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15 tayangan21 halamanThe present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a
medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction
motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors
provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a
summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the
diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors.
Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this
paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for
fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault
detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas
Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP.

Jan 15, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

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The present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a
medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction
motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors
provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a
summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the
diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors.
Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this
paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for
fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault
detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas
Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP.

© All Rights Reserved

15 tayangan

The present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a
medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction
motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors
provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a
summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the
diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors.
Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this
paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for
fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault
detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas
Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP.

© All Rights Reserved

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3

ISSN 1827- 6660

May - June 2012

of Induction Machines with Case Study

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid1, Hew Wooi Ping1, Mustafa Khalid Masood1, Lorand Szabo2

Abstract The present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a

medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction

motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors

provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a

summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the

diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors.

Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this

paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for

fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault

detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas

Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP. Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights

reserved.

Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Fault Tolerant Control, Induction Motor, Inverter Fault, Stator

Faults, Wavelet

TSFE

V/F

VSI

WEKA

Nomenclature

ANN

ANFIS

CW

CART

CFC

DWT

DLPF

E

EMD

FOC

FPGA

FAM

FFT

HPSO

KPCA

MCSA

MLP

MWA

P

PCA

PDD

PWM

RBF

RMS

S

SOM

SVM

T

TMCSA

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference

System

Continuous Wavelet

Classification and Cegression Cree

Characteristics frequency Component

Discrete Wavelet Transform

Digital Low-Pass Filtering

Energy Eigen

Empirical Mode Decomposition

Field Oriented Control

Field-programmable Gate Array

Fuzzy ARTMAP

Fast Fourier Transform

Hybrid particle swarm optimization.

Kernal principal component analysis

Motor current signature analysis

Multi level perceptron

Multi resolution wavelet analysis

Pole pair

Principal Component analysis

Power detail density

Pulse width modulation

Radial Basis Function

Root mean square

Slip

Self organized map

Support vector machine

Eigen vector

Time motor current signature analysis

WNN

WPD

WT

MRA

a

b

f (t)

f

fs

m

n

(t)

(w)

*

Voltage /frequency

Voltage source inverter

Waikato Environment for Knowledge

Analysis

Wavelet neural network

Wavelet packet decomposition

Wavelet transforms

Multi resolution analysis

Scale parameter

Time parameter

Waveform signal

Supply frequency

Sampling frequency

Wavelet dilation

Wavelet translation

Wavelet function

Fourier transform

Complex conjugate

I.

Introduction

reasons, such as simple construction, low maintenance

requirements, rigidity and high reliability. It finds use in

compressors, pumps, and fans. The induction motor

current contains harmonics which are used as indicators

of a variety of faults. Squirrel cage motors are most

important as they work under fault conditions without the

fault becoming visible until it becomes high [1]. An

improvement in service continuity of power supply in the

4437

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

[2]. Many different techniques for detection of faults

concentrate on the stator fault due to noninvasive

properties. In industrial systems, the faults can occur in

the following six possible subsystems or components:

1) Induction machine

2) Inverter

3) Current sensors

4) Speed encoder

5) Control and estimation platform

6) Connectors and wires.

Fig. 1 shows the main induction motor faults

according to the IEEE standard.

Different types of component failures in induction motor

drives are studied. An inverter fault survey with short

switch has been taken as case study to illustrate the

algorithm. Faults in the stator current sensor and DC

voltage sensor are also examined.

This paper is organized as follows: Section II

describes transformation types of wavelet. Signal

processing techniques of induction motor faults are

presented in section III. Section IV studies artificial

intelligence techniques. Inverter fault detection is

described in section V. Fault tolerant control is presented

in section VI. Design methodologies are presented in

section VII. Inverter fault detection case study is

presented in section VIII. Finally, concluding remarks are

given in section IX.

II.

continuous-time signal into several scale components is

called wavelet.

The wavelet techniques are new in the field of fault

diagnosis due to their ability to extract all information in

time and frequency domains as well as providing a more

sensitive means to diagnosing the faults than other signal

processing methods like Fourier Transform. Andrew K.S.

Jardine et al presented a review for the diagnosis of

machines using condition-based maintenance approach

[3]. The fault diagnosis has two main levels: A traditional

control level and a knowledge based fault diagnosis

level.

One of the most important analysis tools in both

frequency and time domain is the wavelet, with its multi

resolution analysis and good time localization. Fault

diagnosis techniques use the wavelet for modules of

feature extraction, feature cluster and fault decision. The

negative sequence current and impedance are often

chosen as fault indicators. Parks vector and motor

current signature analysis (MCSA) are used to diagnose

the stator short circuit fault.

Signal processing techniques like FFT are based on

the assumption of constant stator fundamental frequency,

load, motor speed and that the load is sufficient. A

combination of the Discrete Wavelet transform, statistics

and energy were used to detect electrical and mechanical

failure diagnosis in an induction machine [4]. New

application of wavelet transform was used in the

photovoltaic cells and PV system design, to get better

reliability against the faults [5].

The contribution of this paper is to introduce a review

of fault tolerant control methodologies with the wavelet

transform. It also examines modeling of the induction

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

short time durations. The properties of the wavelet have

been shown to make them superior to other signal

processing techniques. Wavelets can be either orthogonal

or non orthogonal, so the choice of the wavelet transform

should be based on two important characteristics:

1) Orthogonality principle, which means there is no

redundancy in the wavelet decomposition.

2) Adequate cancellation ability against the signals

lower order component should be performed.

The wavelet can be divided into five types:

1. FIR filter-based orthogonal wavelets: The scaling

filter is used to construct these wavelets. Examples

are Symlets, Daubechies, Coiflets and Haar wavelets.

