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KULIAH 15

MIKROBIOLOGI MAKANAN

MIKROBIOLOGI MAKANAN

Analisis makanan untuk menentukan


kualitasnya berdasarkan standar
kesehatan masyarakat
Berbagai produk makanan olahan
melibatkan peran mikroba sebagai
pemroses atau biomasa mikroba sebagai
bahan baku

MIKROBA dan PANGAN


Kehadirannya menentukan kualitas dan
tingkat keamanan pangan
Dapat menyebabkan kerusakan makanan
Dapat menyebabkan keracunan
Agen bioproses menghasilkan produk
pangan
Dapat dijadikan sumber pangan dan
supplement

MAKANAN ADALAH MEDIUM


Berbagai jenis mikroba dapat
mengkontaminasi dan tumbuh karena
makanan merupakan sumber nutrien (e.g
susu, daging, telur)
Tingkat pertumbuhan tergantung
kecocokan nutrien yang terkandung
Juga tergantung faktor fisik tempat
penyimpanan

PENGAWASAN MAKANAN
Prosedur pemeriksaan standar
Institusi pemeriksaan dan pengawasan
resmi (FAO, FDA, WHO, DEPKES,
BPOM)
BPOM pendaftaran ijin edar
DEPKES pengawasan setelah mendapat
ijin

PEMERIKSAAN LANGSUNG

Breed smear
Howard Mold-Counting slide
Direct counting protozoa
Uji Metilen Biru (non-microscopic)

TEKNIK KULTIVASI
Menumbuhkan jenis tertentu dalam
medium tertentu
EMB untuk E. coli
SS AGAR (Salmonella-Shigella)
TCBS (Vibrio)

Total plate count (TPC) untuk bakteri


Total fungi dan ragi

PENGAWETAN MAKANAN
Pencegahan dan penghilangan
kontaminan
Menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba
(mikrobiostatik)
Pembunuhan mikroba (mikrobiosida)

METODA
Aseptic handling and processing
Canning (1811)
Pasteurization of milk
LTH (61,6oC 30m)
HTST (71,7oC 15s)

Sterilization (UHT 148,9oC 1-2s)


Microwave oven
Dehydration
High osmotic pressure
Chemical additives (bensoat, asetat, laktat,
propionat)
Radiation (UV dan gamma)

PRODUK MA-MIN MIKROBIOLOGIS


Sauerkraut, Pickles, Kimchi, Asinan, Acar
Wine, Beer, Cider, Tuak, Arak, Anggur, Brem
Bali, Lahang, Brandy, Port, Kombucha dst.
Peuyeum, Tape, Koji
Nata deCoco, Nata de Pina, Nata de Tea
Yoghurt, Kefir, Dadih, Kumiss
Tempe, Natto
Jamur konsumsi

GLOBAL NUTRITION INDUSTRY


GROWTH IN CONSUMER SALES IN 2003 ($MIL)
By Region
2002
2003 Growth
USA
58,520
63,710
8.9%
Europe
50,970
54,070
6.1%
Japan
28,820
31,520
9.4%
Canada
4,480
4,830
7.8%
China
6,040
6,940
14.8%
Rest of Asia
6,860
7,640
11.3%
LatAm
3,350
3,670
9.7%
Aust/NZ
2,990
3,210
7.4%
EE/Russia
1,930
2,250
16.3%
MidEast
800
880
10.1%
Africa
790
860
8.8%
8.5%
Total Global Market 165,560 179,590

Asia VDS Sales 2003


Total sales
(US$ mn) - Retail

Moderate growth in JaPan


Fastest growing 2003:
Indonesia (36%)
Philippines (14%)
China (13%)
India (13%)

Per capita sales 2003 (US$)

115
Japan

105
95
85
75
65
55
45

Taiwan

35
South
Korea

25

Singapore
Hong
Kong

15
China

5
-18

-15

-12

-9

-6

-3

-5 0

Malaysia

Indonesia
Thailand

Philippines

Vietnam

India

12

15

% value CAGR
Source :Euromonitor International - OTC Healthcare Database 2004

PEMENUHAN PANGAN BERGIZI


Data terakhir menyatakan 50% penduduk
Indonesia kekurangan gizi (Hidden
Famine) http://www.kbi.gemari.or.id/
Peluang pasar (100 juta x 5000 x 30 = 15 T
per bulan)

