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Centrul de Educaie Continu i nvmnt la Distan FEAA



Conf. univ. dr. Judith Moise

Lector univ.dr. Daniela Istodor

Timioara, 2012

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration

Lector dr. Daniela Istodor
A course for students of the first year, First Semester
Academic year 2012/ 2013

English is truly an international language, it is the language of the European Union, NATO and
international business. A knowledge of the English language opens doors to careers throughout the
This course provides excellent instruction in the basics of the English language, as well as cultural
information that is critical to facilitating clear communication. The information presented here is
essential for any student wishing to pursue a career in the international job market, and is written
in a clear, factual and logical manner. It is an ideal reference for every student wishing to better
understand the nuances of the English language.

Each unit is devided into two parts: the first part covers a topic connected to everyday life and the
second part focuses on grammar. Both parts provide various activities so that students could
develop the main skills needed when learning a foreign language: reading, writing and speaking.


UNIT 1. Everyday Life - Homes
UNIT 2. Individual Identity
UNIT 3. Family and Family Links
UNIT 4. Education in Britain
UNIT 5. British Culture
UNIT 6. Political System in Britain
List of Irregular Verbs in English

UNIT 1. Everyday Life - Homes


After studying this unit students will be able to:

describe their houses using the specific vocabulary

discuss about a traditional English house versus a Romanian one

use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (The Noun)


Where do people spend most of their time?

What is home for you/ your family?
Is home synonym with house? Give reasons.

I. Everyday Life - Homes

My home is my castle is an old English saying which suggests that our home is our universe. This
proverb is true for most nations even if expressed in different ways. There is no place like home
and Home sweet home, Home is where the heart is.
Home is defined as a place of residence where an individual or a family can rest, relax, socialize,
take refuge and comfort. While a house or a residential dwelling is often referred to as a home, the
concept of home has a much broader connotation than a physical dwelling. Most people think of
home in terms of where they grew up, or where they lived, a place that brings back memories, or
feelings. Humans are generally creatures of habit, so the state of a persons home has been known to
psychologically influence their behavior, emotions and overall mental health. Therefore some
people may become homesick when they leave their home over an extended period of time.
A house generally refers to a shelter or building that is a dwelling or place for habitation for
humans. However, the word can also be used as a verb- to house- and, due to conversion it can also
be used as an adjective (e.g. house keeper). In some contexts, house may mean the same as
dwelling, home, accommodation, housing, lodging and so on. English-speaking people generally
call any building they live in, home. Most people leave their houses during the day for work and
recreations, but return to them to sleep, eat or rest.
An Englishmans home is his castle? Studies show that British homes are the smallest in Europe,
with an average usable floor space of 76 m sq. In general there are three basic types of house that
have their own ground-level entry and private open space:

Single-family detached houses (free standing on all sides);

Semi-detached houses (duplexes, houses that are attached to the other house through a
common wall);

Terraced house / row house/ town house (attached to the other houses, possibly in row).

In Great Britain 27% of the population live in terraced houses and 32% in semi-detached houses. In
the United States 61.4% of people live in detached houses, 5.6% in semi-detached houses, 26% in
row houses or apartments and 7% in mobile homes. In Romania most of the population lives in

blocks of flats, there is no clear evidence in the records of The National Institute of Statistics.
A flat/ apartment is a housing unit that occupies only part of a building. Apartments may be owned
by an owner/ occupier, or rented by tenants. The term apartment is favored in North America
whereas flat is commonly used in Europe.
Apartments can be classified into several types. In the US the typical terms are: studio, efficiency or
bachelor style apartment. These all tend to be the smallest apartments with the cheapest rent. They
usually consist of a large room which is the living, dining, and bedroom combined. Sometimes there
are kitchen facilities as part of this main room and the bathroom is a small separate room.
One-bedroom apartments, are those in which the bedroom is separated from the rest of the
apartment; then there are two-bedroom, three-bedroom, etc apartments.
Houses are usually built from brick, stone and wood, but to a certain extent aluminum and steel
have replaced some traditional building materials. Increasingly alternative construction materials
include insulating concrete forms (foam forms filled with concrete) structural insulated panels
(foam panels with fiber cement). In general people often built houses out of the nearest available
materials and often tradition and/or culture govern construction materials, so whole towns areas
counties, countries may be built out of one main type of material. For example many American
houses use wood, while most British and Romanian houses use stone or brick. More recently,
builders have begun to collaborate with structural engineers who use computers and finite element
analysis to design prefabricated steel-framed homes with resistance to high wind-loads and seismic
forces. These newer products provide labor saving, more consistent quality, and accelerated
construction processes.
Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the
house. The rooms have specialized functions, they may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area
and washing and lavatory areas. Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom,
bathroom, kitchen/ kitchen area, and a living room.
The names of parts of a house could typically include:
basement / cellar
bathroom (in various senses of the word)
bath / shower
bedroom (or nursery for small children)
dining room
Fireplace (for warmth during winter; generally not found
in warmer climates)
front room (in various senses of the phrase)

laundry room
living room
storage room / box
office or study

I. Comprehension questions:
1. Do you know any English proverbs expressing peoples feelings for their homes?
2. How do you define the term home?
3. What are the three basic types of houses?
4. Can you estimate the percentage of population living in houses or flats in Timisoara?
5. What are the basic rooms in a house?
6. What materials are generally used for building houses? (in Romania and all over the world)
II. Understanding the text:
Written language is organized into paragraphs. Most paragraphs have a key sentence that
summarizes the content of the whole paragraph. This is called the topic sentence. If you read the
topic sentences only, you can often predict the rest. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and
then the main idea of the whole text.
III. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B:

grounds, proof, testimony


establishment, habitation, lodging, residence


land, region, territory


income, rental, revenue


strength, courage, alloy of iron


generally, as a whole


condition, manner, practice


region, tract, open space


inhabitant, occupant, temporary resident


hanker, nostalgic, longing

IV. Find the opposites and then provide synonyms for the following words:














V. Choose the best answer:

1. Well eat out today. I dont want to set the. table.
dining room/ kitchen
2. There is no more room in the house, so we must store some of our things in the..
bathroom/ garage
3. After you finish washing the laundry, put them in the.
Dryer/ bathroom
4. Take the dirty clothes out of the laundry basket and put them in the. machine.
washing/ washer
5. Clothes .are used to hang clothes.
hangers/ hangars
6. Women use ironing. to iron the clothes.
board/ border
7. I think we need a new. for our table.
Top-cloth/table cloth
8. A table that folds is called a . table.
9. A. is a chair without arm or back rests.
Stand/ stool
10. Mother put my socks in the wrong

1. We hang our clothes in the. and do not leave them on the floor.
2. My sister has nice red.that she likes to wear around the house.
3. Dan has not worn since he was a kid.
Ties/shorts/ pyjamas
4. We must wake up very early so well set the.. for 5 a.m.
5. Every morning we must.our bed.
Make/ do/ sleep
6. Because its going to be a cold night I need an extra.
Blanket/pillow/pillow case
7. A pillow... is something you put on your pillow so it wont get dirty.
Sheet/ frame/ case
8. This cellar has no electrical.
Jacks/ circuit/ outlets
9. We usually have . so the neighbours cannot see everything.
Sheets/ curtains/ doors
10. If we want to turn on or off the light, the light. should be used.
1. The.. of the house are very solid. (roots/ establishment/foundations)
2. The roof.. are made of synthetic materials. (boards/tiles/shingles).
3. I own some.. in Banat. (grounds/earth/property).
4. We grew up in aof Timisoara. (quarter/slum/suburbs)
5. The kitchen .was imported from Italy. (boards/ tiles/ furniture).
6. We painted the green to match the house. (panes/ shutters/ screens).
7. Children who grew up in the . are disadvantaged. (suburbs/ slums/ quarters).
8. The architects.. was impressive. (cabin/ mansion/ studio).
9. The keeps the bugs out when we open the windows. (pane/ screen/ shutter).
10. We keep all our stuff in the (duplex/ warehouse/ retail).
VI. Thinking carefully (pair work). Finish the following sentences.

1. I live on a street
2. It is a beautiful street..
3. There are trees.
4. The living room is the first room..
5. This room is filled with lively furniture:.
6. The enormous window on the southern wall
7. My room is decorated ..
8. I often dream about..
9. The entertaining room is.
10. It has a
VII. Topics for discussion (pair work).
Speak about your house / flat. Describe your room.
Do you prefer traditional/rustic/modern style?
Do you prefer to live in a house or in a spacious flat?
How would you decorate your place?
If you were a billionaire what kind of house would you build and where?


Fill in the gaps with the suitable words:
























Our house has 200 square. As you enter the house thorough the front porch you will
the house has been renovated. Where the current front porch stands was . a small kitchen.
When we purchased the house, the. porch was covered with green indoor-outdoor
carpeting; we it with slate tiles. As you enter the foyer you will notice the fire
made of a single piece of stone. The house has wood floors everywhere except the kitchen,
which has ceramic....................

The to the right of the foyer and the large glass opening on to the
deck provide a spectacular........... of the river and the eastern exposure .............the room with
sunlight during the. hours.
The kitchen was added on in the 1950s and with new walnut cabinets in the 1990s.
The utility .......... was that time.
The last.. to visit downstairs is the bedroom, which is ..... the staircase. This is also redesigned
and a bath with walk-in. was added to it. The two remaining upstairs rooms were
once small ............... and we have also. them. After five years of .. in this house
and getting to know it from the inside out through many, we have developed a great deal
of.......... for this place .
IX. Fill in the gaps with the suitable word/s:
1. I have just.........into a house in a quiet area.
Moved /changed/ turned/ gone
2. Stairs became a problem for my grandparents, so they decided to buy a........ .
Terrace / bungalow/ studio/ flat
3. My brother lives in that new........of flats, near the center.
Building/ block/ high rise/ tower
4. How you pay a month?
Fee/ rent/ rental/ lodging
5. I lived in a/an......flat once, it was very dark and we never saw the sun.
Attic/ underground/ basement/ cellar
6. My sister is looking for an.......flat as she has her own belongings.
Unarranged/ unprepared/ unequipped/ unfurnished
7. I live with a host family, but its self-......., so I get my own food.
Catering/ cooking/ organising/ feeding
8. Luckily, really nice and she looks after the building well.
Boss/ host/ land lady/ proprietor
9. Have you met Maria? She is my flat..........
Colleague/ sharer/ mate/ friend
10. If you want to move out, you should give one months........ .
Warning/ notice/ advice/ leave
1. We keep our books on a book shelf, also known as a........ .
Bookcase/ book closet/ book shop

2. The appliance that cools rooms in summer is called an air..........

Cooler / conditioner / fan
3. What prevents you from getting wet in the shower is a shower...........
Curtain/ cap/ hood
4. An extra door that lets air in and keeps flies out: ......... door.
Protection/ screen/ net
5. A device used to open the door is called a door........
Handler/ knob/ hand
6. It is hanged on the wall to tell us the time - a........
Clock/ watch/ radio
7. TV sets are kept on a piece of furniture called a TV....... .
Shelf/ stand/ cabinet
8. A place where you walk inside to get your clothes is a .......... closet .
Walkable/ walk-in/ walking
9. A couch that also functions as a bed is called a........... bed.
Sofa/ king size/ folding
10. The room where we cook is called ............ .
Chicken/ kitchen/ pantry

Key terms
Add other words or phrases you know related to the topic of Everyday life-Homes.






Detached house

Semi-detached house











Related Terms household appliance vocabulary. Explain what each device does.
Can opener
Compactor (device for pressing; crusher)
Dish washer
Ice box (for drinks)
Refrigerator (for food)
Vacuum cleaner (hoover)

II - Focus on grammar
The Noun
A noun is a part of speech that indicates people, things, objects etc. There are several types of nouns
in English and each type of noun can have important grammar rules when used.

Classification of nouns
Nouns may be broadly divided into:

Abstract nouns

Abstract nouns are nouns that refer to concepts, ideas, emotions, etc. (e.g. success, love, power,
hate, tolerance).