2. FIR filter-based bi-orthogonal wavelets: The

reconstruction scaling filter wr and the decomposition

scaling filter wd are used to construct these wavelets.

A prominent example is the Bior Splines wavelet

family.

3. Scale function-based orthogonal wavelets: The

wavelet function and the scaling function are used to

construct these wavelets. They do not contain an FIR

filter. An example is the Meyer wavelet family.

4. Wavelets without scale function: The wavelet

function is used in the construction of these wavelets.

Important examples are the Morlet and Mexican hat.

5. Complex wavelets with neither FIR filter nor scale

function: These also use the wavelet function for their

construction. The Complex Gaussian and Shannon

are key examples.

The wavelet can be expressed as a continuous wavelet

transform, which can be either real or complex, or the

discrete wavelet transform.

The CWT can be written as follows:

( m,n ) =

f ( t ) m,n ( t ) dt

*

m,n ( t ) = 21/ 2 2 m t n

(1)

(2)

4438

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

TABLE I

CONTINUOUS REAL WAVE TRANSFORMS

Name

Equation

Beta

(t / , ) = ( 1) dp (t / , ) / dt

beta

(t ) = ( 2 n )

Her.

Mex.hat

Shannon

n/2

C H (t / 2 ) e

(t ) = ( 2 / 3

1/ 4

( 1 / 2 n ) t

n

2

)(1 t / ) e

( t

/ 2

( t ) = 2 sin c ( 2t ) sin c ( t )

TABLE II

DISCRETE WAVE TRANSFORMS

Name

Equation

and regularity conditions. The square integral function

which satisfies the above property is illustrated in (4):

B = ( 1) C

Coiflet

N 1 k

B = ( 1) C

Cohen

Daubechies

N 1 k

B = ( 1) C

Daubechies

Binomial

quadrature mirror

filter (QMF)

N 1 k

h(n) =

X (n)

r

r = 0

| |

d < +

(4)

n ,k ( t ) = ( 2 t k )

H ( ) = e

jv / 2

( ) = 0

ce ( / 2, q )

H v ( ) = 1 / 2

smoothness, which is expressed in (6):

h ke

jk

( ) = 1

2

k z

the original signal to a new one with smaller scales

according to the high frequency components. This

relation is valid for the orthogonal basis of wavelet

transform (a=2 and b=1) in the following continuous

wavelet transform:

a,b ( t ) = a

1/ 2

(5)

ce ( 0, q )

Legendre wavelet

| ( ) |2

to investigate the signals and then to reconstruct them

without losing any information, which means it

approaches to zero as shown in (5)

N 2 2

Haar wavelet

Mathieu wavelet

t b

(3)

associated with the approximations of the wavelet

decomposition, the wavelet function determined by the

HBF so that is associated with the details of the wavelet

decomposition as can be seen in Fig. 2.

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a good

analysis tool because it allows the time-frequency and

time-scale properties of the signals like current, voltage,

frequency, active and reactive powers to be extracted

with all the details [6]. In the DWT, the mother wavelet

is scaled to the power of 2 [7]. The issue with the DWT

is of critical sub-sampling that leads to resolution

problems. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was

developed as an alternative approach that does not

(6)

Induction Motor Faults

In the signal processing and control community, the

fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) problem has attracted

a lot of attention because of the many industry

applications and their technical challenges [9]. An

important reason for the interest in wavelets is its ability

of timefrequency analysis as can be seen in [10] - [137].

Fault diagnosis techniques include a wavelet feature

extraction module, feature cluster module and a fault

decision module. Multi resolution analysis and good time

localization are particularly useful characteristics of

wavelets in the context of fault diagnosis. The main

faults that occur in induction motor drives and their

validity are presented in Table III and an examination of

these faults follows in the subsequent section. A

summary of the properties of fault diagnosis methods is

given in Table IV.

III.1. Air Gap Eccentricity

This fault is related to a condition of unequal air gap

that exists between the stator and rotor.

4439

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

TABLE III

INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS VALIDITY

Faults

Bearing

sensors

Air gap

Stator Wind.

Method

eccent.

MCSA

Ok

Not

Ok

Partial

Vibration

analysis

Ok

Not

Ok

Not

Axial flux

Not

Not

Ok

Partial

Partial

discharge

Not

Not

Not

Ok

M.B FDD

Not sure

Not

Not sure

Ok

machine manufacturing, assembly, unbalance load, bent

shaft and bearing wear. Tsoumas et al. used the wavelet

of current space vector to detect the broken rotor bar and

air gap eccentricity faults, the frequency of which is

expressed in the following equations [11]:

1 s

fecc = f s 1 k

(7)

fbrk = f s (1 2ks )

(8)

method, which does not need more than a single line

current [12]. According to the position of side band

frequencies around 50 Hz, they classified the faults using

the following equations [13]:

1 s

f ecc = f1 1 m

(9)

fecc = f1 (1 s ) k

p

(10)

to the fault frequency as in (11):

1 s

fbrb = f1 m

s

p / 2

(11)

calculated as in (12):

f airgap =| f1 mfi, o |

(12)

fault using wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) which

is done by the modified winding function [14]. Antonino

et al. presented the detection and diagnosis of mixed

eccentricities and rotor asymmetries with different sizes

and conditions and the effective oscillations due to the

Antonino et al. presented many cases for fault diagnosis

(mixed eccentricity, broken rotor, inter-turn and inter-coil

stator short-circuits) using DWT at start up current of

induction machines according to parallel branches of the

stator winding [16]. They later presented the detection of

mixed eccentricities fault in the induction motor using

Hilbert Huang Transform with DWT [17]. Zhongming et

al. used WPD to detect both air gap eccentricity and

broken rotor bar after giving brief details about the

wavelet and feature extraction [18]. DWT analysis of the

stator startup current in order to detect the presence of

axial static eccentricity in an induction motor was shown

by [19]. The magnitude change of some harmonics with

variation of mixed air gap eccentricity was investigated

by [20].

