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International Review of Electrical Engineering (I.R.E.E.), Vol. 7, N.

3
ISSN 1827- 6660
May - June 2012

Survey of Wavelet Fault Diagnosis and Tolerant


of Induction Machines with Case Study
Khalaf Salloum Gaeid1, Hew Wooi Ping1, Mustafa Khalid Masood1, Lorand Szabo2
Abstract The present contribution presents a review of the research on the use of wavelets as a
medium of fault detection and fault tolerant control of induction machines. Modeling of induction
motor in the stator short winding and stator open winding faults has been illustrated. The authors
provide comprehensive information about the wavelet application to fault diagnosis, including a
summary of wavelet types (continuous and discrete), faults, methods and their validation in the
diagnosis and frequency characteristics components of healthy and faulty induction motors.
Inverter faults and artificial intelligence methods used for fault diagnosis are reviewed in this
paper. Case studies using stator current sensing, DC voltage sensor and the gate drive signal for
fault detection of an induction motor are also presented. Finally, a case study of inverter fault
detection is illustrated experimentally using an induction motor drive controlled by the Texas
Instrument TMS 320F28335 DSP. Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights
reserved.
Keywords: Fault Diagnosis, Fault Tolerant Control, Induction Motor, Inverter Fault, Stator
Faults, Wavelet

TSFE
V/F
VSI
WEKA

Nomenclature
ANN
ANFIS
CW
CART
CFC
DWT
DLPF
E
EMD
FOC
FPGA
FAM
FFT
HPSO
KPCA
MCSA
MLP
MWA
P
PCA
PDD
PWM
RBF
RMS
S
SOM
SVM
T
TMCSA

Artificial Neural Network


Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference
System
Continuous Wavelet
Classification and Cegression Cree
Characteristics frequency Component
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Digital Low-Pass Filtering
Energy Eigen
Empirical Mode Decomposition
Field Oriented Control
Field-programmable Gate Array
Fuzzy ARTMAP
Fast Fourier Transform
Hybrid particle swarm optimization.
Kernal principal component analysis
Motor current signature analysis
Multi level perceptron
Multi resolution wavelet analysis
Pole pair
Principal Component analysis
Power detail density
Pulse width modulation
Radial Basis Function
Root mean square
Slip
Self organized map
Support vector machine
Eigen vector
Time motor current signature analysis

WNN
WPD
WT
MRA
a
b
f (t)
f
fs
m
n
(t)
(w)
*

Time stepping finite element


Voltage /frequency
Voltage source inverter
Waikato Environment for Knowledge
Analysis
Wavelet neural network
Wavelet packet decomposition
Wavelet transforms
Multi resolution analysis
Scale parameter
Time parameter
Waveform signal
Supply frequency
Sampling frequency
Wavelet dilation
Wavelet translation
Wavelet function
Fourier transform
Complex conjugate

I.

Introduction

Induction motor is crucial in the industry for many


reasons, such as simple construction, low maintenance
requirements, rigidity and high reliability. It finds use in
compressors, pumps, and fans. The induction motor
current contains harmonics which are used as indicators
of a variety of faults. Squirrel cage motors are most
important as they work under fault conditions without the
fault becoming visible until it becomes high [1]. An
improvement in service continuity of power supply in the

Manuscript received and revised May 2012, accepted June 2012

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

4437

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

system could be achieved through a fast fault location


[2]. Many different techniques for detection of faults
concentrate on the stator fault due to noninvasive
properties. In industrial systems, the faults can occur in
the following six possible subsystems or components:
1) Induction machine
2) Inverter
3) Current sensors
4) Speed encoder
5) Control and estimation platform
6) Connectors and wires.
Fig. 1 shows the main induction motor faults
according to the IEEE standard.

motor under stator winding short and open circuits.


Different types of component failures in induction motor
drives are studied. An inverter fault survey with short
switch has been taken as case study to illustrate the
algorithm. Faults in the stator current sensor and DC
voltage sensor are also examined.
This paper is organized as follows: Section II
describes transformation types of wavelet. Signal
processing techniques of induction motor faults are
presented in section III. Section IV studies artificial
intelligence techniques. Inverter fault detection is
described in section V. Fault tolerant control is presented
in section VI. Design methodologies are presented in
section VII. Inverter fault detection case study is
presented in section VIII. Finally, concluding remarks are
given in section IX.

II.

Fig. 1. Induction motor faults according to IEEE standard

The mathematical equations used to separate a given


continuous-time signal into several scale components is
called wavelet.
The wavelet techniques are new in the field of fault
diagnosis due to their ability to extract all information in
time and frequency domains as well as providing a more
sensitive means to diagnosing the faults than other signal
processing methods like Fourier Transform. Andrew K.S.
Jardine et al presented a review for the diagnosis of
machines using condition-based maintenance approach
[3]. The fault diagnosis has two main levels: A traditional
control level and a knowledge based fault diagnosis
level.
One of the most important analysis tools in both
frequency and time domain is the wavelet, with its multi
resolution analysis and good time localization. Fault
diagnosis techniques use the wavelet for modules of
feature extraction, feature cluster and fault decision. The
negative sequence current and impedance are often
chosen as fault indicators. Parks vector and motor
current signature analysis (MCSA) are used to diagnose
the stator short circuit fault.
Signal processing techniques like FFT are based on
the assumption of constant stator fundamental frequency,
load, motor speed and that the load is sufficient. A
combination of the Discrete Wavelet transform, statistics
and energy were used to detect electrical and mechanical
failure diagnosis in an induction machine [4]. New
application of wavelet transform was used in the
photovoltaic cells and PV system design, to get better
reliability against the faults [5].
The contribution of this paper is to introduce a review
of fault tolerant control methodologies with the wavelet
transform. It also examines modeling of the induction
Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Transformation Types of Wavelet

Wavelets are literally small waves or ripples with


short time durations. The properties of the wavelet have
been shown to make them superior to other signal
processing techniques. Wavelets can be either orthogonal
or non orthogonal, so the choice of the wavelet transform
should be based on two important characteristics:
1) Orthogonality principle, which means there is no
redundancy in the wavelet decomposition.
2) Adequate cancellation ability against the signals
lower order component should be performed.
The wavelet can be divided into five types:
1. FIR filter-based orthogonal wavelets: The scaling
filter is used to construct these wavelets. Examples
are Symlets, Daubechies, Coiflets and Haar wavelets.
2. FIR filter-based bi-orthogonal wavelets: The
reconstruction scaling filter wr and the decomposition
scaling filter wd are used to construct these wavelets.
A prominent example is the Bior Splines wavelet
family.
3. Scale function-based orthogonal wavelets: The
wavelet function and the scaling function are used to
construct these wavelets. They do not contain an FIR
filter. An example is the Meyer wavelet family.
4. Wavelets without scale function: The wavelet
function is used in the construction of these wavelets.
Important examples are the Morlet and Mexican hat.
5. Complex wavelets with neither FIR filter nor scale
function: These also use the wavelet function for their
construction. The Complex Gaussian and Shannon
are key examples.
The wavelet can be expressed as a continuous wavelet
transform, which can be either real or complex, or the
discrete wavelet transform.
The CWT can be written as follows:

( m,n ) =

f ( t ) m,n ( t ) dt
*

m,n ( t ) = 21/ 2 2 m t n

(1)
(2)

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

TABLE I
CONTINUOUS REAL WAVE TRANSFORMS
Name

Equation

Beta

(t / , ) = ( 1) dp (t / , ) / dt
beta

(t ) = ( 2 n )

Her.

Mex.hat
Shannon

require sub-sampling [8].

n/2

C H (t / 2 ) e

(t ) = ( 2 / 3

1/ 4

( 1 / 2 n ) t

n
2

)(1 t / ) e

( t

/ 2

( t ) = 2 sin c ( 2t ) sin c ( t )
TABLE II
DISCRETE WAVE TRANSFORMS

Name

Equation

Two key properties of wavelets are the admissibility


and regularity conditions. The square integral function
which satisfies the above property is illustrated in (4):

B = ( 1) C

Coiflet

N 1 k

B = ( 1) C

Cohen
Daubechies

N 1 k

B = ( 1) C

Daubechies

Binomial
quadrature mirror
filter (QMF)

N 1 k

h(n) =

X (n)
r

r = 0

| |

d < +

(4)

n ,k ( t ) = ( 2 t k )
H ( ) = e

jv / 2

( ) = 0

ce ( / 2, q )

H v ( ) = 1 / 2

Another important property of the wavelet is


smoothness, which is expressed in (6):

h ke

jk

( ) = 1
2

k z

Wavelet dilation and translation is used to transform


the original signal to a new one with smaller scales
according to the high frequency components. This
relation is valid for the orthogonal basis of wavelet
transform (a=2 and b=1) in the following continuous
wavelet transform:

a,b ( t ) = a

1/ 2

(5)

ce ( 0, q )

Legendre wavelet

| ( ) |2

The Fourier transform of the wavelet function is used


to investigate the signals and then to reconstruct them
without losing any information, which means it
approaches to zero as shown in (5)

N 2 2

Haar wavelet

Mathieu wavelet

Fig. 2. db10 WD into HP and LPF with transfer modulus

t b

(3)

The scaling function determined by the LBF so that is


associated with the approximations of the wavelet
decomposition, the wavelet function determined by the
HBF so that is associated with the details of the wavelet
decomposition as can be seen in Fig. 2.
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is a good
analysis tool because it allows the time-frequency and
time-scale properties of the signals like current, voltage,
frequency, active and reactive powers to be extracted
with all the details [6]. In the DWT, the mother wavelet
is scaled to the power of 2 [7]. The issue with the DWT
is of critical sub-sampling that leads to resolution
problems. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was
developed as an alternative approach that does not

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

(6)

III. Signal Processing Techniques of


Induction Motor Faults
In the signal processing and control community, the
fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) problem has attracted
a lot of attention because of the many industry
applications and their technical challenges [9]. An
important reason for the interest in wavelets is its ability
of timefrequency analysis as can be seen in [10] - [137].
Fault diagnosis techniques include a wavelet feature
extraction module, feature cluster module and a fault
decision module. Multi resolution analysis and good time
localization are particularly useful characteristics of
wavelets in the context of fault diagnosis. The main
faults that occur in induction motor drives and their
validity are presented in Table III and an examination of
these faults follows in the subsequent section. A
summary of the properties of fault diagnosis methods is
given in Table IV.
III.1. Air Gap Eccentricity
This fault is related to a condition of unequal air gap
that exists between the stator and rotor.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

TABLE III
INDUCTION MOTOR FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS VALIDITY
Faults
Bearing
sensors
Air gap
Stator Wind.
Method
eccent.
MCSA

Ok

Not

Ok

Partial

Vibration
analysis

Ok

Not

Ok

Not

Axial flux

Not

Not

Ok

Partial

Partial
discharge

Not

Not

Not

Ok

M.B FDD

Not sure

Not

Not sure

Ok

Mechanical faults happen due to many reasons such as


machine manufacturing, assembly, unbalance load, bent
shaft and bearing wear. Tsoumas et al. used the wavelet
of current space vector to detect the broken rotor bar and
air gap eccentricity faults, the frequency of which is
expressed in the following equations [11]:

1 s
fecc = f s 1 k

(7)

fbrk = f s (1 2ks )

(8)

Cusido et al. presented wavelet detection using MCSA


method, which does not need more than a single line
current [12]. According to the position of side band
frequencies around 50 Hz, they classified the faults using
the following equations [13]:

1 s
f ecc = f1 1 m

(9)

fecc = f1 (1 s ) k
p

(10)

The broken rotor bar fault can be detected according


to the fault frequency as in (11):
1 s
fbrb = f1 m
s
p / 2

(11)

The distortion frequency in the air gap can be


calculated as in (12):

f airgap =| f1 mfi, o |

(12)

Hamidi et al. presented detection of mixed eccentricity


fault using wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) which
is done by the modified winding function [14]. Antonino
et al. presented the detection and diagnosis of mixed
eccentricities and rotor asymmetries with different sizes
and conditions and the effective oscillations due to the

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

load torque or voltage were studied individually [15].


