Anda di halaman 1dari 30






 











  



































 
  


 

 



























  
















 
  


 


 




  



 

 

 
  



! "#
 $ %
&
 !
' # (

)&
!
' #
  *  +
 ! 
# , -,
. /$0/%.,!
,!"&1(
'
''

2345678068608%.808%0$




2 
 9 
 
   
,
#


 
'

: 
 
 
' 5
   #    # 
  

# 
 
    
 
     


  
  
'





 


;




!

" #

 #
 

$$



 #
 

%&&'(&)*&+
!  1

 !
  

$,

 
$- 
  . 
  

/$


 
$
0&0&&)'))&+1 (2+&334&0
!< 1
 
,
<3
=
 
 ##

5,

 
/
6*)&'))&').%&0'71
)%&0&8&%
4&)*&+
!  1


9,

<!


 
5
:&4&'1)'&'34&+3&3)&+)')
;88
> ? 
 
=
*341
)6074&0*&&:(4&+.
4*&
!

# @ 

$>$  
/- 
  
 
$>5



 
!
&%)3*)(:
(A  

$$?



 
9

)4)&43%&1"(@44

4
    
 


$5!


 
?
6*2)3471A&A+%)&4&)44&%*&4
4&)'&0424
 "
 !  1


$=,



 
<
*))()41
&.4&4&*:&&&
:&&''3)&4&'3%&
!
B 




.



  


$?5  
5- 
   

 " 
$?!

 
,
:&&%)1&.0&&:&&+4'&&%+'
%*3&'):)
C !

,   
# @


$,$


 
$>
%&&'.&&'34142.4(2
 



/$!


 
$$
303%*&4&02&
D E < C

/55  
=- 
  .
B #
 
 

 
/5!


 
$/
:&01)&2&')')

4
 

/!5

 
$5
*:&'))+:&4&+1 4&&4%4&)%&
%C %(:&+

 5*
F 


/?$







 
$=
3'**&':+%4&D&1)4%
"&.0':'%'&4
C  


<

CHAPTER 8

From the shadow to the centre: Tensions, contradictions


and ambitions in building graphic design as a profession
Pedro Quintela

:4

 ,     
   
   
  
#
 , # =,   #
    #
,  

  #  
#9
 # #

#'   
   

   #
# #     #  ,  
  

 #   Q

 N''R
 K 6/8L,

  #,  
 QN,   
 
,# 
  
   #
   #
#  ' *
,      
# # 


##  '2 #   ,   #F

 
  #,    #     
 #  #     
#
 
Q  NK( S&

, 66.L' 


 #
=0
    =      #
 

  #
   '
3  ,
 #  , 
# #  ## 
 
 
 
#
 #  
 
#  '!
9# ,
 
#  
 ,   
  #
 
 
#  
#
 '  # 
 
     
 
  ## 
!
 
# 
,


  

  
  ,  

       #       #
#   
# 
#
# 
#   
 '

$
) 04  4&+ % &' & 4*3+
4&&

2
# #  , 
      @ 
   , 
 

 =,    
 
 #  # , ##, #   #



 '     
   
 
 
 
  
 
#


#  #

#   #, #  # 66$ , 

  = 0 


 #'2 #,#9
#

 #    M #   #
#
@  
#
 


##  
 
  
#  ,    @   #
  
#     
 
 #  
   
= M 
     
#
,   #
  #   ,     

#  9#      
# , #
  
 
.6





/$



  


,  
 #         
   # 


K4
  S  , $ U >
, $$8U >
 S 
, $$6L'     * 
 
,     
  #MV
 <  W

K  
, $$ P 7LM #   ,     0= 
 


 #
#,    #    =    V#  #   W
K  
, $$ P L,# #
 
 '

*
, ,
 # #
  

   #


 #
 ,     ,    
  #  

 # ,
#
, 
 
 Q  NM 

 ,  =  F 
      #9  
 #  #


#,   
 
         
#  Q

 N'

 # 


#       

  

   
 
 
# 
' !
#
     9
 
     #

 ,    ,   
#  

#
 
#      ##  #
     

 ##

 #   ,
 ,  


 
 #      
# #  #   
 
=,

#
  G
' 2  =   
  
 

# 

##
 <
#  
# 
K
  
  L

# #
 

=#


 


, 0!''
 
###

# #



!
 , #0 67$ 
 '# , # 

  
 
 
  ##  !
  
#  
, 



  

    ,


 

 
 
 

K L

 
 
  #
  ,     #   
= 
#       # 
   #
# # 
#
# 
# 
 
 ' 


 
 
# 
   # 
           #
 
,
##   J  [T 
  l#    #  K   
 3## 
#L K3 *-4-8. /- $ L,    *  !  "
  !