Collective nouns

Collective nouns refer to groups of various types. They are mostly commonly used with groups of

animals and can be used in both the singular and plural, although collective nouns tend to be used in
the singular. (e.g. herd, litter, pack, swarm, hive)
Common nouns refer to categories of things in general, never to specific examples.
Concrete nouns refer to things that you can touch, feel, taste.
According to countability, nouns can be:
a) countable: house, brick, room
b) uncountable: stone, wood, paper
According to word formations, nouns can be:
a) Simple: room, house, garden
b) Derived: builder, gardener, plumber
c) Compound: sitting-room, dining-room, bathroom

Proper nouns

Proper nouns are the names of people, things, institutions, nations, etc. And are always capitalized
(e.g. Timisoara, Romania, Dana, University of the West)

Number of nouns
The form assumed by a noun to show whether it donates one thing or more than one is called the
Regular plurals- adding the inflection -s or -es e.g. room-rooms, house-houses
Irregular plurals: -Mutation: e.g. tooth-teeth
-Changing: e.g. -f into v knife-knives (exception roof-roofs)
-en is added to the singular: e.g. child-children, ox-oxen
Foreign plurals are preserved with some borrowed nouns analysis-analyses, basis-bases,

The possessive case

From the point of view of form there are two types of genitive.
1. The analytical genitive with the preposition of: the walls of the house, the colour of the room.
2. The synthetical genitive withs.
It may be used in the following cases:

a. Nouns denoting persons or other beings: Danas house, the boys room, the cats toy.
b. Nouns denoting measurement, time, space, quantity, value: a weeks vacation, a lifes
work, an hours walk.
c. Collective nouns: the facultys investment, the governments decisions.
d. Nouns that can be personified (geographical names, vehicles, natural phenomena):
Romanias history, the Danubes banks, the ships name.

III. Activities and Tests

1. Identify the following nouns as countable and uncountable:













Bottle of wine






Stone (mat.)


2. Find the correct plural for the words in brackets:

What are the .of success? (criterion)

The..of scientists must confirm to the real world. (hypothesis)

Our country has been through many.. since the Revolution.(crisis)

The people of Timisoara sent several to Bucharest. (memorandum)

These are the most important . for our research. (datum)

The candidates who want to obtain a PhD have to write their..............(thesis).

All lectures delivered to the students must confirm to the academic (curriculum).

Things relevant for our students future were not included in. (syllabus).

3. Fill in the gaps with any suitable word:

1. Before leaving home have you filled your car with?
2. Do you have a to find your way?
3. Do you have reservations at the ..?
4. Are you taking your pet. in the car?
5. Have you enough.for your pet?
6. Did you pack all your toiletries such as,,.,,..
7. Have you got a good map that shows all the roads and the places that serve.. and have
nice, clean rooms.
8. Did you take enough ..with you?
9. Do not forget to turn off.., , .
10. If you answered these questions you can go!
4. Choose the right word:
1. I had a good experience/ fortune/ luck/ time while I was abroad.
2. State of the art ammunition/ arms/ equipment/ weapons/ weaponry is expensive.
3. One scene/ scenery/ view/ countryside particularly impressed the guests.
4. You need a new clothes/ clothing/suit/ underwear.
5. One needs to get a leave/ pass/ permission/permit to get there.
6. You should buy now - it's a real bargain/ saving/ savings/ reduction!
7. It is difficult for young people to find career/ employment/ job/work.
8. There is a/an fortune/ income/ money/wealth to be made from franchising.
9. We shouldn't judge people on their achievement/ failure/ progress/ success.
10. My new job has something to do with advertisement/ advertising/ publicity/ marketing.
5. Identify and write out all the possible alternatives in the following sentences:
1. There is/are a couple of customers outside who/ which want/ wants to see you.
2. Our elected majority was/ were higher this time than the last one.
3. The Mayors office has/ have issued a press release.
4. The tax payers has/ have a right to know what money is being spent in its/their name.
5. The police has/ have a difficult mission in this case.
6. This /these family need/needs assistance.

7. A majority of the tourists want/ wants to return home.

8. This/these things belonging to him was/ were found on the bed.
9. What was/ were the latest news on television?
10. I paid a lot for this/these trousers, but it/ they isn't/ aren't so good.
6. Complete the sentences with the possessive form:
1. My......................... is near Arad.
Housesparents / parents house / parentss house
2. Alice is a ........................... .
Womans name / name womans/ woman names
3. The faculty is within 5................................ .
Minutes walk/ minuteswalk/ minutess walk
4. Meat is bought from the ..............
Butchers / butcher/ butcherss
5................................. car is black.
Davids father/ Davids fathers/ David fathers
6...............................laptop is broken.
Mariuss / Marius/ Mariuses
7. are beautiful.
Dans and Dana/ Dan and Danas/ Dans and Danas
8. My black.
Brother cat/ brothers cat/ brotherss cat
9. is being repaired.
Adrians and Mary/ Adrian and Marys/ Adrians and Marys
10. It is not my suitcase, its....................................... .
Daniels /Daniel/ Daniel
7. Rewrite the following sentences into the possessive and carry out any necessary changes in the
wording of the sentences:
1. The baby of Adrian and Cristina is lovely.
2. I did it for the sake of my best friend.
3. She took the place of somebody else.
4. Ronald Reagan has an assured place in history.
5. The plays of Alecsandri are seldom staged nowadays.
6. She bought some chocolate costing 10Ron.

7. The distance to the next petrol station was 20 Km.

8. The strike lasted five hours.
9. The meat I bought weighted one kilo.
10. It was a trip of two days.

IV. Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?

2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
5. Do you have any suggestions for improving it?

UNIT 2. Individual Identity


After studying this unit students should be able to:

speak about identity using the specific vocabulary
give synonyms and antonyms for the words provided
use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (The Pronoun)


What do you understand by identity?

How do we identify ourselves?
Do all countries have identity cards?

I. Individual Identity
There are two major aspects of identity: individual identity and social identity. Individual identity
defines each individual, from all the other millions and millions of people travelling all over the
world today and in the past. Social identity tells us what type of person someone is, what their
beliefs and affiliations are, what social categories they belong to.
The markers of individual identity - name, face, social security number (in some countries),
personal identity number (as in Romania), identity card, driving licence, passport and any other
identity documentation, fingerprint, DNA (and other biometric measures), e-mail address, etc.
have various degrees of reliability depending on when and where they are used. It costs more to
establish ones identity with a blood sample than a signature, though also potentially more reliable.
In countries with a high rate of identity theft, one may be willing to pay extra costs to ensure that
only that particular person can be accredited as being him/her. We provide clues referring to our
identity all the time: fingerprints, distinctive features. Individual identity is at the core of ones
reputation, social acceptance, control and motivation and self-confidence. Good reputation is very
important: it could mean increased status, a better job, and better opportunities. On the other hand,
poor reputation can be a serious problem: a person with such a reputation will have trouble in
getting a good job, respect from others, friendship and security of employment.
An identity document is any document which may be used to verify aspects of a persons identity. If
issued in the form of a small card it is usually called identity card (IC). In some countries the
possession of government-produced identity card is compulsory while in others it may be
voluntarily. Information present on the document (which is also in the police data base) include the
bearers full name, a portrait photo, birth date and place, address, ID and citizenship status. New
technologies could allow IDs to contain biometric information such as photographs, face
measurements, hand measurements or iris measurements, or fingerprints.
A number of countries still do not have national IDs. These include: Australia, Canada, Denmark,
Ireland, India, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, United Kingdom, and the United States.

Every Romanian citizen must register for an ID at the age of 14 (Carte de identitate, CI). The CI
offers proof of the identity, address, sex, and other data of the possessor. It has to be renewed every
ten years.
Since the early1950s there has been no national ID in Great Britain, but the British government is
progressively introducing compulsory IDs for foreign residents. Identity card for British nationals
will be introduced gradually from 2009 onwards. Driving licence and passports are now the most
widely used ID documents. A similar situation may be encountered in the USA.
In the virtual world, which has invaded more and more our universe and personal lives, identity
cannot be taken for granted. The core of individual identity is the physical body, which is not there;
it is a pseudo- communication, even if one can see each other with the aim of some hi-tech
equipment. One way of establishing identity in the virtual world is to connect the online persona to
a physical being. Sometimes this is straightforward: if one signs with his real name, gives details
about him/herself, such as: family, date and place of birth, present address, occupation, marital
status, religion, nationality, and work place, one has provided clear ties to his physical world.
Anonymity, pseudonymity, and real identity could connect to a single physical self. Anonymity
means that there is no connection to a physical self and little persistence in time. Pseudonymity
means that there is no connection to a physical self but there is persistence in time. A pseudonym
can have a reputation, and in some cases, the name has almost been forgotten, while the pseudonym
is always remembered.

I. Comprehension questions:
1. Which are the major aspects of identity?
2. How do you identify yourself in Romania? What about other countries?
3. What information should be contained in an ID?
4. What security measures should be introduced to avoid identity theft?
5. How can you establish the real identity of somebody from the virtual world?
6. What are the reasons for using anonymity, pseudonymity and not real identity online?
II. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and then the main idea of the whole text.

III. Match the words in column A with their meaning in column B:


direct, honest, ahead

authentic, constant, trustworthy, authentic
constraining, enforced, imperative, mandatory
advancing, forward, ahead
carrier, titular, undersigned
hint, guide, solution
mark identification, characteristic
sign, indication, token, trace
swindling, fraud, robbery, stealing
craft, engagement, trade, business

IV. Group work: Find out the good points and bad points about having ID documents. Draw up two
columns and write them.
Good points

Bad points

V. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words:


























Every citizen of Romania must ...........for an ID card (Carte de identitate, abbreviated CI) at
the ......of 14. The CI offers........of the identity, address, sex and other ..... of the possessor. It has to
be ..... every 10 years. It can be used instead of a passport for travel ........ the European Union and
several other countries inside the EU.
Another ID Card is the Provisional ID Card (Cartea de Identitate Provizorie) issued ........... when
an individual cannot get a normal ID Card for some ...... Its validity ......... for up to 1 year.
Other forms of officially accepted ......... include the driver's ....... and the birth certificate. However,
these are ...... only in limited circumstances and cannot take the place of the ID Card in most cases.
In particular, the ID Card is mandatory for dealing with ........ institutions, banks or ...... exchange
shops. Some of these may also accept a valid............ but usually only for ............. .
In addition, citizens can be expected to provide the personal ........... number (CNP) in many
circumstances; purposes range from simple unique identification and internal book-keeping to being

asked for identification by the Police. The CNP is 13 characters long, with the format S-YY-MMDD-RR-XXX-Y. Where S is the sex, YY is .... of birth, MM is....of birth, DD is...... of birth, RR is a
regional id, XXX is a unique random number and Y is an extra random identification ................
Presenting the ID Card is preferred but not ............ when asked by Police officers; however, in such
cases people are expected to provide a CNP or alternate means of identification....which can be
checked on the....... (via internet if needed).
The information on the ID Card is required to be kept the owner; ......... address of
domicile in particular. Doing otherwise can expose the citizen to certain fines or be denied service
by those institutions that require a valid, up to date Card. In spite of this, it is common for people to
let the information lapse or go around with ........... ID Cards.
VI. Choose the correct answer:

1. I English lessons because they are very interesting.
2...that you would be at the party.
It was told me/It was said/ I was told
3. Ill ring you when parents house.
Arrive at/ arrive to/will arrive to
4. Dana has got a much more interesting in the school now.
5. Is that your .passport?
6. George.have tea, than coffee.
Would rather/prefer/would like
7. Good. I hope you win.
8. Take an umbrellait rains while you are out.
If/in case/because
9. It will cost a lot of money to have ....
That car done/that car made/made that car
10. If you..soon you will miss the class.
Arent coming/wont come/dont come

1. Thats my name on the document, but it isnt my.............................

2. Every small town like this has.................................. strange stories.
Its/ their/the
3.I am going to the Police tomorrow. So..............................
Do I/ am I /I am
4. They came to the party.............................they hadnt been invited.
In case/even/although
5. If I............................................the mistake, I would have corrected it.
Would have noticed/had noticed/noticed
6. Police has proved that he was guilty, but he...........................doesnt admit it.
7. I wanted to email him but he......................................give me his address.
8. We were all at the station, waiting.......................................................arrive.
For the bus/the bus to/ for the bus to
9. Susie fell down and broke her ankle....a pity.
10. There wasnt.... at school.
Anybody/somebody/any people

VII.Find synonyms and then provide antonyms:
















VIII. Topics for discussion (pair work).


Find out about your friends last trip. Before asking him write the questions.