Antonino et al. presented many cases for fault diagnosis
(mixed eccentricity, broken rotor, inter-turn and inter-coil
stator short-circuits) using DWT at start up current of
induction machines according to parallel branches of the
stator winding [16]. They later presented the detection of
mixed eccentricities fault in the induction motor using
Hilbert Huang Transform with DWT [17]. Zhongming et
al. used WPD to detect both air gap eccentricity and
broken rotor bar after giving brief details about the
wavelet and feature extraction [18]. DWT analysis of the
stator startup current in order to detect the presence of
axial static eccentricity in an induction motor was shown
by [19]. The magnitude change of some harmonics with
variation of mixed air gap eccentricity was investigated
by [20].
III.2. Gear Box and Bearing Faults
The causes for these faults can be one of the
following:
1. Corrosion,
2. Unsuitable lubrication
3. Bad bearing installations.
The bearing faults affect the friction coefficient in the
motor model and as a consequence, the rotor currents and
mechanical velocity are affected [21].
Yixiang et al. used lean model to assess the machine
performance using DWT for the vibration and bearing
induction motor faults [22]. Bin Lu et al. used the
wavelet to detect the broken rotor bar, eccentricity and
bearing due to current, voltage and instantaneous power.
The signal to noise ratio of the spectral components was
examined under varying load conditions of the single
phase active one cycle in [23]. Rafiee presented a study
of how the mother wavelet is chosen among 324 using
four statistical features [24]. Jafar et al. used the Meyer
wavelet in the WP structure to detect the bearing defect
using the SCA with energy comparison as the fault index
[25]. Jawad et al. presented a review of the most
important indices in the different types of eccentricity
faults in the induction motors as well as the
consequences and effects [26]. Qiao Hu et al. presented
fault diagnosis of rolling bearings, and testing results
show that the support vector machines can separate
different fault conditions and identify the severity of
incipient faults, besides giving better classification
performance compared to the single SVM [27]. Serhat et
al. presented feature extraction using wavelet technique
to detect the bearing fault of motors [28]-[29]. G.K.
Singh et al. presented detection of bearing faults of
induction motor to treat and analyze a number of signals
(three line to line voltages, three currents ,two vibration
signals, four temperatures and one speed signal) obtained
from the monitoring using wavelet transform[30].
Chinmaya et al. studied a multi-stage transmission
gearbox in order to use the MCSA instead of
conventional vibration monitoring with DWT and FFT to
investigate the sideband frequencies [31]. Abbasion et al.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

introduced SVM as a classifier to compute optimum


wavelet decomposition to diagnose the rolling element
bearings fault in the induction motor [32]. Cusido et al.
presented a new method, which combines wavelet and
power spectral density techniques to detect the bearing
defect using the PDD as a fault factor [33]. Zhou et al.
used the wavelet for vibration signal based mechanical
equipment fault diagnosis. The algorithm was
implemented in the Weka platform [34]. Teotrakool et al.
presented application of MCSA using WPD to detect
bearing faults in adjustable speed drives [35].
Temperature monitoring, which is to measure the
component and operational temperatures, is another trend
that can be used for diagnosis of induction motor
particularly in gears. A hybrid method for detecting
motor bearing fault conditions via discrete wavelet
packet decomposition (DWPD) of induction motor
current with spectral post processing was presented in
[36].
III.3. Stator Faults Resulting from Opening or Shorting
These faults are usually related to insulation failure. In
common parlance, they are generally known as phase-toground or phase-to-phase faults. It is believed that these
faults start as undetected turn-to-turn faults that finally
grow and culminate into major ones [37]. Tong Liu et al.
presented an Eigen vector as a fault indicator of stator
inter turn short circuit as follows:

E E1

T = 0 , ,....,E2 M 1 / E
E E

(13)

T, E contains the necessary information of the


electromagnetic torque signal [38]:
2M 1
2
E = j =0 abs ( E )

MCSA was used to detect faults with wavelet, with


the stator teeth harmonic variation using dq0 components
instead of Iabc. [42]. Niu et al. employed Bayesian belief
fusion and multi agent fusion as classifier tool to detect
different faulty collected data using the signal processing
techniques for smoothing followed by the DWT to
decompose the signals into different ranges of frequency
as can be seen in Fig. 4 for 20kHz sampling
frequency[43].

Fig. 4. Frequency ranges for details and final approximation

Riera-Guasp et al. presented detection and diagnosis


for rotor asymmetries in induction motor based on the
analysis of the stator startup current. The authors
extracted the harmonic component introduced by this
fault, the left sideband component from the stator startup
current. DLPF and DWT were used in this technique
[44]. Combastel et al. presented a comparison between
model-based and signal-based approaches in the fault
detection of the induction motor. The electrical variables
were described according to the Park transformation
model, with broken rotor and stator winding failures
investigated. Also, the parameter variations due to
heating were considered [45]. Radhika et al presented
fault diagnostics of induction motor using MCSA, with
WT extracted features classified using SVM [46]. Chen
et al. presented fault detection in vector controlled
induction motors to compute a fault index for the faults
of stator winding [47].
III.4. Shorted Rotor Field Winding

0.5

(14)

Mohammed et al. presented two papers discussing the


finite element modeling of the induction motor internal
faults and solving the equation by time stepping
approach of broken bar and stator shorted turns using
db10 wavelet for sinusoidal and non sinusoidal cases
[39]-[40].
Software diagnosis of short inter turn and open circuit
of the stator winding as an incipient fault was done
by[41] to avoid hardware cost and difficulty using
wavelet decomposition (Fig. 3) for different stator
resistances (Rs =0.001 ,0.1,0.7,1,4,8) .

Fig. 3. Two level Simulink signal decomposition


through sub band filters

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

This fault may be occurring due to following reasons:


Thermal sensitivity
Unbalance magnetic forces
Increasing the motor load beyond its capacity
Motor operation in a high temperature area
Khan et al. presented two DWT to detect and classify
the faults. The continuous wavelet is used to detect faults
especially when the overlap between the frequency
supply signal and the adjacent signal cannot be
recognized.
In [48], six accelerometers to measure vibration data
were put in independent places around the motor detect
the bearing damage. Saleh et al. presented a new
technique for detecting and diagnosing faults in both
stator and rotor windings using wound rotor induction
motor.
The technique was based on a WTMRA [49]. Cusido
et al. presented both continuous and discrete wavelet to
detect many mechanical and electrical induction motor
faults using MCSA [50].
1.
2.
3.
4.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

III.5. Broken Rotor Bar and Crack End Ring


There are many reasons for these faults such as
vibration and electromagnetic distortion caused by
magnetic effects, mechanical effects such as fatigue in
some parts and thermal effects.
Slotting, skewing and linear MMF rise across the rotor
and stator slots are considered in the model of induction
motor that may be considered as reasons for the broken
rotor bar [51]. Wen et al. used the EMD which deals with
nonlinear systems to detect the broken rotor bar using
WDT [52]. Zhitong et al. used the multi resolution
wavelet analysis method to detect the broken rotor bars
according to their analysis of stator current. According to
his work, the signal is first filtered then differentiated and
after that entered into the wavelet (Daubechies with 5
levels) [53]. Faiz et al. presented a novel criterion to
detect the broken rotor bar using TSFE to model the
broken bar faults in the induction motor [54]. The
criterion function to detect the fault is:

criterion funct =
=

average of fluctuation for ( abs ( D 4 ) )