G
 3#  '





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

/ 

/  :&%  ;+ : ) 4& 4&4T 3& 


&'&'

 
# 
      6%$ '* 
# ,  
#
#
@
 , # G
 

&3, 
   
   
      
# 

#  K4, $$%U >


, $$.U 

, 66;L' 2    


  , #   0
 
, 
     #
 

Q
 @ N       #, #       

 

  # 
 

 #, 9
    0
 
 # , #
  
 
 #    =  
 #,   
  

 
,   #   
 
     # 
 

Q
0 N' 

,   
#   Q
 @ N     
 9    # @# 
 , # 

 
  # #    #
  =  &E K#, 668L,
#
K S*, 66/L,2 
1
 K4, $$%L'

3## 
# ,  #


  =

    0#  Q3  3#N  N  2


   
# 3,

  6/$ ,## 
  ,     

#         Q   


#N M  
  
## #     ##
#,#
 



   


 ' >  
 K 66%P % J %.L  @ 


      
     
   
#  
#
 
 , ##
  #        
   


 

 @  0
R 
 #  , ,
  
 #
   0

#  
#  #

      
  
 #      #
' 2  

#     #9      
#   
 #  ## 

 
###
 ,#       <# 

, ,  ,#


 
, >  
R K $$ L'

   
  
#

 
 

 
#,

# 
,  # 68$ ,
#
  
 
  4
  
 
 

 
 3  M 

 
,     =,   
#  #
   
 =

  R  , !

 4
, >  4 

, # # , ( 

 
, 
M,        #







/ 



  


 
   # >* =K 68$L 
  
K 68%L'2 
I     
   
, 
   
,

        9

    

# , # 



      #
  
 
  
##
  #
   KR  $$ P7J6L'

 
#
# ,
 ,  


  #  


   , #   
  
  
  


    #


  '
        


## ,  #  



 # 
#
 #
# ## <# ,
 
 
##  ,   
'2 

#9#
#
@  #  0# Q  #N,


=#

>R  !
  K 678L 
 
      #      #     


  # , #  
  
   
,
  

  
 
#
'"
 ,    ,
#  
     ,  
 ,
 
,

 
#
=   @
 #
 
 

  #
,#
#    
 
M #

  


 ,      @ ,  @ ,  
,
#
 #
,
 , #' M,
    #
      
  #
  K''
*, 676L'

2 
,  #     ,     6%$   0 66$ , 

 <
# 
 
#  #  ## 
 M#


  
  #
  P  
, #
  , 
,
I   , #M #   # 

#    # ,   #


#  # 
#  # 


   ,#
 
     #  =

#

# ' F,      9


 
  ### 
#



=
K3
, $$$, $$ #L'2
 ,
 ## 
#


 
 0
 #   #= 6/$ '*
, 
 <  ,
# =
#
 

 I   
  #  ' 2 6/8 ' R
     

#
 I  
   !- 
, K
,&3L,
#  
 
) ) . !
K ,
$$8L' *
,   =   
   
, 
   





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

/;


     Q#
 
 N'*   #



=     ,    
   Q   N,
   
 
, #    
   #
  
#
#  P

 

= 
# 
 U

 
 
=
 
 #'2 
 
 9     
 

FU

#  
 
   #

   
##  
 #
U 
  
      

#
 
 
'  #  # 
  
   
 
 

#
# 
#
 ##
 , 
      #  #  
 ##

' K , $$8P 7;J


7.L'


 ,  
 ###
# 
 V# 

Q#
N

0#
M 0#
M WK , $$8P
78L' R   

=,   
       

 

  ,
  #     
 

#K 
z, $ .L'
0
  9,#



  ,
  F
 9
#  
 , ,     
#   #
 #
#  
   9
# 
 
 
 ,  #  #
      
  0


K # 4   ,''L Q



 N
 
 #
K3
, $$ #P ;.L' *
,        9 
=   
,  

        #  #


    
   
# Q#
N Q#
#N # # 


=
3#,
9 '*


# K $ L,


   9 *
=
 K $$%L    = 9#

#   

9 
 
, 
 
 ##
  

 =  
 
 @ #
,    


# 
   ,#
   #K 

           
     #  # 
 L'
 ,     
 9#  ,  3
 ,

  #   !

 4
N     #
 

 M 
 K''Q NL # 
 
,

     ,   # 
    #   
   

# # ,
  #
  
,
#
#
#
K3
, $$ #P;;L'




/.



  


2  



 
      Q #




 N 
#!

4
  3 -
 B
  E!  . , 
  676,
    

=
  
 #  #
M<
   , =
,

=
, 
 
,#'M 
 
Q N #
#
@
 
 #   K4
, $ $L' R  #9 
=   


9 #  #


 

    # 



  K( S&

, 66.U  


, 66 L, 

#  # 


  Q#  
=
N  #   #
 #
,  #
 

  M 
  #     V 


 W 

#  %8, 
  # 
4
K $ $LM   =0 
# '2,I 

    #, # 


@,      #
 
 # 

#
 <#  K  
 
   L  
 
   
# K   ( S&

, 687P 6 J 6%U  


, 66 P87J6.U

4, 667U59S1 , $$ U"N


, $ /P;7%J;77L'( 
, 

# =  
K 66 L
,

#,> "N
K $ /L  


 
#


  
  
@     
  
 #
    0
 
,

#
   

   #   # 



# 
#   
 #
 
 , 9
         
 #
 
9  
 # ' 



   ,

  
# 


 ##  Q #


 

 N    #
#@  (@ # 

K $$ L,3 59 ! 1 K59S1 , $$ U59, 667, $$;U


1 , 667L, 
 
 
 
 
      
 
   
    #   #




 I
,


  ## 

=,


#
 #   #=
 , 
 #   

  
 ##
  

=   #' 