Means of transport


Journey time

How long.?



Length of stay


Purpose of trip


Visa needed

Did you..?


.a good time?



Opinion of trip


2. The e-passport has been issued. Give pros and cons about this topic.
3. You have lost your ID. What steps must you take to have a new one made?

Key terms
Add other words or phrases you know related to the topic of Individual Identity.
Driving license
Individual identity

Marital status
Personal identity number
Security number signature
Self confidence
Social identity

II - Focus on grammar
The pronoun
Pronouns are those grammatical entities that replace nouns or rather whole noun phrases.
The classes of pronouns are:
Personal pronouns: e.g. I, you, he, her, we, etc.
Possessive pronouns: e.g. mine, ours, yours
Self pronouns: e.g. myself, yourself etc.
Demonstrative pronouns: e.g. this, that, these, those
Relative pronouns: e.g. who (whom, whose), which, that
Indefinite pronouns: e.g. any, none, some, each, anybody, nobody, something
The indefinite pronouns some and any are quantity words.
1. Some = an amount, a number of.
Any usually replaces some in questions and after negatives.
e.g. some boys, some coffee, some apples
2. Some and any as determiners before a noun.
e.g. some students, any students, some advice
3. Some and any as pronouns (as pronouns followed by of).
e.g. some of the girls, any of the students
4. Some in requests and offers.
e.g. Would you like some cake?
5. Some and any as adverbs of degree.

e.g. Some two million students..; Was it any good?

Sometimes (on some occasions) is an adverb of frequency.
e.g. Sometimes I cook my own dinner.
Sometime (at some time in the future) is an adverb of time.
e.g. Come and see us sometime.

III. Activities and Tests

1. Fill in the blanks with the suitable pronouns:
am a singer and this is about a person like.. Mirabela is one of.favourite singers.
is a jazz singer and often performs in clubs like., but voice is very different
from I consider a singer of standard jazz songs. Mirabela, on the other hand,
considers.. a singer of original material only. One thing is certain: . both consider
lovers of great music! . both went to the School of Music in Arad. ..teacher,
Maria, continues to teach other students at the school. She gives .. three lessons a week- just
like . did when went to school. Another similarity of.. is that .are both from Arad.
Mirabela grew up in the country while. grew up in Lipova, a much smaller city than..
Mirabela is married and... husband, Adrian, works as an investment banker in Arad.
office is in the city center where. arrives every morning at nine.. have very different
professions, but feel marriage is successful for this very reason.. am not jealous
of.success, but . am jealous of wonderful relationship. Maybe someday. will
meet a man just like.
2. Choose the correct answer:
1. Please ask.come in.
Her/ her to/ to her to
2. Is Jane still at home? I dont think.
It / that/ so
3. .dog is this? Its Annas.
Which/ whose/ what
4. There isnt a good pub in this campus.
Anywhere/ somewhere/ nowhere

5. I am too busy to

She/ her/ to her
6. There isnt .interesting on TV.
Nothing/ something/ anything
7. Is he a relative of.?
Your/ yours/ yours
8. I should like to go abroad for holiday.
Mine/ my/ I
9...aunt has brought us some grapes.
Our/ ours/ we
10. Dont pay any attention to..words.
Him/ his/ he
3. Complete each sentence using myself/yourself etc:
1. Ann had a great time at the party. She enjoyed..
2. I was wrong and I am ashamed of.
3. Dont worry about us. We can look after
4. He cut.while he was cooking.
5. The cakes are great, help
4. Complete the sentences with some, any or their compounds:

I did not get ..present.

Could I have.. milk in my tea, please?

If there are.words you dont understand, just ask me.

We didnt have. money, so we stayed at home.

who saw the accident should call 112.

Have you lost.?

There is .at the door.

Would you drink?

I was too tired to do..

Theres ..coming and I dont see us together.

Wh- words is the name given to the following ten words:

Who, whom
What, which
How, why
Where, when
Wh-questions allow a speaker to find out more information about topics:











Object/ Idea/ Action

Other words can be used to inquire about specific information:

Which (one)

Choice of alternatives





How much?

Price, amount

How many?


How long?


How often?


How far?


What kind (of)?


Which? is used instead of what when there is a limited set of possibilities to choose from.
e.g. Which blouse do you like more? The red or the green one?
Which? is used instead of who ( for people) or instead of what ( for things) when there is a
limited set of possibilities to choose from.
e.g. Which of Spielbergs films have you seen?

III. Activities
1. Make questions with who or what.
e.g. Somebody saw me.- Who saw you?
I am worried about you.
I took some money from the bank.
This book belongs to me.
Somebody lives in this flat.
I stumbled over something.
I was told something interesting.
Something bad happened.
This word means something.
Somebody gave me a glass of water.

Something fell on the floor.

2. Put the words in brackets in the correct order.

1. (what time/ coming/ your parents/ are)
2. (where/ your mother/ was/born)
3. (how/ the accident/ did/ happen)
4. (when/ was/ built/ this house)
5. (why/ this car/ doesnt/ work)
6. (why/ you/ to the conference/ didnt/ come)
7. (why/ was/ canceled/ the flight/)
8. (when/ invented/ computer/ was)
9. (why/ the students/ present/ arent/ today)
10. (how/ milk and tea/ is/ made)
3. Choose the correct form of the wh- words:

1. I have many friends, some of ..visit me often.

Who/ whom/ which/ whose
2. This is the village I used to live.
When/ that/ which/ where
3. I did.he asked me.
What/ which/ that/ who
4. The friends in .I placed my confidence have deceived me.
What/ which/ whose/ whom
5. Anna was away for a while brought a book.
That/ who/ whose/ which
6. The manson you have just spoken to is a doctor.
Which/ whom/ whose/ that
7. The pub .I had dinner was in the campus.
Whom/ which/ that/ where
8. I want to know .you want to go now.
Whom/ that/ which/ where
9. He asked me.. I meant by those words.
Which/ what/ that/ whose
10. This is the man.I sat next to at the concert.
Whom/ whose/ which/ where
4. Combine the following sentences using the words given:
1. The house is full of paintings. I have never seen some of the paintings. (which)
2. The secretary is speaking to a man. The man is a foreign diplomat. (whom)
3. I have a brother. He lives in Arad and works as a manager. (who)
4. Felix is a resort. Many tourists spend their holidays there. (where)
5. Welsh is a language. It is spoken by less and less people in Wales. (which)
6. He is a salesman. His work takes him all over the country. (whose)
7. The bus goes downtown. The bus stops at this corner. (which)
8. I met Dana. She was crying because you lied to her. (who)
9. You sent me a book. Thank you very much for it. (which)
10. The bed had no mattress. We sleep on this bed. (which)
5. Fill in the gaps with wh- words:
1. ..advised you to go there?
2. .could he be?
3. one do you prefer?

4. are you looking at?

5. ..are you laughing at?
6. the matter?
7. river flows through Timisoara?
8. ..wrong with you?
9. .of you is willing to help?

..of them is your son?


1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
Do you have any suggestions for improving it?

UNIT 3 Family and Family Links


After studying this unit students should be able to:

speak about family using the specific vocabulary
give synonyms and antonyms for the words provided
use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (The Adjective)


Do you come from a large or a small family? How many people are there in your family and
how do you get along with them?
Who are your favourite relatives? Give reasons.
Are there any advantages and disadvantages of being an only child?

I. Family and Family Links

A family is a group of people affiliated by a consanguinity, affinity or co-residence. A conjugal
family includes only the husband, the wife and unmarried children who are not of age. The most
common form of this family is regularly referred to as a nuclear family.
A consanguineal family consists of a parent and his or her children, and other people. This kind of
family is common where mothers do not have the resources to raise their children on their own, and
especially where property is inherited. When important property is owned by man consanguineal
family commonly consists of a husband and wife, their children and other members of the
husbands family.
A matrifocal family consists of a mother and her children. Generally, these children are her
biological descendents, although adoption of children is a practice in almost every society. This
kind of family is common where women have the resources to raise their children by themselves, or
where men are usually not living with the family most of the time.
The kinship terminology commonly occurs in society based on conjugal or nuclear families and the
members of the family use descriptive kinship terms:
Mother a female parent;
Father a male parent;
Daughter a female child of the parent/s;
Brother a male child of the same parent/s;
Sister- a female child of the same parent/s;
Grandfather father of a father or mother;
Grandmother mother of a mother.
It is assumed, in this case that the mothers husband is also the biological father; but in some
families a woman may have children with more than one man, or a man may have children with
more than one woman. A child who shares only one parent with another parent is a half brother or
half-sister. For children who do not share biological (or adoptive) parents in common, the term
stepbrother or stepsister is used. Any person who marries the parent of that child becomes the
stepparent of the child, the stepmother or the stepfather, respectively. The same terms generally

apply to children adopted into a family as to children born into the family.
More recently, especially in the western society, the single parent family has been more and more
accepted. The majority of single parent families are in most cases single mother families than single
Besides the above mentioned family members, there are also collateral relatives:

Uncle- fathers brother, mothers brother;

Aunt- fathers sister, mothers sister;

Nephew sisters son, brothers son, wifes brothers son, wifes sisters son;

Nice- sisters daughter, brothers daughter, wifes brothers daughter ;

Cousin- the children of aunts and uncles.

Relationship by marriage (except for wife/husband) is marked with the tag in-law (sister-in law,
brother-in law, and so on).

Second families
If your mother or father remarries, you can acquire a new family and set of relatives. For example,
if your father marries a second wife, she becomes your step-mother. Any children she already has
become your step-sisters or step-brothers. If your mother or father remarries and has children, they
become your half-brothers or half-sisters.
You might also hear people talking about their biological brother / sister etc, to mean a brother who
is related by blood, rather than by marriage.

Types of family
nuclear family = mother, father and children
single-parent / one-parent family = a family which only has one parent (because the parents are
divorced, or because one of the parents has died)
immediate family = your closest relatives
extended family = your entire family
close-knit family = a family where the members have close relationships with each other
dysfunctional family = a family where the members have serious problems with each other
blood relative = a relative connected to you by "blood" rather than through marriage
broken family = a family where the members no longer live together

Family tree
A family tree is a chart representing family relationships in a conventional tree structure. Family
trees are often presented with the oldest generation of the top and the newer generations at the
bottom. Family trees may have many themes, e.g. the descendents of single figure, or all known
ancestors of a living person, or the holders of a certain office, such as kings of a country, e.g.
Britain. The British royal family is the group of closed relatives of the monarch of the UK.
Although in the UK there is no strict legal formal definition of who is or is not a member of the
Royal family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style His or Her
Majesty (HM),or His or Her Royal Highness (HRH) are always considered members, which usually
results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed
consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch, the male-line grandchildren of the
monarch, and the spouses and the widowed spouses of a monarch's son and male-line grandsons.
The longest family tree in the world today is that of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479
BC). The tree spans more than 80 generations including more than two million members.