(15)

mean current

Yang et al. presented a novel method to detect the


rotor broken bar using the Ridge wavelet. They extracted
the characteristic frequency components of broken bar
using only one phase of stator current [55]. Pons-Llinares
et al. presented a new method to detect the broken bar in
the transient region using TMCSA via frequency BSplines. The mother wavelet equation that he used was:

fbt j 2 fct
e
m

( t ) = Cm,nf sin c m

(16)

Here, m =2 [56]. Pineda-Sanchez et al. used fractional


Fourier transform for spectral analysis with the TMCSA
to detect a rotor broken bar [57].
Eren et al. presented the WPT decomposition of the
stator current of a 1 Hp induction motor through the test
of RMS for both healthy and faulty bearings to detect
bearing faults [58]-[59]. The single mean square of
discrete wavelet function computation measures the
status of the broken rotor bar of induction motor using
FPGA, whether healthy or faulty. A novelty in their
weighting function is shown in Equation (16) [60]:
k2

fbrb = cbrb ( j,k )

(17)

k1

Zadeh et al. presented a novel approach to detect the


broken bar fault in squirrel cage induction motor. Two 3
hp induction motors with cast aluminum rotor bars were
employed for this experiment [61]. Cabal et al. used
FPGA to detect many faults in squirrel cage such as
unbalance, faulty bearing and broken bars using parallel
Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

combination of fused FFT and wavelet [62]. Antonino et


al. presented new techniques for detection of broken bar
using high order discrete wavelets (db40) and compared
it with classical methods such as Fourier transform with
two conditions [63]:

nd n f + 2

(18)

where nf is the level of detail:

nd n f + 2

(19)

Cusido et al., addressing the shortcomings of the FFT,


introduced the spectral density on wavelet to detect many
faults in the induction motor using the equations just
presented.
The faults with different load conditions (7% and
10%) has been used when changing slip [64]. MCSA
method is used for fault detection but it has
disadvantages especially when the load torque is varied.
To remedy this, Cusido et al. presented an online system
for fault detection using many wavelets like Mexican
Hat, Morlet and Agnsis mother wavelet to detect broken
bar faults [65]- [66].
The drawback of using FFT has been investigated by
many authors for detection of broken rotor bars with
db40 as the mother function to avoid low level
overlapping with adjacent bands. The decomposition
levels are tested according to the following formula:
ns =

log ( fs / f )
log ( 2 )

+1

(20)

According to the following equation, Hamidi [14] got


a (0.1) Hz resolution to detect the faults in the induction
motor using a combination of wavelet and power spectral
density:
Ns

fs / R

(21)

where R is resolution and Ns is the number of samples.


Douglas et al. presented fault detection in the transient
region for the broken rotor bar using the instantaneous
power FFT as a medium fault detection and wavelet to
decompose the residual stator current after filtering the
noise using Notch filter [67]-[ 68].
Supangat et al. presented a wavelet indicator to detect
the broken rotor bars by calculating the absolute values
of the summed coefficients in the third pattern,
normalized against the summation of the wavelet
coefficient [69]- [70].
Samsi [71] used V/f control method to detect the
broken rotor bar in the induction motor. The diagnosis
decision is made according to the probability distribution
of different operation states of healthy and faulty motors.
The difference in entropy is used as a measure:

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

M (k ) =

i =| p k |

i =1

pk
log 2 i1
p
i

(22)

pk is the distribution corresponding to the kth run .


Riera et al used DWT to detect the broken rotor bar in the
transient region using slip dependant fault component
according to energy ratio of the current signal to the
wavelet signal as in the following relationship [72]:
Ns

i 2j

j = Nb

( in db ) = 10 log Ns

n ( j )
j = Nb

(23)

Braham et al. presented a new approach to detect the


broken rotor bar in induction motors using spectrum
density estimation and SVM for different load
percentages [73].
Kia et al. presented a DWT for broken bar detection
and diagnosis faults in induction machines in which
energy test of bandwidth with time domain analysis was
the first step, after which it was applied to the stator
current space vector to obtain the different broken bar
fault severities and load levels [74]-[75]. Souad et al.
presented indirect vector control fault diagnosis to detect
both stator winding shorts and broken rotor bar using
spectral analysis of electrical quantities such as current
and voltage[76]. Good frequency separation using
DWPD of induction motor current is essential for
accurate detection for broken rotor bars [77].

IV.

Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Artificial intelligence has played an important role in


the wavelet fault diagnosis and detection of induction
motors, with techniques such as artificial neural networks
(ANN), fuzzy logic, neuro-fuzzy controllers and genetic
algorithm.
Abdesh et al. used the hybrid wavelet and neural
network (WNN) for detection and classification of
inverter single phasing and shoot [78]. Kyusung et al.
used neuro-predictor and wavelet for extraction of non
stationary signal features in the transient stage using
negative sequence as electric faults and the ratio [79]:

s (k ) =

rhNs ( k )

I hNs ( k )

(24)

Online detection of rotor bar faults was done using a


wavelet with neural network after feature extraction with
different resolutions of the stator current [80] - [81].
Guizhen et al. presented wavelet neural network,
selecting the Morlet wavelet function as the neural
transfer function with new bias threshold and weight
techniques to detect asynchronous motor faults [82].
Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Guang et al. presented new fault diagnosis based on