  
,   
  ,         

QN, # 


  
 #

 

  
  
#  9 #';2   , 
 # # ,


3 


K $$ L
  
  ## 
# 
#
 '
;
3# K $$ L 
 
 &E,
#
,

9 '





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

//

59
1 , 
,
  
 
#
 
  
  Q#


 N  
'

 #
#  , 

 
#
   

 
  
 ,#  ###  
=


 

=#
, 
   '2 
# 
  #9    
  
 ##  
 #  
 

#  


   ##     
  


  

  , 9
#

  
     
 K#, 668, $ %L, 
 
 K59, 667,
$$;U 3
, 66%, $$$U # , $$ U 
, $$.U (#@ <, $ %L, 
#

 
K, $$ --#UR<= (  =, $$.U
, $$%L,

 
=
K1, $$ , $$7L'

&=  
   ##       #  ' R
  

K $$8L,  
 =  #   
 
    
 

9# #    #  K 3


, $$ #U
#@=, $ $L'
2  , = 

F
 #9  
#
  #

=

 

## ,
 @
   
  , 9
   #
#
   

          


,   
   
,
  
,  9#    
 
  
 #9 ,  
##

    #
  
  
 
='  9 # 

 # 


  
  
   @    
 
  
= 
 @      ,  #   ##
# 
  
#   '      
  ,  

# 
#


 
#  !
 
##
 ##  
 #


# 

 '

5 43&  (2 '&8& * & '3)&4


&'

* 
# ,    

9 
, 
 #
 0 
 #,
<#0 
= # K

, 66;U

>
, $$8U>
S
, $$6L'##
  
K#, 668U

R<= S ( =, $$.U >


, $$8L, 0       
#
#
 # #  
  
  
,





/%



  


##


  , # 


'.

2
 
#2    !
 
   



 0  #


, #   
   


 
 
= 6%$N  8$N ' 
 
   
       , 
#@ ,

6$N 
 ,   ##
 
,
    
#      
=     
 

#  
# 
   '/"
 ,
 
    
  <
   
  
 
 M 



M 
 ,

=
, 
 #


  0 #  


,      #   


 
  K F #,     
,
  ##   
 
 #  
       
L'

2
  
, 
 #   

 
     #

  ,      K#
 L


  #, 9# #  

'


 # 
             
=  #

  

  , 
   =' I 
 #
 , 

 # 
=

, =

 ,  ,
 =, 
,# #
 
 '''K
?,
;
,

# U#


=  
 #
#  
I 

# L

2 
 #  ,  #          M 
   


  #    #  
   
  ##  
 #


 
 
   # Q
N M         
 
  Q
   #N,
#         

 
 #   #
 9
#, # 
# $$8,#
 

#
 
=# '(I 


2 

,G R<= !
2=(     V #
 
 # ,

 0 
  , # #  
#

# 
#Q#
 
N 
 #
##'WKR<=S( =, $$.P $7L'
/
"#
, 
#  #  


 

#  # K #0
##,#
 #  
L ##

!
  #,
 68$ 

 ,  
 #   #    
 @       #  
 
,      
   ##  #  K  3, 66 U
3  , $$ U , $ .U3 , $ /U4C
, $ /L'





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

/7

=,   9 ,   9#


 
  
 ## 

          


 ( , 9  
#
#  #  
   # #
  P

>  3
1D ,# # 
 

 



=
 
 #  
  ,  ,I
   #pR   ##   

 #  #  =
=
K'''L'
  (
[13 # #  

 #
#

 @ <

#   
<# 
 

= 
 #
 '''K'''L
>T3 1 ,    9
 , , 


 
'''
Km ?,      $$%  
 
#  
,
;  ; 
U  

# L

"#  #    


 @,
 
,

##

#  9#,#    M=



 #
 M  #    
 
    
 
     
 
= K  
, $$/U  , $$$, $$%J$7U
#, 668, $$ , $$ , $ %U" , $$7, $ U!
, $ .L'#

   
      
  
 #
  #
 


=
##

  
 

= 
  

 
 @ U ,   ,    
      
 # ,#P

!

#


,
<#0 
=
 , 0
 #  
 #U
!
 #    #= # 
#U
# # < U

1
# #  

Q
N,#
9 9,#
  =#U

1
  #
    9#      
  
#

U

&
0

   #
# ,

=
 

F    U
1 =  
=    
  
 #,  
#
  
    
  
  
 
  #   Q 0

N    K    #
   
=- 

#LU





/8



  


R
 
      
=
I 
 @   
## #  #
K  
  L'%
4 
 
=
 @     
 #

<# #  #


'#
 
### *  

3
4 =
K $ $, $ L
=# 

 
 #
  
  #
  &E,
9 ,

 


 #    ##    


    

#
  
M
  
  
=
 


#
  
 ,  
    


= K # 
 
,    LM 


 #F '3# 
##9 , 


#
#
@  
 @    
=
, 

      


  
  

 


#  #


,#  #
 
=
9

   #     


 9#       ,
#  
     #9 #     Q 09
N, 
9     # K 668, $$ , $ , $ %L,   
 # #

 
# # N   # 

=V# 
WK  # , 688L'

2   

 #
, 
    1 K $$ L,  F  

# Q 
N  
 #
  
 M 
#


  M,#  #  #Q9N


 
 

   '2!
 ,
 
=V
 <  #
W
#

> ?
 , !
0 
# 
  

,

3
 $ ,  , 

 # ,
 #
# 
#

  
 

#Q#
 


N,



 
   
  
 9
#    !
 