I. Comprehension questions:
1. What is your full name? Were you named after any ancestors of yours
2. Do you remember the names of your grandparents/great grandparents?
3. Where did your ancestors come from and what were their occupations?
4. On what occasions does your family get together?
5. How important is it for families to celebrate certain occasions (e. g. birthdays, weddings, Easter,
etc.) together?
6. Is divorce accepted in our culture? How much does divorce affect the members of a family?
II. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and then the main idea of the whole text.
III. Expressions with family make up sentences with these expressions.

family gathering = a meeting / celebration of family members

family resemblance = where members of the family look / act similar

to start a family = to start having children

to run in the family = a characteristic that is common among family members

to bring up / raise a family = to have and look after children

a family car = a car big enough to transport a family

family-size = large quantity item

family-friendly = a policy that favours families

family doctor = a doctor who looks after general medical needs

family man = a man who prefers to spend his time with his family

family values = traditional ideas about what a family should be

family name = surname

IV. Fill in the gaps with the suitable words:























The family in Britain is.. The onceBritish family headed by two parents has
undergone substantialduring the 20th century. There has been a rise in the..of single person
households, which increased to 30% of all households. It is ..that there will be more
people than married people in the . Fifty years ago this would have been socially
unacceptable in Britain. In the past, people got married and. married. Divorce was very.,
expensive and.. a long time. Today, many couples, mostly in their twenties
together ..getting married.
Decades ago, people before they had children, but now about 40% of children in Britain are
born to.parents.
People are generally getting married at a ..age now and many women do not to have
children immediately. They prefer to..on their carriers and put off having a. until late thirties.
The number of single- families is This is mainly due to more marriages ending in
, but some women are also choosing to have children as singlewithout being married.
V. Give synonyms and then provide the opposites:















VI. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B:


receive, get, obtain


son of a brother/sister


advance, elevate, promote, breed


companion, better-half, mate, partner


daughter of a brother/sister


relatives, relations, kindred


divide, split, distribute, proportion


bridge, sweep, couple, cross


assume, affiliate, support


first degree relative, son/daughter of an uncle/aunt

VII. Read each question and then select the best answer:
1. One of the benefits of marriage is
Increased longevity/ financial security/ an improved gender identity
2. Conflict with parents escalade mostly during..
Early adolescence/ middle adolescence/ college years
3. When a child gets into trouble his/her parents use strict discipline and do not listen to his/her side
of the story. They use parenting.
Neglectful/ authoritarian/ indulgent
4. Which family relationship tends to be the closest in adulthood?
Father and son/mother and son/father and daughter/mother and daughter
5. Who tends to experience the most intergenerational stress?
Adolescence/young adults/older adults
6. Which of the following is likely to have the least influence of behavior in later life?
Gender/culture/ temperament/birth order
7. The most prevalent type of step family today is a:
A stepmother family/a stepfather family/ a mixed family

8. Which couples are most likely to get divorced?

The one who married in their late forties/ the one who married in their late twenties/the one who
married after learning that the girl was pregnant
9. Children resemble parents. In which domain do you think it is more likely to happen?
Politics/ lifestyle/ gender roles/ work orientation

Marriage to more than one wife is called .

Polygyny/ matrifocality/ polyandry

VIII. Topics for discussion.

Speak about your family.

Your family wants to buy new furniture for your room. Imagine what furniture you would
like to have and how you could arrange it.

Talk about the advantages and disadvantages of living with your parents.

Pair work: Write questions for the answers given:

(Where/from?) Where are you from? From Oradea originally

(Where/live/now?) WhereIn Timisoara
(Divorced?) ..Yes
(How long/married?)..12 years
(Children?) Yes, a boy and a girl.
(How old/ a day?)5 and 7.
(what/ ex husband/do)......................................He was a doctor.
(He/ enjoy his Job?) .Yes, very much.
(How often/go/on holiday?)Usually twice a year.
(Where/next year?)We have no plans yet.

Comment upon the following saying: Bloods thicker than water.

Key terms
Add other words or phrases you know related to the topic of Family and Family Links.
Blood relative

Immediate family

Consanguineal family

Marry someone

Extend family

Matrifocal family

Family gathering

Nuclear family

Get divorced (from)

Second family

Get engaged (to)

Start/end a relationship (with someone)

Get married (to)

Step mother

II - Focus on grammar
The Adjective
An adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more
information about the object signified.
Position of adjectives
Adjectives are placed before the noun they qualify (e.g. long road, small dog, pretty woman,
expensive bag), but there are some exceptions such as Court Martial somebody important,
Secretary General.
Comparison of adjectives
Adjectives have the following degrees of comparison:
a. Positive (big, tall, beautiful)
b. Comparative
- of superiority: bigger, taller, more beautiful than
- of inferiority: not so big as, not so beautiful as
- of equality: as big as, as beautiful as

c. Superlative
- relative: very big, extremely tall, very beautiful
- absolute: the biggest, the tallest, the most beautiful
Irregular adjectives
Good better - the best
Bad/Ill- worse - the worst
Old - older/elder - the oldest/the eldest
Little - less/lesser - the least
Much/many - more -the most
Late - later/latter/ the latest/the last
Near nearer - the nearest/the next
Special constructions intensification of comparatives and superlatives
The comparatives may be intensified by much, far, a great deal, a
lot, which are placed in front of the comparative.

We feel much/far/a great deal/a lot better now.

The superlatives may be intensified by far, which is placed before
them, by possible, which is placed after them, and by imaginable,
which is placed after the noun.


It is by far the most interesting film I saw.

This is the best possible solution to our problem.
It is the most convenient arrangement imaginable.
Comparative of proportion:


The more we are the merrier will be.

The sooner the better.
The more I see it the less I like it.
Comparative of gradation:


The weather is getting better and better.

He drove faster and faster.

III. Activities and Tests

1. Complete the following sentences using the comparative of the adjectives

in brackets:
1. Todays lesson was.. than yesterdays. (easy)
2. Hes always been rich, but now he than ever before. (much)
3. We had to travel . than expected. (far)
4. Things were farthan they had realized. (danger)
5. He speaks German..than his parents. (good)
6. Jane is much than the other sisters. (thin)
7. Things can be fixed. if you read the instructions (easy).
8. There is. salt in the food than there should be. (much)
9. I than I did before (little).
10. The weather than it was yesterday. (bad)
2. Complete the following sentences using the comparative of the adjectives in brackets:

One ofstories I have ever read was that of Dracula. (mysterious)

Hagi was probably .football player of Romania. (great)

Dana was.of them all. (nice)

Dobrogea is .part of Romania.( dry)

Dan is ..student in the class. (clever)

My mother has..armchair in the house. (comfortable)

Failing that test was..mistake of my life.(big)

This is situation I have ever been in. (bad)

We spent . amount of time on this problem. (little)

The Kings Speech was the.. film I have ever seen. (good)

3. Complete the following sentences using asas:

Dan is busy today, but he was even busier yesterday. (Dan is not.).

This cake tastes good, I expected nothing less. (This cake tastes just).

My sister used to complain a lot. (My sister doesnt complain..).

This film is exciting. It is no less exciting than the other (This film is just).

You know a bit about cars, but I know more. (You dont ..).

4. Complete the sentences using the special constructions of adjectives:

1. Its find a job. (hard)
2. As the conversation went on he became..(talkative).
3. Travelling is becoming..(expensive).

4. As we waited for our plane, we became(nervous).

5. Since she has been in Britain, her English has got .(good).
6. I like warm weather. The warmer the weather.(feel).
7. We had to wait a long time. The longer we waited(impatient/became)
8. Its hard to concentrate when you are tired. The more tired you are..(hard).
9. In business everybody wants to make a profit. The more goods one sells.(profit).
10. I didnt really like her, but the more I got to know her.(like).
5. Finish the following sentences:

The more I thought about the trip..

The more electricity you use..

The more expensive accommodation..

The younger we are

The sooner we leave..

The warmer the weather..

The more we are..

IV. Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?

2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
5. Do you have any suggestions for improving it?

UNIT 4 Education in Britain


After studying this unit students should be able to:

speak about British and Romanian educational system using the specific vocabulary
give synonyms and antonyms for the words provided
use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (The Verb)

Lead -in

Why is education so important in a persons life?

Could mankind exist without education?
Describe the ideal school/teacher.

I. Education in Britain

What does it mean to educate?

To educate is to guide or lead those who want to learn and improve themselves. Therefore, the
educational process must include a teacher, a student, content and a context. If we speak about the
part of the educational system that occurs in public schools, then the teachers are universityeducated adults who are professionals; the students are children and young adults between the age
of 6/7 and 18/24, depending on the kind of education they attend.
Education is an important part of British life. There are hundreds of schools, colleges and
universities, including some of the most famous in the world. Education is free and compulsory

between the ages of 5-16; but there are some children who are educated at home and only sit for
their exams in schools.
Childrens education in England is normally divided into two separate stages. They begin with
primary education at the age of 5 and this usually lasts until they are 11. Then, they move to
secondary school where they study until they reach 16, 17 or 18.
Primary education is provided in schools, where the children will stay until they complete it and
move on to secondary education. Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher, who will
be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year. This teacher may be assisted
to varying degrees by specialist teachers in certain subject areas, often music or physical education.
The continuity with a single teacher and the opportunity to build up a close relationship with the
class is a remarkable feature of the primary education system.
The major goals of primary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy, as well as
establishing foundations in science, geography, history and other social sciences. The relative
priority of various areas, and the methods used to teach them, are an area of considerable
sustainable debate.
Most schools in England require children to wear a school uniform. Boys usually wear long, grey,
navy blue or black trousers (shorts may be worn in the summer). White shirt is compulsory, while
school tie is optional in most primary schools; jumper or sweater with the school logo on. The
colour is the choice of the schools. Girls may wear Tartan skirts, or long grey, navy blue black
trousers; white shirt, school tie, jumper or sweater with the school logo on. The colours of the
Tartan skirt are also the choice of the schools.
Secondary education, or secondary school, is a period of education, which follows directly after
primary education, and which may be followed by tertiary or post-secondary education. The
purpose of the secondary education is to prepare for higher or vocational training.

Degrees and qualifications

GCSEs and A Levels are the two main public examinations (i.e. successful candidates gain
qualifications which are universally recognized as valid by employers and by Higher
The GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary Education is taken at the age 16; students select
approximately 8 subjects from the following:



Modern Languages (e.g. French, German, Italian);
Classical Languages (e.g. Latin & Greek);
The Sciences (Biology, Physics & Chemistry);
History & Geography;

Technology & Design

Advanced Level (A Levels) is taken at age 18; it is designed as a university qualification. Students
specialise in 3 subjects of their choice, usually grouped together in Humanities, Languages,
Sciences. These qualifications are aimed at preparing the student for their chosen profession /
career, and provide a comprehensive foundation for their university work.
More than 90% of pupils in the UK attend publicly-funded state schools. The rest, about 10% study
in public schools. A public school, in common British usage, is a school which is usually
prestigious and historic, which charges fees. Confusingly to a non-native English speaker a public
school is actually a private school. In British usage, a government-run school (which would be
called a public school in other countries) is called a state school.
The term public (first adopted by Eton) historically refers to the fact that the school was open to
the paying public, as opposed to a religious school that was only open to members of a certain
church, and in contrast to private education at home (usually only practical for the very wealthy
who could afford tutors).
Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic
degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges. It includes both the teaching and the
research activities of universities, and teaching includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes
referred to as tertiary education) and the graduate (or postgraduate) level. Most professional
education is included within higher education, and many postgraduate qualifications are strongly
vocationally or professionally oriented,e.g. law and medicine.
There are 114 university institutions (and 60 higher education colleges) in the UK. Higher education
is a priority in current policy for the British government, with a target set to attract 50 percent of 18to 30-year-olds to higher education.
Most undergraduate degrees take three years to complete, at Scottish universities they take four
years. At the graduate level, a taught master's degree normally is earned in a single year, a research
master's takes two years, and a doctoral degree is completed after three years. Professional courses,
such as medicine, veterinary medicine, law and teaching, usually are undertaken as five-year
undergraduate degrees.