III.2. Gear Box and Bearing Faults

The causes for these faults can be one of the

following:

1. Corrosion,

2. Unsuitable lubrication

3. Bad bearing installations.

The bearing faults affect the friction coefficient in the

motor model and as a consequence, the rotor currents and

mechanical velocity are affected [21].

Yixiang et al. used lean model to assess the machine

performance using DWT for the vibration and bearing

induction motor faults [22]. Bin Lu et al. used the

wavelet to detect the broken rotor bar, eccentricity and

bearing due to current, voltage and instantaneous power.

The signal to noise ratio of the spectral components was

examined under varying load conditions of the single

phase active one cycle in [23]. Rafiee presented a study

of how the mother wavelet is chosen among 324 using

four statistical features [24]. Jafar et al. used the Meyer

wavelet in the WP structure to detect the bearing defect

using the SCA with energy comparison as the fault index

[25]. Jawad et al. presented a review of the most

important indices in the different types of eccentricity

faults in the induction motors as well as the

consequences and effects [26]. Qiao Hu et al. presented

fault diagnosis of rolling bearings, and testing results

show that the support vector machines can separate

different fault conditions and identify the severity of

incipient faults, besides giving better classification

performance compared to the single SVM [27]. Serhat et

al. presented feature extraction using wavelet technique

to detect the bearing fault of motors [28]-[29]. G.K.

Singh et al. presented detection of bearing faults of

induction motor to treat and analyze a number of signals

(three line to line voltages, three currents ,two vibration

signals, four temperatures and one speed signal) obtained

from the monitoring using wavelet transform[30].

Chinmaya et al. studied a multi-stage transmission

gearbox in order to use the MCSA instead of

conventional vibration monitoring with DWT and FFT to

investigate the sideband frequencies [31]. Abbasion et al.

4440

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

wavelet decomposition to diagnose the rolling element

bearings fault in the induction motor [32]. Cusido et al.

presented a new method, which combines wavelet and

power spectral density techniques to detect the bearing

defect using the PDD as a fault factor [33]. Zhou et al.

used the wavelet for vibration signal based mechanical

equipment fault diagnosis. The algorithm was

implemented in the Weka platform [34]. Teotrakool et al.

presented application of MCSA using WPD to detect

bearing faults in adjustable speed drives [35].

Temperature monitoring, which is to measure the

component and operational temperatures, is another trend

that can be used for diagnosis of induction motor

particularly in gears. A hybrid method for detecting

motor bearing fault conditions via discrete wavelet

packet decomposition (DWPD) of induction motor

current with spectral post processing was presented in

[36].

III.3. Stator Faults Resulting from Opening or Shorting

These faults are usually related to insulation failure. In

common parlance, they are generally known as phase-toground or phase-to-phase faults. It is believed that these

faults start as undetected turn-to-turn faults that finally

grow and culminate into major ones [37]. Tong Liu et al.

presented an Eigen vector as a fault indicator of stator

inter turn short circuit as follows:

E E1

T = 0 , ,....,E2 M 1 / E

E E

(13)

electromagnetic torque signal [38]:

2M 1

2

E = j =0 abs ( E )

the stator teeth harmonic variation using dq0 components

instead of Iabc. [42]. Niu et al. employed Bayesian belief

fusion and multi agent fusion as classifier tool to detect

different faulty collected data using the signal processing

techniques for smoothing followed by the DWT to

decompose the signals into different ranges of frequency

as can be seen in Fig. 4 for 20kHz sampling

frequency[43].

for rotor asymmetries in induction motor based on the

analysis of the stator startup current. The authors

extracted the harmonic component introduced by this

fault, the left sideband component from the stator startup

current. DLPF and DWT were used in this technique

[44]. Combastel et al. presented a comparison between

model-based and signal-based approaches in the fault

detection of the induction motor. The electrical variables

were described according to the Park transformation

model, with broken rotor and stator winding failures

investigated. Also, the parameter variations due to

heating were considered [45]. Radhika et al presented

fault diagnostics of induction motor using MCSA, with

WT extracted features classified using SVM [46]. Chen

et al. presented fault detection in vector controlled

induction motors to compute a fault index for the faults

of stator winding [47].

III.4. Shorted Rotor Field Winding

0.5

(14)

finite element modeling of the induction motor internal

faults and solving the equation by time stepping

approach of broken bar and stator shorted turns using

db10 wavelet for sinusoidal and non sinusoidal cases

[39]-[40].

Software diagnosis of short inter turn and open circuit

of the stator winding as an incipient fault was done

by[41] to avoid hardware cost and difficulty using

wavelet decomposition (Fig. 3) for different stator

resistances (Rs =0.001 ,0.1,0.7,1,4,8) .

through sub band filters

Thermal sensitivity

Unbalance magnetic forces

Increasing the motor load beyond its capacity

Motor operation in a high temperature area

Khan et al. presented two DWT to detect and classify

the faults. The continuous wavelet is used to detect faults

especially when the overlap between the frequency

supply signal and the adjacent signal cannot be

recognized.

In [48], six accelerometers to measure vibration data

were put in independent places around the motor detect

the bearing damage. Saleh et al. presented a new

technique for detecting and diagnosing faults in both

stator and rotor windings using wound rotor induction

motor.

The technique was based on a WTMRA [49]. Cusido

et al. presented both continuous and discrete wavelet to

detect many mechanical and electrical induction motor

faults using MCSA [50].

1.

2.

3.

4.

4441

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

There are many reasons for these faults such as

vibration and electromagnetic distortion caused by

magnetic effects, mechanical effects such as fatigue in

some parts and thermal effects.