PASAR KESEHATAN
Indonesia urutan ke-4 diabetes mellitus
(DM) setelah India, China dan US
17 juta orang Indonesia (2001)
194 juta (2003) global
333 juta (2025) global
Peluang pasar : 1,7 triliun rupiah per bulan
(Note : biaya perawatan 100 ribu per
orang per bulan)

CANCER
Cancer is number six killer in Indonesia based
on family health data survey in 2002.
1 out of 1000 new cancer patient each year
[increase from 4,5% in 1992 to 4,9 % in 1995]
www.depkes.go.id/index.php?option=news&task=viewarticle&si
d=76&Itemid=2#

According to WHO : 6.25 million cancer sufferer


increase each year worldwide
http://news.indosiar.com/news_index.htm?idsj=5&sj=kesehatan

CHOLESTEROL, STROKE,
HEART DISEASE
Mortality rate caused by Coronary Heart Diseasae since
1975, 1981, 1986 and 1995 increased by 5,9%; 9,1%,
16% and 19 % respectivelly in Indonesia
www.sinarharapan.co.id/iptek/kesehatan/index.html
40% of neurology facility at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo
hospital occupied by stroke patient
www.yastroki.or.id/printarticle.php?id=41 (17 September
2005)
63.52 per 100.000 Indonesian over 65 year old suffer
from stroke (www.kompas.co.id health section accessed
on 17 September 2005)
Cardiovasculer disease in US was reported up to 60
million cases in 1996 (about 1 among 5 suffer from
cardiovasculer problem) www.pjnhk.go.id/artikel20.htm

ANEKA JAMUR KONSUMSI


BERPOTENSI KOMERSIAL
Merang
Kuping
(Lember)
Shimeji
Hiratake
Abalon
Champignon
Shiitake
Maetake
Inokitake

EKSPOR JAMUR
CHINA

Negara

Volume (Kg)

Nilai (USD)

Japan

87,722,085

263,106,855

Hong Kong (China)

36,721,245

93,557,733

United States

46,169,816

64,249,132

Italy

21,706,962

38,635,647

Germany

35,599,192

36,014,734

Malaysia

19,059,060

29,594,534

Thailand

4,326,889

28,895,670

Russia

26,010,449

19,561,075

R.O. Korea

16,299,426

19,114,146

Canada

20,537,518

18,522,282

Netherlands

15,929,874

16,818,732

France

3,291,546

16,199,343

Estonia

12,007,916

9,718,508

Singapore

2,306,763

9,630,116

Australia

5,549,517

5,838,544

Taiwan (China)

4,976,195

5,763,852

5,778,642

5,547,089

9,074,411

5,490,596

Indonesia
Romania

Philippine
7,159,493
Impor jamur dari
China 55,5 M per
tahun (4,6 M 5,461,434
per bulan)
Mexico

7,159,519

4,797,206

Produksi jamur Indonesia10 tahun terakhir


6000

4000

3000

2000

1000

04
20

03
20

02
20

01
20

00
20

99
19

98
19

97
19

96
19

95

19

P ro d u k s i p e r T a h u n (to n )

5000

Tahun
Jamur merang

Jamur tiram

Jamur shiitake

Jamur kuping

KANDUNGAN
NUTRISI JAMUR

Carbohydrates
Amino acids
Fatty acids
Fibres
Vitamins
Minerals

KHASIAT OBAT SHIITAKE


Senyawa Aktif
Eritadenine

Pengaruh
Anti
kolester
ol

Jenis
senyawa

Aktivitas

Derivat
adenine

Mempercepat
metabolisme dan
ekskresi kolesterol

Ac2P

Antivirus

Polisakarida

Menghambat replikasi
virus

Viral particles

Anti tumor
/ virus

Asam Nukleat
RNA untai
ganda

Menginduksi produksi
interferon

KS-2

Anti tumor
/ virus

Polisakarida

Menginduksi produksi
interferon

Lentinan

Antitumor

Polisakarida
(1,3
glukan)

Menstimulasi sel T-helper


dalam sistim
kekebalan

LAP1

Antitumor

Polisakarida

Modulator sistem
kekebalan

Asam Nukleat

Menghambat agregasi
platelet

GMP (Guanosine
monophosphate)

Anti
koagula
si darah

TEMPE
Although not a common item in most households in the
United States, the distinctively nutty taste and nougatlike texture of tempeh is increasing in popularity. It easily
absorbs the flavors of the other foods with which it is
cooked making it adaptable to many types of dishes.
Tempeh can be found in health food stores and specialty
markets throughout the year.
Tempeh has been a staple in Indonesia for over 2000
years. It is typically made by cooking and dehulling
soybeans, inoculating them with a culturing agent (like
Rhizopus oligosporus), and then incubating the
innoculated product overnight until it forms a solid cake.
It is a highly nutritious fermented food traditionally made
from soybeans and its high protein content makes it a
wonderful substitute for meat.