There is a three-level hierarchy of degrees (Bachelor, Master, Doctor) currently used in the United
A graduate student is an individual who has completed a Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S. /B.Sc.) and
is pursuing further higher education, with the goal of achieving a master's degree (M.A., M.S.
/M.Sc., M.Ed., etc.) or doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D., D.Sc., etc.) The term usually does not refer to one in
medical school and only occasionally refers to someone in law school or business school.

Types of Universities
Traditional Universities were created before 1992, when the educational system was reformed in the
UK, and the National Curriculum was introduced. The purpose of these universities was to
carry out teaching and research.
New Universities were created after 1992 although many were teaching long before in the form of
technical universities or colleges. The new universities focus primarily on teaching, but
many have been developing their research activities over the last 10 to 15 years.
The main objective of education is to provide equal opportunities for everybody, as education is one
of the fundamental rights, no matter of his/her age, sex religion, race, nationality.
The right to education has been described as a basic human right: since 1952, Article 2 of the first
Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the
right to education. At world level, the United Nations' International Covenant on Economic, Social
and Cultural Rights of 1966 guarantees this right under its Article 13.
Education is becoming increasingly international. Not only are the materials becoming more
influenced by the rich international environment, but exchanges among students at all levels are
also playing an increasingly important role. In Europe, for example, the Socrates-Erasmus
Programme stimulates exchanges across European universities. Romania has also complied with the
international regulations and has also signed the convention on the Recognition of Qualifications
concerning Higher education in the European Region (Lisbon 1997) and has ratified it by Law no
172/1998. Through commitments assumed at the European level, focused on quality assurance,
credit transfers and transparency of educational programmes description, qualifications (diplomas)
obtained in the Romanian Higher education ensure the academic and professional mobility of all the
graduates all over the world.

I. Comprehension questions:
1. In your own words, what is education?
2. How relevant is it for our life?
3. What types of schools do you know in England?
4. What are the goals of primary education?
5. Do children wear uniforms in Britain? How about Romania?
6. How many subjects do students study in a British school?
7. How is Romania involved in European education?
II. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and then the main idea of the whole text.
III. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B:

struggle, battle, fight


receive, net, gross


advance, develop, increase


sign, symbol, emblem


rich, well-off, prosperous


charge, payment, bill


instructor, teacher, coach


accuracy, knowledge, skill


sweater, jersey, pullover


happen, take place, arise

IV. Topics for discussion:

What do you think:- Do uniforms deny students their right to personal identity and selfexpression?

Can you think of other reasons for and against wearing a school uniform?

The influence of education on personality.

The good language learner.

Success in education. Is education motivated by self interest?

Comment upon the following: The world will belong to the learners not to the
learned.(Gregg Braden)

V. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words:

































Children normally....... primary school at the age of four or five, but many......... now have a
reception............ for four year olds.
Children the age of 11, moving on to
British children are required to....... school until they are 16 years....... In England, ........schooling
currently ...... on the last Friday in June. Current government........ are to raise the .........until which
students must continue to ........ some form of education or training to 18.
At the age of 16,......... in England, Wales and Northern Ireland ...... an examination ........ the GCSE
(General Certificate of Secondary Education). Study of GSCE subjects ........ at the start of Year 10
(age 14-15), and final..........are then taken at the .........of Year 11 (age 15-16).
In state........... English, Mathematics, Science, Religious Education and Physical Education
are ............ during Key Stage 4 (the GCSE years of school); in England, some....... of ICT

(Information and Communication Technology) and citizenship must be studied and, in Wales, Welsh
......... be studied. Other ........, chosen by the individual pupil, are ......... studied.
In Scotland, the ...........of the GCSE is the Standard Grade.
After completing the GCSE, some students ......... school, others go onto technical ......,or others
continue at for two more years and take a further set of standardized ........, known as A
levels, in three or four ........... These exams determine.......... a student is eligible for .............

VI. Give synonyms and then provide the opposites:















VII. Choose the right answer:


(senior/leaver) is someone in their final academic year.


What is the short form for doctor? (doctor/ PhD).


A complete listing of courses offered will be found in the class .. (schedule/plan).


Another way of saying dormitory is student. (residents/ residence).


Students must pay their fees before the beginning of each..(semester/division).


A building containing living quarters for students is called a dormitory, or.

(dorm/hostel) for short.


A student coming from another university to study for one or two semesters is called an

.( exchange/ elite) student.


We study at university or at..(college/ PhD)


How many (classes/ class) are you taking this semester?

10. A (freshman/starter) is someone in their first year.

1. We have a lot of very difficult.this term.
Exams/exam/ examination
2. A student is someone who already has an undergraduate degree, and is trying to get an M.A.,
M. S., Ph.D.
3. To..means to study hard in a short period of time, usually before an exam.
Cramp/ cram/ crumb
4. A something you have to write in order to obtain a Doctors Degree.
5. Did you pass? No, I ..!
6. A student, is one who doesnt have a full course load.
7. Dana is a very smart girl. She always gets good.
Grades/ notes/ gradients
8. I believed that the.I wrote for my English Literature class was great, but I got only six.
9. The maximum per week is 30.
Load/class number/course load.
10. When you write a., you are writing a formal written report that includes both research
findings and your own ideas.
Test/ research paper/research work
1. What will you do after you (finish university)?
2. Ais what one receives after successfully completing three years of university.
3. What is your.? (What is your main area of study?)
4. When is your assignment.? ( By when does it have to be finished?)

5. Exams that are given during the middle of each semester are called..
6. One of my friends isin Accounting.
Major/majoring/main topic
7. GPA stands for grade point..
8. .courses are what students must take in order to graduate.
9. A.T.A., or , is someone who helps the professor by grading papers, preparing material,
Teaching administrator/ teach assistant/teaching/teachers assistant
10. a graduate or former student of a school or university.
D. Which of the definition is correct?
1. Agronomy is:
a. the study of primitive races
b. the survey of human emotions
c. the science of farming
2. Anthropology is:
a. the science of ants
b. the study of men
c. the art of poetry
3. Economics is:
a. the science of how to do business
b. the study of commerce and money making
c. the study of production, distribution and consumption
4. Entomology is:
a. the study of derivation of words
b. the study of tombs
c. the study of insects
5. Graphology is:

a. the study of maps

b. the study of earth
c. the analysis of handwriting
6. Linguistics is:
a. the study of linking
b. the study of human behaviour
c. the science of language
7. Philology is:
a. the study of wisdom
b. the study of words
c. the study of human relationships
8. Seismology is:
a. the study of history
b. the science of earthquake
c. a brunch of Physics
VIII. Pair work:
Ask your partner to write the various schools he attended and the main exams he/she took. Ask each
other questions about these experiences and how they have learnt from their own mistakes and
disappointments. Start your questions with:






How long.?


B. Faculty rules: Ask your partners about the rules in our faculty. Identify some rules and write
them up on the board. Ask your partner what she/he thinks about these rules and then in pairs to
think about the ideal school and to decide on the rules themselves.
Place the findings under two headings:
Our school rules

Our ideal school rules

IX. Choose the correct word:

1. He tried to.on her test, but he was caught.
Coursework/ revise/ cheat/ term

2. If you cant stand blood, then you shouldnt take .

Economics/ chemistry/ physics/ biology
3. In.. we had to wear special equipment because we worked in hazardous conditions.
Chemistry/ history/ economics/ business studies
4. Only students who are.. on this course may attend the class.
Semester/ revised/ retake/ enrolled
5. There is no other way to this exam if you fail.
Revise/ cheat/ enroll/ retake
6. If you want this job, you need a university .
Qualification/failure/ co-education/ degree
7. I had to spend about four hours a day.. for this test.
Enrolling/ retaking/ boarding/ revising
8. I hate . because I find learning about the past boring.
Biology/drama/ geography/history
9. In high school my favorite subject was . because I was energetic.
Biology/ geography/ physical education/ mathematics
10. We learnt how continents were formed in .. .
Science/ drama/ physics/ geography

Related vocabulary - Make up five sentences with the vocabulary.

Boarding School


Business Studies

Mathematics (also Math in USA;



Physical Education



Enrol/ enrolment (enrollment US)

Religious Education / Studies

Fail/ Failure

Retake (verb/ noun)


Revise/ revision

Maths in UK)


Semester /term

To cheat

Key terms
Add other words or phrases you know related to the topic of Education in Britain.

Pre-school education


Primary school


Secondary school


Vocational school

Ph. D

Further education

All-round education

Higher education

Compulsory education

University education

Free education

Artistic/ economic/ practical education

II - Focus on grammar

The Passive Voice

Voice is a grammatical category that expresses the semantic functions attributed to the reference of
a sentence. It indicates whether the subject is actor, patient, or recipient.

Active voice: The workers built the house.

Passive voice: The house was built by the workers.

The passive voice is the voice that indicates the subject is the patient or recipient of the action
denoted by the verb.
Use of Passive
Passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It is not important or not known,
however, who or what is performing the action.
e.g. : My car was stolen.
Sometimes a statement in passive is more polite than active voice, as the following example

e.g. A mistake was made.

In this case, I focus on the fact that a mistake was made, but I do not blame anyone. e.g. You
have made a mistake.
Form of the Passive Voice
subject + finite form of to be + Past Participle
e.g. A letter was written.
When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following:
the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence
the finite form of the verb is changed (to be + past participle)
the subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped)
Simple Present

Active: Dana writes a letter.

Passive: A letter is written by Dana.

Present Progressive

Active: Dana is writing a letter.

Passive: A letter is being written by Dana.

Simple Past

Active: Dana wrote a letter.

Passive: A letter was written by Dana.

Past Progressive

Active: Dana was writing a letter.

Passive: A letter was being written by Dana.

Present Perfect

Active: Dana has written a letter.

Passive: A letter has been written by Dana.

Past Perfect
Active: Dana had written a letter.
Passive: A letter had been written by Dana.
Active: Dana will write a letter.
Passive: A letter will be written by Dana.

Active vs. Passive Voice

Tense /Verb Form
Present Simple

Active Voice

Passive Voice
is kept

Present Continuous

is keeping

is being kept

Present Perfect

has kept

has been kept

Past Simple


was kept

Past Continuous

was keeping

was being kept

Past Perfect

had kept

had been kept


will keep
would keep

will be kept
would be kept

Perfect Conditional

would have kept

would have been kept

Present Infinitive

to keep

to be kept

Perfect Infinitive

to have kept

to have been kept

Present Participle / gerund


being kept

Perfect Participle

having kept

having been kept

III. Activities and Tests

1. Choose the correct verb form:
1. We.. the documents in the mail tonight.
Received/ have received/ are received/ shall receive

2. Nowadays he as a man of the world.

Was known /is known/ has known/ knows
3. Dont move. Your picture.. right now.
Takes/ taking/ is being taken/ is taken
4. The police. to search for the missing person.
Was asking/ asked/ was asked/ were asked
5. This coffee.from Brazil.
Brought/ was brought/was bringing/ is bringing
6. The prize him for being an example for all.
Will be given/ gave/ will give/will be giving
7. The trees by the strong wind.
Is broken/ breaks /were broken / have been broken
8. All kinds of beer .here.
Sells/ are sold/ had been sold / sold
9. It for two months.
Has been snowing/ is snowing/ snows/ will be snowing
10. I.. you would return tonight.
Told/ was told/ am told/ tell/
2. Rewrite the following sentences using the word given:
1. It is reported that the house has been damaged by fire. The house ..
2. It is alleged that the man drove at 100 km/h. The man is ..
3. It is said that the firm is losing a lot of money. The firm
4. It is believed that the firm lost a lot of money last year. The firm.
5. It is expected that the firm will lose money this year. The firm..
6. It is thought that the dog escaped through that hole. The dog..
7. It is expected that winter will end soon. Winter.
8. It is believed that the thieves got in through the bathroom. The thieves .
9. It is expected that the steak will be ready soon. The steak
10. Some say they have married. It is said ..
3. Rewrite the following sentences using the words given:
1. The earthquake destroyed many cities in Japan. Many cities .. .
2. We recycle old books to make paper. Old books .