 
 K    L, 
#
  #     #
   
##
=#

 '2,   


 

 
 
 =  ,9 < #



   # 


       #
 0#
 
   
    
= 
#
  #
   , #     
#     
#   '
*
,#

  # # 

 ,<   
 =#
 0#
 
 ' 
   
# , 
, $$/U#, 668,
$$ , $ , $ %U , $$;, $$8U1, $$ , $$7U1S!
, $$8U
, $ $U4 
, $$ U
4 = , $$%U 4 =  S *  , $$6U , 
 S (, $ .U , $ U 
!
, $ , $ .U4
S!
, $$7U5  , $$/U4
 , $$7, $ U4
 S
  , $ U 
'





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

/6

#
 
=
 # 
# 
,# Q
 N#9


  FK B , $ ;L'

##,  
 
 #  ## 
 
#

M , #,  


   M,#

  #
# F  #

###
#

 #
   
       
  
  G
  #  

##  
 
 # K , $ U"I
, $$7, $ U

*  , $$7, $ ;U!


, $$6U!
S>#, $$6U 


, $ $L,
#
Q9N Q


N  #
 
 
K $$ L # Q#
 # N'*
,    

       
#

 #' 
# ,      #
#
    =
 N
  ##  # 

Q#
 N K#   
   #
L  Q N K#  


   ## L, 
, # 
 #
 ,  
     
   #   
=  , #
 


#    '  ,               
    
##   ,# 
#
 
 
 ##
# M#
9 ## 
'

= &'   3&'*&4 %& % ) ( 64&0


4*+7

  


,
 
,
#   
 ##  
 , 

  
   
##   

 

=  
  #9 '##

 4 
=> K $$;L,  #

 Q@@
N, 
 

 
  #
   ,  ,    ,  
#
#
    #'    ,   #,  #
  
  #9
 #
 ,
 
 ,
# 9 


 , 
#    #  '

, 
 #   

 
#  #  #,  #  #
 

 #
  
 #
  , #  
   
 



 
 =  #K4, $$%U>
,

$$8L'"
 ,    #

,

#  

 #  ,  # , #   #Q  NM#





%$



  


 
     ,  #       




      ,  
 9   K  
, $$ U >
, $$.,
$$8U>
S
, $$6U(  , $ $L'  ,  9   

 
       , #
  Q0 
 @N  Q0

 #@N,   
 

 #   
#
  ,  
  ,   
 
    #
 

 KE, $ U= , $$8LM   

9    
   0#   ! !, #     

#
  
#   #
 '  F,    

# #  


     , 
#
  
  


,    '  
##    

   #
#  #  =0
 

# 


   
 # 
#  '

2N 
#     !4FK $ P;$L    

     

 9
 
     Q#
  #NP

F  ## #


     = ,   
      
  
 # 
= 
 @   

#  , # #


  #
  
 
  

# '4
, 
9
=0   
#

#



##
 , PK L#
  
 

   = 
 

  #

 # U K L  Q#
 N
  #        #
  #

 #, 

         Q0#


 N #
U ,  , K;L 

 #       
   Q9N 
=, 
<#0 ,
#

 
 
#'

, 



         #
 #
 
 
 I Q 
N,
  
   
  ## 

  
#  #   <#'2   ,'!
 ! >#


 V ,) +
    
  #

    #
   
 , 
#
 
 #       
9
 Q#
 N
'WK!
S># $$6P /L'

2  #
#  # 
    ## #  9   

#9 ,  #9  


N
  
## # ,
#
F
 = 
 ,    


   

 '4,
 ,
    

   # 
     #  





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

% 


   ,  

#
 
 #  #
 #K>
S
, $$6L'

2  



    #
# 
#   

 
   #= #  #
,

   # 
 # #

 # '&

 
# 
 , #  # 68$ ,  

     #  


, 
  
 #     

### ,
  
 
9   ,#

 
# 

# '2 ##
 
# , 0



#

  Q
 @ N#,   , #
#
@ 

#   Q  N,   68$I   6$N    =   # 

#
   0

 ##

  


=

 #M #    


#  3

  ,''M 


 

 ,# 
# 


 


# 
K >S
, 66%P 7 J 6$U!
, $$;L'

2 
#  #9#
 
#
 

 # 


     
 K#=, $$/U

!
, $$;U
, $ L 
 

   



# K
, $$ U(, $$/U4 S(, $ U
4C
, $   $ .U #
, $ ;L'   # 
#   #
  
 

 # ,

 ,#    U ,   ,
    
 , #  
  
 'R

   #9,        


 #
    #

9
 , #  #
   
     
 
 #
    
'

2  


    
#        6 $N  M


 
#
 , # Q#
# 
NM #
# 

  # 
     
  
#   
 , 


#  
  
 
  #
    
#@ 

 
 #9  
 
= K> S 
, 66%P J L, N   


 
#@ #

  
 