NUTRISI TEMPE

Tempeh, Cooked (4.00 oz-wt


223.40 calories)
Nutrient

Amount

DV

Nutrient

World's Healthiest

(%)

Density

Foods Rating

manganese

1.45 mg

41.4

3.8

very good

protein

20.63 g

41.3

3.7

very good

phosphorus

286.91 mg

41

3.7

very good

vitamin B2
(riboflavin)

0.40 mg

36.4

3.3

good

magnesium

87.55 mg

27.4

2.5

good

copper

0.61 mg

24.4

2.2

good

vitamin B6
(pyridoxine)

0.23 mg

17.7

1.6

good

vitamin B3
(niacin)

2.43 mg

17.4

1.6

good

iron

2.41 mg

16.1

1.5

good

KANKER PAYUDARA
Breast cancer Americans have one of the highest
breast cancer rates in the world. Ones risk for breast
cancer is related to one's lifetime exposure to estrogenlike substances. These include any of the natural and
man-made chemicals to which the body responds
similarly (but sometimes much more strongly) than it
would respond to estrogen.
While one out of eight American women develop breast
cancer, the rate of breast cancer in Japan is about onefifth of that in the United States. Researchers attribute
much of this discrepancy to differences between the
standard American diet and the low-fat, nutrient-dense
native diet and of the traditional Japanese diet.
(www.whfoods.com diakses 14-8-04)

LIFE EXPECTANCY IN SOME ASIAN


COUNTRIES

100

80

60

40

20

2003

Source : Euromonitor International - Global Market Information Database 2004

n
pa
Ja

g
Ko
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g

or
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ap
ng

Ho
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So

1990

Si

Ko
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a

iw
an

ay
M

al

Ta

sia

a
in
Ch

m
et
na
Vi

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Th

ai

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ne

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EAT MORE
Cold water fish such as salmon, tuna, herring, mackerel
and halibut for their beneficial omega 3 fatty acids
Soy foods
Flaxseeds
Legumes
Sea vegetables
Organically grown Brassica vegetables including
broccoli, kale, mustard greens and Brussel sprouts.
Fresh fruit
Avoid well done meat, polyunsaturated fats, caffeinecontaining foods and beverages and alcohol.

ISOFLAVON

Recently published research involving nearly 22,000 Japanese womenthe


Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study on Cancer and
Cardiovascular Diseaseshas led further support to the relationship between a
diet high in isoflavone-rich soy foods, particularly miso, and a significantly
lower risk of breast cancer. The women, who ranged in age from 40 to 59 years,
filled out a dietary questionnaire that included questions about soy consumption and
were followed for 10 years. Whether pre- or postmenopausal, women who reported
eating three or more cups of miso soup per day had a 40% lower risk of developing
breast cancer compared to women who reported consuming less than one cup per
day. Women with the highest intakes of isoflavonescompounds in soyfoods that
can bind to estrogen receptors in the body and block out human estrogen, thus
lessening its effectshad a 54% lower risk of developing breast cancer compared to
those whose intake of isoflavones was lowest. A variety of soyfoods commonly
eaten in the Asian diet contain isoflavones including tofu, miso, soymilk, soy
sauce, soy flour, green or dried soybeans, soybean sprouts and a fermented
soy food called natto. Almost 75% of the women reported eating miso soup daily,
and of these 34% ate three or more cups of miso soup per day. More than 45%
reported eating soy foods other than miso daily. The average intake of isoflavones
among participants in this study was calculated to be about 700 times higher than
that of Caucasians in the United States. (October 24, 2003)