3. The manager will hold the meeting in his office. The meeting
4. Has the baby being fed today? Has anyone?
5. They say that Croatia has a beautiful seaside. Croatia .
6. Computers replaced typewriters years ago. The typewriters ..
7. A lot of books have been written about Dracula. Many authors .
8. The fisherman has caught one fish since this morning. One fish
9. They told us not to come. We
10. I promise Ill finish the work in time. The work..
1. Everybody was given a special bonus for Xmas. The company..
2. Thieves broke into our house and stole our laptop. Our house..
3. The best architects in Arad are designing the city centre. The city centre.
4. The secretary has shown the people into the office. The people .
5. DHL will deliver the documents tomorrow. The documents .
6. She promised to take the dog for a walk. She promised that the dog
7. The faculty gave Adrian a special award. Adrian ..
8. Have you been given direction to the University? Has.
9. The heavy trucks ruin the new road. The new road.
10. The new fashion always amazes me. I..
4. Complete the following passage using the correct form of the verb:
Adrian was lying in his hospital bed when the nurse .. (enter) the room. How today? she ..(ask). I (not feel)
great thats why I (be) here, he said. And you people(not do) a thing to
help me get better since the day I(bring) here. For example, its already seven oclock
and my temperature..(not take) yet and my laundry(not change). I ..
(give) some medicine to take early this morning by one of the night nurses, but luckily just before
swallowing them, I( discover) that they ..(be) the wrong ones. I ..(fear)
that next week I (release) from this hospital in worse condition than when I..
(come in).
5. Complete the sentences using the verb in the correct form:
1. Cheese from milk. (make)
2. A cinema is a place where movies (show)
3. Many accidents .by careless driving. (cause)
4. Something must before it too late. (do)

5. A decision will not.. until tomorrow. (make)

6. The road is very bad condition. It needs.. .(repair)
7. There was an accident, but nobody( hurt)
8. I dont like waiting (keep).
9. They went to the ceremony without (invite)
10. I dont like .private questions. (ask)

IV. Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
5. Do you have any suggestions for improving it?

UNIT 5. British Culture


After studying this unit students should be able to:

speak about British and Romanian culture using the specific vocabulary
give synonyms and antonyms for the words provided
use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (Verb Tenses)


How can we define the term culture?

What is culture based on?
What characterizes the British culture/ the Romanian culture?

I. British Culture
Culture could be defined in an unlimited number of ways. Dictionaries give us all kind of
explanations, the essence is that culture is a shared, learned symbolic system of values, beliefs, and

attitudes that shapes and influences perception and behavior, a mental blueprint or mental
It is based on human capacity to classify experiences, encode such classifications symbolically. It is
difficult to quantify, because it frequently exists at an unconscious level, or at least tends to be so
general, that it escapes everyday thought.
Culture could be also defined as the totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs,
institutions and all other products of human work and thoughts. These patterns and products are
considered the expression of a particular period, class, community, population, particular category
such as a field subject. (e.g. Romanian culture, British culture, religious culture, oral culture,
musical culture). In conclusion, culture is a collective programming of the mind (Hofstede) that
distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.
The culture of the United Kingdom refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism
associated with the British people and the UK. It is made up by its history as a union of four
countries each of which have preserved elements of distinct customs and symbolism. England is
sometimes, wrongly used in reference to the whole kingdom, the entire island of Great Britain (or
simply Britain). This is not only incorrect, but can cause offence to people from other parts of the
UK. The name United Kingdom refers to the union of what were once four separate countries:
England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The full and official name of the country is the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
History of the making of the UK:
1536- Act of Union joins England and Wales.
1707- Act of Unions unites Scotland and England, together with Wales to form the Kingdom
of Great Britain.
1801- Ireland joined the Union and the country becomes the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland.
1922- name changed to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, when most
of The Southern counties in Ireland chose independence.
Owing to its worldwide expansion, as a direct result of the British colonial Empire, British cultural
influence is dominant in countries such as Canada, The United States, Australia, New Zealand,
India, Pakistan, South Africa and the British overseas territories. These states are sometimes
collectively known as the Anglo sphere.
National Days are not celebrated in Britain in the same way as they are in a number of other
countries. Only St. Patricks Day in Northern Ireland and St. Andrews Day in Scotland are taken as

an official holiday. All the other national days are normal working days.
National Days in the UK:
1 March, the national day of Wales is St. Davids Day;
17 March, the national day of Northern Ireland is St. Patricks Day;
23 April, The national day of England is St. Georges Day;
30 November, the national day of Scotland is St. Andrews Day.
There are also several public holidays, called Bank Holidays, when legislation requires banks and
businesses to close. These are: New Years Day, Christmas Day, Boxing Day, Good Friday, Eastern
Monday, May Day, Spring Bank Holiday, and August Bank Holiday.
The UK has no official language; English is main language and practically the official language,
spoken by an estimate 95% of the UK population. However, individual countries within the UK are
trying to promote their traditional languages. In Wales, English and Welsh are both widely officially
used. Irish is limitedly used alongside English in Northern Ireland; the western Isles and areas of
Scotland are trying to promote Scottish Gaelic.
As for the population, Britain is and has always been a mixed race society. The country was first
invaded by the Romans, then the Anglo-Saxons and the Jutes, the Vikings, and later the Norman
French. Later, Africans were brought to Britain by force in 17 th and 18th centuries as slaves or
servants. Over the years, thousands of people have taken refuge to Britain from France, Ireland,
Russia, Poland, India, Pakistan etc. About 8% of the population of Britain today are people from
other countries and ethnicities (4.6 million people). They have contributed in their own way to
make Britain the place it is today. If one walks down the street in Britain, especially in the bigger
cities, one will usually see people with different hair, skin, and eye colors. They may have white,
brown, yellow or black skin and blonde, brown, black, or red hair. Many of the people one sees, will
be British people, but they all look different, because they are the result of mixed races. London has
the largest non-white population of any European city, and over 250 languages are spoken there.
The British are said to be reserved in manners, dress and speech. Basic politeness (please, thank
you, excuse me) is expected. The British are also famous for their self discipline, and, especially for
their sense of humour; this strong sense of humour sometimes can be difficult for foreigners to
Manners are very important in England:
people should stand in line, as queues are orderly and you should wait patiently for
your turn e.g. boarding a bus). Queue jumping is unacceptable.
If someone is blocking your way and you would like them to move, say Excuse me
and they will move out of your way.
It is very good manners to say Please and Thank you and it is considered rude if

you do not. In England, people say thank you a lot.

If you accidentally bump into someone, say sorry. They will probably too, even if
it was your fault. This is a habit and can be seen as very amusing by foreigners.
A smiling face is welcoming face.
Men and women, both hold open the door for each other. It depends who goes to the
door first.
In Britain, women are entitled to equal respect and status as men in all areas of life and tend to have
more independence and responsibilities than in some other cultures. Women are usually
independent and accustomed to entering public places, unaccompanied; it is usual for women to go
out and about on their own, as well as with friends.
In spite of modern developments, there is still conservatism in many areas of British life which
regards change with suspicion. These attitudes can result in attention between the often enforced
need for reform and the nostalgia for an assumed ideal past and traditions. The myth and traditional
patterns of behaviour still hold considerable force and attraction for many people. The British today
are trying to cope with realities different from those of the past, and with the demands of a postindustrial culture.

I. Understanding the text:


The culture of the UK, what does it refer to?


What is the official name of the country?


What do you know about the history of the kingdom?


What do you know about the language/s spoken in the UK?


Why are the inhabitants of Britain so different from one another?


How can you characterize the British in terms of manners, dress and speech?


What is the status of women in Britain?

II. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and then the main idea of the whole text.
III. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B:

tradition, habit, ritual


plan, design, draft


uniform, costume, outfit


approach, manner, outlook


covering, membrane, crust


line, row, file


split, divide, contribute


familiar, habitual, regular


protect, conserve, save


abroad, foreign, worldwide

IV. Topics for discussion:


My views on the British civilization.


Do the Romanians experience a culture shock when travelling to Britain?


Is there any influence of the weather or climate upon the people of Britain or the people of


Does the weather influence fashion? Give your opinion about that!


Is there any relationship between weather, calendar, season, time?


Similarities and differences between the Romanian and the British culture.


What are the British famous for? / What are the Scots famous for? Write as many facts and
opinions about them. (Group work)

VI. Give synonyms and then provide the opposites:
















V. Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words about two traditional events in Great Britain:




























Royal Ascot is one of the most........ race-meetings in the......, it has been held for nearly 300 years
since 1711 during the ....... of Queen Anne. For just four days each year the aristrocracy,
sports ......... and fashion ........ of England crowd in grand style at one of the highlights of their ........
calendar. It is ......... Royal Ascot because the Royal family .......... every year and the land is actually
.......... by The Crown.
Royal Ascot is more than just a horse race, is a place to see and be seen, everbody seems to be
wearing .......... outfits and spectacular ........, especially on the highly popular Gold Cup Day, which
is better known ......... "Ladies Day". The TV commentary is ........ as likely to be about ........ Lady
so and so is wearing as it is to be about who won the 4.30 race!

There is no one Edinburgh Festival. It all .......... in 1947, with the aim of providing a platform for
the flowering of the human spirit. ........... from the start ........ were inspired to put on shows of
their ........., and these soon grew into the Edinburgh ........... Fringe. Since ...... half a dozen or so
festivals have grown up .......... it in August and early September, and collectively these are
often ............. as The Edinburgh Festival.

The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is often .......... the Edinburgh Fringe and ........... just "the Fringe".
Often at the fringe people will .......... more than one event per ......., in fact some ....... pride
themselves on fitting in as ........ events as possible.

VII. Choose the correct answer:


Everything was so that I couldnt understand anything.



I find it impossible to .all the new streets.



The book was sothat I finished it in two days.



Each country will send a .. to participate in the conference.



We enjoyed the London trip because it was so .

Excited/ excitement/ exciting/excitingly


The hotel owner tried to be.towards the foreign tourists.

Sympathy/sympathise/sympathetic/ sympathizing.


We should not make.. when speaking about other peoples.



The rescuer received our gratitude for being so



We hope that they will be with the city tour.