the collection of both WPA and hybrid support vector
machines which gave better results compared to classical
BP [83]. Xinsheng et al. dealt with the detection and
diagnosis of a defect in ball bearings based on both WT
and ANFIS classification [84]. Zacharias et al. used the
Wavelet Transform (WT) analysis with ANN for the
detection and diagnosis of winding faults in electrical
machines [85], Van et al. presented a fault diagnosis
method based on ANFIS in combination with decision
trees. CART is used as a feature selection tool to select
features from the data set [86]. Vilas et al. proposed an
optimal MLP neural network based classifier for fault
detection by employing the information obtained from
stator current. Detailed design procedure for MLP and
SOM neural network models is given [87]; G.K. Singh et
al. presented a treatment of induction motor data
obtained from physical parameters which is used to train
the neural network [88]. Achmad et al. presented a new
method of nonlinear kernel based on WSVM. Feature
reduction and extraction using PCA and KPCA for the
fault detection and diagnosis of induction motor [89],
Zhongming et al. presented a novel method to detect a
broken rotor bar using neural network with 4 layers
(input -2hidden-1 output) depending on the CFC of the
location of (1-2s)f of stator current [90], Qianjin et al.
presented detection of rotor broken bar and stator
interturn winding using new methods depending on
MCSA techniques (generalized harmonic wavelet
transform filter and HPSO based wavelet neural network)
[91]. Xu et al. presented a novel method to detect the
induction motor faults using both wavelet neural
networks with genetic algorithm for optimization [92].
Erinc et al. applied MWA to the vibration signals with
Shannon entropy to calculate the feature vectors after
which the PCA using probabilistic neural networks was
used [93]. Tan et al. proposed a hybrid neural and fuzzy
network based on the integration of FAM and the
rectangular basis function network. This project involved
a power generation stations faults detection [94].
Saghafinia et al. presented a high performance induction
motor control strategy using FOC with hybrid self tuning
fuzzy logic to get optimal performance in niche
application [95]. Subramanian et al. presented wavelet
transform for differential protection and neural networks
for fault classification using probability neural network
and support vector machine [96]. A novel high
impedance fault detection and location approach based
on wavelet transform and ANN was shown in [97].
Increasing the efficiency and determination of the
number of broken rotor bars in squirrel-cage induction
motors was carried out using wavelet neural network and
PCA in [98]. Kouzi et al. described the improvement in
sensorless vector control of induction motor drive
through the use of fuzzy logic in a standard rotor flux
Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) based
estimator which suffered from pure integration problems,
instability problems and sensitivity to parameter
variations mismatch at low speed operation [99]. The

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

problem of bearing failure detection and diagnosis in


induction motors was studied. The fault detection and
diagnosis techniques were carried out using RBF with
ANN in [100]. The most common wavelet software is
listed in Table VI.

V.

The complete circuit of the inverter with the DC


voltage rectification is shown in Fig. 6.

Inverter Fault Detection

Higher performances achievements can be obtained by


voltage source inverters, the inverter diagnostic
techniques can be classified into current based methods
and voltage based methods.
There are specific faults in the inverters such as short
circuit in one or more transistors in the same or different
legs that may be lead to catastrophic effect. In some
cases, the drive can function but with less performance
due to pulsation torque and freewheeling diodes. Simple
open loop inverter (PWM-VSI) fed induction motor to
maintain the stability of the system by estimation of
stator flux at zero voltage and low frequency through NN
was introduced by [101]. Investigation of the connection
path of uncontrolled rectifier of a variable V/F induction
motor drive was done by [102]. The simulation of
inverter as a switching technique to find the faults was
done by [103]. Fault tolerant operations of soft starters
and adjustable speed drives (ASDs) when experiencing
power switch open circuit or short circuit faults were
presented in [104].
In all these faults, the motor operation is influenced.
The drive fault diagnosis is an important issue to detect
the type of the faults to take action at an early stage and
prevent complete failure. The percentages of component
failures in adjustable speed drives can be shown in Fig.
5. Control circuits allow the performance increase of the
power electronics converters and inverters through the
implementation of advance control techniques. A lot of
research has been done to improve the inverter to get
optimal performance for the induction machines. Khan,
et al developed an online protection of the induction
motor from PWM-VSI using DWT [105]. For an
induction motor controlled by fuzzy logic, Khanniche et
al. presented a novel method of detection and
identification of a transistor based drives open-circuit
fault of a three phase VSI using wavelet transform [106].
Kim et al. used DWT to detect the discontinuity of the
signal and then used SVM to isolate the 3-phase PWM
inverters [107].

Fig. 6. Inverter with the rectifier stage

The percentages of component failure in switch power


supplies are shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Percentage of component failures in switch-mode power supply

A case study is presented here to demonstrate the


utility of DC voltage in the detection of inverter and
induction motor faults. DC voltage was measured using a
DC voltage sensor (LV25P). The output of the voltage
sensor has been conditioned to not exceed 3 V to be
sufficient for the DSP as can be seen in Fig. 8 for a
healthy inverter.

Fig. 8. DC level to the DSP in the healthy case

Fig. 9 shows the gate signal generated through DSP


F28335 in the healthy induction motor. The amplitude of
these signals is 2.8 V.
The phase A and B induction motor current which are
acquired by the current sensor LA25-NP indicate that the
induction motor is healthy, in spite of some spikes in
these signals as can be seen in Fig. 10.

Fig. 5. Percentage of component failures in ASD

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

The distorted gate signals A and B are good


indications of the faulty state of the induction motor as
can be seen in Fig. 11.
The sensor currents of phase A and B have been
acquired to show the faulty status of the induction motor
as can be shown in Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. Stator currents delivered to the DSP in the faulty IM

VI.

Fault Tolerant Control

Many efforts in the control community have been


recently devoted to study fault tolerant control (FTC)
systems. A good review of fault tolerant control systems
was provided in [108], with details about the types of
fault tolerant control, its areas, architectures, the control
systems that detect incipient faults in sensors and/or
actuators, the adaptation of the control law in to preserve
pre-specified performances in terms of quality of the
production and even safety.
Fault tolerant control consists of two steps:
1. Fault diagnosis
2. Re-design of the controller
Currently, FTC in most real industrial systems is
realized by hardware redundancy, for example, the
majority voting scheme is used with redundant sensors to
cope with sensor faults.
However, due to two main limitations of the hardware
redundancy, high cost and taking more space, solutions
using analytical redundancy have been investigated over
the last two decades.
There are generally two different approaches using
analytical redundancy:
1. Passive approaches as a part of classical control,
2. Active approaches as a part of adaptive control.
Recently, an elegant design method of passive
approach was proposed, in which the linear matrix
inequality (LMI) method was used to synthesize the
reliable controller. However, the passive approach has
certain disadvantages. The method is based on an
accurate linear state space model and therefore is not
capable of controlling a nonlinear process for which an
accurate analytical model is usually unavailable.
Because the passive approaches consider fault
tolerance in only the stage of controller design and
without taking adaptation when faults occur, the
amplitude of the faults that can be tolerable is usually
small and cannot meet the requirements in practice.
On the other hand, active fault tolerant control
methods include linearization feedback, linear quadrature
method, Pseudo inverse method, Eigen structure