For Cancer Protection, Eat


Whole Soy Foods, Not Purified
Soy Products

A study published in the June 2004 issue of Carcinogenesis suggests that not only is the cancerpreventive ability of soy foods markedly reduced in highly purified soy products and supplements,
but that such processed foods can stimulate the growth of pre-existing estrogen-dependent breast
tumors.
Soy foods contain complex mixtures of bioactive compounds that interact with one another to
promote health, while the partially purified isoflavone-containing products consumed in the U.S.
may have lost many of the biologically active components in whole soy foods. "These partially
purified isoflavone-containing products may not have the same health benefits as whole soy
foods," noted William G. Helferich, professor of food science and human nutrition at the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and one of the study's primary authors.
In the study, mice were divided into four groups, one of which received no soy and served as the
control group, while the others were given either whole soy flour, soy extract, a mixture of
isoflavones, or genistin in pure form. Despite the fact that all groups, except the control group,
received an equal amount of the soy isoflavone genistein, "as bioactive compounds were
removed, we observed an increase in estrogen-dependent tumor growth," said Helferich.
In the mice given minimally processed soy flour, a form of soy comparable to the whole soy foods
consumed in the Asian diet, tumors neither grew nor regressed. But in the mice given dietary soy
products containing isoflavones in more purified forms, the tumors grew. "These products are
similar to the materials used in isoflavone-containing dietary supplements, which is how many
Americans consume these compounds," Helferich noted.
The take-home message for women, especially postmenopausal women with estrogen-responsive
breast cancers who are looking for alternatives to HRT: Avoid processed soy products

and supplements that contain isoflavones in more purified forms. Choose


minimally processed whole soy foods such as endamame, whole soy flour, tofu
or tempeh.(June 30, 2004)

Tohoku University Biotechnology Lecture Series


--Biotechnology in animal, plant and food production--

No. 13

Food Biotechnology 3
March 8, 2005

Development of new functional


yogurts by using pobiotics,
prebiotics and synbiotics

Prof. Tadao SAITO


Lab. of Animal Products
Chem.Tohoku University

The expression design of FOSHU

Permitted by the Ministry


of Health, Labor and Welfare

FOSHU
(Food for Specified Health Uses)

FOSHU permission system in Japan


The system was introduced by the ministry of Health,
Labor and Welfare from 2001.
They agree the evidences of health promoting effects
scientifically and permit the expression of the functions.
More than 450 foods are permitted until March, 2005.

Lb. bulgaricus

Str. thermophilus

Yogurt must be fermented by two bacteria:


Lactobacillus delbruckii ssp. bulgaricus and St.
thermophilus. (IDF rule)

Not chain links

Lactococcus lactic subsp. lactis


Very popular LAB for making of ripening type cheese.

Lactobacillus casei
Intestinal bacteria, Probiotics
Strain Shirota is very famous one which used in
Every fermented products of Yakuruto Company

Streptococcus thermophilus
Dairy LAB, not probiotics
Necessary for yogurt production with Lb. bulgalicus
Shape is chain links , production of formic acid

branching
structure

Bifidobacterium longum
Probiotics, LAB from taking in the broad sense
Production of acetic acid:lactic acid (3:2)
Branching structure is unique

Lactobacillus helveticus
High acidity LAB for yogurt production
High protease activity is characteristic
Calpis fermented by this bacteria is very popular in Japan

Typical probiotic yogurts in Japanese market, 2005

PRODUK SUPPLEMENT
MIKROBA DILISENSIKAN
Licensed to PT. Rekayasa Sumber Daya
Hayati (RSDH)
Agriculture (AgriSimba)
Freshwater Aquaculture (AquaSimba-D)
Brine Aquaculture (AquaSimba-L)
Animal husbandry (NutriSimba)
Bioremediation (DegraSimba)

NutriSimba

Aryantha, I.P., N. R. Nganro, Sukrasno, 1998, Teknologi mikroba


probiotik indigenous untuk aplikasi pertanian, perikanan, dan
bioremediasi (Trade Secret dan Lisensi teknologi : Terdaftar di KM
HAKI-ITB Kontrak No. 004/KMHaKI-ITB/PKP/II/00)

HEALTHY DRINK (GANODEX)

ANTI DIABETES CAPSULES


Aryantha, I.P., 2003, Non-chemical extraction method for extracting
bioactive compound of medicinal mushroom (Patent : Status Filing
Date Ditjen HAKI No. P00200300565)

ANTI-CHOLESTEROL
CAPSULES

DIPPED TEA

CEREAL DRINK

HEALTHY DRINK SHIITEX

HEALTHY DRINK TIRAMEX

MINYAK DARA

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