Satisfying /satisfaction/satisfy/satisfied

10. The senator was one of the most people I have ever met.
1. Human culture is.
a) genetically inherited
b) entirely learned
c) limited to well-off societies
d) all of the above
2. Which of the following statements is true of culture?
a) languages are cultures

b) archeologists dig up culture in their research

c) culture is a powerful human tool for survival
d) all of the above
3. A is an original, social, or ethnic group that is distinguishable from another in a society by
the fact that its members share a common identity, food, tradition, language and other cultural trades
that come from their common ancestral background and experience.
a) culture
b) subculture
c) multiethnic society
d) all of the above
4. Which of the following things could be cultural universals?
a) the language that you speak
b) the kinds of clothes that you wear
c) the specific knowledge you acquired in school
d) none of the above
5. Culture is:
a) the same thing as society
b) limited to humans
c) possessed only by females
d) none of the above
6. Societies are:
a) groups of interacting organisms
b) only found among humans
c) created only by technological sophisticated people
d) none of the above
7. Culture gap is:
a) difference in culture
b) a tribal culture
c) pop culture
8. Culture club is:
a) a place where people discuss culture matters
b) a community centre
c) a British popular music group
9. Culture shock is:
a) earthquake

b) lack of culture
c) hippy culture
d) the feeling of disorientation someone has in an unfamiliar culture
10. Cultural revolution is:
a) a revolution caused by culture
b) a mass movement in China to renew the basic institutions of the country
c) a euphemistic name for Song to Romania
1. What is the Queens name?
a) Queen Ann I
b) Queen Elizabeth II
c) Queen Margaret II
2. What is Harrods?
a) a bank
b) a department store
c) a school
3. Which rock band was so popular in the 60s?
a) The Beatles
b) The Police
c) The Rolling Stones
4. In Britain, cars are driven on the..side of the road.
a) left-hand
b) right-hand
c) wrong-hand
5. Which king had six wives?
a) Henry IV
b) Henry V
c) Henry VIII
6. What is a double -decker?
a) A disco
b) a bus
c) a ferry boat
7. Where is Belfast?
a) in Northern Ireland

b) in Scotland
c) in Wales
8. What is the name of the most famous stadium in London?
a) Wimbledon
b) Westminster
c) Wembley
9. Manchester United is a popular. team.
a) cricket
b) football
c) handball
10. Which famous writer was born in Stratford-upon-Avon?
a) Thomas Hardy
b) Mark Twain
c) William Shakespeare
11. What does IMF stand for?
a) International Monetary Foundation
b) Internal Monetary Fund
c) International Monetary Fund
12. What was the name of the ship that brought the pilgrims to New England in 1620?
a) Sunflower
b) Mayflower
c) Roseflower
13. Where is the White House located?
a) New York
b) California
c) Washington D.C.
14. Who was the first person to walk on the moon?
a) John Glenn
b) Neil Armstrong
c) Bob Dylan
15. Who is eligible for the office of President in the US?
a) whoever serves the army
b) a natural born citizen
c) anyone who has American children

16. How many states are there in USA?

a) 49
b) 50
c) 51
17. What do Americans celebrate on 4 July?
a) the revolution
b) the discovery of America
c) the Independence Day
18. Which president freed the slaves?
a) Thomas Jefferson
b) Abraham Lincoln
c) George Washington
19. Who was the leader who fought through non-violent action?
a) John Kennedy
b) Martin Luther King Jr.
c) Jimmy Hoffa
20. What organization tries to find solutions to the world problems and disputes?
a) UNO
c) Green Peace
21. Ernest Hemingway wrote lots of
a) plays
b) poems

novels and short stories

Key terms
Add other words or phrases you know related to the topic of British Culture.
















II - Focus on grammar

Summary of Verb Tenses

In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating
completed action; each has a progressive form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect
progressive form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a
list of examples of these tenses and their definitions:
Simple Forms


Perfect Forms

Perfect Progressive


am/is/are writing

have/has written

have/has been writing

Future will/shall write

was/were writing
will be writing

had written
will have written

had been writing

will have been writing


Simple Form
Present Tense
Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only

now. It can also represent a widespread truth.

The mountains are tall and covered with snow.
Every four year, we elect a new mayor.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

Unchanging action
Recurring action
General truth

Past Tense

Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense
verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized.

World War II ended in 1945.
The Romanian Revolution took place in 1999.

Regular -ed past

Irregular form

Future Tense

Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future.
This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb.
e.g. The students will finish the first term in December.

The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to.
e.g. The teachers are going to examine the students in January.

We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future
e.g. The Prime Minister speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)

Progressive Forms

Present Progressive Tense

Present progressive tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the
statement is written.

This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing.
e. g. The experts are examining the effects of radiation on human beings.

Past Progressive Tense

Past progressive tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred.
This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing.
e.g. The scientist was explaining something when the earthquake began.

Future Progressive Tense

Future progressive tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future.
This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing.
e.g. The speaker will be presenting the latest findings on earthquakes tomorrow.

III. Activities and Tests

1. Choose the correct answer:

1. Not all people ...............from the cold, some people enjoy it.
Suffer/ suffers/ is suffering/ are suffering.
2. The doctor said with the nurses help.

Will remove/ removed/ has removed/ would remove.

3. After they fix it, they all went home.
Has managed/ manages/ will have managed/ had managed.
4. Where are the children? We................. them for hours.
Havent seen/ didnt see/ hadnt seen/ saw.
5. The email you sent............on time.
Hasnt arrived/ isnt arriving/ didnt arrive/ hadnt arrived.
6. They..............cleaned the house since last year, its a mess.
Wont have/ havent/ hadnt/ will have.
7. The boy broke the window while
Was playing/ plays/ played/ has played.
8. The policeman said he ..........such a terrible accident.
Had never seen/ would never see/ will never see/ never saw.
9. I am sorry, I.............anything to help him.
Wont do/ didnt do/ wouldnt do/ hadnt done.
10. Dana is very tidy and .............the housework every day.
Will be doing/ is doing/ was doing/ has been doing.
B. Which is the correct form?
1. At that moment, I realized that I.............a mistake.
Make/ was making/ had made/ will make.
2. Milk ..............better if you drink it fresh
Tastes/ is tasting/ taste/ has tasted.
3. The house-keeper ............before she locks up the house.
Will not leave/ has not left/ had not left.
4. This year, the weather ..............far worse than we expected.
Is/ was/ has been/ will be.
5. I cannot do it now because the computer ..............

Isnt working/ doesnt work/ hasnt worked/ didnt work.

6. This is the best steak I............ever............ had........eaten/ have........eaten.
7. Tim has been working all night.He...........a chance to rest.
Hadnt had/ wont have/ hasnt/ hasnt had.
8. They ....................anything before the lawyer arrives.
Will not discuss/ have not discussed/had not discussed/ do not discuss.
9. Our best solve the problem at the moment.
Has tried/ will try/ is trying/ tries.
10. The Victoria Square ............a major attraction in Timisoara for over 20 years.
Is/ was/ has been/ had been.
2. Finish the following sentences:
1.While I was travelling abroad with a friend....................
2. She couldnt come to see me last night because.................
3. I do not know why we........................
4. We hope that this year you .................
5. Dana put down the book after................
6. What were you doing when..................
7. Nobody was watching the TV, so..........
8. Mother asked her if she..........
9. He has been learning English for a year......
10. The manager informed us...........

3. Complete the following sentences using the correct form of the verb.
1. My two years ago. (move)
2. He ............his money before he left the shop. (count)
3. Just as we...........ready to work, the computer broke down. (get)
4. I ..........yesterday? (do/phone)
5. How long ........? (marry)

6. since 1989.(live)

7. trouble with our students up to now. (have)
8. The government .............on the new laws next week. (vote)
9. .................. you ever...................such an enormous cat?( see)
10. It is so cold now, that it .....soon in the mountains.(snow)

4. Rewrite the following sentences using the words given:

1. The computer hasnt been working for three days. (ago)
2. Adrian hasnt had a haircut since last summer. (the last time)
3. She passed her driving test two years ago. (for two years).

4. Theyve just gone home. (a short while ago).

5. We are going to join you for lunch today. (joining)
6. They signed, and then started working on the project. (after)
7. When did you move to this neighborhood? (how long)
8. I lost my job six months ago. (for six months)
9. Its at least two years since she last emailed to me. (she)
10. How long have you been studying English? (when)

IV. Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?

2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
5. Do you have any suggestion for improving it?

UNIT 6. Political System in Britain


After studying this unit students should be able to:

speak about British and Romanian political system using the specific vocabulary
give synonyms and antonyms for the words provided
use the grammar structure correctly in everyday language (Confusing Verbs)


Are you interested in politics?

What kind of political system is there in Britain?

Do you know the name of the British Prime Minister?

I. Political System in Britain

The political system of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is related to
the constitutional monarchy and the Prime Minister who is the head of government. Executive
power is exercised by the UK government, the governments of Scotland and Wales, and the
Executive of Northern Ireland. Legislative power is represented by the Government and the two
Chambers of Parliament, the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The UK political system
is a multi-party one. Since the 1920s, the two largest political parties have been the Conservative
Party and the Labour Party. Traditionally, the results of the elections tend to maintain the
dominance of these two parties. The Liberal Democrat Party, a party formed by the merger of the
former Liberal Party and Social Democratic Party in 1988, is the third largest party in the British
parliament. It seeks a reform of the electoral system to address the unequal dominance of the two
main parties.
The history of British politics has been largely one of breaking down the monarchs power and
investing that authority in Parliament as the sovereign legal voice of the people. The rules of the
political institutions are still strongly debated in contemporary Britain and actually, the real
authority in the British governmental and political system today rests with the Prime Minister, and
no longer to the monarch. The governmental model that operates in Great Britain today is usually
described as a constitutional monarchy, or parliamentary system. While the monarch still has a role
to play on some executive and legislative levels, it is the Parliament which posseses the essential
legislative power, and the govern of the day which governs by initiating and controlling political
policy and legislation. The Parliament is the supreme legislative authority. The legislature, which
consists of both houses and Parliament and formally the monarch, is for most purposes the supreme
law-making body. The executive comprises the Government and its Cabinet, and they all act
formally in the name of the monarch. The judiciary consists mainly of the judges of the higher
courts, who determine the common law and interpret acts of Parliament.

House of Lords
House of Commons







The monarch has a number of roles, and serves formally as head of state, head of the executive, head
of the judiciary, head of the legislature, commander-in chief of the Armed Forces, and supreme
governor of the Church of England. The monarch is said to personify the British state. It is difficult
to define the exact powers of the monarch, who is supposed to reign, but not to rule, and is expected
to be politically neutral and should not make any political decisions. The monarch cannot make laws,
impose taxes, spend public money, therefore contemporary Britain is governed by Her Majestys
Government in the name of the Queen.

The British Parliament is a supreme legislative authority, and since it is not controlled by written
constitution. It has, practically, sovereignty in all matters, meaning it can create, abolish, or amend
laws. The main functions of the Parliament today are to pass laws; to vote on financial bills; to
examine Government policies and administration and to analyze European Union legislation. A
parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but it is often dissolved, and the general election
called before the end of this term. Dissolution of Parliament is ordered by the monarch on the
advice of the Prime Minister. General elections for parliamentary seats are by secret ballot, but
voting is not compulsory.

The British Government consists of over 100 ministers and other officials chosen from both
Houses of Parliament, who are appointed by the monarch on the advance of the Prime Minister.
They belong to the party which forms the majority in The House of Commons. The Prime Minister
is appointed by the monarch and is the leader of the majority party in the HC; s/he has an important
role in deciding on the composition of the Government.

The Cabinet is normally made up of up to 20 ministers from the Government. They are chosen and

governed by the Prime Minister. (E.g. Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Secretary of State for
Education and Science etc.). Ministerial responsibility means collective responsibility, in other
words the Cabinet should act as one. All must support a government decision in public; if a minister
cannot do this s/he may feel obliged to resign. In addition to collective responsibility, a minister also
has an individual responsibility for the work and mistakes of his department (Ministry).

The roles and performances of the institutions belonging to the political system of the UK continue
to be debated today, and the essential questions asked are whether the existing structures can
satisfactorily cope with the needs and demands of contemporary life, and if they can be reformed to
become more efficient and more responsible. Some institutions have been continuously adaptable,
and their present role may be very different from their original functions.

British monarchy is regarded by some critics as an out of date, non-democratic, too expensive, and
too closely associated with aristocratic privileges, and it is suggested that, since the monarchs
functions today are mainly ceremonial and lack power, the office should be abolished and replaced
by a cheaper presidency. However, there are some arguments in favour of the monarchy, as it is the
symbol, or the personification of the state; ensures stability and continuity; is not subject to political
manipulation, and also ensures a neutrality, which guarantees security and safety.

I. Comprehension questions:

What is the role of politicians in a country?

Which are the most important political parties in Britain?

What is the role of the monarch?

What are the functions of the Parliament?

Who appoints the Prime Minister and what are his main prerogatives?

How many ministers are there in the British Cabinet?

Is monarchy still a representative institution for the 21st century?

II. Find the topic sentence for each paragraph and then the main idea of the whole text.
III. Match the words in column A with their meanings in column B:


support, lean, place


manage, handle, face


poll, survey, vote


structure, organism, classification


rule, govern, lead


modify, revise, adjust


essential, obligatory, compulsory


propose, measure, proposition


annul, eliminate, eradicate


regulation, directive, norm

IV. Fill in the gaps with suitable words:






to fight,









ordinary .