Slotting, skewing and linear MMF rise across the rotor

and stator slots are considered in the model of induction

motor that may be considered as reasons for the broken

rotor bar [51]. Wen et al. used the EMD which deals with

nonlinear systems to detect the broken rotor bar using

WDT [52]. Zhitong et al. used the multi resolution

wavelet analysis method to detect the broken rotor bars

according to their analysis of stator current. According to

his work, the signal is first filtered then differentiated and

after that entered into the wavelet (Daubechies with 5

levels) [53]. Faiz et al. presented a novel criterion to

detect the broken rotor bar using TSFE to model the

broken bar faults in the induction motor [54]. The

criterion function to detect the fault is:

criterion funct =

=

(15)

mean current

rotor broken bar using the Ridge wavelet. They extracted

the characteristic frequency components of broken bar

using only one phase of stator current [55]. Pons-Llinares

et al. presented a new method to detect the broken bar in

the transient region using TMCSA via frequency BSplines. The mother wavelet equation that he used was:

fbt j 2 fct

e

m

( t ) = Cm,nf sin c m

(16)

Fourier transform for spectral analysis with the TMCSA

to detect a rotor broken bar [57].

Eren et al. presented the WPT decomposition of the

stator current of a 1 Hp induction motor through the test

of RMS for both healthy and faulty bearings to detect

bearing faults [58]-[59]. The single mean square of

discrete wavelet function computation measures the

status of the broken rotor bar of induction motor using

FPGA, whether healthy or faulty. A novelty in their

weighting function is shown in Equation (16) [60]:

k2

(17)

k1

broken bar fault in squirrel cage induction motor. Two 3

hp induction motors with cast aluminum rotor bars were

employed for this experiment [61]. Cabal et al. used

FPGA to detect many faults in squirrel cage such as

unbalance, faulty bearing and broken bars using parallel

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

al. presented new techniques for detection of broken bar

using high order discrete wavelets (db40) and compared

it with classical methods such as Fourier transform with

two conditions [63]:

nd n f + 2

(18)

nd n f + 2

(19)

introduced the spectral density on wavelet to detect many

faults in the induction motor using the equations just

presented.

The faults with different load conditions (7% and

10%) has been used when changing slip [64]. MCSA

method is used for fault detection but it has

disadvantages especially when the load torque is varied.

To remedy this, Cusido et al. presented an online system

for fault detection using many wavelets like Mexican

Hat, Morlet and Agnsis mother wavelet to detect broken

bar faults [65]- [66].

The drawback of using FFT has been investigated by

many authors for detection of broken rotor bars with

db40 as the mother function to avoid low level

overlapping with adjacent bands. The decomposition

levels are tested according to the following formula:

ns =

log ( fs / f )

log ( 2 )

+1

(20)

a (0.1) Hz resolution to detect the faults in the induction

motor using a combination of wavelet and power spectral

density:

Ns

fs / R

(21)

Douglas et al. presented fault detection in the transient

region for the broken rotor bar using the instantaneous

power FFT as a medium fault detection and wavelet to

decompose the residual stator current after filtering the

noise using Notch filter [67]-[ 68].

Supangat et al. presented a wavelet indicator to detect

the broken rotor bars by calculating the absolute values

of the summed coefficients in the third pattern,

normalized against the summation of the wavelet

coefficient [69]- [70].

Samsi [71] used V/f control method to detect the

broken rotor bar in the induction motor. The diagnosis

decision is made according to the probability distribution

of different operation states of healthy and faulty motors.

The difference in entropy is used as a measure:

4442

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

M (k ) =

i =| p k |

i =1

pk

log 2 i1

p

i

(22)

Riera et al used DWT to detect the broken rotor bar in the

transient region using slip dependant fault component

according to energy ratio of the current signal to the

wavelet signal as in the following relationship [72]:

Ns

i 2j

j = Nb

( in db ) = 10 log Ns

n ( j )

j = Nb

(23)

broken rotor bar in induction motors using spectrum

density estimation and SVM for different load

percentages [73].

Kia et al. presented a DWT for broken bar detection

and diagnosis faults in induction machines in which

energy test of bandwidth with time domain analysis was

the first step, after which it was applied to the stator

current space vector to obtain the different broken bar

fault severities and load levels [74]-[75]. Souad et al.

presented indirect vector control fault diagnosis to detect

both stator winding shorts and broken rotor bar using

spectral analysis of electrical quantities such as current

and voltage[76]. Good frequency separation using

DWPD of induction motor current is essential for

accurate detection for broken rotor bars [77].

IV.

the wavelet fault diagnosis and detection of induction

motors, with techniques such as artificial neural networks

(ANN), fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy controllers and genetic

algorithm.

Abdesh et al. used the hybrid wavelet and neural

network (WNN) for detection and classification of

inverter single phasing and shoot [78]. Kyusung et al.

used neuro-predictor and wavelet for extraction of non

stationary signal features in the transient stage using

negative sequence as electric faults and the ratio [79]:

s (k ) =

rhNs ( k )

I hNs ( k )

(24)

wavelet with neural network after feature extraction with

different resolutions of the stator current [80] - [81].

Guizhen et al. presented wavelet neural network,

selecting the Morlet wavelet function as the neural

transfer function with new bias threshold and weight

techniques to detect asynchronous motor faults [82].

