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Your Resource for Machines, Services, and Tooling for the Gear Industry


The most interesting man in the gear world

He once climbed the Matterhorn
and attended a machine run off, in
Germany, on the same afternoon

He has been known to

hand carry parts to his
secret manufacturing plant,
in an unknown location

But, when it comes

to workholding, He
always prefers


Stay productive, my friends

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Longmont, CO 80501

Willman. The Source for high performance castings.

Gear Hub Casting

4200 lbs

Planet Carrier Austempered Ductile

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Transmission Housing
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Planetary Gearbox Housing

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In addition, Willman offers Production capacity for components up to 40,000 lbs. and facilities for
patternmaking, heat treating and machining. Please visit us on the web:

Quality You Can Count On Today...and Tomorrow

338 South Main St., Cedar Grove, WI 53013 Tel. (920) 668-8526 Fax. (920) 668-8998
E-mail: Web Site:


Application of ICME to Optimize

Metallurgy and Improve Performance
of Carburizable Steels

By Jeff Grabowski, Jason Sebastian, Aziz Asphahani, Clay Houser,

Kerem Taskin and Dave Snyder

QuesTek Innovations LLC has successfully designed and

developed four new steels that can be used in gearing
applications, two of which have been implemented in
demanding gear and bearing applications in ground and
aerospace military, commercial aerospace, high-performance
racing, oil and gas, and other industries



Company Profile: Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc.


Optimization of Gear Tooth Contact by Helix Angle


By Anna Claire Conrad

From the ashes of Fellows Corporation rose Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc.,
which has been serving companies and people in need of gear shaping services
and machine repair since its inception in 2002.

By S.R. Hipsley and R.J. Davey, PhD Engineering, and R.T. WhewayThis paper discusses
software that automatically generates a 3-D meshed finite element model of a
helical gear set, which does not require the gear designer to have a knowledge
of finite element analysis.


Gleason enhances GMS series
of analytical gear inspection
systems with the new 175 GMS



3500DS to German Customer

In this section, the premier supporter of gear manufacturing in the United States
and beyond shares news of the organizations activities, upcoming educational
and training opportunities, technical meetings and seminars, standards
development, and the actions of AGMA councils and committees.

Fred Eberle



This month we are going to discuss several critically

important factors designers need to know when
developing an application with molded plastic gears.

Reports, data, and developments

to keep you aware of whats
happening with your colleagues in
the gear-manufacturing industry
around the country and world.

Gear Manufacturers

56 Q &A
Jeanine Kunz

Stephen P. Radzevich

Preliminary results of testing of low-tooth-count

bevel gears of a novel design, part 3

Jack Titus

Through comparison to common household devices,

this column explores todays heat-treating process
involving furnaces and pumps.

Anna Claire Conrad

As we ring in the new year, gear-manufacturing

institutions across the globe are making continuing
education and training a priority for 2015. This is resulting
in a more qualified workforce, leading to better products
and services.

Gear Solutions (ISSN 1933 - 7507) is published monthly by Media Solutions, Inc., 266D Yeager Parkway Pelham, AL
35124. Phone (205) 380-1573 Fax (205) 380-1580 International subscription rates: $72.00 per year. Periodicals Postage
Paid at Pelham AL and at additional mailing offices. Printed in the USA. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Gear
Solutions magazine, P.O. Box 1210 Pelham AL 35124. Publications mail agreement No. 41395015 return undeliverable
Canadian addresses to P.O. Box 503 RPO West Beaver Creek Richmond Hill, ON L4B4R6. Copyright 2006 by Media
Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopy, recording, or any information storage-and-retrieval system without permission in writing from the
publisher. The views expressed by those not on the staff on Gear Solutions magazine, or who are not specifically employed
by Media Solutions, Inc., are purely their own. All "Industry News" material has either been submitted by the subject
company or pulled directly from their corporate web site, which is assumed to be cleared for release. Comments and
submissions are welcome, and can be submitted to


VOLUME13 / NO. 01


David C. Cooper

Chad Morrison



Is it just me, or did 2015 come out of nowhere? Even though I typically look forward to the new year, I cant
help feeling a little blindsided this time around.
2014 was an awesome year for me. I mean, it was my year. I graduated from Auburn University in a field
Im passionate about and love, moved into my own one-bedroom apartment, got an incredible job within weeks
of earning my degree, and became engaged to the man of my dreams.
I guess you could say I grew upfast.
But I enjoyed every second of itevery laugh, cry, hug, and tiresome, been-up-all-night-studying-for-my-lastcollege-exam-ever yawn. It was an incredible year, and even though it flew by, itll be tough to beat.
Whenever I try something new, I get the same feeling in my gut I had the first time I jumped off a high-dive.
Its those butterflies everyone talks about mixed with every fear and food aversion youve ever had, and theyre
all gurgling inside your stomach simultaneously. Its a difficult sensation to overcome, but once you do, that rush
of adrenaline makes you want to do it over and over again. Thats exactly how I feel going into this new year.
Thats why Im apprehensive going into 2015, and I imagine you are too. 2014 was a growing year for the
gear manufacturing industry as it bounced back from the dark age of 2013. A lot of companies saw their activity drop quite significantly that year, but were able to pick it back up in 2014. As we discussed in last months
Trend Talks column, going into the new year, businesses are hoping for orders and bookings to be up by at least
5 percent, which seems feasible since they were up by 15 percent last year.
This issue defends that belief that things are only going to get better. In this months Trend Talks and Q&A,
with the help of SMEs Jeannine Kunz, we discuss how vital education, workforce development, and human
capital are to this industry. There, we provide important dates and resources where you can learn more about
those opportunities for you and your employees. Youll also read about Allen Adams Shaper Services in our
Company Profile and see how theyve been doing things right since 2002.
We also provide pieces discussing what to look forward to in 2015, including AGMA and ABMAs big event
being held in the wine country of Napa, California, and two technical papers that were discussed at last years
Fall Technical Meeting in Arlington, Virginia. One focuses on an application to optimize metallurgy and
improve the performance of carburized steels, while the second discusses how to optimize gear tooth contact
by means of helix angle modification.
As always, the information youll read about in this issue will also be available online, in the Gear Solutions app,
and on our 2015 calendar.
Last year was great, and it was my year, but 2015 will be even better, and itll be mine, too.
Thanks for reading, and Happy New Year!
Anna Claire Conrad

Anna Claire Conrad

Associate editor
Gear Solutions magazine
(800) 366-2185 x205

Stephen Sisk

Anna Claire Conrad



Chad Morrison



Teresa Cooper

Kassie Boggan

Jamie Willett


Jeremy Allen


Michele Hall


Vertical Logo


P. O. BOX 1987 PELHAM, AL 35124
(800) 366-2185 (205) 380-1580 FAX
Dav id C. Cooper
Chad Mor r i son
Ter esa Cooper

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p. 860-223-7778 f. 860-223-7776


New Products,
Trends, Services,
and Developments

Gleason enhances GMS series

of analytical gear inspection
systems with the new 175 GMS


Gleason Corporation announces the introduction of the 175GMS Analytical Gear
Inspection System, with faster complete
inspection of automotive, aerospace and
other smaller gears, as well as gear cutting
tools and non-gear parts.
The latest addition to the GMS Series with
models available for gears up to 3,000 mm
in diameterthe 175GMScompletes the
development of the GMS series and replaces

the very successful 175GMM. The 175GMS

includes noteworthy features such as:
- Surface finish measurement and prismatic
feature measurement.
- The first GMS system to feature the new
Windows 7-based Gleason GAMATM
3.0 applications software suite.
- A highly intuitive user interface and simple
input screens for programming of work
pieces and cutting tool data.
- Built-in tutorial information for gear features with text, pictures and videos that are
user editable.
Easy setup, state of the art remote I/O
controls system and improved movement
optimization significantly reduce the cycle

times required for the complete inspection

of almost any gear or gear tool as compared
to other gear measurement systems on the
- A new-generation Renishaw 3D scanning
probe head to provide maximum accuracy
and flexibility for the complete inspection
of all kinds of gears and gear-cutting tools
and, in particular, finer pitch gears.
A new ergonomically mounted operator
workstation and an Advanced Operator
Interface (optional) both designed to
greatly improve the operators effectiveness
at every stage of the inspection process.
The Advanced Operator Interface puts a
number of powerful tools right at the operators fingertips, including an environmental
monitoring station to record temperature
and humidity as well as video telephony,
note pad and voice mail messaging capability, Gleason Connect for enhanced remote
diagnostic support, creation of standard work
instructions, online training tools, multilingual communication and more.
Gleason Corporations mission is to be
The Total Gear Solutions Provider to its
global customer base. Gleason is a world
leader in the development, manufacture,
and sale of gear production machinery and
related equipment. The Companys products are used by customers in automotive,
truck, aircraft, agriculture, mining, wind
power, construction, power tool and marine
industries and by a diverse set of customers
serving various industrial equipment markets. Gleason has manufacturing operations
in Rochester, New York; Rockford, Illinois;
Dayton, Ohio; Munich and Ludwigsburg,
Germany; Studen, Switzerland; Bangalore;
India, Suzhou, China and Niigata, Japan;
and Gleason has sales and service offices
throughout both North and South America,
Europe, and in the Asia-Pacific region of the

Companies wishing to submit materials for inclusion in Industry News should contact the Managing Editor Anna Claire Conrad at Releases accompanied by color images will be given first consideration.



GMTA has formed an alliance with Star
SU LLC in Hoffman Estates, Illinois to
manufacture Scudding tools for the North
American market. Scudding is the radical
improvement on traditional power skiving
technology for gear production, long proven
in the market to be faster, more accurate
and versatile in use. Often thought to be
limited to internals only, Scudding is fast
beginning to compete in certain applications
with hobbing on external gears and splines,
as well.
David Goodfellow of Star SU
signed the agreement with GMTA president
Walter Friedrich and VP Scott Knoy.
-GMTA continues to expand its representation of K + G (Kristen + Gormann),
a tooling manufacturer in Germany that
supplies the industry with products for inside
grooving, turning, profile milling, facemilling, geartooth milling, chamfering and

Spline Milling on
Traditional CNC Equipment
Utilizing custom ground form inserts and standard
precision ground tool bodies with a precise insert locking
and locating system, TMFM LLC can turn spline hobbing
operations into a true milling scenario!


KISSsoft Highlights


3719 N. Spring Grove Road
Johnsburg, Illinois 60051
Phone (815) 363 8823

Strength calculation and 3D models of

beveloid gears
Simulation of flank wear based on
iterative calculation
Enhanced sizing for gear modifications
3D display of shafts and bearings
Efficiency and thermal rating in KISSsys
And many more ...

Multi-Industry Solutions

Get your free trial version at

earSol_KISSsoft_Rel_03_2014_Highlights_92_25x123_83mm.indd 1




5/5/2014 10:57:35 AM

back angling. K + G became the third line

added in 2014 to the family of manufacturers currently represented by GMTA, joining
Arnold lasers and Rosink parts washers.
-GMTA now offers a full integration service for production lines on gears, splines and
other powertrain components. Bringing the
various machine tool, laser and parts washer
lines together, along with robotics, transfer
mechanisms and other high-end automation, GMTA engineering has the ability
to provide nearly end-to-end capability to
many shops and production departments
at major OEMs and Tier vendors. As VP
Scott Knoy explains, We now offer our customers a comprehensive package of equipment, application engineering, tooling support, commissioning and after-sales service.
-GMTA will be exhibiting at Gear Expo
and EMO, this year, the latter in conjunction with partner companies in Europe.
-GMTA is supplying Magna Powertrain
a variety of machine tools and systems for
its Audi Flex program, both in Muncie,
Indiana and Mexico.

-Both Ford and General Motors plants

have purchased additional Praewema honing
machines for various transmission programs.
-Jernberg Industries, Inc. in Bolingbrook,
Illinois has added its fifth Profilator machine
for ring gear production.
-GMTA hosted a field trip for the students
in the German Clubs at two local schools to
the famous Kristkindlmarkt at Daley Plaza in
downtown Chicago. The festival is a recreation of the classic German street markets set
up for the Christmas season, featuring artisans and craftsmen selling their wares, plus
music, food and drink for the season, including gluhwein! The students and their leaders
had a good time. Froeliche Weihnachten
thats Merry Christmas in German. Leading
the event for GMTA was the corporate treasurer, Claudia Hambleton. A good time and
much gemtlichkeit were had by all.
For more information on this announcement, please contact Scott Knoy, Vice
President of GMTA, by phone at (734)
973-7800, or through an email at scott@


Raycar manufactures high
quality smooth running gears
offering competitive pricing
and quick turn around.


Raycar Gear & Machine Co.
6125 11th Street
Rockford, IL 61109


Phone: 815.874.3948


3500DS to German Customer


R&P Metrology GmbH announced the successful completion of acceptance trials of a
new RPG 3500DS at their Aschaffenburg,
Germany, facility. The machine, a four axis
(+1) generative gear inspection systems capable
of measuring parts of up to 3,500mm (4000mm
optionally) in outside diameter, was delivered to
a customer in Germany.
Utilizing the basic design and construction of the transportable R&P Metrology PM
750/1250, the RPG 3500DS has an active
air suspension system and does not require a
special foundation. The use of dark granite
provides excellent temperature stability that
enhances inspection accuracy and repeatability.
The RPG 3500DS comes with state-of-the-art
technologies like air bearings, linear motors,
direct drive hydrostatic rotary table, newly
designed operator friendly keyboard with touch
screen, and the unique RP Utilities software for

easy operation. R&P Metrology Finally, the

machine can be offered with a very attractive
price, said R&P Metrology President Hans
The R&P Metrology RPG 3500DS checks
spur and helical gears, pinion shafts and double
helical gears, as well as bevel gears, hypoid
gears, worms, worm wheels and cutting tools.
With optional CMM software installed, all types
of 3D CMM measurements are possible.
R&P Metrology designs and builds gear
metrology equipment, concentrating on
medium and large parallel axis gears, bevel
gears, tools, shafts, bearing rings and 3D parts.
Extended capacity requirements for large applications, and customizing are the specialties
of R&P Metrology. R&P also offers hybrid
systems that uniquely combine gear measurement with conventional CMM metrology as
well as customized solutions for vertical and
horizontal shaft applications, such as camshafts
and crankshafts.
All R&P machines utilize proven CNC
control and analysis software and granite guide ways with air bearing slides, a



benchmark for the industry. State-of-the-art

linear motors drive technologies are employed
for accuracy and long life.Support, service and
sales for North America is provided by Kapp
Technologies in Boulder, Colorado.
For more information on these services, contact Dwight Smith, sales manager at KAPP
Technologies, at (734) 516-1365, or by email at

New hobbing machine

LCH 180 two from Liebherr


Liebherr has developed a gear-hobbing
machine that applies a multi-cut strategy,
including press deburring. Continual loading and press deburring occur in parallel

Seamless rolled Rings 4-144OD CARBON ALLOY STAINLESS

At McInnes Rolled Rings, we take pride in the high level of speed
and service provided to each of our customers, large or small.

When you need it now, trust McInnes.





5 days!

during machining time. Separate machine

operations take place ton two machine
tables, each able to swivel 180 and easily
accessible, roughing in two phasespressing, and finishing. After the blank is locked
in and tightened, it is swiveled, and the first
cut of the gear takes place on table 1, while
the chamfer is produced by pressing on table
2. After another swivel, finishing takes place
in order to eliminate the bulging that occurs
as a result of pressing. The finishing process
is key to this cycle. It is a stand-alone process
not subject to crossover impacts generated
by a parallel process on the neighbouring
We chose this strategy, since external
mechanical encumbrances should be excluded during machining, especially during the
precision finishing process, Dr. Hansjrg
Geiser said. The quality of the components
of the flanks in particular and the reliability
of the process as a whole benefit from this.
The blanks are loaded from the attached
palletizer cell, where they are stored in baskets, as per the automotive standard.
For more information, contact Thomas
Weber at +49 (0) 831 786-3285 or email him


Why wait...














