

YES

Two techniques
both applied to the
normalized trend over time
of each measurement

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

9 Measurement acceptability bands, which consider


(1) meas. accuracy + acquisition system noise,
(2) engine faults and (3) CP tuning accuracy
9 Statistical technique for outlier detection through
a test criterion, i.e. analysis of the statistical
distribution of the normalized measurement trend

Measurement validation through acceptability bands


Band amplitude: measurements accuracy and total band amplitude
Measured
Quantities

Measurements accuracy
[% of reference value]

Confidence band
[% of trend value]

T2

0.85

[-1 ; + 5.5]

p2

1.00

[-4; + 3]

T6

0.75

[-1 ; + 5.5]

1.20
p2*

Acceptable data

1.10

Unacceptable data (acc. bands)

1.00
0.90
0.80

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Measurement validation through statistical techniques

xi xm
k,
S

i = 1,..., N

Practical and easy-to-use


Robust

xm = mean of the sample (N = sample size)


S = standard deviation
k = threshold, which depends on sample size N and on the level of significance
= probability of rejecting a good point (usually < 5 %)

If the inequality applies, xi is an outlier.


Available methods in literature: Thompson method, Grubbs method,
Chauvenet criterion,
These methods proved only partially effective for GT data (in fact, trends
are usually not constant over time)
Thus, a new method was developed by the authors
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Statistical technique developed by the authors

xi xm
kB S

t k A ,

lim t + 1
2

kA = 1+

4N

i = 1,..., N

The new coefficients account for


the behavior-in-time of each quantity

kA tends to one when N tends to infinity


t represents the value of the quantile
corresponding to a certain level of significance

k B = (1 + N ) (1 + S ov S i )
1
N

kB accounts for the scatter of the


considered sample
The left-hand side term of test
criterion is updated at each step
(off-line data processing!)

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

The diagnostic process (4/4)


3

Normalized value
Trend Analysis

4-5
Gas Path Analysis
Determination of HIs

Qualitative information on
gas turbine Health State

6
Qwp measurable
variables defining GT
working point
Qm measurable variables
along the gas path

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Quantitative information
on gas turbine Health State

Decisional process

GPA model
(Cycle Program)

Health
indices X

Determination of GT Health Indices


Updated
X values
Health Indices X
Multiple
operating points
Cycle Program

Computed estimates of
the measurable quantities
(Q m,c)
Measured quantities (Q m)
in multiple operating points

MINIMIZATION
ALGORIT HM
min Fob (X 1, ..., X nx)

GT Characteristic Parameters
determination can be performed by
minimizing Fob
(sum of the square differences between
measured and computed values of the
measurable variables, performed on
one or multiple operating points)
2
N
1 op N m Qm,c Qm

Fob ( X 1 ,..., X N x ) =
wi
N op j=1 i =1
Qm
i

X 1, ..., X nx
which minimize Fob

Parameters variations with respect to their expected values in


new and clean condition (all parameters =1) determines
GT Health State
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Fault simulation
FAULT SIMULATION
Gas turbine operating state determination consists of the
assessment of the modification, due to deterioration and fault, of
performance and geometric data characterizing machine components.
1.02

1.00
0.98
0.96

Effects are usually simulated by


multiplying point by point the
performance maps in new and clean
condition by scaling factors.

0.94
0.92
healthy
0.90

faulty

0.88
0.70
1.4

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

0.80

0.90

1.00

1.10

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4
0.70

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

healthy
faulty

Remarks on multi-point analysis


When poor instrumentation is available, only few parameters can
be determined and with a not-very-high accuracy
To overcome these problems, Multiple Operating Point Analysis can be
used.
- The method determines GT Health Indices by processing measurement
sets taken in different working conditions
- The method compensates for the lack of measured quantities with the
measurements taken at different operating points

By means of this method it is possible to:


- calculate a number of Xv > number of Qm
- improve accuracy
In the following, the Multiple Operating Point Analysis will be applied
before and after a maintenance stop
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Application to a natural gas compression plant


30 bar line

16 bar line

16 bar line
PGT5R/2

95100 C

4043 C

6065 bar line


6065 bar line

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

2528 C

SNAM GAS NETWORK

SEA PLATFORMS

SOLAR

Lay out of the 5.2 MW PGT5R/2 gas turbine


f
oc

CC

GGT

PT

ot

F
a

Six Qwp meas. to define the working point: NGGT, NPT, PPT, pa, Ta, RHa
Three Qm meas. are available:

poc, Toc, Tot

Three Health Indices can be determined:

C, C , GGT

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Lack of measurement
Lack of fuel mass flow rate measurement (Mf).
Only the total fuel mass flow feeding the three PGT5R/2 GTs is available

Other measurements not available:


pressure and temperature between the gas generator and the power
turbine (pGGT, TGGT)
gas side and air side pressure drops of the recuperator (pair,

pgas)

air inlet mass flow rate (Ma)


The methodology was applied to a poorly instrumented plant, since
it represents a selective test for the proposed diagnostic system
Moreover, poor instrumented plants are highly widespread and, thus,
the application to such cases seems particularly interesting
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Cycle Program calibration


1.5

E [%]

0.0

-1.5
3.5

4.5

PPT [MW]

Errors between measured and computed value for

Mfuel - Tot - Mair - Toc - poc


Six operating points (3.4 5.0 MW)
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

5.5

Normalized measurement trend analysis (Trend Analysis)


1.20
p2*

Acceptable data

1.10

Unacceptable data (acc. bands)

1.00

- Meas. scattering due to


the uncertainties in field
measurement readings

0.90

Outlier (stat.-based method)

- The stat.-based method


reveals that only one
measurement set (day #20)
is unacceptable. Thus, the
stat.-based method is less
restrictive than
acceptability bands

0.80
1.20

T2*
1.10
1.00

Outlier (stat.-based method)

0.90
0.80
1.20

Outlier (stat.-based method)

T6*
1.10

- poc (2 % in 70 days )
and Toc comp. fouling

1.00
0.90

- Tot slightly

0.80
0

10

20

30

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

40

50

60

days 70

Health Indices estimation (single-point analysis)


10
E
[%]
5

Acceptable data
Unacceptable data

- Remarkable reduction of
the scattering of HI trends,
by using acceptable
measurement sets only

0
-5
-10
10
E
[%]
5

- Over a period of 2 months,


C (1.0 %) and C (2.5 %)
comp. fouling

0
-5

- GGT almost constant no


significant health state change

-10

10
E
[%]
5

GGT

0
-5
-10
0

10

20

30

40

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

50

60

days 70

Health Indices estimation (multi-point analysis)


Three parameters as
problem variables c, c, ggt

Five parameters as problem


variables c, c, ggt ggt, pt
1.1

1.1

before the stop


after the stop

ggt

before the stop


after the stop

ggt

1.0

1.0

pt

c
c

c
0.9
0.9

1.0

ggt

0.9

1.1

0.9

1.0

More convincing results by using five HIs as problem variables:


- 3-His no improvement due to maintenance
- 5-His increase in the corrected mass flows (both C and GGT)
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

1.1

Health Monitoring System for the Compression Plant


Inserimento
Manual
manuale dati

Regressione
Regression

Acquisizione
Acquisition
dati da DCS
from DCS

insertion

Misure
Measurements

Input.txt

Dati
Data
calcolo

Direct
Diretto
Database

Database
SATURN-D

Inverso
Inverse

Maintenance
Interventi
reports

Ciclo
Directdiretto
cycle

Inverse
Ciclo
inverso
cycle

Output
Output
diretto.txt
Direct.out

Output
Output
Inverse.out
inverso.txt

Regressione
Regression

Visualizzazione
su schermo

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

Lost production index


LPI =

LPI increase = decrease of actual


production

Q gasC Q gasM
Q gasC

LPI quantifies (also economically) gas


turbine loss of performance

C = clean condition - M = measured


0.8

Lost Production Index

LPI
[%]

The compressed
gas production
loss is

0.4

+ 13 %

0.0

-0.4
0

28

56

Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas

84

112

140

day 168

Conclusions
The methodology proved effective in supporting plant
operation and maintenance management:
Identification of unreliable measurements sets and remarkable
reduction of the scattering of the measurement trends
Gas turbine health state determination over a 2-month period:
compressor fouling, while gas generator turbine was not suffering
from significant changes in health state
The multi-point analysis (applied before and after a maintenance
stop) allowed a more detailed analysis
Software to automate the diagnostic process and to support plant
operation and management: the loss of production, due to gas
turbine deterioration, was identified
Analisi dello stato di funzionamento di turbine a gas