History has often been written to trace the political developments of a . focusing on the leaders,
on the policies they promote in the areas of economics and foreign policies, military activity and
government performance. We know that throughout . these policies and leaders have .. the
lives of the .. people.
In this century more and more attention has been paid to the way the . of the leaders have
affected the lives of all . and, in return, how the voiceless have impacted the decisions of the
.. This has added an important dimension to the study of history and made it much richer and
much more reflective of what really happened in the . It is clear that the leader who . to go
to war cannot do so, unless the people (his followers) are ready . On the other hand, people
acting together can have a great effect even without leaders, as recent in Arab countries
demonstrate. As more historians focus on the ordinary people and their interactions, we are
gaining better understanding of the past and of the . of leaders.

These social historians .. everything that happens in social relationships and they broaden our
understanding of the past and .. of ourselves.

V. What do you think?

1. What are the main problems of the Romanian politics today?
2. Do our politicians understand these problems?
3. What are the main problems of the young generation of this country?
4. Are our young people, generally, politically active or apathetic?
5. Do you consider politics as a possible career?
6. In your opinion, what skills and qualities must a political leader have?
7. Would you like to be a politician? Why/ Why not?
8. What should the priorities of the present government be?
9. Are women involved in politics today? If yes, to what extent?
10. In the Romanian politics, do you think men and women have equal opportunities? Give reasons
(written assignment).
VI. Choose the best words /phrases to complete the gaps:
1. International officials monitoring the polling saw nothing suspicious to believe that the elections
had been.. .
fouled, adapted, altered, twisted
2. Greenpeace is an international pressure.whose aim is to promote green issues.
corps, outfit, organization, group
3. The current president has been in for almost eight years now and is much less popular
than he used to be.
leadership, number one, government, office
4. A group of people were.a protest about illegal arrests outside the Chinese Embassy.
forming, creating, staging, shouting
5. The Senator.a major scandal when it was revealed that he had accepted bribes.
upset, brought out, made, caused

6. Global warming and the greenhouse gases are two of the .topics in politics now.
loudest, hottest, strongest, fishiest
7. One of the senators has confirmed the rumors that he intends to runpresident.
to, for, at, on
8. Another senator has announced that he will not the next general elections.
standing, contesting, submitting, challenging
9. In the Romanian politics, an elected politician is known as an MP, or..
man of the people, member of Parliament, master of politics, mandated politician
10. In Romania, the politicians belong to one of the three main political.and to many minor
ones as well.
parts, parties, fractions, groupies
1. The Socio-Democratic Party won all the counties in the South. They the South.
swept/ collected
2. A is when one candidate wins elections by a large percentage.
sweep/ landslide
3. How many can a president serve? Romanian president is allowed to serve two..
terms/ turns
4. The liberal democrats won a large number of. in the Senate.
seats/ chairs
5. It is imperative that all the are counted.
vote/ votes
6. I never vote for Conservative. .
candidates/ runners
7. Who did you vote ?
for/ on
8. Who do you think is going to win the .. ?
choice/ election
9. The election are in, which means, we know the election.. .
responses/ results
10.To hang in the balance means the result is ... .
undecided/ decided
1. The candidates are making an effort to.. (get rid of, lessen) divisions within the

Conservative Party.
Heal/ help
2. The three candidates got into a .. (impassioned) argument during their TV debate.
Heating/ heated
3. The dialogue between the candidates was not relaxed, it was. .
4. What do you think is our countrys (position) on the war in Libia?
5. Our former president currently has a very low approval.... (very few people appreciate his
performance as president).
6. There is a .. margin between the three parties( a very small difference).
Wafer-like/ wafer-thin
7. The socialist candidate has a slight.. ( is doing a little better).
Advantage/ plus
8. Most voters are not concerned about politics, but about the rising price of .
Gas/ gases
9.The voters have to decide which candidate is better to handle the economic crisis.
Suites/ suited
10. We are rather confused, its a (either candidate could win).
Wash out / toss up
VIII. Provide synonyms for the following words:














IX. Finish the following sentences:

In the future, we hope to

I wish more people would/wouldnt
What Id like to know is how politicians can ..

I wonder how people can cope with.

In contrast to the past, the modern age..
Could you please..
Id like to suggest that..
It seems to me that politics..
If you ask me, most candidates..
10. We are dissatisfied with.

X. Role play: Vote for our party

This is a speaking activity, a funny task that could develop into a mini project. The participants are
put into groups or parties. A brainstorming session follows to find a suitable name for the new
political part. The politicians should think up five policies (promises) that they will use to try and
persuade the other groups to vote for them. Try to persuade the others to vote for you, for the
(new) Party.
If we are elected we shall:
Vote for us! You know it makes sense.

Related vocabulary - Make up some sentences using the vocabulary provided.



right-wing, right-winger


political party

the opposition

election campaign


to elect



to run

left-wing, leftist

Prime Minister / President

to vote

II - Focus on grammar
Troublesome Verbs
The so-called "troublesome" verbs are those verbs that are frequently misused. In particular, there
are some pairs of verbs that sound similar, but have different meanings.
Lie, lied, lied [lai, laid, laid] a minti
Lie, lay, lain [lai, lei, lein] a fi culcat, a fi intins, a zacea
Lay, laid, laid [lei, leid, leid] a pune jos, a culca, a aseza
Arise, arose, arisen a se ridica, a se ivi (many difficulties arose)
Rise, rose, risen [raiz, rouz, rizn] a se scula, a se ridica, a rasari, a izvori
Raise, raised, raised [reiz, reizd, reizd] a ridica, a destepta, a creste
Arouse, aroused, aroused a trezi, a destepta, a starni
Bath, bathed, bathed a imbaia, a face baie
Bathe, bathed, bathed a (se) scalda
Find, found, found [faind, faund, faund] a gasi, a procura, a afla
Found, founded, founded [faund, faundid, faundid] a funda, a intemeia
Leave, left, left [li:v, left,left] a lasa, a abandona, a pleca
Live, lived, lived [liv, livd, livd] a trai, a locui, a sta
Let, let, let [let, let, let] a permite, a ingadui, a inchiria
Lose, lost, lost [lu:z] a pierde, a (-i) scapa, a suferi pierderi
Loose, loosed, loosed [lu:s] a dezlega, a detasa, a slabi (din stransoare)
Sit, sat, sat [sit] a sedea, a se aseza
Seat, seated, seated a aseza, a amplasa, a avea locuri (sala spectacol)
Set, set, set [set] a pune, a aseza (ocarte in raft), a potrivi, a monta
Fall, fell, fallen [fo:l, fel, fo;ln] a cadea, a se clasifica, a scadea (preturi, etc)
Fell, felled, felled [fel, feld, feld] a tranti la pamant, a dobora prin taiere
Fly, flew, flown [flai] a zbura, a pilota (un avion), a transporta cu avionul
Flow, flowed, flowed [flou] a curge, a se scurge, a decurge (din)
Flee, fled, fled [fli:, fled, fled] a fugi, a scapa cu fuga (de), a parasi
Feel,felt, felt [fi:l, felt, felt] a simti, a pipai, a presimti, a tatona
Fill,filled, filled [fil, fild, fild] a umple, a satura, a plomba (un dinte)
Strike, struck, struck (striken) [straik] a lovi, a izbi, a bate (ceasul)
Stroke, stroked, stroked [strouk] a deznierda, a dirija (pe vaslasi)

LIE versus LAY (Lie vs. Lay usage)

lie, lying (tell a falsehood)
lie, lying (to recline)
Lay, laying (to put, place)

I lied to my mother.
I lay on the bed as I was tired.
I laid the baby in her cradle.

Past Participle
I have lied under oath.
He has lain in the grass.
We have laid the dishes on
the table.

E.g. After laying down his weapon, the soldier lay down to sleep.
Will you lay out my clothes while I lie down to rest?

SIT versus SET (Sit vs. Set usage)

sit (to be seated or come to
resting position)
set (to put or place)

I sat in my favourite chair.

Past Participle
You have sat there for three

I set my glass on the table.

She has set her books on my
desk again.

E.g. Lets set the table before we sit down to rest.

RISE versus RAISE (Rise vs. Raise usage)

Rise (steady or customary

The balloon rose into the

Past Participle
He has risen to a position of

upward movement)
Raise (to cause to rise)

They raised their hands

I have raised the curtain

because they knew the

many times.


III. Activities and Tests

1. Choose the correct word:

1. The cost of living is expected to .. by 15% next year.
Get up/ arise /enlarge/rise

2. The train wontTimisoara until it is dark.

3. The cat .. down beside the mouse.
Lay/ lied/laid/lain
4. After killing the mouse, the cat to eat on the floor.
5. The best way to answer multiple choice questions is by
6. feed the pets before you leave the house.
Mention/ remember/ recall/ remind
7. Everybody.. of his appropriate behaviour.
Rejected/ approved/ accepted/ agreed
8. If anyone calls, . them Im not at home.
Telling/ told/ tells/ tell
9. This problem would never have .if you had been wiser.
Aroused/ arose/ raised/ arisen
10. They fell in love at first
View/ sight/ set/ look

2. Choose the right verb:

1. The workers are new tiles in the bathroom now
Laying/ lying
2. Hatzeg at the foot of the Retezat mountains.
Lays /lies
3. The cat is on the armchair.
4. Let sleeping dogs..

5.the table for us, please!
6. Weawake until morning to wait for him.
7. The doctorthe baby on the bed carefully.
8. This rug has. here for ten years.
9. Geese usually .. twenty eggs and incubate them for about four weeks.
10. The scene of the Dracula story Transylvania.
3. Fill in the blanks with do or make (in the appropriate form):
1. Can you.. me a favor?
2. She . friends easily.
3. It doesnt any difference to me.
4. We dont. business with such partners.
5. Who the housework in your family?
6. How much do you.?
7. The police.. some research and found out interesting facts.
8. Youll have to . without a computer for a while.
9. I dont like to. promises, but Ill . my best.
10. Id like to.. an appointment with the senator, please.
4. Choose the correct verb:
1. The cost of living is .. again.
Raising/ rising
2. Good news from the hospital.. our hopes.

3. He from his chair and left the room.
4. Dont ..your voice when you are talking to me!
5. Its still dark, you. early today!
6. She. her hand to greet us.
7. The sun also..
8. The new manager promised to .. our salaries.
9. The audience. a question about the next elections.
10. They their children in the countryside.
Raised/ rose

5. Choose the correct verb:

1. He was sitting in an armchair the cat. (strike/ stroke)
2. It . me that I didnt remember her name. (stroke/ strike)
3. Babies often when they learn to walk .(feel/fell/fall)
4. The Bega was. faster owing to the rain. (flee/ flow)
5. How time ! (fly/ flow/ flies)
6. I sight of you in the crowd. (lose/ loose/ lost)
7. Hurry up, there isnt a moment to (lose/ loose)
8. Can you your way back home? (find/ found)
9. This cinema was built to..only 100 people. (sit/ seat)
10. We. the remains of the fortress, which was.. centuries ago. (find/ found)
1. It is often. that history repeats itself. (talked/spoken/ told/ said)

2. They cant . the difference between the twins. (tell/ say /speak/ talk)
3. You should. her out of leaving school. (talk/ speak/ tell/ say)
4. ..for yourself, I dont believe it. (talk/ speak/ say/ tell)
5. My watch five oclock. (talks/ speaks/ tells/ says)
6. Can you me the time? (tell/ say/ speak/ talk)
7. Dont . back to your parents! (say / tell/ speak/talk)
8. Please up, people cant hear you. (talk/ speak/tell/ say)
9. It goes without that it is not true. (talking/ speaking/ telling/saying)
10. Id like to .. it over with my lawyers. (tell/ say/ speak/ talk)

IV. Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you like about it?
4. What would you change concerning its contents?
5. Do you have any suggestions for improving it?

List of Irregular Verbs in English

The following is a partial list of irregular verbs found in English. Each listing consists of
the present/root form of the verb, the (simple) past form of the verb, and the past
participle form of the verb.


Past Participle


woke (waked)

Woken (waked)

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