Hobbing machine with two horizontally

arranged work piece spindles with separate
press deburring unit with palletizer

Gear Manufacturers

Madelaine Morgan
Director of Meetings

Networking in Wine Country

by Madelaine Morgan

Theres no doubt that the jointly sponsored

2015 American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) and American Bearing
Manufacturers Association (ABMA) Annual Meeting will create lasting and very special memories. Come and join the industry leaders as we experience the legendary
Napa Valley, Wednesday, April 29, through
Friday, May 1, 2015, when we meet at the
Meritage Resort and Spa in Napa, California. There is no comparable to visiting
the Napa Valley. Here is a destination that
offers world-class wines and miles of farmto-table cuisine served alfresco so you can
take advantage of the California climate.
This is a first for the AGMA and ABMA
members as we venture into wine country
for some of the best network experiences

and opportunities to bring home the latest best practices from fellow gear and
bearing industry executives. The planning committee has created a meeting
experience that is sure to prepare you
and your businesses for the coming years.
In addition to the educational sessions,
it will be a great time to engage in dialogue with your peers and find the latest
and greatest of our industry in the postrecession era.
The speaker line-up for the meeting is
top-notch. The topics will both inspire
you and provide you, your company and
colleagues with much-needed updates
and knowledge on several important
business related topics.
This year, we look at some new top-

ics and faces and welcome back favorites.

Confirmed speakers include Harry Moser, founder and president of the Reshoring Initiative; Jim Meil, Principal Industry
Analysis, ACT Research Co; Michael Rodgers, futurist in residence, The New York
Times; and Derek Daly, International Racing Champion, Best-Selling Author, and
televisions Face of Motor Sports. Many
of the presenters are in attendance for the
entire three days, which gives the attendees
unprecedented access to these professionals.
On the evening of Thursday, April 30,
attendees will have the experience of a lifetime with an off-site tour, wine tasting, and
wine pairing dinner at Artesa Vineyard in
Napa. The trip will include a chance to
taste and compare the Artesa Estate Reserve and Limited Reserve wines in the
winery. Then, they will be invited to partake in a dinner in the barrel room where
these same wines will be served along with
specifically paired courses prepared by the
chef and sommelier.


The annual golf tournament will not

take place this year in order for attendees
to venture out to several of the more than
400 wineries in the Napa area, or you can
try your luck with a Segway tour of downtown Napa. The spouses and guests have
several optional activities including a Napa
History Presentation and/or a chance to
go out among the vines and learn firsthand
the nuances of cultivating the grapes, harvesting, and processing them into the varietals.
The Meritage Resort and Spa promises
to be a comfortable and convenient setting
for peer-to-peer interaction. The resort is
surrounded by an active vineyard, complete
with a tasting room and estate cave. The re-

sort is only five miles from downtown Napa

and equal distance from either the San Francisco, Oakland, or Sacramento airports. Further information about the joint meeting,
including registration, hotel reservations,
agenda and program updates is located
online at Any additional
questions can be directed to AGMA at

We look forward to seeing you in Napa

and showing you how this experience can
impact you personally as an industry leader
and your company as you plan for the future.
This is a cant-miss event in a perfect
setting, accompanied by interesting colleagues, exciting adventures, good wine,
and exquisite food, all wrapped up into a
memorable three-day experience.

Trade Mission Highlights Japanese Gear Industry

In November, a group of AGMA members had
the opportunity to visit several Japanese gearing
and machine tool companies. Delegations allowed
participants to gain access to and insight from a
number of manufacturing plants not normally open
to groups. Members of the delegation noted that
they gained invaluable insight into the manufacturing processes of a unique market. Participants
also reported that the trip provided great networking possibilities both with potential Japanese trading partners and with AGMA members, and a better
understanding of Japanese values and culture.
The trade mission kicked off with a visit to
the Japanese Machine Tool Trade Show, JIMTOF.
The JIMTOF show attracts more than 130,000
visitors with more than 10,000 o those included
from overseas. After the show, members of
the Japanese Gear Manufacturers Association
(JGMA) hosted a welcome reception for the group
prior to the start of their tour.
The delegation embarked on a tour to visit a
number of manufacturing plants in and around
Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka. The delegation visited
10 companies including:

AGMA members were hosted at a Welcome Reception

by the Japanese Gear Manufacturers Association

Iwasa Tech Co. Ltd.

Located in Chiba, it is the first company on the group
itinerary was Iwasa Tech, an AGMA member company
and a manufacturer specializing in high precision spiral, straight and skew bevel gears.

Kohara Gear Industry Co. Ltd.

Kohara, or KHK Stock Gears, is located near to Toyko
in Saitama. KHK offers an extensive number of gear
types, most of which can be customized to customer


In Nara, the delegation visited the Toai-ji shrine, location of the worlds largest bronze statue of Buddha.

Dressed in yukata kimonos, several of members of

the delegation gather prior to dinner with JGMA Board
Kikuchi Gear Co. Ltd.
A manufacturer of precision gears servicing a wide
variety of fields from aircraft and automotive to
construction machinery and printing, Kikuchi Gear is
located in Tochigi.
Tokyo Technical Instruments Inc.
Tokyo Technical Instruments (TTI), is a gear measurement machine manufacturer located in Tochigi. TTI is
an AGMA member.
DMG Mori Seiki Iga Plant
The group was then welcomed at the DMG Mori Seiki Iga
Plant. It is their main headquarters and largest plant
in Japan. DMG Mori Seiki, a machine tool manufacturer
and member of the AGMA, has three main production
locations in Japan and many overseas production locations and technical centers.

Whether youre looking for technical education, networking opportunities, or a way for your voice to be heard in the standards process,
AGMA has something to offer you. If you would like more information on any of the following events visit or send email to



**Events are open to AGMA members only. Not a member? Send e-mail to
Mill Gearing Committee Meeting January 6, 2015 WebEx
Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting January 7, 2015 WebEx
Powder Metallurgy Gearing Committee Meeting January 13, 2015 WebEx
Wormgearing Committee Meeting January 14, 2015 WebEx
Bevel Gearing Committee Meeting January 15, 2015 WebEx
Enclosed Drives for Industrial Applications Committee Meeting January 15, 2015 WebEx
Mill Gearing Committee Meeting January 16, 2015 WebEx
Fine Pitch Gearing Committee Meeting January 20, 2015 WebEx
Metallurgy & Materials Committee Meeting January 20, 2015 WebEx
Gear Accuracy Committee Meeting January 21, 2015 WebEx
Cutting Tools Committee Meeting January 22, 2015 WebEx
Enclosed Drives for Industrial Applications Committee Meeting January 22, 2015 WebEx
Helical Gear Rating Committee Meeting January 23, 2015 WebEx
Plastics Gearing Committee Meeting January 26-27, 2015 Ft. Myers, FL
Technical Division Executive Committee Meeting January 28-29, 2015 Orlando, Florida

Epicyclic Enclosed Drives Committee Meeting February 3, 2015 WebEx

Lubrication Committee Meeting February 5, 2015 WebEx
Aerospace Committee Meeting February 9-10, 2015 Reno, NV
Metallurgy & Materials Committee Meeting February 17, 2015 WebEx
Gear Materials: Selection, Metallurgy, Heat Treatment, and Quality Control February 18-20, 2015 Clearwater Beach, FL
Wind Turbine Committee Meeting February 19-20, 2015 Denver, CO
Wormgearing Committee Meeting February 24, 2015 WebEx

Kanzaki Kokyu Koki Mfg.

Kanzaki is a manufacturer of both machine tools and
gears. They are located in Hyogo.
Ueda Heavy Gear Works Ltd.
AGMAs newest member is Ueda Heavy Gear Works that is
located in Osaka. Ueda specializes in the manufacture of
large gears for the milling and mining industries.
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd
Perhaps best known for its brand of motorcycle, Kawasaki
also manufactures engines for its brand of watercraft
and robot systems as well as gas turbine engines for
large aircraft and marine uses. The delegation toured
the gear-manufacturing floor located at the plant in
Akashi City.

Nissei Corporation
Nissei is a manufacturer of high precision gears and
gear motors located in Aichi. Nissei is a business division of Brother Industries.
Yutaka Seimitsu Kogyo, Ltd.
Yutaka is a wholly owned subsidiary of Toyota Motor
Corporation and located in Seto City.
In addition to visiting the companies, participants were
able to visit many popular sights around the country.
The group enjoyed the sights of Toyko, including a visit
to the famous Ginza district and the Tsukiji fish market.
While visiting Kyoto, they visited the beautiful Kinkakuji or Golden Temple, a tour of the Gekkeikan Sake
Museum, and the Fushimi Inari-Taisha shrine.

Lou Ertel, Chairman, Overton Chicago Gear and AGMA

Chairman, presents Yoshikazu Abe, President, Iwasa
Tech Co. with a certificate of appreciation.




The AGMA Sound and Vibration Committee evaluates the
specifications and the methods
of monitoring sound and vibration, as applied to gearing, and
is generally focused on enclosed
gear drives. The committee recently published AGMA 919-1A14, Condition Monitoring and
Diagnostics of Gear Units and
Open Gears: Part 1 Basics, the
first part of a two part information sheet on condition monitor-

ing and diagnostics of gear

units and open gears. The
committee will next meet in
March to select new leadership and to start a discussion
on the second part of AGMA
919. Part two of AGMA 919
will look at the application of
diagnostic tools and instrumentation to analyze vibra
tion, acoustics, motor current
signature, and lubrication. The
information sheet will also

Gear Manufacturers

discuss the methods for condition monitoring, performing

diagnostics, monitoring temperature, establishing baseline data for trend analysis,
and non-destructive testing of
in-service gear units and open
gearing. For more information
about the AGMA Sound and
Vibration Committee contact
Justin Sikorski either by email
at or by
phone at 703-838-0057.

1001 N. Fairfax Street | Suite 500 Alexandria, VA 22314

(703) 684-0211 |


John Cross: President, ASI Technologies

Lou Ertel: Chairman

Overton Chicago Gear Corporation

Kenneth J. Flowers: Owner and Vice President, Machine Tool Builders, Inc.

Matt Mondek: Chairman Emeritus

Bill Gornicki: Vice President Sales & Marketing, ALDHolcroft Vacuum Technologies Co., Inc.

President/CEO, Reliance Gear Corporation

Dean Burrows: Treasurer

President,Nixon Gear

John Strickland, Jr.: Chairman, BMEC

Fairfield Manufacturing Co.

Buzz Maiuri: Chairman, TDEC

Senior Product Manager, The Gleason Works

Joe T. Franklin, Jr.: President

Amir Aboutaleb: Vice President , Technical Division
Jill Johnson: Director, Member Services




John E. Grazia: President, GearTec Inc.

Sulaiman Jamal: Managing Director, Bevel Gears India
Steve Janke: President, Brelie Gear Company, Inc.
Jan Klingelnberg: CEO/CFO, Klingelnberg
Justin McCarthy: Vice President , Sales, Scot Forge Company
Mark Michaud: President, REM Surface Engineering
Brian L. Schultz: President, Great Lakes Industry, Inc.
Dylan Smith: President, VanGear
Wendy Young: President, Forest City Gear Company

General requests: | Membership questions: | Gear Expo information:
Technical/Standards information: | AGMA Foundation:

A Great Gear Company

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Fred Eberle

Technical Engineer
Hi-Lex Automotive Center

This month we are going to discuss several critically important factors designers
need to know when developing an application with molded plastic gears.

a standard generated gear design. Why?

Because the molding process gives us several
opportunities to optimize the gear geometry
in ways that are either not possible with classical cutting methods or practical-based on
cost and difficulty. One mold makes many
gears, so invest your resources in the design
and the mold. Consider the gear in Figure 1
that meshes against a steel driver:


This is very important because the tooth

tip of the driver will slide into contact with
the plastic gear at the start of the active
profile until it gets to the operating pitch
diameter, where theoretically, sliding ceases
and the involutes roll. As the driving tooth
passes the pitch point, sliding again occurs
and reaches a maximum at the end of the
active profile. Specific sliding is directly
proportional to the rate of frictional heat
that is generated at the surface layer of
the tooth. We generally want to limit the
sliding ratio to less than 3.0 so that the
gear does not heat up, make changes in the
crystalline structure, distort or in the worst

casemelt. Specific sliding is strictly a

function of geometry. Unlike metals, wide
swings in operational temperature have
a dramatic impact on plastic mechanical
properties, i.e. strength, fatigue, and creep.
Generally, plastic gears either have internal
lubrication in the material or are grease
lubricated. However, if the application
is in an oil bath that can dissipate the
flank temperatures, sliding and wear
concerns are greatly reduced. Either way,
the designer needs to keep his eye on this
parameter as the optimization unfolds,
reduce specific sliding with addendum
modifications, increasing pressure angle or
tooth count, and move contact away from
the base circle.
total line of contact first to get the highest
profile contact ratio without tip to root
interference or excessive sliding.

only have a profile-contact ratio. However,
helical gears offer greater contact as a
function of the helix angle and face width.
Higher contact ratio is desirable for
increasing strength due to load sharing.
Generally, the more teeth in contact the less
noise is produced due to the averaging out
of errors. In applications where minimum
mass is required, gear face width can be
reduced by increasing the helix angle.
The total contact ratio is a function of the
profile plus the overlap ratio.
GEAR: Many times in power dense

applications, a plastic gear will mesh

with a much smaller metal pinion. This
opportunity will allow optimization of

the plastic gear to yield thicker, stronger

teeth. Gear designers know that thinning
and reducing strength of one gear allows
an opportunity to transfer that strength to
the mating gear. The other major benefit
comes from compliance of the plastic
teeth. Since the steel pinion is generally
much stiffer than the plastic mate, plastic
gear deflection tends to comply with
the steel flanks especially in unfilled
materials. Therefore, if a higher accuracy is
given to the steel member, the plastic gear
will conform to it under a certain load
level. As a result, many times, the index
and lead errors are not nearly as critical
for noise concerns and load distribution in
the compliant material.
(MIN MASS/VOLUME): In Figure 1,

the body of the gear is optimized for

stiffness, rim thickness and strength for
the application. In molding, maximize
tooth-ending strength through custom
root geometry to obtain the lowest possible
stress concentration in the high stress fillet
area. This is much easier and more effective
to do in a molded verses generated gear.
Optimize the plastic net shape structure to
give minimum mass, and always provide
uniform wall thicknesses critical to good a
molding process. The gear in Figure 1 was
optimized with high-level gear software,
finite element analysis and mold-flow

I n general commercial and industrial metal

gears may not require much in the way of
an evaluation of thermal energy. However,

Note: There are other factors that are beyond the scope of this document, but those may be incorporated in future articles.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Fred Eberle is a technical specialist in the development of gearing, drive motors, and power closure devices in the
automotive industry. He currently serves on the AGMA Plastic and PM Gearing Committees. Eberle has authored several papers on gearing,
measurement system analysis and process statistics. He can be reached at


plastic gears generally do. Most plastic

gear failures I have encountered revolve
around this very issue. Plastic gears should
be designed to Tight Mesh Condition
(Figure 2). This means the geometry is
designed at the MMC gear parameter (i.e.
tooth thickness, OD, tight centers), with the
highest temperature and greatest humidity
environmental application in mind. Under
this condition, the minimum acceptable
backlash is specified. Note: this requirement
is for both members of the mesh.

The idea is to avoid any binding during an extreme application condition. It

is a tragedy to see a gear drive over-heat

where you get even a very small interference condition. We have seen the compression and release mechanism of gear
teeth with each revolution cause greater
and greater thermal material expansion
to the point where the gear teeth begin
to melt and extrude. In fact, in one test
case a gear drive stopped running overnight. Disassembly revealed what seemed
impossiblethe plastic gear had no teeth.
What happened was that continuing flank
and tooth to root interference resulted in
a hysteresis that caused the temperature
to rise exponentially and continuously
expand the material until it could contact no more. When the drive cooled
down, there were no teeth left and quite
a gap existed between the two gear bodies. Optimized gear geometry will also
account for differences in effective center
distance resulting from thermal expansion between the gears and the housing.
Always remember to evaluate the gear
design at the opposite thermal boundary.
Make sure the worst case LMC Cold &

Dry condition of profile contact ratio

remains greater than 1.0.