    = 


 #
, 
   

#  ,  #   

      
 , # 9 # 

9
 # =  


  
  
 

 
'2,
  


# 
 ,
#

, 
=
 , 0 
<# ,

    


, 
# #I 







% 



  


    #



K
 
, 




  L' 2   #9,  
#  
       M

#  
#
 

  M, 
#@ 

     # , #   #
  
    K!@,
$$7U>S
, 66%P 8.L'


 
 #  
  
  #


##
,

  =Q N
Q
 N
##
 
 

  ' ,  9
  
  P ,
 
#Q#
# N 
 # 

 ,
# ,

   
 
<# 

   
##   
  # U ,


 , 
 #  #


Q 
 N,#
 # 

 
 Q9
 N 
<# ,    
 # 
  
  

#
,#
# #

  



   
  K!
, $$;, $$.U !@, $$7L'  !@ K $$7L #  ,


   # # , 
#  #

 
#


, , 


  
Q 
0 
NK#


  
 
  
0  L ,
 , 


 Q 0 
N  Q9#  N  
,  
    
 ,

#  '


 
   #
!@K $$7L,  F#   
 

 
  
          , # 


  
   
   9#  ,  #    


# 
'

2N  
    
  =
   
    

# '   
  , 
     
  
#  
#  
   @ 

 

    #


, #  
  ,   I Q#
  
N,

  


=  0 
K R<=S

( =, $$.P $7L M  # #,  


  ,   
 #


    
  ##  !
  
#  
 


 
 ' *
, 
   , 
# 
,   
#
    
#      
  

       


    
' 2 !
 ,  
   #
  , 
 9 ,  
# 

 

# #   K , #


# , 
=  L, 
 #
   

 
      
     # 
 






  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

%;


9
 
 
 ' 


,
# 0
 

   K #  9 , #  , #


# , 
=  ,
 #

 # ,#'L  #


#
   
# 
#
  #  ,    #
 

0
# #
# F !
  
 


  
## '7

"## 
 @ 
,    

    #  #    


    #
#  !
 ,

#
 0
# #
# F  
 


   
## '  N  
 
#@  ,  
 
#
#
 # ,      F #
K   #L,
  
   #KB , $ .L,

#

 ,#  ,9  
  

     #    


 
   
  
 

 ,   #


 
 M 


  
K 3
, $$ --#U4C
, $ .L'

*
, 
   = = 


#   U#

,
=2  #

# ,    
 ' , 


 

#@   Q 
N,   

 
  
      #

 #  

,

#@  ,



 # ' , 


 
   
   #  
 
  

  9#    #
  

 '

2N  
#     #9   
# 
 
 !
 

 
, 
##,# 0 
<# 


 #  = P K L   #  
 
 U K L 
 #  #   

# 
   U

K;L    


#
 
   
 #
  
 


=, 
=   

   
= #     #= 


<#   
# 
Q# N,
 #
   '


 
  
        ,  4C
 K $ /L'

# 
 K $ .L

  
      !
  
<#  
 0
' 


  
# #      ##
  9   
 
 
<# 

    !


  
 ,   , $ ;UB , $ . U
4C
, $ .'  ,
     
#  #
# #9
   
, 
, $ .UB , $ .'




%.



  


3    


<#   =  #
#      ,     
 

     #
#   
 
      

=   
 
'

2,

#
   #
#
 # ,   



#,   
#  #   # 



#   M = #

,
9 M
  
<# #    #
# 
 
=

#    



   #
## #9
 #

 
#   K  (  , $ $P /;J%.L' 
 


 ##,  
 =
<# 9#
9
 
 #   #

#,

#
  
= 
#  ,   #
   
 
#  

 '

R
 
 
      
  
   #

#
    )
= #    = #

+  

 # 
 
#  =  # #
   #   
  #
' K 

, ;. 
 ,

##"# 

U 

 - L

3,      


<# 
    #  
   # 

#
 
  
# 

,  

,


   #
#  ,




#, #
   '"
 ,   0 

<#       
 
   
    
I


  
M#  9    #


#  
# <# '  , 
<#    

 
  
 
     
,#




# M 
##
# ,  ,
 
  '2,N 
  
    

 
<#   

   , 
00
 ,  ' # 


  = 
  @ = #
## ,#  


 
# 
##  

   #    

 ##     

#
    
, 
#
  #  
  K< L'*
,  I    0

 
<# # 
  
##

, 

  
  K $ $P $6L #   Q#
0#
 # N       
 





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

%/

    #


#  #      0 
#  , @  
=
#<# K B S4
 ,
$ /L'

=4&'*2
 # 
 
    #9 

 
 
, 
#
##



#  #,  3# (   > &

 K 66.L 9 ,


  
 
 #     
 #  #

 #    # 

#
  Q   N'  ,     # #
  #9


 
,  
#
#'*
,
#
    #
#
  

#  # 
#
 
   
 Q   N,


Q

 N  # '   ,
#


    # ,
# 

 
#


=           #, 
  
    

#9    #,    9


  ## #  

# 

='

     
   
#   
     =    # 

 
# <#P ,#   
 ,
 

#  ,


 #
 
#
  =
# ,    
  ,  
#,    
   
=

 K S*, 66/LU ,


 ,   # 
   
 @,
 
=, ##

# 

 9#,
= 0 
 #K

,
66;U >
, $$8U >
 S 
, $$6L' !
         