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

the collection of both WPA and hybrid support vector

machines which gave better results compared to classical

BP [83]. Xinsheng et al. dealt with the detection and

diagnosis of a defect in ball bearings based on both WT

and ANFIS classification [84]. Zacharias et al. used the

Wavelet Transform (WT) analysis with ANN for the

detection and diagnosis of winding faults in electrical

machines [85], Van et al. presented a fault diagnosis

method based on ANFIS in combination with decision

trees. CART is used as a feature selection tool to select

features from the data set [86]. Vilas et al. proposed an

optimal MLP neural network based classifier for fault

detection by employing the information obtained from

stator current. Detailed design procedure for MLP and

SOM neural network models is given [87]; G.K. Singh et

al. presented a treatment of induction motor data

obtained from physical parameters which is used to train

the neural network [88]. Achmad et al. presented a new

method of nonlinear kernel based on WSVM. Feature

reduction and extraction using PCA and KPCA for the

fault detection and diagnosis of induction motor [89],

Zhongming et al. presented a novel method to detect a

broken rotor bar using neural network with 4 layers

(input -2hidden-1 output) depending on the CFC of the

location of (1-2s)f of stator current [90], Qianjin et al.

presented detection of rotor broken bar and stator

interturn winding using new methods depending on

MCSA techniques (generalized harmonic wavelet

transform filter and HPSO based wavelet neural network)

[91]. Xu et al. presented a novel method to detect the

induction motor faults using both wavelet neural

networks with genetic algorithm for optimization [92].

Erinc et al. applied MWA to the vibration signals with

Shannon entropy to calculate the feature vectors after

which the PCA using probabilistic neural networks was

used [93]. Tan et al. proposed a hybrid neural and fuzzy

network based on the integration of FAM and the

rectangular basis function network. This project involved

a power generation stations faults detection [94].

Saghafinia et al. presented a high performance induction

motor control strategy using FOC with hybrid self tuning

fuzzy logic to get optimal performance in niche

application [95]. Subramanian et al. presented wavelet

transform for differential protection and neural networks

for fault classification using probability neural network

and support vector machine [96]. A novel high

impedance fault detection and location approach based

on wavelet transform and ANN was shown in [97].

Increasing the efficiency and determination of the

number of broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction

motors was carried out using wavelet neural network and

PCA in [98]. Kouzi et al. described the improvement in

sensorless vector control of induction motor drive

through the use of fuzzy logic in a standard rotor flux

Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) based

estimator which suffered from pure integration problems,

instability problems and sensitivity to parameter

variations mismatch at low speed operation [99]. The

4443

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

induction motors was studied. The fault detection and

diagnosis techniques were carried out using RBF with

ANN in [100]. The most common wavelet software is

listed in Table VI.

V.

voltage rectification is shown in Fig. 6.

voltage source inverters, the inverter diagnostic

techniques can be classified into current based methods

and voltage based methods.

There are specific faults in the inverters such as short

circuit in one or more transistors in the same or different

legs that may be lead to catastrophic effect. In some

cases, the drive can function but with less performance

due to pulsation torque and freewheeling diodes. Simple

open loop inverter (PWM-VSI) fed induction motor to

maintain the stability of the system by estimation of

stator flux at zero voltage and low frequency through NN

was introduced by [101]. Investigation of the connection

path of uncontrolled rectifier of a variable V/F induction

motor drive was done by [102]. The simulation of

inverter as a switching technique to find the faults was

done by [103]. Fault tolerant operations of soft starters

and adjustable speed drives (ASDs) when experiencing

power switch open circuit or short circuit faults were

presented in [104].

In all these faults, the motor operation is influenced.

The drive fault diagnosis is an important issue to detect

the type of the faults to take action at an early stage and

prevent complete failure. The percentages of component

failures in adjustable speed drives can be shown in Fig.

5. Control circuits allow the performance increase of the

power electronics converters and inverters through the

implementation of advance control techniques. A lot of

research has been done to improve the inverter to get

optimal performance for the induction machines. Khan,

et al developed an online protection of the induction

motor from PWM-VSI using DWT [105]. For an

induction motor controlled by fuzzy logic, Khanniche et

al. presented a novel method of detection and

identification of a transistor based drives open-circuit

fault of a three phase VSI using wavelet transform [106].

Kim et al. used DWT to detect the discontinuity of the

signal and then used SVM to isolate the 3-phase PWM

inverters [107].

supplies are shown in Fig. 7.

utility of DC voltage in the detection of inverter and

induction motor faults. DC voltage was measured using a

DC voltage sensor (LV25P). The output of the voltage

sensor has been conditioned to not exceed 3 V to be

sufficient for the DSP as can be seen in Fig. 8 for a

healthy inverter.

F28335 in the healthy induction motor. The amplitude of

these signals is 2.8 V.

The phase A and B induction motor current which are

acquired by the current sensor LA25-NP indicate that the

induction motor is healthy, in spite of some spikes in

these signals as can be seen in Fig. 10.

4444

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

indications of the faulty state of the induction motor as

can be seen in Fig. 11.

The sensor currents of phase A and B have been

acquired to show the faulty status of the induction motor

as can be shown in Fig. 12.

VI.

recently devoted to study fault tolerant control (FTC)

systems. A good review of fault tolerant control systems

was provided in [108], with details about the types of

fault tolerant control, its areas, architectures, the control

systems that detect incipient faults in sensors and/or

actuators, the adaptation of the control law in to preserve

pre-specified performances in terms of quality of the

production and even safety.

Fault tolerant control consists of two steps:

1. Fault diagnosis

2. Re-design of the controller

Currently, FTC in most real industrial systems is

realized by hardware redundancy, for example, the

majority voting scheme is used with redundant sensors to

cope with sensor faults.

However, due to two main limitations of the hardware

redundancy, high cost and taking more space, solutions

using analytical redundancy have been investigated over

the last two decades.

There are generally two different approaches using

analytical redundancy:

1. Passive approaches as a part of classical control,

2. Active approaches as a part of adaptive control.

Recently, an elegant design method of passive

approach was proposed, in which the linear matrix

inequality (LMI) method was used to synthesize the

reliable controller. However, the passive approach has

certain disadvantages. The method is based on an

accurate linear state space model and therefore is not

capable of controlling a nonlinear process for which an

accurate analytical model is usually unavailable.