In addition to the noise, vibration

dampening, compliance, and mass
benefits of plastic gears, there is a
huge financial incentive to molding net
shape components. A plastic net shape
versus the least expensive steel (smooth
blank) gear is can be as little as 1/10 to
1/5th the cost even with amortization
of the tool. However, molding tools
are very expensive relative to hobs and
shaper cutters.
Therefore, understanding and accounting for the critical factors in plastic gear
design will take the risk out of the process
and help you be successful. Plastic gear
molding is a very specific and highly technological expertise. It is not commodity
molding. The gear designer should look
for and work very closely with a molder
who specializes strongly or specifically in
precision plastic gearing.



P. Radzevich
TOOTH Stephen
Sr. Product Engineer

Eaton Corporation

Preliminary results of testing of low-tooth-count bevel gears of a

novel design, part 3
A SIMPLIFIED APPROACH TO CREATE THE CAD MODELS: For the manufacturing purpose, a

simplified approach can be used for the development of the CAD models of the gear and the pinion
in the right-angle bevel gear set under consideration. This approach is based on the schematic shown
in Figure1.
Using commercial software ProE, base cones of the gear and the pinion were constructed according
to Figure1. Then, a plane tangent to both base cones was constructed. This plane is the plane of
action, PA A circular arc of the radius Rlc=200mm is drawn within the plane of action so that it intersects the middle circle of the PA at the angle equal to 90 _ylc=80. The tooth flanks G and P of the
gear and the pinion were generated as the corresponding families of the desirable line of contact,LCdes,
in its motion in relation to a reference system associated with the gear (for the CAD model of the
bevel gear), and in its motion in relation to a reference system associated with the pinion (for the CAD
model of the bevel pinion). Use of the discussed approach enables one to develop CAD models of the
gear and the pinion in the right-angle bevel gear set (Fig.3).

Figure 1: Generation of the tooth flank of the geometrically accurate bevel gear, G

The accuracy of the developed CAD model

was verified by means of sections of the tooth
flanks G and P by a plane tangent to the base
cone of the gear (and of the pinion) as illustrated in Fig.4. In all cases, the tooth flanks
G and P make line contact with each other.
The developed CAD models were used
for rapid prototyping (plastic models of the
gear and the pinion for the right-angle bevel
gear set are illustrated in Figure 5) and also
was converted to a G-code for cutting bevel
gears of the proposed design on a five-axis NC
machine (Fig.6). When cutting the gears, the
radius of curvature,Rlc,of the desirable line of
contact, LCdes, is set equal to both the convex
and concave tooth flanksG and P of the gear
and the pinion (Rlc=200mm). The tolerances
for the tooth flanks accuracy are of the same
magnitude d, but of the opposite sign, that
0 for the
is, the radius Rlc is set equal to 200-d
convex tooth flanks G andP, and it is set equal
to 2000d for the concave tooth flanks.
The accuracy of the machined bevel gears
was verified by means of the laser scanning of

Figure 2: Configuration of the desirable line of

contact, LCdes, within the plane of action, PA .

Known formulae and equations derived for bevel gears are also valid for gears with a large tooth count and not vice versa.
This equation was proposed by Prof.Shishkov as early as in 1948 (or even earlier) in his paper:Shishkov,V.A.,Elements of Kinematics of Generating and Conjugating in Gearing,in:Theory and Calculation of Gears, Vol.6,
Leningrad: LONITOMASH, 1948. In detail, this equation is also discussed in the monograph: Shishkov,V.A.,Generation of Surfaces in Continuously Indexing Methods of Surface Machining, Moscow, Mashgiz, 1951, 152pages.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Stephen P. Radzevich, Ph.D. is with the Innovation Center in the Eaton Corporations automotive business segment. He
can be reached at (248) 226-6831 or


the machined tooth flanks with the consequent

comparison of the scanned data with the corresponding points generated by the CAD model.
The actual tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion deviate from the desirable tooth flanks G and
P less than 0.01 mm.

bevel gears of the developed design was investigated in comparison to that of the similar
gear set cut using Gleason method of gear
generating. The comparison is performed
based on the developed CAD models.
Predicting the contact geometry of the tooth
flanks. When a bevel gear tooth flank is
generated following Gleason method of gear
generating, the contact patch (Fig. 7) is of

non-uniform width that is clear follows from

the analysis of contact patches at a low load
(Fig.7a), as well as at a high load (Fig.7b).
The contact patches are considered only
within the active face width where the tooth
flanks G and P overlap one another.
These two types of the contact patch
convince us that, geometrically, the gear and
the pinion tooth flanks make contact at a

Contact pattern. Before running a contact

pattern test, the contact geometry of the

Choose from one of our portable

or laboratory systems, or utilize
our ISO 17025 laboratories for
accurate and efcient contract
measurement services.
For more information contact us at or 1-313-965-2900

Figure 3: CAD models of the gear and the pinion in

the right-angle bevel gear set.








Figure 4: Tooth flanks G and P of the gear and the pinion are always in line contact with each other.

Figure 5: Plastic models of the gear and the pinion

in the right-angle bevel gear set.

distinct point and not a line. Because of the

point contact, contact stresses in the vicinity
of the contact points are always increased.
Point contact between the tooth flanks of
bevel gears cut by Gleason method is the
result of violation of the second and the
third conditions listed at the beginning
of the paper. The violation of the second
and the third conditions occur because the
geometry of the tooth flank of the imaginary crown rack generated by the cutting
edges of the face milling cutter deviates
from that of the desirable imaginary crown
rack. In cases of gears with a large tooth
count these deviations are usually small
and often can be ignored. In cases of gears

with a few teeth the deviations become

much larger and cannot be ignored.
In cases of the geometrically accurate
bevel gears, the contact patch is of uniform width (Fig. 8). Therefore, the gear
and the pinion tooth flanks make line
contact with each other, and not point
contact. The line contact between tooth
flanks G and P is observed due to all
three conditions are fulfilled in the case
of geometrically accurate bevel gearing.
Line contact between the tooth flanks G
and P results in a uniform loading of the
bearing surfaces and in the corresponding
reduction of the contact stresses.
When the gear tooth flanks are in line contact, it is anticipated that the contact pattern
spreads over the entire tooth flank of the gear
and the pinion as shown in Fig.9.
Contact pattern in bevel gearing of
the proposed design. The actual contact
pattern in the machined gears (Fig. 6)
spreads over the entire tooth flank of the
gear and the pinion as shown Fig.10 (and
as it was predicted in Fig. 9). This type
of the contact pattern is the most desirable as it makes possible even loading of
all portions of the gear and the pinion
tooth flanks

Figure 6: The gear and the pinion in the right-angle bevel gear set cut on a 5-axis NC machine



Bevel gears with a novel geometry of the tooth flanks are discussed
in the paper. Three requirements which geometrically accurate
gearing must meet are outlined. Gearing of the proposed design

satisfies all three of necessary conditions for geometrically accurate

gearing. Due to that, the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion
are always in line contact with one another. Line contact of the
tooth flanks is favorable as it allows for a reduction of contact stress.
Because of the tooth flanks of the gear and the pinion are in line
contact this significantly improves the contact pattern. Ultimately,
the torque density can be increased; the noise excitation can be
reduced, as well as performance of the gear pair in whole can be
improved. The gearing of the proposed design is especially useful
in cases when tooth count of the gear and the pinion goes down
to twelve teeth and a fewer. Gears with tooth flanks of the novel
geometry can be cut either on a multi-axis NC machine by a ballnose milling cutter, or on conventional bevel gear generators using
for this purpose novel methods of gear generating [2]. Conventional
methods of bevel gear machining [3] enable only an approximated
generation of the tooth flanks that commonly is applicable in case
of gears with a large tooth count. The gears can be cut to the blueprint, that is, with equal base pitches. Once the base pitches of the
finish-cut gears are equal (see the above listed requirement No. 3),
then no lapping is required to finish bevel gears.

Figure 7: Contact patch under a low and high load in gears cut by Gleason

Figure 8: Contact patch in gears of the proposed design.

Figure 10: Contact pattern in the gears of the proposed design.

ADDITIONAL AUTHORS: Vishnu Irigireddy, MS,Apex Tool Group,

LLC, Lexington, South Carolina, USA. Phone:+803-808-6738(off),
803-466-1087(cell), e-mail:
Sandeep M. Vijayakar, Ph.D., advanced Numerical Solutions LLC. 3962
Brown Park Drive, Suite C, Hilliard OH 43026 USA, Phone: (614)7714861 (614)771-4861, Fax: (614)453-8762, e-mail: sandeep@ansol.
com. John Stewart, Apex Tool Group, LLC, Lexington, South Carolina,
USA, Phone:+803-951-7559(off), 803-800-4547(cell), e-mail: John. Ty P. Warner, P.E., TYKA Engineering,
LLC, Eagle River, Wisconsin, USA, Phone: +218-341-9689 (cell),
Figure 9: The anticipated contact pattern in the gearing of the proposed design.






Jack Titus

Director of Process and Developmental Engineering


Through comparison to common household devices, this column

explores todays heat-treating process involving furnaces and pumps.

treatment application, atmospheric and

vacuum furnaces use pumps. In this column, the pumps I reference refer to any
device designed to move or remove fluids,
such as water and oil, and gas. Fans also
fall into this classification, including ones
that circulate an atmosphere gas at ambient
and elevated temperatures. Combustion
air blowers and pressure boosters for cooling parts are also types of pumps.
A proper understanding of the applications and operations of these systems can
be gained by comparing them with common household devices.
Everyone has heard about convection
ovens, radiation from fireplaces or vacuum
cleaners with superior suction and high
efficiency home furnaces. Heat-treating
furnaces use industrial strength versions of
these same devices.
Have you ever wondered whats happening when you place your hand over
the suction end of a vacuum cleaner or an
object is sucked into the hose? When the
vacuum motor speeds up and makes a high
pitch sound, the motor is actually doing
less work because less air is being moved
by the vacuum cleaners impeller,. Even
though the motor is doing less work, it will
overheat due to a lack of air circulation.
Vacuum furnaces use vacuum pumps to
evacuate the air from the chamber. When
it is first turned on, the pump is working very hard because a lot of air is being
removed. As the pressure is lowered, the
remaining air density inside of the vessel
is reduced.
Much like the vacuum cleaner, the
pump motor sees much less resistance.

Therefore, the horsepower required to turn

the pumps rotors or piston is reduced. The
motor speed, however, does not change.
Vacuum pumps are cooled by water, so
overheating is not a concern. They can run
continuously this way.
Atmosphere furnaces employ fans to
circulate an atmosphere over parts, which
require carburizing, for example. In addition, the fans also assist in heating the
parts when first charged into the hot zone.
When room temperature parts are exposed
to the hot furnace environment at 1700F
(926C), the primary mode of heat transfer
is by radiation. This is the same energy
you feel when sitting directly in front of
an open fireplace. Parts positioned on the
outside surface of the load see radiant heat
directly. Parts in the center are shielded
from direct radiation so that the fan circulates hot gas through the load by convection. Here again, gas density plays a role in
the effectiveness of the fan.
As with the vacuum cleaner and vacuum
pump, gas density affects the fans performance. As any gas is heated, its density is
decreased by the ratio to absolute temperature, or the corrected influence of gas on
the fan known as the standard temperature
pressure, or STP. When endothermic gas
used for carburizing is heated, the space
between each atom in effect is increased.
Thus, the number of molecules of CO +
H2 + N2 that the fan can move per minute
is reduced, resulting in decreased gas flow.
At STP and ambient room temperature, a
fan is designed to recirculate gas at a specified volumetric rate6,000 CFM, for
example. Each blade of a furnaces radial
fan is similar in function to the multi-

blade or squirrel cage fan in your home

furnace and moves a fixed amount of gas
or air creating a velocity and static pressure
that slightly exceeds the system resistance
throughout your homes heating and return
ducts. In the winter, as the furnace heats
the homes air, the density of the air is
very slightly decreased. Conversely, in the
summer, the air conditioner cools the air
increasing its density slightly. In the summer, the fan motor works slightly harder. In
winter, slightly less. In a carburizing furnace
at 1700F (926C), a cubic foot of gas has
expanded, but the fixed capacity of the fan
has not. Therefore, each fan blade captures
fewer molecules thus moving less gas consuming less horsepower.
Furnace designers face a conundrum
when carburizing temperatures are increased
to reduce carburizing time. The higher the
temperature in an atmosphere furnace the
fewer carbon bearing atoms occupy the
furnace volume. Making up for fewer gas
molecules requires the fan to rotate faster to
circulate more gas through the load. Since
the diffusion of carbon increases at a higher
temperature while the number of CO molecules decrease the potential for starving the
parts surface of carbon is a real possibility.
However, rotating the fan faster dramatically increases the centrifugal stresses on the
fan blades while the elevated temperature
reduces the alloys strength. This phenomenon is also the reason fans are not affective
in a vacuum furnace. There are fewer gas
molecules to move.
This column is the first in explaining
some of the science involved and the issues
designers face in an attempt to meet 21st
century heat-treating demands.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Hot Seat columnist Jack Titus has an additional column in Thermal Processing for Gear Solutions, in which he discusses
scheduled maintenance of furnaces, distortion control, and low-pressure carburizing. Jack Titus can be reached at (248) 668-4040 or Go online to or



Anna Claire Conrad

Associate Editor
Gear Solutions Magazine

In the wake of the New Year, gear-manufacturing institutions across the globe are
making continuing education and training a priority for 2015. This is resulting in a
more qualified workforce, leading to better products and services.

I understood the value of education. I

attended the best schools in my area, studied hard, and always turned in my best
effort. Thanks to their good example and
constant push for me to take advantage of
the opportunities in front of me, I remain
a student to this dayconstantly observing,
absorbing, and trying to make sense of the
world around me.
That same quest for learning is necessary
to be successful in the gearing community.
With so many innovations in gear technology, its crucial that those involved engineers, employers, manufacturers, business
owners, educators, and employeeskeep
up with it all. Just as a stalled car wont
carry you anywhere, nor can a workforce
insufficiently trained in the latest technology. Thats why continuing education is so
valuable in this industry.
The new year will bring ample opportunities for the gear industry to expand
its knowledge of everything from cutting
processes and grinding to dear design and
engineering. These dates of interest can be
easily pinpointed in Gear Solutions 2015
Last year, we witnessed several titans
of the gear-manufacturing industry offer
classes and training sessions for those seeking to learn and perfect their art. Kapp
Technologies is one of those institutions.
Last year, the Kapp-Niles Rocky Mountain
Gear Finishing Schoolthe premier of its

kind in the United Statesprovided classroom- and shop-floor-style lessons focused

on advances in profile and generating gear
grinding. This program attracted students
from around the globe, greenhorns and
veterans alike, proving education is indeed
a career-long enterprise.
This years Rocky Mountain Gear
Finishing School will take place September
16-18 in Boulder, Colorado.
Similarly, you cant discuss education in
the gear community without mentioning
the Gleason Corporation. Just like last year,
Gleason has dominated our 2015 calendar
by offering several training sessions each
month throughout the new year ranging
from machine operations and maintenance
to gear lapping and heat treatments through
The Gleason Works. Open to novices and
experts alike, the training opportunities
can be found on Gleasons website and in
our calendar.
Continuing its long-standing commitment to professional development, this year,
the AGMA another big name in education within the gear industry is, of course,
AGMA. Throughout the past nine years,
this institution has gradually built up its
advanced gear engineering course opportunities to create the AGMA Advanced
Engineering Academy. Last year, more than
1,400 people took advantage of those classes, and the numbers keep trending upward.
Participants were awarded an AGMA
Advanced Gear Engineering Certificate.