#

   


      Q#
  #N, 

#     



 K4F, $ U!
S>#
$$6L'

*
, 

, = @ 

# 
  #  #  


   


= 
 @
  ' ,
 

 
 ##


 
# 
 
=
  
#
 #
  #
#,   , #
#

 #
#
=# @, 
 






%%



  



# @  
=9
##
  
# #
  '

  
#,      #

  
   

##  ,    P K L


 @       
 
=


 @ 
 #

 

#U K L
#    
 #  #    

      
=U K;L

#     9#   #


0
   #
 #
 '
 # 


# 
#  

 
0
 
#!
 
# 
#





 '*
,9
#   
 

#
#     , #    
  


  #    

#
  
 #    

#

 # , 
#
,

 #

 ,  


        
=' *
,  
## 
 ,       
     #

 # #
 
 



=M  , #  , 
  M,   
 F
#
#  
#     
 

# 

  Q#
 



N'      ,   #         

 #
 
 
   , #
   
##     ,   

# 
 
 #  # #
 



=
#  ,  ,   
 
'

2 
#  #9 ,
  ##   ,  


 #

 
 
N

#  , #


 ,
 =      #
  
 M


, 
,#

,#
# ,

,#'M, 

 @ 
 #,
, #   ,  ,

  #
 #     
   #'     #
  


 
 
#  2
   #'*
,

2I  #     !


 
 #
 

#
    



 #9 ,  #
 0#
 

  

  #
  
 #
 
#
  #
'






  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

%7

%4

, ', S *
=
, ' K $$%L'  
  
P G   
#'2'1'
 ,S''E
KG 'L,) 
   

      K' . J7 L'  -"9
-#
 P 4 #=
! '

#@=,'K $ $L'  '- 
 .
, K L,'.$J./'
4 = ,'K $$%L'
# #

='3 !,.$''.//J7 '

4 = , ', S *  , ' K $$6L' (= 


 
=  #
   
  #'
 
  E
  - 
 * , /K.L,'. /J.;$'

4C
, >' K $ L' ;  !
  
 
' 
 

P--
  '
-
# -0 
0#0




 P

4C
,>'K $ . L' 
[TP5 
 # A#  '2
G''
K
'L, !  0
   
9 K'67J 7L'
(  P'B9'
4C
,>'K $ .L'!F  m
  9 [\  !
 K# ' 66$J
# ' $ $L'-[  7
 - 
 7 a  , ;,'/ J%%'
4C
, >' K $ /L'   !
l  $$$- $ /' ' %' 2 >' 4C
 K
'L,  !

!V ' P
 * m
 '

4,',S> ,'K $$;L'Q 0N


 

P #
# 
#'7 
, 8K L,' J ;.'
4 
, *' K $$ L' QDN
     
   <NP   
 
#    


=4
  
'Y
/  3 , /,' .6J
%6'

4 , ', S (, G' K $ L' @


  ! +  
 '   -5
D
=PR =


-
0*5    '

4,'K $$%L'* 


     #?vv ?#'24'   
K
'L,7 !    
  8
   
 B K';7J%/L'!
 P2 

[   -Y 


'

4
 ,'K $$7L'; 
*
! '(  P2
 l# 3#  

4
 ,'K $ L'
 ,?
, 
P  A
#  
 
 
 [ '4
 -3, $,' $J 7'

4
 ,',S  ,!'K"
'LK $ L'-
   5[ +    _ 

   
    
'(  P2
 l# 3#  '
4F,!'K $ L'(  
 N?##
?  , 

<O'2
!'4FK
'L,-
 /
 
    _


K'/J./L'!
 P!
  &
 
 # '
4
,!'K $ $L' 5G 
(     ?(0'(  PG[\ 
7$'

4,('K 667L'"  


C
 #
 '2' 
 K"
'L,-/ 

!  05GK' $/J $L'"
P G
'
4
,G',S!
,1'K $$7L'2 
  
,
#
 
# '2'
#E
#
,S' #KG 'L,1 !

 
   K'
77J 6 L'(  ,P(9'




%8



  


4
 ,>'',S ,1'K $ L' !   !! 
 /
 /
    '(S5D
=P'
,5'K $ ;L'; ! !*
!  8 AAJ  
a J  3
*

- 5K& 
!  L'? 
  &
 
,
'

,5'K $ L'

=    
P
 #
 9 '
 -,
$K L,' . J //'


, 4' K $ $L' QG
N   R

N' 
@ #

  #
   
'
E
  3

 !, K L,' 7J.;'

, ' ' K $$.L'     P 
  
#
  #



 O'-  /)
 - 
,7K.L,';.6J;%6'
 !
, 1'K $ L' 
  #  

#
P # #
#'
E
  - B
,;/K.L,'. 7J. /'

!
,1'K $ .L'4
=
P3
 #
 
#
 '- 

JE
  -

 - 
  
,%,' %;J 8.'