Because the passive approaches consider fault

tolerance in only the stage of controller design and

without taking adaptation when faults occur, the

amplitude of the faults that can be tolerable is usually

small and cannot meet the requirements in practice.

On the other hand, active fault tolerant control

methods include linearization feedback, linear quadrature

method, Pseudo inverse method, Eigen structure

in the healthy IM

in the healthy IM

in the faulty IM

4445

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

rescheduling, model predictive control MPC, H, norm

optimization and four parameter controller.

The main disadvantage of their designs is that they

consider large fault effects which do not challenge the

robustness problem. A consideration of smaller or

incipient (and harder to detect) faults would give a more

realistic and challenging robustness problem to be

solved.

Another classification of FTC is the following:

1. FTC with off board components: This has (nearly)

unlimited computing power but has to cope with

limited and possibly biased measurement data.

2. FTC with on board components has to work with

restricted computing power and memory size which

limits the algorithm complexity of the task to be

performed.

An FTC design consisting of two parts: a nominal

performance controller and a fault detection element to

provide fault compensating signals to the feedback loop

was proposed in [109]-[138]. The nominal controller can

have any given structure that satisfies the performance

specification, the detection element will operate in

parallel with the system until a fault is detected. A

method for design switching control and analyzing

achievable performance for motor drives to maintain the

system operation was presented in [110]. A collection of

results towards a unified framework for fault tolerant

control in distributed control systems was given in [111].

A fault tolerant strategy for the problem of loss of one

phase in a field oriented controlled three phase induction

motor was given in [112]. A new strategy of fault

tolerant operation in case of doubly fed induction

machine (DFIM) was presented in [113].

The problem of designing a fault tolerant system for

an IPMSM motor drive subjected to current sensor fault

was considered by [114]. To achieve this goal, two

control strategies were considered, the first based on field

oriented control and an adaptive back stepping observer

for fault-free operation. The second approach used an

observer for faulty conditions. An online sliding mode

control allocation scheme for fault tolerant control was

proposed by [115].

In [116], a novel intelligent nonlinear state estimation

strategy, which keeps diagnosing the root causes of the

plant model mismatch by isolating the subset of active

faults (abrupt changes in parameters/disturbances, biases

in sensors/actuators, actuator/sensor failures) and auto

corrects the model online so as to accommodate the

isolated faults/failures was presented. A control system

design for a rotor magnetic bearing system that integrated

a number of fault tolerant control methods was

considered in [117]. In [118], a bibliographical review of

reconfigurable (active) fault tolerant control systems

(FTCS) was presented.

In [119], an adaptive FTC of nonlinearly

parameterized systems with uncontrollable linearization

was proposed. A novel feedback design technique that

added a power integrator and was motivated by

multisensory switching control strategy for fault tolerant

control using direct torque and flux control of the

induction motor was proposed in [120]. A fault tolerant

technique valid for both open loop and vector control

motor drive systems are introduced [121]. The technique

was presented for AC motors with delta connected

circuits in their stator windings. It enabled the operation

of the three phase motor upon a failure in one of its

phases without the need of a special fault detection

algorithm. It also significantly mitigated torque

pulsations caused by an open delta configuration in the

stator windings.

Hardware redundancies have inflicted the FTC in most

of the real industrial systems. The redundant sensors are

used in majority of the voting schemes to deal with the

sensor faults. Since the last two decades, limitations such

as hardware redundancies, high cost and occupying large

spaces have motivated solutions based on analytical

redundancies.

The reliability and the availability characteristic

defines the fault tolerance of any system [139]. By

reliability we refer to the systems ability to continue its

operation under damaging conditions. Availability refers

to the systems readiness to attempt a correct action. The

addition or a spare available in a system to replace the

unit that fails to perform in a manner that the system is

able to continue with its operation in spite of the failure,

is referred to as the redundancy of a system.

VI.1. Stator Winding Fault Tolerant

The failure of the motor windings is behind 30% of all

the motor faults. The stator winding faults can be

classified as follows [122]:

1. Open circuit faults

2. Short between any turns in the winding

3. Short circuit between line to ground voltage

4. Short circuit fault between coil to coil

5. Short circuit between line to line voltage

The above mentioned faults are explained in Fig. 13.

stator winding faults have been mentioned in the

4446

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

methods of delay times between two turn faults and its

intensity. Dangerous affects can be prevented if the stator

winding faults are detected as early as possible and will

give enough time to plan an action to maintain the

required performance.

During the short turn fault, a large circulating current

will be induced which creates excessive heat. Majority of

the stator winding fault detection methods proposed

revolve around the perturbation in the motor parameters

through the second order harmonic in the air gap torque;

zero sequence voltage; negative sequence current and

impedance; mismatches in the sequence impedance

matrix and the AI techniques, the wavelet, and negative

sequence approaches. The action of the controller does

not influence these methods but they need the voltage

sensors in the circuit.

The systems smooth operation in the presence of

stator winding faults is very important for any fault

tolerant control system. The critical operations of a

system may be damaged severely by an unexpected shut

down. To maintain the operations in the presence of a

stator winding fault, the redundancy action is a

commonly adopted solution. The main preference has

been given to stopping the operations at the initial stage

as it is sometimes difficult to maintain satisfactory

functions in the presence of a fault. The voltage of the

faulty area is set at zero or to the minimum quantity to

label the shorted stator winding. The parallel resistance is

assumed to be at the lowest possible value and is varied

between the original stator winding and the reduced

value by ten times. This has been demonstrated in Fig.

14.

equations can also be arranged for both the rotor and

stator [125]:

vs Rs 0 I s d s

=

+

vr 0 Rr I r dt r

(25)

symmetrical in the healthy induction motor, thus no

change is required in the system parameters. The system

parameters should be changed to make them applicable

and matched with Kirchhoffs current rule in case of a

fault. The above stated equation can be expanded for

both the stator short winding and stator open winding.