In addition to the courses and webinars

AGMA offers, theres also the 2015 Gear
Expo coming up in October, where people
can see firsthand whats going on in the gear
industry and learn what they need to do
to best benefit their clients and workforce.
As AGMA approaches its 100th anniversary in 2016, the association expects to
ramp up its education and training opportunitiesincluding z historical look at the
advances in gear manufacturing technology
over the past century.
Since its founding in 1916, the AGMA
has broadened its leadership role as the
gear industry weathered ever-changing
global markets, economic pitfalls, wars,
and technological advances. The AGMA was
originally founded to solve a problem the
gears used in street railway operations were
loud, resulting in the need for standardized practices within the industry. Today,
the association tackles modern problems
within the industry and creates discussion
among gear manufacturers furthering its
role in education.
Regardless of experience or expertise, the
gear manufacturing industry offers plentiful, wide-ranging opportunities for professional development. Make sure to check out
our interview with Jeannine Kunz, managing director of workforce development and
education at the Society of Manufacturing
Engineers (SME), for more ways to take
advantage of educational opportunities for
yourself and your employees in 2015.


- Additional information regarding the 8th annual Rocky Mountain Finishing School and the strides Kapp-Niles in making on the forefront of gear education
can be found online at its website,
- More information regarding the Gleason Works and its educational opportunities can be found at
- All major dates of interest and information regarding the AGMA can be found online at
- Information regarding the opportunities mentioned above and others offered throughout 2015 can be found on our calendar, at,
and on our app.
For more information on workforce development and education, please see our conversation with Jeanine Kunz of the SME on page 56.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Contact Anna Claire, associate editor, Gear Solutions (205) 380-1573 ext. 205.



Allen Adams Shaper

Services, Inc.


From the ashes of Fellows Corporation rose Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc., which has
been serving companies and people in need of gear shaping services and machine repair
since its inception in 2002.
By Anna Claire Conrad
As people embark on new adventures in 2015, many are met
with the frustration of sticking to their resolutions. Some people
may want to lose some weight before spring arrives, and there
may be others who hope to be more frugal with their annual
expenses. Then, there are those who hope to improve on their
character by being more dependable and honest. Luckily for Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc., those qualities have been at its
core since its inception in 2002.
We just want people to know that were trustworthy, Allen
Adams, president and owner, said. We supply qualified service
and repair parts for their machines. We will fill their order and
get it back to them when they need it. More importantly, when I
tell them something, Im telling them the truth. Im not pulling
their leg or jerking them around. Its what I truly believe.
With approximately 10 employees working out of its one facility in Proctorville, Vermont, and one serviceman who travels
across the country, its sense of character and morale is what has
made Shaper Services the success it is today with a customer
base reaching all across North America.
We make repair parts as well as service machines, and we
serve anything from aircraft to heavy equipment to automotive, just the whole range, Adams said. We are also able to
completely rebuild machines in our shop. Some of our customers
include Curtis Wright, Southern Gear, Allison Transmission,
Caterpillar, GM, and Ford. We travel all around repairing machines, and we also do a lot of that in the shop.
Its always interesting to come across a small company with
a reach as broad as Sharper Services, and that is in part due
to its connection to the former Fellows Corporation, originally
dubbed Fellows Gear Shaper Company in 1896 by its founder
Edwin R. Fellows.
Once a titan in the gear shaping and service industry that survived the Great Depression and two world wars, it fell apart in
2002 after being acquired by the Emhart Corporation in 1974
and then by Goldman Industrial Group in 1984. Goldman filed
for bankruptcy in 2002 and in July of that same year, Bourn &
Koch, Inc., of Rockford, Illinois, acquired the gear shaper machine tool manufacturing assets and the gear shaper and StarSU, Inc., of Hoffman Estates, Illinois, acquired the cutting tool
manufacturing assets.
However, where Fellows fell, Shaper Services stood tall.
We opened our doors right after Fellows closed theirs, Adams said. Since then, weve started out doing exclusively service

work on machines for customers in the field. We have established

a facility to rebuild, repair and CNC retrofit here at our shop.
Another asset that Shaper Services brings to the table is the
decades of experience and trust its employees earned from
working at Fellows before it shut down.
We have a lot of former Fellows employees, even though
our numbers are small, Adams said. We have a core group
that were all Fellows employees, so we have a lot of previous
knowledge and a lot of years between us. Our customers know
us from Fellows and were comfortable and happy to do business with us at Shaper Services. I was at Fellows for 21 years
before starting this company. We have an engineer who was
there 35 years and a guy in the shop who was there for over
20 years.
Other companies, typically, that are starting out on their
own may have a lot of machine tool knowledge, but very little
shaper knowledge, Adams said. Or they might know how
to operate machines and are learning where all of the parts
come from, whereas we have a lot of the known history directly from Fellows because we worked there.
In addition to having decades of experience under their
belts, Shaper Services also offers the appeal of having the
younger generation working for the family business with Adams son, Nathan, traveling and doing CNC, mechanical,
retrofit, and service work at the shop.
Were not a company that plans to be here for a few years
and then close up and leave, Adams said. The second generation is working here now, and we plan to be here for many,
many years.



Application of ICME to Optimize

Metallurgy and Improve Performance
of Carburizable Steels
By Jeff Grabowski, Jason Sebastian, Aziz Asphahani, Clay Houser, Kerem Taskin and Dave Snyder, QuesTek Innovations LLC

QuesTek Innovations LLC has successfully designed and developed four new steels
that can be used in gearing applications, two of which have been implemented
in demanding gear and bearing applications in ground and aerospace military,
commercial aerospace, high-performance racing, oil and gas, and other industries
Q u e s Te k
I n n ovat i o n s
(QuesTek) of
Evanston, IL
uses its proprietary Materials by
Design expertise and technology
in conjunction with its ICME-based
methodologies to rapidly design,
develop and qualify advanced
alloys into demanding applications.
Accelerating the historically slow
and expensive materials design and
development process, QuesTeks
approach integrates extensive
thermodynamic and kinetic databases
with advanced computational modeling
tools to develop and optimize precise
chemical compositions and processing
parameters ensure specified property
targets and meet desired performance
Optimization of design
demands consideration of tradeoff in
materials properties, necessitated by
competing requirements.
QuesTek has computationally
designed and developed many new
ultra-high-perfor mance alloys,
Typical alloy properties

YS, ksi UTS, ksi

coatings, and materials including

iron-, copper-, aluminum-, nickel-,
molybdenum-, and titanium-based
materials and numerous others. As
a global leader in the field of ICME,
QuesTek has proven that these
materials can be developed much faster
and at lower cost, while also providing
unique, optimized properties that
directly meet user-defined material
performance goals for demanding
applications in aerospace, oil and gas,
high performance racing and other


Ferrium C61 (AMS 6517)
and C64 (AMS 6509) steels are
commercially available as secondaryhardening gear steels that provide
significantly improved tensile
strength, case hardness, fracture
toughness, fatigue strength, corrosion
resistance, and temperature resistance,
Core hardness,

EI, %

RA, %

resulting in performance benefits over

conventional gear steels such as AISI
9310 or Pyrowear Alloy 53. Table 1
provides a comparison of typical alloy
Ferrium C61 and C64 carburizable
gear steels have been approved for use
in a variety of demanding applications
in next generation helicopters as
upgrades from incumbent aerospace
gearing and shaft steels that have been
used for decades, being applied to
demanding flight critical applications
including transmission gear boxes and
rotor shafts. Further, these steels are
being applied to gearing components
in high-performance racing, wind
energy and oil and gas sectors.
Both C61 and C64 steels utilize
an efficient nanoscale M2C carbide
strengthening dispersion within a
nickel-cobalt lath martensitic matrix.
These Ferrium steels were designed
considering the complex interplay
of critical design factors including:
martensitic matrix stability (Ms

surface hardness,
toughness, ksiin


AISI 9310






Pyrowear Alloy 53









Ferrium C61 (AMS 6517)









Ferrium C64 (AMS 6509)









Table 1. Tabular comparison of gear steel properties (typical)

Printed with permission of the copyright holder, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1001 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 500, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.
Statements presented in this paper are those of the authors and may not represent the position or opinion of the AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION.



in decreased grinding stock removal;

R eduction of final machining
and finishing costs by eliminating
intergranular oxide formation and
reducing quench distortion;
4. Elimination of separate hardening
and oil quenching process steps after
carburization, thus dismissing associated
copper plating and stripping processes,
5. Preservation of good properties in large,
thick-sectioned components.
Figure 1. Gear steel heat treat comparison (typical)

Furthermore, numerous heat-treaters

have developed heat treatment cycles that
can achieve a wide range of case depth
profiles. This ability to dial in the depth
and profile of case carburization leads to
improved manufacturing flexibility and
control. Ferrium C61 and C64 steels
processing is covered under SAE AMS
2759/7, and QuesTek is currently
developing shot peening parameters and
optimizing superfinishing processes for
both steels.
Performance benefits
Benefits of using the Ferrium gear steels vs.
incumbent gear alloys such as Pyrowear
53, 9310 or EN36 - for power transmission
applications can include:


Figure 2. Initial STBF results for C64 steel and Pyrowear 53 (gears were manufactured and
processed typical of aerospace gears)
temperature); M2C carbide thermodynamic
stability and formation kinetics; matrix
cleavage resistance; and embrittling phase
thermodynamic stability.
Ferrium C64 was developed under a United
States Navy STTR program aimed at reducing
weight, improving fatigue performance,
and improving high temperature operating
capability of rotorcraft gear transmission
relative to the incumbent alloy Pyrowear 53.
Both C61 and C64 steels are being applied
to power transmission applications where
their very high core strengths, toughness and
other mechanical advantages provide benefits
including significantly reduced rotorcraft
drivetrain weight or increased power density.

Ferrium C61 and C64 steels processing
pathway permits significant reductions
in manufacturing costs and schedules.
Specifically designed to achieve high
hardenability and resist grain growth
at high temperatures, these steels take
advantage of mild-gas quenching and
high-temperature vacuum carburization
processes. This combination results in
considerable advantages (see Figure 1),
1. S horter thermal processing times at
higher carburizing temperatures;
2. Reduction of quench distortion, resulting

Gears and gearboxes using C-series Ferrium

steels can handle higher impact loads and
internal stress than comparable designs
using traditional materials. In some cases,
the gears and gearboxes can be reduced
in size and weight due in part to (1) C61
steels very high fracture toughness and
bending fatigue resistance, and (2) C64
steels excellent surface contact fatigue
resistance and bending fatigue resistance.


Integral driveshafts (e.g., with integral
gears) using C61 and C64 can handle
approximately 20-25% higher loads than
comparable driveshafts using traditional


YS, ksi

UTS, ksi

El., %

RA, %


KlC toughness, ksiin


Table 2. Ferrium S53 alloy typical property comparisons (vs. 4340, 9310, and 300M).
materials, or be reduced in size and weight
Figure 3.
by comparable amounts. C61s core UTS of Axial fatigue
240 ksi is a ~39% increase versus 9310, for
example. C64s surface hardness of 62-64 (Ferrium C61,
HRC cannot be achieved in conventional ~155 ksi, vs.
gear steels such as 9310 without sacrificing
9310, ~110
their fatigue-resistant microstructures.

The 900-925F tempering temperatures
of C61 and C64 steels are 400-600F
higher than most incumbent alloys, yielding
superior thermal stability. The combination


SINCE 1970

Quench & Temper
Flame Hardening
Solution Anneal
Shot blasting
Carbide Removal
Stress Relieve
Vacuum Heat Treating
Solution Treat and Age of Aluminum/Aerospace Specifications




Figure 4. Ferrium C61 prototype CH-47 Chinook helicopter forward rotor shaft manufacturing
pathway, illustrating forging (left and center) and rough machining (right).

Figure 5. Example of a Ferrium C61 ring-and-pinion set used in a high-performance racing


Figure 6. One of three S53 helicopter rotor shafts for Sikorskys MH-60S (scale bar in inches)
(AMS 6414)

(AMS 6419)

S-basis minimum ultimate tensile strength, ksi





S-basis minimum 0.2% yield strength, ksi





Minimum KIC fracture toughness, ksi-in





Reported minimum KISCC, ksi-in





Corrosion resistance





AerMet100 Ferrium M54

(AMS 6532) (AMS 6516)

NOTE: * No procurement minimum.

Table 3. Ferrium M54 property comparisons (vs. 4340, 300M, and AerMet100; Aerospace
Materials Specification [AMS] S-basis minimum value comparisons)

of high fatigue strength, thermal stability,

and high temperature strength translates to
excellent potential scuffing and/or scoring
fatigue resistance for both steels. These
attributes are expected to benefit gear
steel oil-out performance, leading to
an increase in time to reach acceptable
landing sites in emergency situations, for


Gears and gearboxes using C61 and C64
steels can handle higher impact loads
and internal stresses than comparable
designs using traditional materials. In
some cases, gears and gearboxes can
be reduced in size and weight due
in part to C61 and C64 steels very
high fracture toughness and bending
fatigue resistances. The combination
of excellent gear fatigue properties and
high surface hardness in C64 makes it
an option for improving durability (and
reducing weight) in rotorcraft component
designs that incor porate toothedgears with integral bearing races (e.g.,
planetary gears in epicyclical rotorcraft
transmission designs).
New axial and single tooth bending
fatigue data
In a U.S. Army-funded Phase II SBIR
program, QuesTek is further enhancing
the fatigue resistance of Ferrium C64
Recently completed testing
under the program consisted of single
tooth bending fatigue (STBF) testing on
C64 and Pyrowear 53 gears (see Figure
2). Testing concluded approximately
20% higher performance of C64 over
Pyrowear 53 at ambient temperature,
with a 50% failure stress of 219 ksi for
C64 steel and 182 ksi for Pyrowear 53.
For C61 core fatigue properties, refer to
Figure 3.
There is currently a need for improved
materials in rotorcraft platforms to allow
for increased power transmission or
weight reduction. Upgrades to engines
on platforms such as the AH-64 Block
III have been implemented in recent
years, and in order to utilize the full
power available by the engine upgrade,

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Figure 7. Ferrium M54 strain-controlled fatigue data (vs. AerMet100 data from Aerospace
Structural Metals Handbook)
transmission and gearing components
must also be upgraded. In some instances,
full power may not be achieved due to
limitations of current shafting materials
and the allowable design envelope, which

is of particular concern when considering

rotor shafts. Incumbent materials such
as 4340, AISI 9310 and Pyrowear Alloy
53 steels have not been able to keep pace
with the need for increased pay loads.




QuesTek is evaluating Ferrium C61

steel under a U.S. Army-funded SBIR
program as a potential replacement for
9310 in the CH-47 Chinook helicopter
forward rotor shaft. C61 steel typically
provides a 35% increase in ultimate tensile
strength and a 50% increase in fracture
toughness over 9310 steel, and is initially
expected to provide a 20% increase in
CH-47 payload capacity, excluding any
redesign or light-weighting efforts. See
Figure 4 for images from C61 prototype
CH-47 shaft production. Three prototype
rotor shafts were completed in 2013 with
full-scale rig testing and component-level
qualification to take place in 2014-2015.
In 2011, QuesTek announced a
subcontract award from Bell Helicopter,
a Textron Company, to jointly evaluate
the application of Ferrium C64 steel
for helicopter gears, as part of the
$30 million Technology Investment
Agreement awarded to Bell by the U.S.
Army Aviation Applied Technology
Directorate to develop state-of-the-art
drive system technology under the Armys


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Future Advanced Rotorcraft Drive

System (FARDS) program.1 QuesTek
has been working closely with Bell to
further develop the thermal processing
and finishing processes of C64 steel to
optimize the combination of strength and
hardness in the gear case and core, aiming
to achieve the targeted 55% improvement
in power-to-weight ratio, 35%
reduction in production, operating, and
support costs, and other improvements
in drive systems for the U.S. Armys
current/future fleet of rotorcraft and for
commercial rotorcraft.
Successful applications of C61 and
C64 steels include off-road racing and
NASCAR gearbox applications (see
Figure 5). These steels performance
is race-proven, with more than 100
ring-and-pinion sets made of C61 steel
used in highly demanding SCORE
International off-road races such as the
BAJA 1000. This application of C61 steel
has shown a 3-4 times improvement in
gear set durability versus the incumbent
9310 steel.
C61 and C64 steel application has
penetrated the oil and gas industry with
multiple private industry- funded material
development projects. C61 steel is being
considered as an upgrade from incumbent
oil and gas steels such as 9310, EN36A,
EN36B and EN36C, by offering much
greater strength and toughness. C64 steel
provides a much greater surface hardness,
with greater temperature and corrosion
resistance versus traditional carburizing
steels. These steels are being applied
to down hole transmission components,
gears, pinions and components where
durability, compactness, weight savings,
or high temperature resistance is valued.