Fig. 9. Gate signal generated by DSP


in the healthy IM

Fig. 10. Stator currents delivered to the DSP


in the healthy IM

Fig. 11. Gate signal generated by DSP


in the faulty IM

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

assignment method, neural network, control law


rescheduling, model predictive control MPC, H, norm
optimization and four parameter controller.
The main disadvantage of their designs is that they
consider large fault effects which do not challenge the
robustness problem. A consideration of smaller or
incipient (and harder to detect) faults would give a more
realistic and challenging robustness problem to be
solved.
Another classification of FTC is the following:
1. FTC with off board components: This has (nearly)
unlimited computing power but has to cope with
limited and possibly biased measurement data.
2. FTC with on board components has to work with
restricted computing power and memory size which
limits the algorithm complexity of the task to be
performed.
An FTC design consisting of two parts: a nominal
performance controller and a fault detection element to
provide fault compensating signals to the feedback loop
was proposed in [109]-[138]. The nominal controller can
have any given structure that satisfies the performance
specification, the detection element will operate in
parallel with the system until a fault is detected. A
method for design switching control and analyzing
achievable performance for motor drives to maintain the
system operation was presented in [110]. A collection of
results towards a unified framework for fault tolerant
control in distributed control systems was given in [111].
A fault tolerant strategy for the problem of loss of one
phase in a field oriented controlled three phase induction
motor was given in [112]. A new strategy of fault
tolerant operation in case of doubly fed induction
machine (DFIM) was presented in [113].
The problem of designing a fault tolerant system for
an IPMSM motor drive subjected to current sensor fault
was considered by [114]. To achieve this goal, two
control strategies were considered, the first based on field
oriented control and an adaptive back stepping observer
for fault-free operation. The second approach used an
observer for faulty conditions. An online sliding mode
control allocation scheme for fault tolerant control was
proposed by [115].
In [116], a novel intelligent nonlinear state estimation
strategy, which keeps diagnosing the root causes of the
plant model mismatch by isolating the subset of active
faults (abrupt changes in parameters/disturbances, biases
in sensors/actuators, actuator/sensor failures) and auto
corrects the model online so as to accommodate the
isolated faults/failures was presented. A control system
design for a rotor magnetic bearing system that integrated
a number of fault tolerant control methods was
considered in [117]. In [118], a bibliographical review of
reconfigurable (active) fault tolerant control systems
(FTCS) was presented.
In [119], an adaptive FTC of nonlinearly
parameterized systems with uncontrollable linearization
was proposed. A novel feedback design technique that
added a power integrator and was motivated by

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

homogeneous feedback stabilization was presented. A


multisensory switching control strategy for fault tolerant
control using direct torque and flux control of the
induction motor was proposed in [120]. A fault tolerant
technique valid for both open loop and vector control
motor drive systems are introduced [121]. The technique
was presented for AC motors with delta connected
circuits in their stator windings. It enabled the operation
of the three phase motor upon a failure in one of its
phases without the need of a special fault detection
algorithm. It also significantly mitigated torque
pulsations caused by an open delta configuration in the
stator windings.
Hardware redundancies have inflicted the FTC in most
of the real industrial systems. The redundant sensors are
used in majority of the voting schemes to deal with the
sensor faults. Since the last two decades, limitations such
as hardware redundancies, high cost and occupying large
spaces have motivated solutions based on analytical
redundancies.
The reliability and the availability characteristic
defines the fault tolerance of any system [139]. By
reliability we refer to the systems ability to continue its
operation under damaging conditions. Availability refers
to the systems readiness to attempt a correct action. The
addition or a spare available in a system to replace the
unit that fails to perform in a manner that the system is
able to continue with its operation in spite of the failure,
is referred to as the redundancy of a system.
VI.1. Stator Winding Fault Tolerant
The failure of the motor windings is behind 30% of all
the motor faults. The stator winding faults can be
classified as follows [122]:
1. Open circuit faults
2. Short between any turns in the winding
3. Short circuit between line to ground voltage
4. Short circuit fault between coil to coil
5. Short circuit between line to line voltage
The above mentioned faults are explained in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13. Possible failure modes in delta -connected stator windings

Various fault diagnosis methods for the detection of


stator winding faults have been mentioned in the

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

literature. Developments are still required in the detection


methods of delay times between two turn faults and its
intensity. Dangerous affects can be prevented if the stator
winding faults are detected as early as possible and will
give enough time to plan an action to maintain the
required performance.
During the short turn fault, a large circulating current
will be induced which creates excessive heat. Majority of
the stator winding fault detection methods proposed
revolve around the perturbation in the motor parameters
through the second order harmonic in the air gap torque;
zero sequence voltage; negative sequence current and
impedance; mismatches in the sequence impedance
matrix and the AI techniques, the wavelet, and negative
sequence approaches. The action of the controller does
not influence these methods but they need the voltage
sensors in the circuit.
The systems smooth operation in the presence of
stator winding faults is very important for any fault
tolerant control system. The critical operations of a
system may be damaged severely by an unexpected shut
down. To maintain the operations in the presence of a
stator winding fault, the redundancy action is a
commonly adopted solution. The main preference has
been given to stopping the operations at the initial stage
as it is sometimes difficult to maintain satisfactory
functions in the presence of a fault. The voltage of the
faulty area is set at zero or to the minimum quantity to
label the shorted stator winding. The parallel resistance is
assumed to be at the lowest possible value and is varied
between the original stator winding and the reduced
value by ten times. This has been demonstrated in Fig.
14.

Fig. 15. Stator resistance configuration during open winding fault

Fig. 16. Generator with fault simulating resistor [124]

According to the equation (25), the induction motor


equations can also be arranged for both the rotor and
stator [125]:
vs Rs 0 I s d s
=
+
vr 0 Rr I r dt r

(25)

The supply voltage and the stator windings are


symmetrical in the healthy induction motor, thus no
change is required in the system parameters. The system
parameters should be changed to make them applicable
and matched with Kirchhoffs current rule in case of a
fault. The above stated equation can be expanded for
both the stator short winding and stator open winding.
The simulation of the stator delta connection can be
expressed as a voltage drop in parallel for the stator
winding, with a specific phase winding. The faulty phase
is B in Fig. 17.
Fig. 14. Stator resistance configuration during short winding fault

A resistance of a greater value is introduced in the


series with the original stator resistance to denote the
open stator winding fault. The series resistance is
considered to be high and variable. It is assumed to range
between the original stator winding resistance and up to a
ten times increased value. This is demonstrated in Fig.
15. There will be no change in the induction motor
mathematical model, inductance, resistance and the
corresponding magnetic field equation. Fig. 16 shows the
simulation circuit [123].
Fig. 17. Stator winding configuration with an inter-turn short fault

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

The following expression shows an arrangement of the


induction motor mathematical model:
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia
vsa Ra Rb


Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib
vsb = Ra
+
vsc Ra Rb
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic


Rb
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc id
vd Ra
sa

d sb
+
dt sc

d

Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ia
vsa Ra Rb


Rb Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ib
vsb = Ra
+
vsc Ra Rb
Rd + Rc Rd + Rc ic


Rb
Rd + Rc Rd + Rc id
vd Ra

Lad ia

Lbd ib
+
Lcd ic

Ldd id
Lar

Lbr
+ [ Ir ]
Lcr

Ldr

sa

d sb
+
dt sc

d

Rseries
RNor stat

N sh
d
Rsh ish + sh
Ns
dt

LNor stat

LNor stat

Lseries

Lsh

(32)

(33)

The input to the DWT based fault diagnosis algorithm


is the stator current. The open or short stator winding is
the only thing which can alter the resistance of the any
faulty branch as mentioned above.