The simulation of the stator delta connection can be

expressed as a voltage drop in parallel for the stator

winding, with a specific phase winding. The faulty phase

is B in Fig. 17.

Fig. 14. Stator resistance configuration during short winding fault

series with the original stator resistance to denote the

open stator winding fault. The series resistance is

considered to be high and variable. It is assumed to range

between the original stator winding resistance and up to a

ten times increased value. This is demonstrated in Fig.

15. There will be no change in the induction motor

mathematical model, inductance, resistance and the

corresponding magnetic field equation. Fig. 16 shows the

simulation circuit [123].

Fig. 17. Stator winding configuration with an inter-turn short fault

4447

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

induction motor mathematical model:

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia

vsa Ra Rb

Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib

vsb = Ra

+

vsc Ra Rb

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic

Rb

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc id

vd Ra

sa

d sb

+

dt sc

d

Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ia

vsa Ra Rb

Rb Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ib

vsb = Ra

+

vsc Ra Rb

Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ic

Rb

Rd + Rc Rd + Rc id

vd Ra

Lad ia

Lbd ib

+

Lcd ic

Ldd id

Lar

Lbr

+ [ Ir ]

Lcr

Ldr

sa

d sb

+

dt sc

d

Rseries

RNor stat

N sh

d

Rsh ish + sh

Ns

dt

LNor stat

LNor stat

Lseries

Lsh

(32)

(33)

is the stator current. The open or short stator winding is

the only thing which can alter the resistance of the any

faulty branch as mentioned above.

(28)

Two types of measurements are present in the

induction motor; electrical and mechanical. The electrical

is associated with the currents and voltages for the stator

or rotor, while the mechanical is associated with the rotor

position [128]. The speed encoders mounted in the motor

shaft are used to measure the angular shafts position.

The possibilities of faults arise from the presence of

noise, drift, offset and disconnections [129]. The motors

performance will deteriorate due to the failure in the

encoder. Therefore, [130] introduced a fault control

system with the controller reconfiguration to adapt the

operations in accordance with the event of sensor loss or

sensor recovery through speed observer. A fault detection

process and isolation of the mechanical speed sensor in

the induction motor was proposed by [131] according to

the fuzzy logic technique.

(29)

short winding voltage can be described as follows [126]:

vsh =

Rsh

(27)

faulty shunt voltage branch:

vsh = isf ( Rd || Rc )

(31)

the inductances of open and short stator winding,

respectively [127]:

RNor stat

for the current to satisfy the Kirchhoffs current rule:

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia

vsa Ra Rb

Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib

vsb = Ra

+

vsc Ra Rb

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic

Rb

Rd || Rc Rd || Rc id

vd Ra

sa

d sb

+

dt sc

d

(26)

of the following matrix for the voltages with the stator

LL voltages:

sa Laa Lab Lac

sb = Lba Lbb Lbc

sc Lca Lcb Lcc

sd Lda Ldb Ldc

(30)

equation and the series combination of the phase C is

VII.

Design Methodologies

presented in [118] as shown in Fig. 18.

In case of a non linear system being subjected to

various faults, [132] introduced a fault tolerant controller.

Temperature variations and sensor faults cause these

faults. The internal and the external factors were dealt

with the help of the passive FTC and active FTC

strategies, as shown in Fig. 19.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

4448

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

likelihood voting algorithm constitute the architecture.

Fig. 18. Basic block diagram of the fault tolerant control scheme

Fig. 21. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

i s1

is 2

isd

v s1

isq

isdr

P 1

vs 2

vs3

isqr

mes mes

shown in Fig. 20.

Fig. 22. Fault tolerant control structure

this paper.

Fig. 20. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

acceptable levels through the main induction motor

controllers. As the transition between the controllers was

smooth, therefore the algorithm was successful. In [134],

a logical variable that allowed a specific controller when

(=0) was created. The best time for the replacement of

the damage components was determined through the

fault tolerant induction motor algorithm. This dealt with

the short circuit or the open circuit failure in the power

device. The isolation of the damaged elements by the

blown fuse was the basis of the algorithm, through which

the damage was replaced at the best suited time. This is

shown in Fig. 21.

New fault tolerant controller architecture was

presented by [135] to obtain a PMSM drive that was both

robust against the mechanical sensor failures. Fig. 22

shows this. To enhance the reliability was the main idea

behind this paper, as this is the main concern in the

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Fig. 23. Block diagram of the FTC algorithm used in this work

were:

1. The DWT input is stator current.

2. Four algorithms, namely sensor vector control,

sensorless vector control, closed loop V/F and open

loop V/F were implemented in Simulink.

3. The fault detection and diagnosis tracked the location,

type and time of faults.

4. The control strategy was decided according to the

wavelet index which is highly sensitive to signal

changes.

5. Equations relating the wavelet index (and thus the

faults) and the stator resistance after it is modified by

a fault are found.

4449

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Techniques

Motor Current Signature

Analysis(MCSA)

(CPV)

Torque Harmonics

Analysis(THA)

Impedances of Inverse

Sequence (IIS)

ANN

TABLE IV

SUMMARY OF THE FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS PROPERTIES [1]

Required measurement

Application

Advantages

One stator current

*Rotor broken bar

*Low cost

*Stator winding turn

*Non invasive

fault

*Air gap eccentricity

Two stator currents

*Rotor broken bar

*Non invasive

*Stator winding turn

*Simple

fault

*Air gap eccentricity

Axial flux

*Rotor broken bar

*Low cost

*Stator winding turn

fault

*Air gap eccentricity

Two stator currents and

*Rotor broken bar

*Mechanical fault

voltages

*Stator winding turn

detection

fault

*Non invasive

*Mechanical faults in

load

Two stator currents and

Stator winding turn

*Incipient faults detection

voltages

fault

*Non invasive

Two stator currents &

voltages

Type of software

Generality

fault

*Non invasive

*Easily to adapt to each

motor

Drawbacks

*Frequencies vary from one

motor to other

*Limited to some states

Mismatch faults

Non invasive

faults

precision

*Required training period

*Not effective in the motors

changes states

TABLE V

WAVELET SOFTWARE [105]

Type of code

1D & 2D DWT and SWT compression (C) and de-noising

(D)

Research

***************************************

Commercial

1D & 2D compression and de noising

Commercial

Global, level-dependent and/or interval/orientation

dependent Hard or (for D only) soft threshold strategies:

Noise (D): Scaled white, un-scaled white or colored.