Ferrium S53 alloy (AMS 5922, MMPDS05) is an ultra-high strength, corrosionresistant secondary- hardening steel
strengthened by an efficient M2C
carbide precipitation within a fine ductile
lath martensite matrix. Designed with
sufficient chromium to provide passivation
against general corrosion, S53 alloy has
much greater corrosion resistance than
4340 and 300M, and has significantly

improved corrosion fatigue performance

(see Table 2 for typical property
comparisons). QuesTek designed S53
alloy for the U.S Strategic Environmental
Research and Development Program in
order to eliminate the need for toxic
cadmium plating on corrosion-prone Air
Force 300M landing gear. Due to the
limited corrosion resistance and corrosion
fatigue life of 300M steel, coatings for
corrosion protection are utilized which
can become compromised in service
or during installation, causing onset of
corrosion and resulting in a reduced
service life and greater risk of failure.
S53 alloy has received industry
certifications, including SAE AMS 5922
and MMPDS approval (A- and B- basis).
QuesTek is nearing the completion
of a Navy-funded SBIR Phase II
project to apply commercially-available
S53 alloy to address Navy needs for
high strength, more corrosion resistant
steels for splined rotor shafts components
(specifically applied on the MH-60S
helicopter designed and manufactured by
Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation). The new
S53 rotor shafts are expected to increase
fatigue life and reduce corrosion, thereby
reducing life-cycle and maintenance costs
of Navy helicopters. Three prototype
MH-60S rotor shafts were produced
using S53 alloy (see Figure 6). QuesTek
has also developed a novel surface
hardening process for S53 steel through
solution nitriding, and has consistently
demonstrated repeatable measures of
~60 HRC on the surface.
QuesTek successfully designed and
rapidly developed Ferrium M54 steel
(AMS 6516, MMPDS-09), an ultrahigh toughness, high-strength steel
with excellent fatigue properties and
enhanced resistance to stress corrosion
The alloy design project
was funded under Small Business
Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts
sponsored by the U.S. Navy Naval Air
Systems Command (NAVAIR) to be a
cost-effective drop-in replacement for
AerMet 100 alloy. M54 steel possesses
excellent fatigue resistance, exhibiting
greater stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
resistance, improved machinability and
a more robust heat treatment versus


AerMet 100 (see Table 3 for general

property comparisons). Fatigue data
for M54 is shown in Figure 7.
Ferrium M54is being used in some
high performance racing input and
output transmissions shafts as a stress
and toughness upgrade from 300M.
IT is also being considered by the
helicopter industry for rotor shafts as
an upgrade over 4340 and 300M.


Apart from the most commerciallyadvanced Ferrium steels, QuesTek
also works across the periodic table
on alloys based on aluminum,
titanium, nickel, molybdenum,
tungsten, niobium, copper, cobalt
and other elements. All of these new
ICME-designed alloys have improved
properties and performance over
legacy materials that have been used for decades, and are
being applied in some of the most demanding applications
in aerospace, oil and gas, energy, racing, medical and other
Ferrium N63 Steel
Ferrium N63 steel, developed under a Navy-funded SBIR Phase
I program, is a fully-stainless nitridable bearing steel designed as
an alternative to Pyrowear 675 to reduce corrosion and enhance
bearing performance. Currently in the Phase II program, N63
steel has demonstrated stainless steel behavior with an excellent
combination of core and case properties, high core strength
and ductility, and surface hardness exceeding 60 HRC with an
approximate case depth of 0.04 free of primary carbides or
nitrides. Gear and bearing applications in oil and gas, marine,
aerospace and other sectors where a high strength stainless steel
with ability surface harden should be considered.
Alloys for additive manufacturing
QuesTek has been involved extensively in multiple alloy and
process design and development projects for specific additive
manufacturing (AM) applications. AM is a novel process of
fabricating components in a layer-by-layer method under the
control of computer-aided design information, rather than by
the traditional use of casting molds and forming dies. However,
adaptation of traditional wrought/cast alloys to AM processing
presents limitations, and unlike traditional alloys designed for

forging or casting processes, there have

been no alloys designed specifically for
AM processes that account for the unique
processing path. Currently, QuesTek
has a subcontract under Honeywell
DARPA Open Manufacturing
project concerning adaptation of nickel
superalloys to AM processes.

QuesTek Innovations LLC has applied
its Materials by Design computational
technology to design, develop and
implement two new high-performance
gear steels (Ferrium C61 and Ferrium
C64) and two new high-performance
structural steels (Ferrium S53 and
Ferrium M54) that are now commercially
available and can significantly reduce
rotorcraft weight and manufacturing
costs, while increasing operational
robustness (including gear steel oil-out/
high temperature survivability). QuesTek applied its ICME-based
design to the development of additional alloys that are of interest
to the gearing community.

QuesTek acknowledges the support of the Department of
Defense via Army Phase II SBIR contract #W911W6-10-C-0057,
Army Phase II SBIR contract #W911W6-11-C-0053, Office of the
Secretary of Defense Phase II SBIR contract #N00014-11-C-0080,
Navy Phase II SBIR contract #N68335-11-C-0079, Navy SBIR
Phase II contract #N68335-13-C-0280, and Navy Phase
II.5 SBIR contract #N68335-11-C-0369.

1. K
 uehmann C., and Olson, G., Computational Materials Design
and Engineering, Materials Science and Technology, 2009, Vol.
25, No. 4, pp 472 487.
2. Wright, J., Sebastian, J., Kern, C., Kooy, R., Design, Development and
Application of New High- Performance Gear Steels, 09FTM14.
3. Kern, C., Wright, J., Sebastian, J., Grabowski, J., Jordan, D.F., and
Jones, T.M., Manufacturing and Processing of a New Class of
Vacuum-Carburized Gear Steels with Very High Hardenability,
4. Wright, J., Sebastian, J., Kern, C., Kooy, R., New High-Performance
Structural Steels for Lighter, More Robust, More Economical
Rotorcraft, presented at the American Helicopter Society 67th
Annual Forum, Virginia Beach, Virginia, May 3-5, 2011.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Jeff Grabowski is the manager of applications development at QuesTek Innovations where he works closely with
the United States Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and private industries to identify and address materials-related product
performance issues. QuesTek uses computational models and tools to quickly design and deploy higher-performance materials intended to
displace alloys that have been used for decades. Grabowski earned his Bachelors degree in materials science and engineering from the
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and a Masters degree in materials science from Northwestern University.


Allen Adams Shaper Services, Inc./Arrow Gear Company/Abundant Manufacturing, Inc. /American Gear, Inc./Artec Machine Systems/ASM International/Allied
Sinterings, Inc./Applied Process, Inc./Adams Company/American Gear Manufacturers Association/B&R Machine and Gear Corporation/Broaching Machine
Inc./Becker GearMeisters, Inc./ Bodycote North America/Broach Masters/Universal Gear Co./Buffalo Gear, Inc./Bourn & Koch, Inc/Banyan Global Technologies
LLC/C-B Gear & Machine, Inc./CNC Machinery Sales, Inc./Carnes-Miller Gear Co., Inc./
Clarke Engineering, Inc./Clifford-Jacobs Forging Co./Colonial Tool Group, Inc./Carbolite/
Carbide Tool Services, Inc./Chamfermatic Inc.___________________ Douglas
International, Inc./Drake Manufacturing/YOUR COMPANY HERE/Dura-Bar/
DSM Engineering Plastics/eldec Induction USA, Inc./Encoder Products Company/
Euro-Tech Corporation/Excel Gear Company/First Gear Engineering & Technology/
Fairchild Industrial Products Company/Fairfield Manufacturing Co., Inc./Fassler
Corporation/Forest City Gear/Fagor Automation Corp./G & K Machine/GTC Falcon
Inc./Gear Manufacturing, Inc./Gear Motions, Inc./Gear Works, Inc./Gleason Corp./
Greg Allen Company/Gerhardt Gear Co./Hanik Corporation/Havlik International Machinery, Inc./High Performance Gear/Hobsource, Inc./Hydra-Lock Corporation/Index
Technologies/Industrial Encoder Corporation/Innovative Rack & Gear Co., Inc./Ion
Bond/Iosso Metal Processes/InvoSpline, Inc./Induction Tooling, Inc./Jerry Tools, Inc./
JRM International, Inc./J.L. Becker Company/Ka-Wood Gear & Machine Co./KISSsoft U.S.A.,LLC Koepfer/America, LLC/Kreiter Geartech/Kleiss Gears, Inc./Lawler Gear
Corp./Midwest Gear Corporation/Mohawk Machinery, Inc./Mitsubishi Gear Technology Center/Modern Gearing /Moore Gear & Manufacturing Co., Inc./mG miniGears /
Marples Gears, Inc./Micro Surface Corporation/McInnes Rolled Rings/Nachi America/
National Bronze & Metals, Inc./New England Gear/Newage Testing Instruments Inc.

Optimization of Gear Tooth Contact

by Helix Angle Modification
By S.R. Hipsley and R.J. Davey, PhD Engineering, and R.T. Wheway, University of Wollongong

This paper discusses software that automatically generates a 3-D meshed finite
element model of a helical gear set, which does not require the gear designer to
have a knowledge of finite element analysis.
Gears that are smaller, cheaper,
and equipped with more efficient
power transmission are the ongoing
objective of gear designers. A
significant issue in the design of
helical gears is the substantial effect
of tooth twisting under load due to
torsional and bending deflections of
the gears and associated shafts [1].
The elastic deformation experienced
in the contact area and gear body
shifts the load distribution toward one
end of the tooth, greatly increases the
maximum root stress and contact
stress, and adversely affects the
strength of the gears [2].
AGMA 927 [3] outlines an
analytical method of determining
the bending and torsional deflection
of gear shafts and the consequent
relative mesh gaps for cylindrical
gears. Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
is an alternative approach. This paper
reports the use of both approaches to
a specific gearbox. The differences
between modified and unmodified
gears are reported, as well as the
differences between the results from
the two methodologies.
A MATLAB program was developed
in this study to perform the necessary
calculations according to AGMA 927,
as well as combining gear design
processes by completing AGMA 2101
[4] power rating calculations. This
study was restricted to the analysis
of the predominant variable, namely
torsional deflection. This decision was
based on the fact that for the practical
example being analyzed, AGMA 927

Figure 1. Torsional deflection and helix angle modification

showed negligible difference when
the bending deflection component
across the facewidth of the gear was
The software generates a script for
input into the FEA program ANSYS
Mechanical APDL. This script
automatically and directly generates
a 3-D model of the gear pair, applies
the desired loading and contact
conditions, and solves for the stress
and deflection. This routine allows for
the determination of the suitability of
helix angle modification for a subject
gear set. It also provides quantification
of the optimum modification as well
as the benefits for load distribution
and peak stress.

Figure 2. An ISO 53 rack rolling around

the pitch circle, simulating the hobbing
process to generate a tooth profile
(Hedlund and Lehtovaara, p.615 [9])

Helix angle modification is a simple
flank modification. The modification
has the potential to significantly
reduce the load intensity and peak
stress experienced by compensation
for the torsional deflection of the gear
tooth (Figure 1).
The implementation of flank
modification also allows for a

Figure 3. Typical 8-node meshed pinion

and wheel prepared for analysis
reduction in the peak bending stress
caused by the inclined contact lines on

Printed with permission of the copyright holder, the American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1001 N. Fairfax Street, Suite 500, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.
Statements presented in this paper are those of the authors and may not represent the position or opinion of the AMERICAN GEAR MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION.



Figure 5. Pinion von Mises stress for the

unmodified example gear set
torsional deflection experienced by the
helical gears. As a result, this study allows
for the comparison of FEA and the AGMA
927 outcomes for torsional deflection for
the specific gear analyzed; a comparison
which, as noted by Kirov [8] is not always
easy to make.

Figure 4. Typical drive torque forces applied
to pinion nodes. Case study of an operating
helical teeth as the contact approaches the
tip of the tooth. By reducing the loading on
the relevant side of the tooth and avoiding
end contact via helix angle modification,
the stress intensity is similarly reduced [5].
The calculations outlined in AGMA 927
facilitate the determination of the torsional
and shaft bending deflections and relative
mesh gap, and allows for a curve to be
fitted to determine the magnitude of helix
angle modification required to improve the
contact area and load distribution for a
subject gear set.
However, whilst AGMA 927 does
accommodate torsional and bending
deflections of cylinders (except for
module), it does this independent of any
tooth details (e.g. helix angle and tooth
shape). While Kissling [6] has shown the
benefits of AGMA 927 and its incorporation
into ISO 6336-1:2006 [7] with the AGMA
927 analysis being of a toothless cylinder,
there is clearly a question surrounding the
results generated by AGMA 927.
The FEA performed by the software
developed for this study allows for the
investigation of tooth shape on the

The FEA program developed in this study

was written in MATLAB. The program
has been written such that only a handful
of simple user inputs are required, and,
specifically, no knowledge of FEA is
First, the pitting resistance and bending
strength power ratings are determined using
the method outlined in AGMA 2101 and
AS 2938 [9]. The program then simulates
the hobbing process using a number of
matrices and iterating loops to generate a
numerical representation, for example, of
the standard ISO 53 [10] rack. The rack
is then translated and rotated around the
pitch circle, mathematically simulating the
cutting action of the hobbing process, akin
to Wilkinsons [11] method, and Hedlund
and Lehtovaaras [12] method shown as
Figure 2.
The resultant tooth profiles are then
transformed to a complete 2-D face of
each gear member by repeating the profiles
via polar array operations. The MATLAB
program transforms the single tooth data
to large matrices fully describing both the
pinion and the wheel profiles. This is
achieved by matrix multiplication using
rotational matrices;


This rotational matrix, when multiplied

by a matrix of XY Cartesian points,
rotates the points counter- clockwise
around the origin by angle . In order to
reduce the number of points in the overall
geometry, thereby simplifying and reducing
the computation time for the FEA, only
three teeth on either side of the central
contacting tooth are generated with the
remainder of the teeth replaced by points
on the root diameter of the members.
The initial contact between the pinion
and wheel is achieved by determining the
minimum angular gap between any point
on the pinion tooth and the adjacent point
on the wheel. The incremental lead angle
is used by the program to generate a
three dimensional matrix that represents
the pinion and another for the wheel. The
two dimensional matrices describing the
gears are incremented in the Z direction,
rotated by the lead angle and stored in a
3-D matrix.