,!'K 66;L' ! %HOP'(P  S* '

1 ,!'KG'LK 667L'*


   
T- 
  
 '(- 
" = -5P3 '


, 'K $ .L'!
 9#  
   9
l# '

m
  
#
!
 '-[  7
 - 
 7 a  , ;,
'%7J76'

 , 3', S *, ' K 66/L' (    


, 
 #
? , #F 

#?'3 ! >
,8KI( 
g
 N
IL,'6J;$'
 
,'K 66 L'- 
 
 
 '(P3 '


,'K $$ L'2
 [T#

  '5 


 
  [T 
  T #

  '; -3, %7'


, ' K $ $L' 
 

[T 
  P 5         A# 
#

 #  '., %,' 6J/%

,'K $ L'.
 
 - 
 '(-5P3 '


 ,'K $$ L'.
   
    > 
 
!
/  
/
 
  '5D
=P4 #4= '

, ' K 68%L' ;?     
  !    %QP$J%HI$' (P    S
* '

 
, *' K $$ L'    #
' 2 *'  
 KG'L,  !  
 "  


 &K' ;J %L'(-5D
=P
'

# , ' K 688L' Q#    N K  


  # #   
&

,"#
 68 L'2('*'
,*'1 ,S!'*'*
KG 'L, . !        
   )  =  K' %J.6L'

,P&
 #  !
 '

1, ' K $$ L' , #


    
 O G9
 
  
<#0  
 
=G
' 
 /   ,/K L,'7$J86'

1,'K $$7L'. 
 

   
 P2 5
=

 '





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

%6

1,',S!
,''K $$8L'2 #  #
O2 
  
,
#
   
#

='.
/- 
`3 , /K7J8L,' J;$'

*,'K 676L'3 
.!   '(P'

* =,>'K 68$L'
  !'(P  S* '

*  ,'K $$8L'


 #
  
 '2'4,S>'
KG 'L,
.3@'  
    K'// J/%6L'(- " = -
5-3 
P3 '

*  , ' K $ ;L' .  


  
  (   -(-5
-3 
-R P3 '

*  , ', S 4 =


, 3' K $ $L' Q 
 ##  
  
NP
   9
#   #
   
  
 #
  
 '
*  ,;8,'.J $'
*  , ', S 4 =
, 3' K $ L' -
  
 ) 
  
  
 

 '(P'
>,!',S
,'K 66%L'@
 ! 
 

    
%I$$  # 
-5D
=P # 
&
!
 '
>
,1'K $$.L' ! %H$$'(P  S* '

>
,1'K $$8L'. 
  !'(P3 '

>
,1',S
,('KG 'LK $$6L' !
   * /! 
 '
"9
-(P4
'
E,('K $ L'= =P!
2' !- 
,;K;L,' 8/J
;$%'

(  , ' K $ $L' 7 


!     7  ! !
B 
 8  

 '!
 P4. -? '
( ,3',S&

,>'K 687L'. 
!0   ' 
-"9
P!'

( ,3',S&

,>'K 66.L'   !  '(P3 '

(#@ <,E'K $ %L'2   #


# 
 OP  # 
 
 
  
 #  #=
  ! '
 !` 3 
, %K.L,' J %'
(,G'K $$/L' 
 
#
'23'*
KG'L,.  !

 !
3 K' .J 6L'5D
=P
!
 '


# ,*'K $ L';'  3
 ! 
 
5'(  P(
(
'

, ' K $$ L' .  !
   *

' 
 
 232 5 P
P--
'#'-{#
-
# - 

#
'

#
, 3' K $ ;L' .  !
    
/ 

/   / 


/ 
 
 `
 
 
' 
 P423'
# ,('K $$$L'  OP&   
#   
 
##

=#
 #'- 
   ,.K L,' J .'

# , (' K $$ L' R     #


 

 O   
# 
 

 
#
'- 
 3  , %K.L,'/; J// '

#, ' K 668L' :


      !  !
 
 ! 
' (P
'




7$



  


#,'K $$ L,<
 
 >
  
'


#
#P P--'#
#'--%/ 

#, ' K $$ L'    #  P 5    #  #  #
 
#
 
 '- 
 3  , %K.L,'/ %J/; '

#,'K $ L'0=#
 # 
#  # 

 '
 ,
. ,'; J;;'
#,'K $ %L':
 ' 
- P!'


, !'0' K $$/L' 
   
  B 
 
 ) 
   
   '(  P G
'
 ,'R'K $$8L' '2>'*'3
 KG'L,.    
 
3  
 !  - Y
! ) K' 7;J 8;L'5D
=P"9
&

!
 '
,"',
,',S(,E'K $ .L'2 #
 O* #

 #(N #
  
 '
* !3  , K L,
' .;%J .//'


,'K $ L';:!:
B ! 
 !!
, 'K& 
!  L' # 4 
  &
 !
,!
'


,'K $ .L'G #

 
  
'2G''
K
'L, !  
0
   
9 K' ;/J .;L'(  P'B9'
5,1',R 
,G',Sa=,3'K $$/L'G


  
 #

#
P
QN< QN 
 '3 3  , /K;L,';$7J;;.'

59,3'K 667L'
# #
'2!'1 KG'L,*
   
T 
  

 K' 77J $L'(- " = -5P3 '
59, 3' K $$;L, 
 !  
  !
/ 
/ 
  ' (-  
" = -5P3 '

59,3',S1 ,!'K $$ L'R #




 O'- 
 3  , %K.L,
'.6/J/$$'

"N
,>'K $$7L'. 
 