Donoho Johnstone methods (D): 1D & 2D: Fixed-form 1D:

Heursure, rigsure, mini max. Empirical methods: Balance

sparsity-norm (C) or (for 2D C & D) square root of this

threshold. Birge Massart methods: Penalized high

/medium/low (D) and (for C and non global thresholds)

scarce high/medium/low. C Remove near 0. See [MMOP00]

for details.

Wavelet explorer

Wavelet Toolbox

[MOPM03]

Specialized

Very genera

Very general

Very general

Research

methods under the assumption of white Gaussian noise of

variance 1: global threshold: Visually best (soft or hard)

threshold (p2 log n) [DJ94b]. Mini max hard threshold

[DJ94b]. Level- dependent thresholds: Hard SURE

threshold. Soft modified SURE threshold [DJ95]. Visually

best soft threshold [DJ94b] with level- dependent noise

level estimation.

General

Research

TF Toolbox [AFLG99]

Wave kit [Oja98]

Wave++ [FKK00a]

WZICwP [Rog02]

WaveThresh3 [Nas03]

Lifting notebook [Mas97]

General

General

Specialized

Specialized

General

Specialized

Research

Tutorial

Research

Research

Research

Research

absolute deviation) or STD (classical numerical std

estimate).

****************************************

****************************************

****************************************

****************************************

****************************************

****************************************

This case study presents the fault detection of short

switch using the DC voltage measurement technique,

which measures the voltage at the terminal of inverter

and comparing the voltages. The detection of short

switch can be done by noticing the voltage reduction in

the DC voltage [136]-[140].

sensor as can be seen in Fig. 24. The output of the DC

measurement can be either using oscilloscope as

mentioned earlier in Fig. 8 or using serial communication

interface through RS232 cable that connects the

DSPF28335 to the PC. Fig. 24 shows the DC voltage in a

healthy induction motor and inverter.

4450

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

implementation. Fig. 27 shows the complete set up used

in this project.

IX.

level became lower than 150 V as can be seen in Fig. 25.

Inverter

Current sensor

DC voltage

sensor

Conclusion

induction motors fault tolerant control. A number of

conclusions can be derived from this review:

1) The wavelet is considered a powerful tool in the fault

detection and diagnosis of induction motors.

2) Fault tolerant control is used to maintain the

operation at acceptable of performance level.

3) Many wavelet classes can be generated by different

kinds of mother wavelets and can be constructed by

filter banks.

4) Improvement of fault detection and diagnosis can be

achieved by exploiting the wavelet properties to get

high effectiveness in detection and diagnostics.

5) DC voltage measurement is considered a good choice

to detect the faults either in the inverter or induction

motor.

6) The wavelet transform can be used to detect and

identify the inverter faults.

7) Stator current acquire can be considered another

indication of induction motor fault.

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge University of Malaya,

provision of high impact research, Grant No, D00002216601, hybrid solar energy research suitable for rural

electrification.

Gate drives

TI DSP TMSF28335

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Authors information

1

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

E-mail: salimhazim2010@gmail.com

Machines, str. Memorandumului nr. 28, 400114 Cluj-Napoca,

Romania.

E-mail: Lorand.Szabo@mae.utcluj.ro

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid was born in Iraq in

1969.He received the B.Eng. and M.Sc. from

the University of Technology in 1993, 2003

respectively, all in electrical engineering,

specializing in control systems.

He is currently working toward the Ph.D.

degree in electrical engineering, control and

machine drive, University of Malaya.

Mr. Khalaf research interests include fault

tolerant control, control of induction machines, and applications of

wavelet theory to electrical signals, fault diagnosis of induction

machines.

Hew Wooi Ping was born in Malaysia in 1957.

He received the BE, University Technology

MALAYSIA (UTM), MENG, University

Technology Malaysia (UTM) and Ph.D,

University OF Malaya (UM)

He is associate professor in electrical

engineering, machine drive, University of

Malaya. Institution of electrical engineering ,

Member, Charted Electrical Engineers, 20012005, (International),engineering council UK, Charted Engineer,

2001-2010, (International),Institution Of Engineering And Technology,

UK, Corporate Member, 1999-2020, (National),Board of Engineers,

Malaysia, Professional Engineer, 1998-2008, (National)Institution

Jurutera Malaysia, Corporate Member, 1997-2008,

Dr Hew research interests machines and drives (vector drives, PMSM,

axial flux machines).

4455

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Arabia in 1987. He received his B.Eng degree in

Mechatronics

Engineering

from

the

International Islamic University, Malaysia. He

is currently pursuing a Masters degree at the

University of Malaya, researching under

University Malayas Power Electronics

Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC).

Szabo Lorand was born in Oradea (Romania)

in 1960. He received the B.Sc. and Ph.D. degree

from Technical University of Cluj (Romania) in

electrical engineering in 1985, respectively in

1995. Currently, he is a Professor and Head of

the Department of Electrical Machines of the

same university.

His research interests are in the areas of variable

reluctance machines, fault detection, fault tolerant electrical machines

and drives, etc.

Dr.Szabo published over 195 scientific papers and books in these fields.

4456

1827-6679(201205/06)7:3;1-M

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