In order to reduce the number of external
programs required and to streamline the
operation of the program, the geometry
was directly generated within ANSYS
Mechanical, using the native command
language ANSYS Parametric Design
Language (APDL).
The matrices of data points describing
the gears, as determined by the MATLAB
program, are used by the script to transfer
the data into the FEA program and generate
the three-dimensional models prior to FEA.
The 3-D models of the helical gears by
virtue of the robust method used to model
them, provide an accurate representation
of manufactured gears, with complex
involute profiles and helicoid contact lines.
This allows for reliable analysis of the
elastic tooth deformation to determine the
tooth contact area and load distribution via
FEA. The program automatically generates
an 8-node SOLID45 element type mesh
[13] of the gear geometry (Figure 3). The
load from the drive torque is applied evenly
to the pinion as a rotational load on each
node by the application of a tangential
load at each node using the cylindrical
coordinate system (Figure 4) akin to the
AGMA 927 method.

Figure 6. Mesh gap analysis of unmodified gears

Figure 9. Optimization of helix angle modification for the example gear set

N, while the average station load was 2,390 N. Hence, the load
distribution factor as per Equation 38 of AGMA 927 is:

Figure 7. Unloaded contact of modified gears

The outcome was that there was negligible difference between

the load distribution factors when the bending deflection across
the facewidth of the gear was eliminated from the AGMA 927


Figure 8. Mesh gap analysis of modified gears

The example of a pair of 1,500 kW gears shows the reduction
in peak stress that is possible through the addition of helix angle
modification. As seen in Figure 5, the unmodified gear set was
analyzed by the software, with the peak stress recorded.
As AGMA 927 explains, areas with greater mesh gap have
lower tooth load, whereas areas with lower mesh gap have
higher tooth loads. This is due to the need for the tooth flank
to deform elastically in order to close the mesh gap under
load. Consequently, an analysis of the mesh gap caused by the
deflection of the gear bodies as per AGMA 927 Section 8 (Figure
6) found that the load distribution was very uneven, as the load
was significantly skewed towards one end of the mesh.
The load distribution was determined as per sections 9.3 and
9.4 of AGMA 927 with the peak station load found to be 2,934

The magnitude of the required helix angle modification as

a means of compensation for the mesh gap caused by the
deflection of the gears under load is determined by the maximum
deflection (Figure 6). Following the application of the helix angle
modification and prior to the application of the load to the gears,
the mesh gap between the gears is shown in Figure 7. While the
loading of the unmodified gears causes the deflection shown in
Figure 6, the calculated helix angle modification, in combination
with the torsional deflection, results in a mesh gap shown in
Figure 8.
By compensating for the calculated deflections using helix angle
modification, the average mesh gap is significantly reduced, and
the load distribution of the gears is improved (Figure 8). Based on
the mesh gap values, the peak station load was reduced to 2,523
N, which significantly reduces the load distribution factor, KH, to
1.06 (a reduction of approximately 14%). This would then result
in a direct proportionate increase in the power rating of the gear
set when AGMA 927 is approved as an AGMA Standard.
The analysis of AGMA 927 by Kissling suggests that crowning
may be implemented in addition to helix angle modification
to potentially further reduce the mesh gap and improve load
The method outlined in AGMA 927 contains a number
of assumptions and approximations (most notably the use
of a toothless cylinder as an adequate representation of a
cylinder with gear teeth). The results from AGMA 927, and,


therefore, need to be compared to the

FEA results, which do not involve these
simplifying assumptions. As a result of
the toothless cylinder representation,
there is no ability to investigate different
tooth forms. Additionally, in the calculation
of the torsional deflection of the gears,
an approximation is used in place of
integration. It is also assumed that the
deflection in the base tangent plane is
proportional to the twist angle.
Having noted these and other differences,
the outcome of the present study is that
for the specific gear analyzed here the
assumptions in this case appear to have
little effect on the results. Of course, this
may not be the case for all examples and
further analysis is needed to provide full
confidence that this is so more widely.
Nevertheless, it has been a surprise to the
authors that there has been no discernible
material difference in the results of the two
methods in this example. For this to be so,
one has to convince oneself that all gear
sets can be replicated by cylinders with no
reference to tooth shape or form. We would

have thought this unlikely, but it is certainly

the case here. Clarity must await further
The FEA was re-calculated to determine
the optimum helix angle modification, the
results of which can be seen in Figure 9.
The calculated optimum modification of 32
microns yields the greatest reduction in peak
stress, from 180 MPa to 130 MPa, a reduction
of some 28%. It should be noted that this is
approximately double the improvement in
the load distribution factor as calculated by
Equation 38 of AGMA 927.
The results of this method allow for the
simple visual confirmation of the effects of
helix angle modification and the resultant
tooth contact and load distribution. The
simplicity of this method for the user
helps to bring the improvement of load
distribution into the realm of the gear
designer without FEA expertise (Figure 10).

The example gears in the case study were
manufactured in the supply of a custom

Where the art of invention

meets the industry of America

Figure 10. FEA results with optimized

helix angle modification
made 3,000 kW gearbox and reported
by the designers Davey and Fay [14]
in 2001. The gearbox in question has
a double-helical input stage sharing
equally the input torque (refer Figure
11). Helix angle modification of 35
microns was applied as a result of the
Davey/Fay FEA.
Due to the modified, unmatched
helix angle on the gears, the contact
determined by the bluing process
would normally be considered far from
satisfactory, with only a small amount

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Figure 11. Bluing of the two input pinions to check the contact area.

Figure 14. Contact area for the modified gears under the applied load.

Figure 12. Contact areas of modified gears determined using bluing


painted with a commercially available red pressure-based

tribological dye in order to determine the contact area under
the applied load from the 3,000 kW, 1,500 rpm motor. This
specialized tribological dye is designed to break down under
pressure, such as the contact pressure occurring between the
tooth surfaces in operation.
The contact pattern under the applied loads and torque
was easily able to be determined as the dye was removed
from the contact areas during operation. The deflection
and twisting of the modified teeth due to the applied load,
and the resulting change in contact area compared to the
bluing area can be seen in Figure 14.
The results of the contact testing under load, as well as the
fault-free operation of this gearbox for over 12 years, verify
the process for torsional deflection compensation to improve
tooth contact and load distribution.


Figure 13. Assembly of 3,000 kW gearbox with modified input pinions

of contact seen towards the inside edges of the wheel teeth
(refer to Figure 12). However, this test does not take into
account the torsional deflection of the gear bodies and tooth
structures due to the applied loads and torque.
As a result, following the assembly and installation of
the gearbox (Figure 13), the first reduction gear teeth were

The results of the analysis, when compared with the

practical results after twelve years of 24/7 operation shows
that the proposed method accurately determines the optimum
helix angle modification for a gear set. On this occasion, the
deflection and resultant helix angle modification determined
via Finite Element Analysis is comparable to that calculated
using AGMA 927.
This method shows that, although it is not typically easy
to directly compare the results of AGMA calculations and
FEA due to the different nature of both methods [8], FEA
provides a viable alternative to the empirical AGMA 927
method. Due to the potential difficult mathematical rigor
of AGMA 927, modification of tooth profiles is often not
considered by gear designers. Similarly, it is of interest to
note that since 2008, AGMA 927 has not been included in
gear design software except for Kissling [6].


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The FEA employed here not only provides an alternative

to AGMA 927, it also allows a comparison of the accuracy of
the approximations and formulae in AGMA 927. In addition,
the software determines the subsequent reduction in peak
stress, and the calculation of the relevant load distribution
factor, KH.
The principal benefits of this analysis method include the
ability to simplify the contact analysis and determination of
the load distribution by users through the automation of the
calculations and FEA. Similarly, the user can visually detect
unfavorable tooth contact using the plotted stress results, as
well as the improvements caused by the application of helix
angle modification.
Importantly, further development of the FEA method
[15] would allow for the inclusion into the power rating
calculations of thermal contact conditions and other forms
of deflection (such as shaft bending, misalignment, bearing
clearance and manufacturing errors, potentially leading to
an increased understanding of the contact behavior and load
distribution of helical gears), and the resultant effect on the
power rating of gears Further development would also allow
for the expansion of the scope of the FEA to include the
full suite of gearbox components to allow for analysis of the
entire system.
In the authors view, FEA analysis has many advantages for
gearbox design. Principally, FEA facilitates the analysis of a
gearbox as a complete system in order to identify the weak
links, apply modifications and investigate the flow-on effects
of any changes. As such it is a powerful tool for further
study into the contact and load distribution behavior of
helical gear teeth under conditions such as non-linear load
sharing by multiple teeth in simultaneous contact. With this
approach, gears can be designed to allow for reduced mass
and/or size, for a greater range of applications, as well as
the potential improvement in the strength of existing gears.
It will be interesting to see the results of the analysis of
gears of varying types with AGMA 927 and FEA to see if
the assumptions involved in the former are robust across
other tooth geometries and materials of construction. In the
meantime, the AGMA 927 has passed this test with flying
colors an impressive result as, in principle, due to the
absence of tooth details. The same methodology would apply
essentially to spur gears as well as helical gears.

The authors of this paper would like to thank the AGMA
peer reviewers for their valued feedback provided in regards
to the draft of this paper, particularly their comments
regarding AGMA 927.

1. Ajmi, M., and Velex, P., A model for simulating the
quasi-static and dynamic behaviour of solid wide- faced
spur and helical gears, Mechanism and Machine Theory,
vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 173-190 (2003).
2. Rao, C., and Muthuveerappan, G., Technical Note
Finite Element modelling and stress analysis of helical
gear teeth, Computers & Science, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 10951106 (1992).
3. AGMA 927-A01, Load Distribution Factors
Analytical Methods for Cylindrical Gears (2001).
4. ANSI/AGMA 2101-D04, Fundamental Rating Factors
and Calculation Methods for Involute Spur and
Helical Gear Teeth (2004).
5. Schulze, T., Harann-Gerlach, C., and Schlecht, B.,
Calculation of Load Distribution in Planetary
Gears for an Effective Gear Design Process, AGMA
10FTM08 (2010).
6. Kissling, U., Application and Improvement of Face
Load Factor Determination Based on AGMA 927,
AGMA 13FTM08 (2013).
7. ISO 6336-1:2006, Calculation of load capacity of
spur and helical gears - Part 1: Basic principles,
introduction and general influence factors (2006).
8. Kirov, V. 2010, Comparison of the AGMA and FEA
Calculations of Gears and Gearbox Components
Applied in the Environment of Small Gear Company,
AGMA 10FTM05, (2010).
9. AS 2938-1993, Gears Spur and helical Guide to
specification and rating (1993).
10. ISO 53:1998, Cylindrical gears for general and
heavy engineering Standard basic rack tooth profile
11. Wilkinson, T.B., A computer program to produce
plots of gear tooth profiles and meshing, Undergraduate
thesis, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW(
12. Hedlund, J., and Lehtovaara, A., Modeling of
helical gear contact with tooth deflection, Tribology
International, vol. 40, pp. 613-619 (2006).
13. Rameshkumar, M., Venkatesan, G., and Sivakumar,
P., Finite Element Analysis of High Contact Ratio Gear,
AGMA 10FTM06 (2010).
14. Davey, R.J. & Fay, L., PHD Engineering Pty Ltd,
Internal Reports - Private Correspondence, 1999.
15. Hipsley, S.R., Optimisation of Gear Tooth Contact
by Helix Angle Modification, Undergraduate Thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of
Wollongong, Australia (2013).

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: S tuart Hipsley is currently a mechanical engineer working for PHD Engineering Pty Ltd (PHD), a consulting practice,
operating in Wollongong, Australia. PHD specializes in the design of custom-made gearboxes and specialized uprating of mechanical
equipment. He recently earned his Bachelor degree in mechanical engineering at the University of Wollongong with first class honors, which
included an undergraduate thesis.




Redex gears revolutionise the versatility of

vertical lathes
Redex announces the release of a new
drive solution for rotary tables of multiaxis milling machines. The high-speed
versions of its DRP, KRP and KRPX
ranges complement the features of its
MSR range of drives.
Both of these
one-of-a-kind solutions provide added
value to machine-tool manufacturers.
They simplify the design of the
mechanical transmission systems of
both large rotary tables used on vertical
lathes (over 2000 m) and smaller tables
used on milling machines. They also
improve machine accuracy and allow for
smaller machine footprints.
The high-speed versions of the DRP,
KRP and KRPX drives use the heart
of Redex high-performance planetary
reducers, and they offer greater accuracy, rigidity, and momentum. They are
the standard drives with the highest
positioning accuracy.
When meshed with a drive gear, the
two reducers on Redex TwinDrive and
DualDrive solutions cancel 100% of
These high-speed reducers have
been "hardened" (using in particular
Redex know-how in spindle gearboxes)
to allow continuous operating cycles

and meet the specific requirements of

rotary tables. As a result, Redex highspeed TwinDrive and DualDrive units
can achieve rotational speeds of up to
28 rpm-1.
The complementarity of both solutions allows manufacturers to design
the right rotary-table drives for specific
applications and thus their priorities of
speed, power, accuracy and rigidity.
This makes it possible to execute
additional functions on the C-axis without any additional mechanical devices
or the use of position locking. This
maximum accuracy is maintained during
milling and positioning operations particularly by the electrical or mechanical
preload system.
Solutions that use two reducers are
more cost effective and easier to manage. The TwinDrive solution uses two
80-kW motors, which are more standard
and often less expensive. Maintenance
and spare-parts management is simplified.
Lastly, it eliminates the need for
machine-tool manufacturers to design
and build their own gearboxes with all
the necessary components.

When every second counts
The Liebherr LC 100 is designed to machine
small, mass-produced components conventional automatic gearbox applications,
such as planetary and sun gears. The fast
swivel loader assures short chip-to-chip
times and high productivity. Set-up flexibility
is enhanced by exchangeable quick-change
gripper inserts requiring no tools. With a
rapid machine loading and unloading capability, the Liebherr LC 100 can achieve chip-tochip times of three seconds.

Close cooperation with tool manufacturer

At the AMB 2014 trade fair, the machine
was exhibited in partnership with the precision toolmaker Gebr. Saacke GmbH of
Pforzheim, Germany, producing worm wheels
in extremely short cycle times of eight seconds.
Saacke will use the LC 100 to machine
carbide worm wheel hobbing cutters that provide a range of benefits significantly higher
hobbing speeds are feasible resulting in
minimum machining times. Furthermore the increased rigidity and cutting-edge reliability

of the Saacke carbide tools delivers a higher

level of surface quality than conventional
HSS tools. Further, the hardness and the
edge strength of the carbide tools support
long tool life.
Complementary skills
Our close worm wheel hobbing machine
partnership is based on each companys
core skills and enables users to manufacture
worm gearing with good roll performance
characteristics and optimum power transmission in the shortest possible time, Oliver
Winkel said.
Also, tools with a diameter of 20 to 30
mm are comparatively thin in relation to
length, so conventional tools would tend to
vibrate. Given its high modulus of elasticity,
carbide is far less prone to vibrate and rattle.
Hobbing speeds can be increased significantly. At tool diameters of between 20 and
30 mm and cutting speeds of more than 250
m per minute, hobbing speeds of more than
3,000 to 4,000 rpm can be achieved.



New integrated contouring head enables multi-tasking

MEGA 800 HMCs to take on more work, more variety
Fives introduced a new integrated contouring head for its Cincinnati 6-axis MEGA 800 HMC through the sale of a two-machine cell
that includes first use of the head on this machine size. The new cell takes on 30 to 50 percent more work, including what is currently
processed on boring mills. The machines' servo-controlled, U-axis cross-feed spindle can produce circular features up to 540-mm
diameter that require turning, boring, co-boring, facing, threading, tapered boring, and helical thread milling. The new MEGA cell eliminates the need to produce these features on other machines, dramatically reducing workpiece transfers, setups and work-in-process
inventory while improving accuracy and manufacturing velocity.
The cell includes a 14-pallet work queue, two vacuum-equipped load/unload stations, storage for 640 tools, and floor-mounted mist
collection for each machine. Each machine stores 120 tools while an integrated storage/retrieval system holds an additional 400,
which are transferred to the machines via overhead robot.
The U-axis head produces 2,475 Nm torque (S6-60) and has a Sandvik Coromant Capto C8 tool interface, capable of carrying
a tool weight of 30 kg (66 lb), said Fives Cincinnati Product Manager Ken Wichman. The integrated head is much more rigid than
attachments bolted on or held by the spindle taper, resulting in superior part quality, surface finish and dimensional accuracy. The
standard tool interface eliminates the need for special tools, and the integrated head eliminates manual head changing and storage.
Both MEGA HMCs are equipped with a 4,000-rpm, 45-kW (S6-60 hp) W-axis live spindle with 130 mm bar diameter and 800 mm
travel. The massive machines accept parts weighing up to 2,200 kg (4,840 lb), 2,000 mm (79") tall and 1,300 mm (51.2") in diameter. The three-point-leveled, T-design base moves the workpiece in a straight line to and from the spindle for precision boring, with X,
Y and Z axes all driven by dual ballscrews using absolute scale feedback. The B-axis rotary table with high-accuracy absolute encoder
allows infinite contouring, producing 5,100 Nm (3,300 ft lb) torque.
The machines utilize the Siemens 840D Solution Line CNC with Windows 7 OS and operator interface and complies with all
European and U.S. safety/health standards.