(28)

VI.2. Speed Sensor Fault Tolerant Operating Strategy


Two types of measurements are present in the
induction motor; electrical and mechanical. The electrical
is associated with the currents and voltages for the stator
or rotor, while the mechanical is associated with the rotor
position [128]. The speed encoders mounted in the motor
shaft are used to measure the angular shafts position.
The possibilities of faults arise from the presence of
noise, drift, offset and disconnections [129]. The motors
performance will deteriorate due to the failure in the
encoder. Therefore, [130] introduced a fault control
system with the controller reconfiguration to adapt the
operations in accordance with the event of sensor loss or
sensor recovery through speed observer. A fault detection
process and isolation of the mechanical speed sensor in
the induction motor was proposed by [131] according to
the fuzzy logic technique.

(29)

Taking into consideration the magnetic flux, the stator


short winding voltage can be described as follows [126]:
vsh =

Rsh

(27)

The original stator resistance is connected with the


faulty shunt voltage branch:
vsh = isf ( Rd || Rc )

(31)

Following formulas helps in calculating the value of


the inductances of open and short stator winding,
respectively [127]:

RNor stat

The above equation is expressed for phase C in order


for the current to satisfy the Kirchhoffs current rule:
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ia
vsa Ra Rb


Rb Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ib
vsb = Ra
+
vsc Ra Rb
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc ic


Rb
Rd || Rc Rd || Rc id
vd Ra

sa

d sb
+
dt sc

d

(26)

The magnetic field equation can be written in the form


of the following matrix for the voltages with the stator
LL voltages:
sa Laa Lab Lac

sb = Lba Lbb Lbc
sc Lca Lcb Lcc

sd Lda Ldb Ldc

described by the following expression:

(30)

The extra resistance for the stator open winding


equation and the series combination of the phase C is

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

VII.

Design Methodologies

The basic topology of fault tolerant control is


presented in [118] as shown in Fig. 18.
In case of a non linear system being subjected to
various faults, [132] introduced a fault tolerant controller.
Temperature variations and sensor faults cause these
faults. The internal and the external factors were dealt
with the help of the passive FTC and active FTC
strategies, as shown in Fig. 19.
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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

electric vehicles. Two virtual sensors and a maximum


likelihood voting algorithm constitute the architecture.

Fig. 18. Basic block diagram of the fault tolerant control scheme

Fig. 21. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

i s1
is 2

isd
v s1

isq
isdr

Fig. 19. Block Diagram of the proposed fault tolerant controller

P 1

vs 2
vs3

isqr

mes mes

The multi controllers were introduced by [133], as


shown in Fig. 20.
Fig. 22. Fault tolerant control structure

Fig. 23 shows the new fault tolerant algorithm used in


this paper.

Fig. 20. Fault tolerant control structure used in the above work

The performance specifications were maintained at


acceptable levels through the main induction motor
controllers. As the transition between the controllers was
smooth, therefore the algorithm was successful. In [134],
a logical variable that allowed a specific controller when
(=0) was created. The best time for the replacement of
the damage components was determined through the
fault tolerant induction motor algorithm. This dealt with
the short circuit or the open circuit failure in the power
device. The isolation of the damaged elements by the
blown fuse was the basis of the algorithm, through which
the damage was replaced at the best suited time. This is
shown in Fig. 21.
New fault tolerant controller architecture was
presented by [135] to obtain a PMSM drive that was both
robust against the mechanical sensor failures. Fig. 22
shows this. To enhance the reliability was the main idea
behind this paper, as this is the main concern in the
Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

Fig. 23. Block diagram of the FTC algorithm used in this work

The key improvements introduced by this algorithm


were:
1. The DWT input is stator current.
2. Four algorithms, namely sensor vector control,
sensorless vector control, closed loop V/F and open
loop V/F were implemented in Simulink.
3. The fault detection and diagnosis tracked the location,
type and time of faults.
4. The control strategy was decided according to the
wavelet index which is highly sensitive to signal
changes.
5. Equations relating the wavelet index (and thus the
faults) and the stator resistance after it is modified by
a fault are found.

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Techniques
Motor Current Signature
Analysis(MCSA)

Complex Park Vector


(CPV)

Axial Flow (AF)

Torque Harmonics
Analysis(THA)

Impedances of Inverse
Sequence (IIS)
ANN

TABLE IV
SUMMARY OF THE FAULT DIAGNOSIS METHODS PROPERTIES [1]
Required measurement
Application
Advantages
One stator current
*Rotor broken bar
*Low cost
*Stator winding turn
*Non invasive
fault
*Air gap eccentricity
Two stator currents
*Rotor broken bar
*Non invasive
*Stator winding turn
*Simple
fault
*Air gap eccentricity
Axial flux
*Rotor broken bar
*Low cost
*Stator winding turn
fault
*Air gap eccentricity
Two stator currents and
*Rotor broken bar
*Mechanical fault
voltages
*Stator winding turn
detection
fault
*Non invasive
*Mechanical faults in
load
Two stator currents and
Stator winding turn
*Incipient faults detection
voltages
fault
*Non invasive
Two stator currents &
voltages

Type of software

Generality

Stator winding turn


fault

*Incipient faults detection


*Non invasive
*Easily to adapt to each
motor

Drawbacks
*Frequencies vary from one
motor to other
*Limited to some states
Mismatch faults

Non invasive

Not effective in short circuit.


faults

Required great measurement


precision
*Required training period
*Not effective in the motors
changes states

TABLE V
WAVELET SOFTWARE [105]
Type of code
1D & 2D DWT and SWT compression (C) and de-noising
(D)
Research
***************************************
Commercial
1D & 2D compression and de noising
Commercial
Global, level-dependent and/or interval/orientation
dependent Hard or (for D only) soft threshold strategies:
Noise (D): Scaled white, un-scaled white or colored.
Donoho Johnstone methods (D): 1D & 2D: Fixed-form 1D:
Heursure, rigsure, mini max. Empirical methods: Balance
sparsity-norm (C) or (for 2D C & D) square root of this
threshold. Birge Massart methods: Penalized high
/medium/low (D) and (for C and non global thresholds)
scarce high/medium/low. C Remove near 0. See [MMOP00]
for details.