 
 
    
 
'(P

 ,
 G# '

"N
, >' K $ L'  #
  #
   
 P  #
#   
' 0,
78K;L,' .J./'

"N
,>'K $ /L'2

   
 #
 #
  
 '
! 3  ,.6K;L,;7.J;87'
" ,''K $$7L'&
# # P
# 
 
  
#
  #
  
 '21'(=,S5' 
KG 'L,)-
  


  
 B   
  
  K' / J%$L'  
 P 2  
5
=
 '
" ,''K $ L'&
# #-
# #  P
#  

#
  #
  
 '21' ,1' ,S&'RKG 'L,
-
 B   
   

 / ?   
     
 

 K' ;;J .%L'(P  '
!@, ' K $$7L' (   0
   

  # 
     #  

      
' 
  4
     / N'


P--
#'
 '
-9/86'





  #
P  ,#
#    
#
   
 !
B 

7 

!
,KG'LK $$.L'-   :
  !
 !   6  '
(P( 
#E! '
!
,'K $$;L'+

  @
 ! 
 '(P( 
#
E! '
!
, ' ' K $$6L' !# 
 
      #
  #
   
 P

 
 G
O 
  # ' 2 (' E, S >' "I
 KG 'L,
-
    4

  K'60 ;L'*
P3

'

!
,'',S>#,!'K $$6L'
 ,  #
#P3 =
 
  0
 #
O 2 ' ' !
 S !' ># KG 'L, -
  /
   
 K';J 6L'"9-5D
=P'
B ,!'K $ ;L'KL    
 #
  '2 '!  ,S'

 K"
 'L, 3@+ #$%# 4  
   - 
   !  

+T33.+:7.c *
!  K' ;J;$L' TP &
    4

2

'
B ,!'K $ . L'!
#   Q 
 @ [TN  !
 P  

9\ '
-
 
.
  /
$'




P--#  
  '# '#'- $-# -6' ' r!
rB '

B ,!'K $ .L'5   [ 


 [T#
,
[T
 
##P& 
9T #
#    
 !
 '2
     -!
  *
!V   3 !  O$    
 

!
  / 
5[   
   ' (  P  # [T !
  
3# '




P--'  '-r#
 -222r3-222r"$ 7.'
B ,!',S4
 ,'K $ /L'(
 , @ 
# [\  J

#
  Q# N !
' - /- .

 a
 ,; ,'
J; '




P--#  '  #' #0
'-9'--
#--;/%

#=,'K $$/L'1
# 
'23'*
KG'L,.  !
 !

3 K' $$J $6L'5D
=P
!
 '
 ,'K $$$L'  

'3 .6 ,%;, K 8L,' J; '

 ,'K $$;L'+4- 
.
   '5D
=P4 #
4= '

 ,'K $$%J$7L'5#
=# P
#
 #

#
  
 
#'Y
;
!  /7
`@    , K L,' ;J;$'

 ,'K $$8L'

='!

#
 O,.
/- 
`
3 , /K7J8L,'; J.6'

3  ,''K $$ L'" !


  ?#vv'2 '!
 K
'L,38 AA 
*
 

!   N
" &7
 "&K' $6J /;L'!
P

 S  [T3

 '

3 , *' 3' K $ /L'   !


l  68$- 666' ' /' 2 >' 4C
 K
 L,  !
*
!V ' P
 * m
 '

3
,'K 66%L'<. 
 )
6-4 >
 !
 
  
K&  
  L'3

&
,3

'




7 



  


3
, ' K $$$L' G# 
  P 2     
 

#') - 3 ,;K.L,'. /J.;7'

3
, ' K $$ L'  
   
      #   #
 < P

  #
#
#   
 '- 
 3  ,
%K.L,'/7$J/6 '

3
,'K $$ L' 

 P1
#  # 
#
'E
  
- 
- 
, K L,' 7 J 7/'
3
,'K $$ #L'@
 !T!
  .
  
    


   K&  !   L' &
   #   
,

'

3,'*'K 66 L'Q N!


  68$J 66$P 
T
  '2>0'
[ 
K!

' S 2
'L, *
!  
  
   7
  K' 66J 7L' (  P
!'
= ,'K $ $L' 

## P&

 '2*
!   I  !
.! 
3 ".3I&,3,"#
 6J $K';8 J;6 L'




P--' ' '' -
 
#-#
# -
8-# -380
= '


z,'>'K $ .L''R
   
P!
 
## # = '
.
3 ! ,./K.L,';;/J;%$'

 ,'K $ $L'=0 '(P  S* '


,'K $$%L'
#
I  #P

  ,

 ,
#  

= '@!
,8 K;L,' ;7J %;'

R<=,G'',S(  =,!'K $$.L'"# 


 #
#
 
  '2'G'
> ,S'R @KG 'L,   !  K'66J
L' -5
 ,PG
G
'

R  , >' K 678L' ! 


    !  !  
 !'
(P
4
'

R ,>''K $$ L'    


P
! 
 
 ' 2
Y
!*
-  

/  %"%&!   
1 ! 




' ' #'@-rr  -  -r-$$$;- /8 %-<  r '