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Goes Long for Internal
Cylindrical Grinding
United Grinding recently introduced the new STUDER
S141 universal I.D. cylindrical grinding machine that
combines cutting edge and proven technologies with
optimal ergonomics and ease of use,
while delivering dependability, quality,
and precision.
The S141 features two big sliding
doors and is available in three different design sizes of 11.81" (300 mm),
27.56" (700 mm) and 51.18" (1,300
mm) and inside diameters up to 9.84"
(250 mm).
Its grinding spindle turret accommodates up to four grinding spindles, a
universal measuring probe, and internal
grinding quills in lengths up to 10.433"
(265 mm). This allows both internal and
external machining of work pieces in
the same clamping minimizes non- cut
times and boosts part accuracy.
Its work piece table automatically
swivels from -10 to +20 degrees. Up
to two pivoting dressing units for fixed
or rotating dressing tools mount on the
machine and ensure the grinding wheels
stay sharp throughout the machining
operations to provide maximum performance and process stability.
It features a machine bed made of
patented Granitan S103 mineral casting and incorporates the StuderGuide
system for its X- and Z-axes. They are
coated with Granitan S200 wear-resistant guide way surfacing material.
The S141 changes over in the shortest times possible and is easily reprogramed. The machines 31i B series
Fanuc Control with integrated PC and
a 15" touch screen facilitates intuitive operation. Two different operating
systems StuderWIN and StuderSIM
are available and suitable for a wide
variety of internal grinding applications, dressing and process-supporting



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BARBER-COLMAN 16-11, S/N 184, 50 Dbl Thrd w/Vert DRO REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN AHM, S/N 1896, 42 Sgl Thrd w/3 Jaw Chuck REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 2745, 51 Sgl Thrd w/90 Deg Hd REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3171, 53 Dbl Thrd, Spanish Nameplates REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3580, 59 Dbl Thrd w/Diff & Auto Hobshift REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 3641, 60 Dbl Thrd w/Diff REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3660, 57 Sgl Thrd REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4136, Dbl Thrd, C Style End Brace w/Diff REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4170, Dbl Thrd w/Jump Cut Cycle
C Style REF#104

BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4473, 73 4-Thrd w/Workclamp Cyl C Style REF#104

BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4520, 75 Dbl Thrd w/Gooseneck Slide REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4631, 79 C Style End Brace, 4W Adj Ctr
BARBER-COLMAN AHM (36), S/N 1152, 42 Dbl Thrd REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-36, S/N 4090, 66 Dbl Thrd, C Style End Brace REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 16-36 Multicycle, S/N 4232, 68 Dbl Thrd C Style End Brace w/Diff
BARBER-COLMAN 16-56, S/N 3136R84, 53 (Reb 84), Dbl Thrd REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 10-20, S/N 6700045890, 76 Dbl Thrd w/2 Cut Cycle REF#104
TOS OFA Series Conventional Gear Hobbers, 12 & 40 Dia REF#105
TOS OHA Series Conventional Gear Shapers, 12 & 40 Dia REF#105
TOS FO-16 with single index 72 cap. REF#106


HURTH #KF-32A 15 Dia, 59 Face, 67 REF#103
GE/Fitchuburg Pinion Hob 32 Dia, 72 Face REF#103
MICHIGAN Tool #3237 REF#103
FITCHBURG Pinion Hobber 42 Dia, 72 Dia REF#103
Craven horizontal 36 dia 96 length 73/4 hole REF#106


BARBER-COLMAN #6-5, 6" Dia, 5" Length, Manual Dresser, 57 REF#103
FELLOWS #6SB, Helical Cutter Sharpener, 6 Dia, up to 50 Degrees REF#103
KAPP #AS-305GT, 1 DP, 28" Grind Length, 10" Diam., Str. & Spiral REF#103
KAPP #AS204GT, 10 Dia, Wet Grinding, CBN Wheels, 82 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 2-2 1/2 , 2.5 Dia REF#103
KAPP #AST-305B, 27.5 Dia, REF#103
KAPP AS-410B REF#103
GLEASON #12 Sharpener, 3-18 Cone REF#103
Red Ring Shaving Cutter sharpener Periform REF#103
Star #6 Gear Cutter Sharpener REF#103
Star 4HS Hob sharpener REF#103
Star HHS Horizontal Hob Sharpener CNC, Max Dia 10 Max length 12 New 1990 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2-2, S/N 16, 66 Wet w/Auto Feed REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 110R, 55 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 396, 66 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 433, 69 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, S/N 643R83, Wet w/Auto Dress, PC Control, Fact Reb 83 REF#104
TOS OHA Series CNC Gear Shapers, 12 & 40 Diameter REF#105
TOS OFA Series CNC Gear Hobbers, 12 & 40 Diameter REF#105


36 Shapers, 14 Throat Risers, 53 of Swing, Qty 3 REF#102
FELLOWS #10-4/10-2, Qty 150 REF#102
HYDROSTROKE #50-8, Qty 2 REF#102
HYDROSTROKE #20-8, Qty 5 REF#102
HYDROSTROKE #FS630-125, Qty 1 REF#102
HYDROSTROKE #FS400-90, Qty 2 REF#102
FELLOWS #20-4, Qty 6 REF#102
FELLOWS #48-8Z, Qty 1 REF#102
FELLOWS #FS-180, 3-5 Axis, 7 Dia, 1.25 Face., 6 DP, New 88 REF#103
LIEBHERR #WS-1, 4-Axis CNC, 8" OD, 2" Stroke, Fanuc 18MI REF#103
LORENZ # LS-180, 4-Axis CNC, 11 OD, 2 Stroke, 5 DP REF#103
LORENZ #LS-304 CNC Gear Shaper 5-Axis Heckler & Koch Control REF#103
FELLOWS FS400-125, 16 Dia, 3.5 DP 5 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4 3-Axis (A/B), 10" Dia, 4" Face, 4 DP New .09 REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4 2-Axis, 10 Dia 4 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #20-4 3-Axis 10 Dia, 4 Face REF#103
FELLOWS FS400-90 Hydro-stroke Gear Shaper CNC Nominal Pitch 15.7" REF#103
Fellows 20-8, CNC Gear Shaper, Remanufactured and recontrolled REF#103
Fellows Model Z gear Shaper REF#103
Lorenz SN4 Gear Shaper, Max OD 7, 2 Face, Max 6 DP with Loader REF#103
RP/ Stanko 48-8 Remanufactured Gear Shaper, Fanuc 3 Axis, 18i M Control, new 2010

Barber Colman Model 4-4HRS, Hob Sharpener 4 Max OD, 4 Length REF#103
Fellows FH 200 Gear hobber, universal hobbing Machine REF#103
Barber Colman 6-10, CNC, CRt 5 Axis, 6 Dia, 10.5 travel, 6 DP REF#103
Barber Colman Hobber Type T REF#103
Barber Colman model #14-15 Gear Hobber, horizontal Heavy Duty REF#103
Barber Colman Model #16-36 GearHobber REF#103
Barber Colman Model #16-56, 16 dia, 56 Face, adj. Air Tailstock REF#103
Barber Colman Model 2.5-2 gear hobber, 2 length Manual Dresser REF#103
G&E Model 5.2 CNC Internal Gear gashing head REF#103
Jeil JDH-3, Gear hobber, Max Dia 31.5, 3DP, 22.8 Table Diameter REF#103
Jeil JDP-2, Gear hobber, Max Dia 26, 4 DP, 19.5 Table Dia, Differential and tailstock
Liebherr ET 1802, Internal Gashing head, Fanuc 16i Control, 98Max dist 17 Face REF#103
Liebherr L-402 Gear hobbing Machine, New 1977 REF#103
Liebherr LC 752, 6 Axis CNC Hobber, Max OD 29.5, Max Face width 23.6 REF#103
Micron Model 120.01 w/bevel Cutting Attachment, New 1975, 1.6 dia, 25.4 DP REF#103
Nihon Kakai Model NTM-3000, Spline Hobbing Machine, Max dia 400mm, 3150mm between
Center REF#103
Pfauter P900 Reman and Recontrolled, Max OD 120 REF#103
Pfauter Model PE125 CNC Gear hobber REF#103
Pfauter model PE300 CNC, Max OD 12, Max gear face 15, 3 DP, 6 Axis REF#103
Reinecker Heavy Duty Gear Hobber REF#103
Scheiss Model RF10 Horizontal Hobber, 60 dia, 144 face, 180cc, 8 DP REF#103
G&E 96H, roughing & finishing 104 dia. REF#106
TOS FO-16 single index 80 dia. Yr 1980 REF#106
Craven spline & pinion hobber 36 x 96 REF#106
G & E 48H 48 dia. Diff, OB, change gears REF#106
Pfauter hobber P-1800 70 dia. 29 face yr 1980 REF#106
Lees Bradner 7VH, 8PD, 10 Face, , Magnetic Chip Conveyor , Hob Shift REF#107
Lees Bradner 7VH, 8PD, 4PD, Magnetic Chip Conveyor, Hob Shift REF#107
Mitsubishi Model GH300, 15.7, 3 DP, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Tos 32A, 320mm Gear Dia.,3.6 DP, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Gleason 775 8PD, High Helix Head, Infeed, Very Light Use REF#107
Barber C. 16-15, 7 Hob, Crowning, Differential, 2 Cut REF#107
Barber Colman 14-15, 2 Cut, Fast Approach, 4 Bore REF#107
Barber Colman 16-36, Type A Very Good, Double Thread Index REF#107
G & E Model 48HS 48PD, 18 Face, 2.5 DP REF#107

FELLOWS #10-2, (10 Dia), 2 Face REF#102
FELLOWS #10-4, (10 Dia), 4 Face REF#102
FELLOWS (200) 10-4 / 10-2 Shapers REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 50-8 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36607 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20-8 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 35932 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) #7 125A Face Gear Machine REF#102
FELLOWS (2) #3 Face Gear Machine REF#102
(1) 4ags with adjustable Helical Guide s/n 30634 REF#102
(1) #7 125A adjustable Helical Guide REF#102
FELLOWS (1) FS630-200 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36943 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (3) Tilt Table 10-4 / 10-2 w/ 4 axis 21i Fanuc
Controller (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (2) Swing-away center support for 10-2 / 10-4 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) FS630-170 Hydrostroke Shaper s/n 36732 w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (2) FS400-170 Hydrostroke Shaper w/
6 axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (4) FS400-125 Hydrostroke Shaper w/ 6
axis 16iMB Fanuc (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20-4 Shaper s/n 35687 w/ 4 axis
21i Fanuc Controller (2009) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 48-8Z Shaper w/ 14 throated riser (53 of swing) REF#102
FELLOWS (1) Horizontal Z Shaper s/n 21261 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 4-B Steering Sector Gear Shaper w/ 18iMB
4 axis Fanuc controller s/n 34326 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 36-10 Gear Shaper REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 10x6 Horizontal Z Shaper REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 36-6 Gear Shaper w/ 13 riser s/n 27364 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 10-4 Shaper w/ 3 riser w/ 4 axis 21i
Fanuc Controller (2009) REF#102
All Parts for 10-4/10-2 Fellows Gear Shapers REF#102
FELLOWS #36-8, 36 Dia, 8 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #100-8 100 Dia, 8 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #612A, 615A, #645A REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4, 10 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #4A Versa, 10 Dia, 3 Face, 4 DP, New 70s REF#103

FELLOWS #10-2, 10 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP REF#103

FELLOWS #20-4, 20 Dia, 4 Face, 4 DP, 70s REF#103
FELLOWS #3-1,/3GS, 3 Max Dia, 1 Face, Pinion Supp, High Precision REF#103
MAAG #SH-150, 57" Dia.12.6" Face REF#103
PFAUTER #SH-180 Shobber 7" capacity hobbing, 9.45" cap REF#103
FELLOWS #36-6 Max Dia 36 6 Face, 3 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #HORZ Z SHAPER, 10 x 6 Dia 27.6 Face 8.5 REF#103
FELLOWS #4GS & 4AGS, 6 Dia, 2 Face, 4DP, 68, Ref.# Several REF#103
FELLOWS #624A, 18 Max Dia, 5 Face REF#103
FELLOWS #7, #7A, #715,# 75A, #715, #725A, 7 Dia, 0-12 Risers,
Several Avail REF#103
FELLOWS Model Z Shaper, 5" Stroke, 50s REF#103
STAEHELY SHS-605, Gear Shaper REF#103
FELLOWS #6, #6A, #61S, From 18-35 Dia, 0-12 Risers REF#103
FELLOWS #8AGS Vertical Gear Shaper, 8 Dia, 2 Face, 6-7 DP REF#103
TOS OHA50 CNC 5 20 Dia 5 Face REF#105
Fellows 36-6 Shaper (2) 12.5" Risers 6" Stroke Mint YR 1969 id 3616 REF#106
Fellows 36-6, shaper W/6 riser, change gears REF#106
Magg shaper SH4580-500S, 206dia. 26 face REF#106
Magg shaper SH250, 98 dia. 26 face REF#106
Fellows #10-4,7 riser yr 1980 REF#106
Fellows 3, 6, 7, 10, 18, 42, 100, Some CNC REF#107

CROSS #50 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 18 Dia, Single Spindle REF#103
REDIN #20D, 20 Dia, Twin Spindle, Deburrer/Chamfer REF#103
SAMPUTENSILI #SCT-3, Chamf/Deburrer, 14 Dia, 5 Face, 82 REF#103
SAMPUTENSILI #SM2TA Gear Chamfering Mach, 10 Max Dia, (3) New 96 REF#103
REDIN #24 CNC Dia 4 Setup Gear Deburring REF#103
CROSS #60 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 10 Dia, Single Spindle REF#103
FELLOWS #100-180/60 CNC Max Dia 180, Single Spindle REF#103
CIMTEC #50 Finisher REF#103
CROSS #54 Gear Deburrer, 30 Dia, 18 Face REF#103
RED RING #24 Twin Spindle Dia 4 REF#103
Gleason- Hurth Model ZEA 4, Max Dia 250mm, Max Module 5mm REF#103
Redin Model 36 universal Chamfering and Deburring Machine, Max OD 36, Twin spindle,
Tilt table REF#103
Samputensili SCT3 13.7, SM2TA 10, (5), 2003 REF#107
Mitsubishi MA30 CNC, 11PD, Fanuc, Powermate, 1999 (2) REF#107

Kapp #CX120 Coroning 4.7 Dia REF#103
Red Ring GHD-12, 12 Dia, 5.5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring GHG, 12 Dia, 5.5 Stroke REF#103
Kapp #VAC65 Coroning 10 Dia REF#103

Red Ring #GCX-24" Shaver, 24 Dia, 33 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring #GCU-12, 12 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring #GCY-12, 12 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Red Ring GCI 24, 12.75 Dia, 5 Stroke REF#103
Kanzaki model GSP 320 Gear shaver REF#103
Red Ring GCU 12 Crowning, 1956 to 1988 (6) REF#107
Mitsubishi FB30, 12.2 CNC Fanuc, 1997 REF#107
Sicmat Raso 100, CNC Fanuc 16M, New, Guarantee REF#107

GLEASON #37 Str. Bevel Planer, 6 Dia REF#103
GLEASON #496 Straight.& Spiral. 7.5 Dia REF#103
GLEASON 725-Revacycle, 6 Dia REF#103
GLEASON 726-Revacycle, 5 Dia REF#103
Farrel Sykes Model 12C herringbone max dia 264, max face width 60 REF#103
Farrel Model 5B herringbone gear generator. REF#103
Gleason 529 gear quench press, Auto cycle 16 Diam, New 1980 REF#103
Gleason 614 hypoid finishing machine, 10.5 pitch, dia 5.25 Max cone dist REF#103
Oerlikon/klingelnburg Model C28, Max dia 320 mm, Max Module 7.5 mm REF#103
Gleason Model 26 Quench press and Hypoid Generator Max OD 16, Max face Width Air Cylinder
Gleason Model 36 Gear Quenching Press, Max Ring 28 OD, 8 Face, Universal REF#103
Gleason Model 450 HC CNC Hypoid Cutter, Face width 2.6, fanuc 150 Controls REF#103
Gleason 24 Rougher, Gears, Finishing Tool Holder REF#107
12 Gleason, Gears, Gauges Tool Blocks REF#107
Gleason 116 Rougher & Finisher (6) REF#107
Gleason Phoenix 175HC CNC 1994 REF#107
Gleason 22 Rougher & Finisher (8) REF#107

Gleason 610 Combination Rougher & Finisher, 1988 REF#107

Gleason 608 & 609 Rougher & Finisher REF#107
Gleason 7A, 7PD Helical Motion, Gears & Cams REF#107
Gleason Cutters, 3 to 25 in stock, 1000 REF#107

#27, #137, and #463 Gleason Hypoid Spiral Bevel gear grinder
generating Cams (2 full sets) REF#102
Springfield Vertical Grinder, 62" Table, #62AR/2CS, 3.5A Rail Type, 70" Swing REF#102
REISHAUER ZA, Gear Grinder, 13" Dia, 6" Face, Strait & Helix REF#103
GLEASON #463, 15 Dia REF#103
Hofler model Rapid 2000L, CNC Grinder, Max OD 78, CNC Dressing REF#103
Matrix model 78, Reman CNC Thread grinder, 24 Dia, 86 grind Length, 106 between centers REF#103
Mitsu Seiki Model GSW-1000 Gear Grinder REF#103
Reishauer RZ 362 AS, CNC Grinder, Max Dia 360mm REF#103
Sundstrand/Arter Model D12 Grinder REF#103
Teledyne-Landis Gear Roll Finishing Machine, 5 Diam, 42k lbs Rolling Force REF#103
Reishauer RZ301AS CNC, 13 Measuring System (3) REF#107
Reishauer ZB, 27.5 PD Gears, Coolant REF#107


MIKRON #134 Rack Shaper, 17.4" Length, 1.1" Width, 16.9 DP REF#103
SYKES VR-72 Vert Rack Shaper, 72" Cut Length, 4DP, 4" Stroke, 80 REF#103
Fellows 4 60 Rapid Traverse, 2 Cut REF#107


BARBER-COLMAN #10-40, 10" Dia., 40" Length, 4 DP REF#103
EXCELLO #31L, External Thread Grinder, 5" OD, 20" Grind Length REF#103
EXCELLO #33 Thread Grinder 6 Dia 18 Length REF#103
HURTH #KF-33A Multi-Purpose Auto-Milling Machine 88 REF#103
LEES BRADNER #HT12x102, Extra Large Capacity REF#103
LEES BRADNER #HT 12"x 144" Thread Mill, 12" Dia, REF#103
LEES BRADNER # LT 8 x 24 8 Dia REF#103
Dranke CNC Internal Ball Nut Grinder REF#107


FELLOWS (1) RL-600 Roll Tester s/n 35814 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 24H Lead Checker s/n 32289 REF#102
GLEASON (1) #14 Tester s/n 31907 REF#102
GLEASON (1) #6 Tester s/n 19316 REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20 M Roller Checker REF#102
FELLOWS (1) 20 M w/ 30 Swing Roller Checker REF#102
FELLOWS (1) #8 Micaodex s/n 36279 REF#102
David Brown #24 Worm Tester REF#103
Gleason #4, #6, #13 and #17 Testers REF#103
Hofler EMZ-2602 Int/Ext Gear Tester 102 REF#103
Klingelnberg #PFSU-1600 Gear Tester-2001 REF#103
Kapp Hob Checker WM 410 REF#103
Maag #ES-430 Gear Tester REF#103
Maag #SP-130 Lead and Involute Tester REF#103
National Broach Gear Tester GSJ-12 REF#103
Oerlikon #ST2-004 Soft Tester REF#103
Maag #SP-60- Electronic Tester REF#103
Parkson #42N Worm Gear Tester REF#103
Vinco Dividing Head Optical Inspection REF#103
Gleason model 511 Hypoid tester Max Dia 20, max spindle centerline 3.5 REF#103
Klingelnberg Model PFSU-1600 63 Dia, 1.02 DP, Rebuilt REF#103
MAAG ES401 Pitch tester With Process Computer REF#103
Fellows 12 & 24M Involute, 12 & 24 Lead REF#107
Fellows 36 Space Tester, Hot Pen Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 17A Running or Rebuilt Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 511, 20 Reconditioned in 2010 Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 27, 26, Guaranteed REF#107
Gleason 515, 24 REF#107
Gleason 523, 20 Reconditioned, 2010 REF#107

WARNER & SWAYSEY #4A M-3580 Turret Lathe, 28 1/4 Swing, 80 Centers, 12 Spindle Hole
50/25 Motors, 480/3 Phase, Year 1965 REF#101
Springfield Vertical Grinder, 62" Table, #62AR/2CS, 3.5A Rail Type, 70" Swing REF#102
GLEASON #529 Quench, 16" Diameter REF#103
Klingelnberg Model LRK-631 Gear Lapper REF#103
Website To View Our Entire Inventory REF#103
TOS SU & SUS Series Conv Lathes REF#105
TOS SUA Series CNC Flat-Bed Lathes REF#105
Change gears for G & E hobber REF#106



Choose the stick that works,

cause work doesnt stop.

KOROfor Quality

Hob Sharpening Service

Quick Turnaround 2 Day Service


Spur Shaper Cutter Sharpening

HSS & Carbide Hob with center hole
and straight flutes
Thin Film Coatings
Length up to 7 inches


Manufacturing excellence through

quality, integration, materials,
maintenance, education, and speed.

Diameter up
to 5 Inches
Precise rake
and spacing guaranteed
to AGMA standards


Koro Sharpening Service

9530 85th Ave North
Maple Grove, MN 55369

Engineered Tools Corporation

Change Downtime To Productivity

You Need Your Tools Back FAST

Eliminating Downtime &
Tuned To Meet or Surpass
Original Design Specs
and Thats Where We Come In

Stripping & Re-Coating

Gear Shaper Sharpening
Milling Cutter Sharpening
Gear Tool Certifications

Tel: 216-642-5900 Fax: 216-642-8837 5755 Canal Road Valley View, OH 44125


Custom gear racks in AMERICAN and

METRIC standards, STRAIGHT and
and COARSE pitch (254 D.P. 0.5 D.P.;
0.10 Module 50 Module); hard-cut
(up to 60 Rc) and soft-cut (up to 40
Rc); 32 face width; Up to 82 lengths
longer lengths through resetting
Custom gears in AMERICAN and
METRIC standards (3 D.P. 72 D.P.,
10 Diameter)
Precision Quality up to AGMA 12
Prototype & Production quantities
Breakdown Service Available
Reverse Engineering
Unique Tooth Configurations
Heat Treating
Complete CNC Machining
p. 860-223-7778




Made by aMerican
craftsMen in the Usa



ALD Thermal Treatment Inc.................................................................51

All Metals & Forge Group.....................................................................37
Allen Adams Shaper Services..............................................................54
AWEA Windpower '15..........................................................................50
Bourn & Koch Inc.................................................................................55
Circle Gear & Machine.........................................................................55
DT Technologies SA.............................................................................33
Encoder Products................................................................................11
Engineered Tools Corporation................................................... 46-47,54
Forest City Gear...................................................................................17
Gear Solutions......................................................................................39
Gleason Corporation............................................................................27
GMTA (German Machine Tools of America).........................................35
HOUSTEX '14.......................................................................................44
Index Technologies..............................................................................54
Innovative Rack & Gear........................................................................54
Ipsen USA............................................................................................25
KAPP Technologies............................................................................ IFC
KISSsoft USA LLC................................................................................ 9



Koro Sharpening Service.....................................................................54

Lawler Gear Corp.................................................................................54

.25 to 34 Diameter

McInnes Rolled Ring............................................................................12

32 DP to 1.5 DP

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America Inc............................................BC


.5 Module to 16 Module

Mitsubishi Materials USA.....................................................................22

New England Gear............................................................................7,54
Penna Flame Industries........................................................................11
PentaGear Products.............................................................................19



Pinson Valley Heat Treating..................................................................33

.25 to 33 Diameter

Proto Manufacturing Ltd......................................................................21

32 DP to 2 DP

Raycar Gear & Machine Co.................................................................10

.5 Module to 12 Module

Repair Parts Inc....................................................................................10

RP Machine Enterprises Inc...............................................................IBC
STD Precision Gear..............................................................................36

Since 1951 Circle Gear has served

Chicago land as a full service gear
manufacturing facility. In addition
to bevel gears Circle Gear also
provides spur gears, helical gears,
herringbone gears, worm and gear
sets, internal gears, splines, racks
and sprockets.

The Broach Masters Inc.........................................................................4

TMFM LLC.............................................................................................9
Toolink Enginereing Inc..........................................................................1
Willman Industries Inc............................................................................2




Jeanine Kunz

Managing Director of Workforce and Education

Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME)

It seems as though, nowadays, education is key in

whatever industry people find themselves. Why is
workforce development and education so crucial in
todays world?

Education is important in all industries, but its even

more heightened in the manufacturing industry.
Manufacturing is all about technology and new ways of
making things. The industry is born off of that principle.
With technology being a big part of manufacturing and
the pace of technology rapidly changing; a lot of that
has accelerated over the past 10 years when you compare
it to other decades. More importantly, economic progress
for our nation is paced by our ability to fully adopt and
utilize that technology. Its our ability as individuals in
the workforce to leverage and utilize technology to create
new products, enhance productivity, and decrease costs.
So, our economic progress as a nation is very much
driven by manufacturing, which is very much driven by
the abilities of our workforce to utilize the technologies
within it which requires lifelong learning and education.
Which demographic of people do you see taking
advantage of opportunities with continuing education
programs that SME offers the most?

We experience significant demand and interest from

the production sidethose who managing production
or are programming or operating/maintaining the
equipment. We work closely with individuals on the
shop floor and in engineering. We also work closely
with community colleges and high schools providing
supplemental education programs to what is already
provided in the schools, providing instructors more time
to do hands on instruction with students.
Why should peopleexperts and novices alikestrive
to learn more about the gear manufacturing industry
and its technological advances?

Both should. Those who have been in their careers for

a long time need to keep upgrading their skills. Thats
one of the challenges. We all get comfortable in our
jobs and our skills, but things evolve. Additionally, we
work closely with many of our customers with those
workers who are fresh out of college and help take
them to that next level
Everyone can buy the same equipment and materials
and use the same process, but it takes the right people
in the right jobs with the right training to optimize the
entire system to its full potential to meet a companys
business goals. So, the company that invests in workers
is the one that is going to beat out the competition.

What is SME currently doing to promote the importance

of education and workforce development, specifically?

This past year, we published two different publically

available white papers. We did some research and
spoke to companies to determine how world-class
companies are succeeding and are more competitive.
A lot of it came back to workforce development. They
were investing in their people. They were looking at
continuous improvements in the operations. They were
better at product planning and getting products out to
the market. We want to highlight the importance of
people as a competitive differentiator and asset in a
companys growth strategy. We try to bring forward the
idea of people power and human capital as a strategic
advantage for companies to be competitive. Weve seen
through research that those companies embracing and
investing in training are more competitive and profitable.
One of the unique things we do is connect our customers
with other customers. So, whether youre a Fortune 500
company or a company of 100 people, you can connect
with others who are trying to move their organization
forward by investing in their people. We consult with
companies using a structured methodology that starts
with identify the companys business goals. Then, we can
work on the required job performance needed to reach
that business goal and the associated knowledge and
skills to successfully perform. Training then is designed
specifically around the knowledge, skills, and objectives
that tie back to business goals.
We are seeing one very valuable tool for this is our new
Tooling U-SME Competency Framework. It features a
comprehensive series of competency models in nine
manufacturing functional areas and is made up of more
than 60 defined job role competency models, outlining
knowledge and skill objectives for job roles in production,
technician, lead technician/technologist and engineer
levels. Tied to business goals, a well-designed training
program, including the Competency Framework,
becomes the foundation for performance management,
talent acquisition, and leadership development, which
helps drive a companys competitiveness.
What does SME have in mind for 2015?

2015 is the year of workforce development. We are

encouraging companies to take stock of the health of
their company workforcethe skills shortage is not
going awayand resolve to put time and energy into
developing their people. The bottom line is that worldclass companies are outperforming others partially
because they manage and train differently.




To help, we do have a new white

paper coming out in January on
human capital. We continuously
add new classes of content, and,
in January, we will have new classes
on additive manufacturing and
3-D printing.

How would you say SME has

established itself as a leader on
the forefront of education in this

We dont just focus on one

particular technology, size of
company, geography, or industry.
We impact hundreds of thousands
of people each year by improving
the knowledge and skills of today
and tomorrows manufacturers.
We are able to stay up-to-speed
on providing our customers with
all different kinds of resources
and training. We keep current on
learning and development so that
we can bring the best practices to
manufacturers and educators. We
can take what some of the largest
manufacturers in the world are
doing to small shops that often
dont have access to the same set
of resources. We are proud of
the extensive work we do with
companies and schools across the
country. Now, more than ever,
manufacturing needs educators
and companies working together
to build the next generation of
manufacturers. We all need to
ensure those students coming
out of schools possess the skills
needed in todays manufacturing

New Hera CNC Gear

Hobber Line
Competitively priced machines
(6) Models from 60 mm to 750 mm
Quick and easy installation
Quick delivery

Turn key solutions

Quality components used
Wet and dry hobbing
Trade-ins welcomed
Hera-200 in stock, Statesville NC

F: 704.872.5777

820 Cochran Street Statesville, NC 28677

Having it all


Quality Production
Without Compromise
Having it all should not be just a dream.
With Mitsubishis new for 2011 ZE40A
gear grinding machine, it is a reality.
Mitsubishi has built a reputation for
providing the job shops of America
with exible and accurate gear hobbing,
shaping and shaving machines for
nishing or roughing gears in their
soft state. Now with the ZE40A, they
introduce a exible gear grinder that
fullls the needs of customers who
require accurate gears in their hard state.
The ZE40A delivers a complete and
comprehensive package that requires
little or no additional options.
The full circle of features include:
Single index form and Multi-Start
Generating grinding of gears up
to 400mm diameter
Swing away tailstock arm for ease
of loading heavy parts
Integrated onboard inspection
Integrated CNC dressing
Integrated automatic meshing
Integrated automatic wheel balancing
Automatic bias adjustment
Automatic pressure angle adjustment
400mm axial travel for grinding
shaft gears

To personally experience the worldclass performance of the Mitsubishi

ZE40A visit
or contact sales 248-669-6136.



Machine Tool Division / Gear Technology Center


46992 Liberty Drive

Wixom, MI 48393