Lifting notebook [Mas97]


Wavelet explorer
Wavelet Toolbox
[MOPM03]

Specialized
Very genera
Very general

Wave Lab [DRDH+99]

Very general

Research

High-level commands for the following 1D DWT de noising


methods under the assumption of white Gaussian noise of
variance 1: global threshold: Visually best (soft or hard)
threshold (p2 log n) [DJ94b]. Mini max hard threshold
[DJ94b]. Level- dependent thresholds: Hard SURE
threshold. Soft modified SURE threshold [DJ95]. Visually
best soft threshold [DJ94b] with level- dependent noise
level estimation.

Rice W.T. [BCF+02]

General

Research

TF Toolbox [AFLG99]
Wave kit [Oja98]
Wave++ [FKK00a]
WZICwP [Rog02]
WaveThresh3 [Nas03]
Lifting notebook [Mas97]

General
General
Specialized
Specialized
General
Specialized

Research
Tutorial
Research
Research
Research
Research

Soft or hard threshold Variance estimator: MAD (mean


absolute deviation) or STD (classical numerical std
estimate).
****************************************
****************************************
****************************************
****************************************
****************************************
****************************************

VIII. Inverter Fault Detection Case Study


This case study presents the fault detection of short
switch using the DC voltage measurement technique,
which measures the voltage at the terminal of inverter
and comparing the voltages. The detection of short
switch can be done by noticing the voltage reduction in
the DC voltage [136]-[140].

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

The DC voltage was acquired through DC voltage


sensor as can be seen in Fig. 24. The output of the DC
measurement can be either using oscilloscope as
mentioned earlier in Fig. 8 or using serial communication
interface through RS232 cable that connects the
DSPF28335 to the PC. Fig. 24 shows the DC voltage in a
healthy induction motor and inverter.

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Fig. 26 shows zoom in view of the hardware


implementation. Fig. 27 shows the complete set up used
in this project.

IX.

Fig. 24. Experimental DC level in the healthy inverter case

When a short switch fault was occur, the DC voltage


level became lower than 150 V as can be seen in Fig. 25.

Fig. 25. Experimental DC level in the faulty inverter case

Inverter

Current sensor

DC voltage

sensor

Conclusion

This paper reviewed the use of wavelets with


induction motors fault tolerant control. A number of
conclusions can be derived from this review:
1) The wavelet is considered a powerful tool in the fault
detection and diagnosis of induction motors.
2) Fault tolerant control is used to maintain the
operation at acceptable of performance level.
3) Many wavelet classes can be generated by different
kinds of mother wavelets and can be constructed by
filter banks.
4) Improvement of fault detection and diagnosis can be
achieved by exploiting the wavelet properties to get
high effectiveness in detection and diagnostics.
5) DC voltage measurement is considered a good choice
to detect the faults either in the inverter or induction
motor.
6) The wavelet transform can be used to detect and
identify the inverter faults.
7) Stator current acquire can be considered another
indication of induction motor fault.

Acknowledgements
The authors acknowledge University of Malaya,
provision of high impact research, Grant No, D00002216601, hybrid solar energy research suitable for rural
electrification.
Gate drives

TI DSP TMSF28335

References
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Fig. 26. Close snap of complete setup of the work

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

Fig. 27. Complete setup of the work

After replacing the burn G4PH50UD IGBT transistor


the induction motor was seen to run smoothly.

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

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Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

[7]

[8]

[9]

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Authors information
1

University of Malaya, Electrical Engineering department, 50603,


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
E-mail: salimhazim2010@gmail.com

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Electrical


Machines, str. Memorandumului nr. 28, 400114 Cluj-Napoca,
Romania.
E-mail: Lorand.Szabo@mae.utcluj.ro
Khalaf Salloum Gaeid was born in Iraq in
1969.He received the B.Eng. and M.Sc. from
the University of Technology in 1993, 2003
respectively, all in electrical engineering,
specializing in control systems.
He is currently working toward the Ph.D.
degree in electrical engineering, control and
machine drive, University of Malaya.
Mr. Khalaf research interests include fault
tolerant control, control of induction machines, and applications of
wavelet theory to electrical signals, fault diagnosis of induction
machines.
Hew Wooi Ping was born in Malaysia in 1957.
He received the BE, University Technology
MALAYSIA (UTM), MENG, University
Technology Malaysia (UTM) and Ph.D,
University OF Malaya (UM)
He is associate professor in electrical
engineering, machine drive, University of
Malaya. Institution of electrical engineering ,
Member, Charted Electrical Engineers, 20012005, (International),engineering council UK, Charted Engineer,
2001-2010, (International),Institution Of Engineering And Technology,
UK, Corporate Member, 1999-2020, (National),Board of Engineers,
Malaysia, Professional Engineer, 1998-2008, (National)Institution
Jurutera Malaysia, Corporate Member, 1997-2008,
Dr Hew research interests machines and drives (vector drives, PMSM,
axial flux machines).

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

4455

Khalaf Salloum Gaeid, Hew Wooi Ping, Mustafa Khalid Masood, Lorand Szabo

Mustafa Khalid Masood was born in Saudia


Arabia in 1987. He received his B.Eng degree in
Mechatronics
Engineering
from
the
International Islamic University, Malaysia. He
is currently pursuing a Masters degree at the
University of Malaya, researching under
University Malayas Power Electronics
Dedicated Advanced Centre (UMPEDAC).
Szabo Lorand was born in Oradea (Romania)
in 1960. He received the B.Sc. and Ph.D. degree
from Technical University of Cluj (Romania) in
electrical engineering in 1985, respectively in
1995. Currently, he is a Professor and Head of
the Department of Electrical Machines of the
same university.
His research interests are in the areas of variable
reluctance machines, fault detection, fault tolerant electrical machines
and drives, etc.
Dr.Szabo published over 195 scientific papers and books in these fields.

Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 7, N. 3

4456

1827-6679(201205/06)7:3;1-M
Copyright 2012 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved