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Arteries of the Back - Arranged Alphabetically

Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

Notes

anterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

they accompany the ventral


rootlets to reach the spinal
cord

meninges; spinal cord;


spinal nerve; ventral
rootlets

anterior radicular aa.


anastomose with the anterior
spinal a.

anterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar, lateral sacral
aa.)

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve
X, nucleus ambiguus,
spinal accessory nucleus
and hypoglossal nucleus)

anterior spinal a.
anastomoses with the
anterior radicular brs. of the
spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

axillary

subclavian a. (axillary a.
is the continuation of
the subclavian lateral to
the 1st rib)

1st part: superior thoracic a.; pectoral region, shoulder


2nd part: thoracoacromial a., region and upper limb
lateral thoracic a.; 3rd part:
anterior humeral circumflex
a., posterior humeral
circumflex a., subscapular a.

pectoralis minor m. crosses


anterior to the axillary artery
and is used to delineate the 3
parts mentioned at left

cervical, ascending

inferior thyroid a.

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the neck

ascending cervical a. ascends


on the anterior surface of the
anterior scalene m. beside the
phrenic n.

cervical, deep

costocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the


posterior neck

deep cervical a. anastomoses


with the occipital a. near the
occipital bone

cervical, transverse

thyrocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches, trapezius muscle and


possibly the dorsal scapular surrounding tissues
a.

transverse cervical a. gives


rise to the dorsal scapular a.
~30% of the time

costocervical trunk

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

deep muscles of the


posterior neck; posterior
ends of the first 2
intercostal spaces

costocervical trunk is located


between the anterior scalene
m. and the middle scalene
m.; it arches posteriorly over
the cervical parietal pleura

deep cervical

costocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the


posterior neck

deep cervical a. anastomoses


with the occipital a. near the
occipital bone

dorsal scapular

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m.,


rhomboideus major m.,
rhomboideus minor m.

dorsal scapular a.
anastomoses with the
suprascapular a. and the
subscapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis; dorsal
scapular a is a branch of the
transverse cervical a. in
~30% of cases

great anterior radicular

the spinal br. of the


lower posterior
intercostal a., subcostal
a., or upper lumbar a.,
usually on left

no named branches

lower spinal cord

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the
anterior spinal a. at lower
thoracic or upper lumbar
spinal cord levels

intercostal, posterior

highest intercostal
(upper 2 intercostal
spaces), descending
thoracic aorta (3rd-11th
intercostal spaces)

posterior br., spinal br.,


anterior br., collateral br.,
lateral cutaneous br.

intercostal muscles, spinal


cord and vertebral
column, deep back
muscles, skin and
superficial fascia
overlying the intercostal
spaces

posterior intercostal aa.


supply the lateral and
posterior portions of the
intercostal space; anterior
intercostal aa. supply the
anterior portions of the
intercostal spaces

lateral sacral

internal iliac a.,


posterior division

spinal brs.

sacrum, sacral nerve


rootlets, meninges,
adjacent muscles

there are usually 2 lateral


sacral aa. on each side, a
superior one and an inferior
one

lumbar

abdominal aorta

anterior br., posterior br.,


spinal br.

psoas major m., psoas


minor m., quadratus
lumborum m., spinal cord
and vertebral column,
deep back muscles

the 4 lumbar arteries on each


side arise from the posterior
surface of the aorta at the
level of vertebrae L1-L4;
they course posterior to the
psoas major m.

median sacral

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

sacrum

median sacral a. appears to


be the continuation of the
abdominal aorta in the
median plane, although it is
much smaller in size

posterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord;


spinal nerve; dorsal
rootlets

posterior radicular aa.


accompany the dorsal
rootlets; they anastomose
with the posterior spinal aa.

posterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar,
lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

spinal cord, especially the


dorsal columns; medulla
(nucleus cuneatus and
nucleus gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the
posterior radicular brs. of the
spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

radicular, anterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,

they accompany the ventral


rootlets to reach the spinal
cord

meninges; spinal cord;


spinal nerve; ventral
rootlets

anterior radicular aa.


anastomose with the anterior
spinal a.

posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)
radicular, great anterior

the spinal br. of the


lower posterior
intercostal a., subcostal
a., or upper lumbar a.,
usually on left

no named branches

lower spinal cord

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the
anterior spinal a. at lower
thoracic or upper lumbar
spinal cord levels

radicular, posterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord;


spinal nerve; dorsal
rootlets

posterior radicular aa.


accompany the dorsal
rootlets; they anastomose
with the posterior spinal aa.

sacral, lateral

internal iliac a.,


posterior division

spinal brs.

sacrum, sacral nerve


rootlets, meninges,
adjacent muscles

there are usually 2 lateral


sacral aa. on each side, a
superior one and an inferior
one

sacral, median

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

sacrum

median sacral a. appears to


be the continuation of the
abdominal aorta in the
median plane, although it is
much smaller in size

scapular, circumflex

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

teres major m., teres


circumflex scapular a.
minor m., infraspinatus m. anastomoses with the
suprascapular a. and the
dorsal scapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis

scapular, dorsal

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m.,


rhomboideus major m.,

dorsal scapular a.
anastomoses with the

rhomboideus minor m.

suprascapular a. and the


subscapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis; dorsal
scapular a is a branch of the
transverse cervical a. in
~30% of cases

spinal, anterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar, lateral sacral
aa.)

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve
X, nucleus ambiguus,
spinal accessory nucleus
and hypoglossal nucleus)

the anterior spinal a.


anastomoses with the
anterior radicular brs. of the
spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

spinal, posterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar,
lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

spinal cord, especially the


dorsal columns; medulla
(nucleus cuneatus and
nucleus gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the
posterior radicular brs. of the
spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

thoracodorsal

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

latissimus dorsi m.

thoracodorsal a. accompanies
the thoracodorsal n.

transverse cervical

thyrocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches, trapezius muscle and


possibly the dorsal scapular surrounding tissues
a.

transverse cervical a. gives


rise to the dorsal scapular a.
~30% of the time

trunk, costocervical

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

costocervical trunk is located


between the anterior scalene
m. and the middle scalene
m.; it arches posteriorly over
the cervical parietal pleura

deep muscles of the


posterior neck; posterior
ends of the first 2
intercostal spaces

trunk, thyrocervical

subclavian a., 1st part

inferior thyroid a., transverse lower neck, posterior


cervical a., suprascapular a. shoulder, thyroid gland

thyrocervical trunk does not


give rise to the ascending
cervical a.- it is a branch of
the inferior thyroid a.

vertebral

subclavian a.(1st part)

spinal brs., muscular brs.,


anterior spinal a., posterior
inferior cerebellar a.,
medullary brs., meningeal
brs., basilar a.

vertebral a. anastomoses with


the internal carotid a. in the
cerebral arterial circle (of
Willis); it courses through
the transverse foramina of
vertebrae C1-C6

deep neck, cervical spinal


cord, spinal cord; medulla
(dorsal motor nucleus of
cranial nerve X, nucleus
ambiguus, spinal
accessory nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

Arteries of the Thorax - Arranged Alphabetically


Artery

Source

Branches

anterior intercostal

internal thoracic a. (upper unnamed muscular


6 intercostal spaces),
branches
musculophrenic a. (7-10th
intercostal spaces)

anterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,

Supply to
intercostal muscles
anteriorly; skin
overlying the
intercostal muscles

Notes
there are two anterior intercostal
aa. per side per intercostal space,
one coursing above and one
coursing below each rib

they accompany the ventral meninges; spinal cord; anterior radicular aa. anastomose
rootlets to reach the spinal spinal nerve; ventral
with the anterior spinal a.
cord
rootlets

lumbar, and lateral sacral


aa.)
anterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar, lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial
nerve X, nucleus
ambiguus, spinal
accessory nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

anterior spinal a. anastomoses


with the anterior radicular brs. of
the spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

aorta, ascending

left ventricle of the heart

left and right coronary aa.

heart, entire body

ascending aorta is the shortest part


of the aorta; it continues as the
aortic arch

aorta, descending thoracic continuation of aortic


arch

posterior intercostal aa. 311, subcostal aa., left


bronchial aa. (2),
esophageal aa. (~3),
mediastinal brs., superior
phrenic aa.

thoracic wall, lungs,


posterior mediastinum,
body below the
respiratory diaphragm

descending thoracic aorta passes


posterior to the diaphragm (aortic
hiatus) at the level of the T12
vertebral body; it is continuous
with the abdominal aorta

aortic arch

the continuation of the


ascending aorta

brachiocephalic trunk, left


common carotid a., left
subclavian a.

the entire body except


the heart

aortic arch continues as the


descending thoracic aorta; the
fibrous ligamentum arteriosum
connects to the inferior surface of
the aortic arch and it marks the
location of the fetal ductus
arteriosus aortic arch continues as
the descending thoracic aorta

artery to the
atrioventricular node

right coronary a. near the


point where it becomes
the posterior
interventricular a.

no named branches

atrioventricular node
and the surrounding
myocardium

artery to the atrioventricular node


is located at the junction of the
coronary sulcus and the posterior
interventricular sulcus

artery to the sinuatrial


node

right coronary a.

no named branches

sinuatrial node and the artery to the sinuatrial node is


surrounding
important artery to locate during
myocardium
cardiac surgical procedures

ascending aorta

left ventricle of the heart

left and right coronary aa.

heart, entire body

ascending aorta is the shortest part


of the aorta; it continues as the
aortic arch

axillary

subclavian a. (axillary a.
is the continuation of the
subclavian lateral to the
1st rib)

1st part: superior thoracic


a.; 2nd part:
thoracoacromial a., lateral
thoracic a.; 3rd part:
anterior humeral
circumflex a., posterior
humeral circumflex a.,
subscapular a.

pectoral region,
shoulder region and
upper limb

pectoralis minor m. crosses


anterior to the axillary artery and
is used to delineate the 3 parts
mentioned at left

brachiocephalic trunk

aortic arch

right common carotid a.,


right subclavian a.

right side of the head


and neck; right upper
limb and right side of
the chest wall

there is only one brachiocephalic


trunk

bronchial, left

descending thoracic aorta right bronchial a.


(occasionally)

lower trachea,
bronchial tree

there are usually two left bronchial


aa.

bronchial, right

3rd right posterior


intercostal

no named branches

lower trachea,
bronchial tree

right bronchial a. may arise from


the left bronchial a.

carotid, common

brachiocephalic trunk
(right), aortic arch (left)

external carotid a., internal most of the head and


carotid a.
upper neck

circumflex

left coronary a.

marginal br., possibly

common carotid a. bifurcates at


the level of the superior border of
the thyroid cartilage; the internal
carotid a. and the external carotid
a. are its terminal brs.; the carotid
sinus and carotid body are located
at the bifurcation

posterior surface of the circumflex a. courses in the

posterior artery of the left


ventricle

left ventricle

atrioventricular (coronary) sulcus

communicating, posterior internal carotid a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic
connection

a vessel of anastomosis which


connects the internal carotid a. to
the posterior cerebral a.; part of
the cerebral arterial circle (of
Willis)

coronary, left

ascending aorta

anterior interventricular a., left ventricle, left


circumflex a.
atrium, anterosuperior
2/3 of the
interventricular septum

left coronary a. arises superior to


the left cusp of the aortic
semilunar valve; during its short
course, it is located in the
coronary sulcus; the anterior
interventricular a. and the
circumflex a. are its terminal brs.

coronary, right

ascending aorta

sinuatrial nodal a., right


marginal a., posterior
interventricular a.,
atrioventricular nodal a.

right ventricle, right


atrium, inferior 1/3 of
the interventricular
septum

right coronary a. usually provides


the posterior interventricular a.; it
courses within the coronary sulcus

costocervical trunk

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

deep muscles of the


posterior neck;
posterior ends of the
first 2 intercostal
spaces

costocervical trunk is located


between the anterior scalene m.
and the middle scalene m.; it
arches posteriorly over the
cervical parietal pleura

epigastric, superior

internal thoracic a.

no named branches

upper rectus abdominis superior epigastric a. is the direct


m., upper abdominal
continuation of the internal
wall
thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with
the inferior epigastric a. within the
rectus abdominis m.

esophageal

descending thoracic aorta; no named branches


left gastric a.

lower 2/3rds of the


thoracic esophagus

there are usually two (sometimes


3) esophageal brs. off of the aorta;

the left gastric a. gives esophageal


brs. that ascend to supply the
abdominal esophagus and lowest
part of the thoracic esophagus;
anastomoses occur between the
esophageal brs. of the aorta and
left gastric a.
intercostal, anterior

internal thoracic a. (upper unnamed muscular


6 intercostal spaces),
branches
musculophrenic a. (7-10th
intercostal spaces)

intercostal muscles
anteriorly; skin
overlying the
intercostal muscles

intercostal, highest

costocervical trunk

intercostal, posterior

highest intercostal (upper posterior br., spinal br.,


2 intercostal spaces),
anterior br., collateral br.,
descending thoracic aorta lateral cutaneous br.
(3rd-11th intercostal
spaces)

intercostal muscles,
spinal cord and
vertebral column, deep
back muscles, skin and
superficial fascia
overlying the
intercostal spaces

posterior intercostal aa. supply the


lateral and posterior portions of
the intercostal space; anterior
intercostal aa. supply the anterior
portions of the intercostal spaces

lateral thoracic

axillary, 2nd part

unnamed muscular
branches

serratus anterior m.,


parts of adjacent
muscles, skin and
fascia of the
anterolateral thoracic
wall

lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in


that it enters the serratus anterior
from its superficial surface

left coronary

ascending aorta

anterior interventricular a., left ventricle, left


circumflex a.
atrium, anterosuperior

posterior intercostal aa. for intercostal muscles of


intercostal spaces 1-2
intercostal spaces 1
and 2, vertebral
column, deep back
muscles

there are two anterior intercostal


aa. per side per intercostal space,
one coursing above and one
coursing below each rib
highest intercostal a. is also known
as: supreme intercostal a.

left coronary a. arises superior to


the left cusp of the aortic

2/3 of the
semilunar valve; during its short
interventricular septum course, it is located in the
coronary sulcus; the anterior
interventricular a. and the
circumflex a. are its terminal brs.
mammary, lateral

lateral thoracic a.

no named branches

lateral side of the


mammary gland

mammary gland is a specialization


of the skin and is supplied by
superficial (cutaneous) arteries

mammary, medial

perforating brs. of the


internal thoracic a.

no named branches

medial side of the


mammary gland

mammary gland is a specialization


of the skin and is supplied by
superficial (cutaneous) arteries

musculophrenic

internal thoracic a.

anterior intercostal aa.

anterior diaphragm,
musculophrenic a. supplies
anterior aspects of
muscles that develop in the
intercostal spaces 7-10 septum transversum
or 11

nodal, atrioventricular

right coronary a. near the


point where it becomes
the posterior
interventricular a.

no named branches

atrioventricular node
and the surrounding
myocardium

nodal, sinuatrial

right coronary a.

no named branches

sinuatrial node and the sinuatrial nodal a. is an important


surrounding
artery to locate during cardiac
myocardium
surgical procedures

pericardiacophrenic

internal thoracic a.

pericardial br., sternal br.,


mediastinal br.

pericardial sac, pleura, pericardiacophrenic a.


diaphragm
accompanies the phrenic n.

pericardial

pericardiacophrenic a.

no named branches

pericardial sac

phrenic, inferior

abdominal aorta

superior suprarenal aa.

diaphragm, suprarenal inferior phrenic a. is the first


gland
abdominal branch of the aorta; it

artery to the atrioventricular node


is located at the junction of the
coronary sulcus and the posterior
interventricular sulcus

pericardial a. courses on the


external surface of the pericardial
sac

may arise from the celiac trunk


phrenic, superior

descending thoracic aorta no named branches


(2 small brs.)

diaphragm

superior phrenic a. anastomoses


with the musculophrenic a. and the
pericardiacophrenic a.

posterior intercostal

highest intercostal (upper posterior br., spinal br.,


2 intercostal spaces),
anterior br., collateral br.,
descending thoracic aorta lateral cutaneous br.
(3rd-11th intercostal
spaces)

intercostal muscles,
spinal cord and
vertebral column, deep
back muscles, skin and
superficial fascia
overlying the
intercostal spaces

posterior intercostal aa. supply the


lateral and posterior portions of
the intercostal space; anterior
intercostal aa. supply the anterior
portions of the intercostal spaces

posterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral sacral
aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; posterior radicular aa. accompany


spinal nerve; dorsal
the dorsal rootlets; they
rootlets
anastomose with the posterior
spinal aa.

posterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar, lateral
sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

spinal cord, especially


the dorsal columns;
medulla (nucleus
cuneatus and nucleus
gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the posterior
radicular brs. of the spinal rami of
the vertebral, posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

pulmonary trunk

right ventricle

right pulmonary a., left


pulmonary aa.

lungs

the pulmonary trunk carries


deoxygenated blood from the heart
to the right and left pulmonary aa.;
each pulmonary a. carries
deoxygenated blood to the hilum
of one lung; bronchial aa. supply
oxygenated blood to the tissues of

the lung as far distally in the


bronchial tree as the respiratory
bronchioles
radicular, anterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral sacral
aa.)

they accompany the ventral meninges; spinal cord; anterior radicular aa. anastomose
rootlets to reach the spinal spinal nerve; ventral
with the anterior spinal a.
cord
rootlets

radicular, great anterior

the spinal br. of the lower no named branches


posterior intercostal a.,
subcostal a., or upper
lumbar a., usually on left

lower spinal cord

radicular, posterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral sacral
aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; posterior radicular aa. accompany


spinal nerve; dorsal
the dorsal rootlets; they
rootlets
anastomose with the posterior
spinal aa.

right coronary

ascending aorta

sinuatrial nodal a., right


marginal a., posterior
interventricular a.,
atrioventricular nodal a.

right ventricle, right


atrium, inferior 1/3 of
the interventricular
septum

sinuatrial nodal

right coronary a.

no named branches

sinuatrial node and the sinuatrial nodal a. is an important


surrounding
artery to locate during cardiac
myocardium
surgical procedures

spinal, anterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial
nerve X, nucleus

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the anterior
spinal a. at lower thoracic or upper
lumbar spinal cord levels

right coronary a. usually provides


the posterior interventricular a.; it
courses within the coronary sulcus

the anterior spinal a. anastomoses


with the anterior radicular brs. of
the spinal rami of the vertebral,
posterior intercostal, subcostal,

lumbar, lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

ambiguus, spinal
accessory nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

lumbar and lateral sacral aa.

spinal cord, especially


the dorsal columns;
medulla (nucleus
cuneatus and nucleus
gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the posterior
radicular brs. of the spinal rami of
the vertebral, posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar and lateral
sacral aa.

spinal, posterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar, lateral
sacral aa.)

subclavian

brachiocephalic a. (right), 1st part: vertebral a.,


aortic arch (left)
thyrocervical trunk,
internal thoracic a.; 2nd
part: costocervical trunk;
3rd part: dorsal scapular a.
(70%)

neck, brain, spinal


cord, thyroid gland,
larynx, shoulder, chest
muscles, upper limb

subclavian a. is continuous with


the axillary a., the name change
occurs at the lateral border of the
first rib; anterior scalene muscle
passes anterior to the subclavian
a., dividing it into 3 parts

subcostal

descending thoracic aorta spinal br., collateral br.,


lateral cutaneous br.

vertebrae, spinal cord;


muscles, skin & fascia
of the upper abdominal
wall

subcostal a. is equivalent to a
posterior intercostal a., but is
named subcostal because it
courses inferior to the 12th rib

superior epigastric

internal thoracic a.

no named branches

upper rectus abdominis superior epigastric a. is the direct


m., upper abdominal
continuation of the internal
wall
thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with
the inferior epigastric a. within the
rectus abdominis m.

thoracic, internal

subclavian a. (1st part)

pericardiocophrenic a.,
perforating brs., anterior
intercostal aa., mediastinal
brs., thymic brs.,
musculophrenic a., superior
epigastric a.

mediastinum, anterior
thoracic wall, anterior
abdominal wall,
respiratory diaphragm

internal thoracic a. is also known


as: internal mammary a.

thoracic, lateral

axillary a., 2nd part

unnamed muscular
branches

serratus anterior m.,


parts of adjacent
muscles, skin and
fascia of the
anterolateral thoracic
wall

lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in


that it enters the serratus anterior
from its superficial surface

thoracic, superior

axillary a., 1st part

unnamed muscular
branches

muscles of intercostal
spaces 1 and 2

superior thoracic a. anastomoses


with the intercostal aa. for
intercostal spaces 1 and 2

thoracoacromial

axillary a., 2nd part

pectoral br., clavicular br.,


acromial br., deltoid br.

pectoralis major m.,


pectoralis minor m.,
subclavius m., deltoid
m., shoulder joint

thoracoacromial trunk pierces the


costocoracoid membrane

trunk, brachiocephalic

aortic arch

right common carotid a.,


right subclavian a.

right side of the head


and neck; right upper
limb and right side of
the chest wall

there is only one brachiocephalic


trunk

trunk, costocervical

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

deep muscles of the


posterior neck;
posterior ends of the
first 2 intercostal
spaces

costocervical trunk is located


between the anterior scalene m.
and the middle scalene m.; it
arches posteriorly over the
cervical parietal pleura

trunk, pulmonary

right ventricle

right pulmonary a., left


pulmonary aa.

lungs

the pulmonary trunk carries


deoxygenated blood from the heart
to the right and left pulmonary aa.;
each pulmonary a. carries
deoxygenated blood to the hilum
of one lung; bronchial aa. supply
oxygenated blood to the tissues of
the lung as far distally in the
bronchial tree as the respiratory

bronchioles
vertebral

subclavian a.(1st part)

spinal brs., muscular brs.,


anterior spinal a., posterior
inferior cerebellar a.,
medullary brs., meningeal
brs., basilar a.

deep neck, cervical


spinal cord, spinal
cord; medulla (dorsal
motor nucleus of
cranial nerve X,
nucleus ambiguus,
spinal accessory
nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

vertebral a. anastomoses with the


internal carotid a. in the cerebral
arterial circle (of Willis); it courses
through the transverse foramina of
vertebrae C1-C6

Arteries of the Abdomen - Arranged Alphabetically

Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

Notes

anterior cecal

ileocolic a.

occasionally the appendicular


a.

cecum

anterior cecal a. supplies the


ileocecal junction

anterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

lower duodenum and anterior inferior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the anterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
to form the anterior pancreatic
arcade

anterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

lower duodendum
and head of the
pancreas

anterior superior
pancreaticoduodenal

gastroduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

upper duodenum and anterior superior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the anterior
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to
form the anterior pancreatic
arcade

aorta, abdominal

the continuation of the


descending thoracic
aorta

inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac


trunk, middle suprarenal aa.
(2), lumbar aa. (4 pairs),
superior mesenteric a., renal aa.
(2), testicular/ovarian aa. (2),
inferior mesenteric a., median
sacral a., common iliac aa. (2)

abdominal wall;
gastrointestinal tract;
body below the level
of the respiratory
diaphragm

appendicular

posterior cecal, anterior


cecal or ileocolic

no named branches

vermiform appendix despite its variable origin,


appendicular artery is nearly

anterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the anterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
to form the anterior pancreatic
arcade

abdominal aorta passes posterior


to the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at
the level of the T12 vertebral
body

constant in its course posterior to


the terminal part of the ileum
artery of the ductus
deferens

umbilical a.; may be a


no named branches
branch of the superior or
inferior vesical a.

ductus deferens,
artery of the ductus deferens is
seminal vesical;
also known as: deferential a.
possibly supplies the
ureter

caudal pancreatic

splenic a.

numerous small aa. that supply tail of the pancreas


the pancreas

caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail


of the pancreas near the hilum of
the spleen; it may arise from the
left gastro-omental a.

cecal, anterior

ileocolic a.

may give off the appendicular


a.

anterior surface of
the cecum

anterior cecal a. supplies the


ileocecal junction

cecal, posterior

ileocolic a.

may give off the appendicular


a.

posterior surface of
the cecum

posterior cecal a. supplies the


ileocecal junction

celiac trunk

abdominal aorta at the


level of the T12-L1
intervertebral disc

left gastric a., splenic a.,


common hepatic a.

stomach, lower
esophagus, liver,
upper duodenum,
pancreas, spleen

celiac trunk supplies the foregut


derivatives

circumflex iliac, deep

external iliac a.

unnamed muscular branches

iliacus muscle and


deep circumflex iliac a. courses
the lower abdominal along the iliac crest on the inner
wall
surface of the abdominal wall

circumflex iliac,
superficial

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

superficial fascia of
lower abdomen and
thigh

superficial circumflex iliac a.


crosses the upper thigh parallel to
the inguinal ligament

colic, left

inferior mesenteric a.

ascending br., descending br.

descending colon

left colic a. anastomoses with the


middle colic a and the sigmoid
a.to form part of the marginal a.

colic, middle

superior mesenteric

right br., left br.

transverse colon

middle colic a. anastomoses with


the right colic a. and the left colic

a. to form part of the marginal a.


colic, right

superior mesenteric (or


br. of)

ascending br., descending br.

ascending colon

right colic a. anastomoses with


the ileocolic a. and the middle
colic a. to form part of the
marginal a.

common hepatic

celiac trunk

gastroduodenal a., proper


hepatic a.

liver, upper part of


the duodenum, part
of the pancreas, part
of the stomach

common hepatic a. is one of three


brs. of the celiac trunk (see also:
left gastric a., splenic a.)

common iliac

abdominal aorta

external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb

abdominal aorta bifurcates at the


level of the L4 vertebral body to
form the right and left common
iliac aa.; the common iliac artery
bifurcates anterior to the
sacroiliac articulation into its
terminal brs. (external iliac a. and
internal iliac a.)

cremasteric

inferior epigastric a.

no named branches

cremaster m.,
coverings of the
spermatic cord

cremasteric a. is one of the


contents of the spermatic cord; it
anastomoses with the testicular
artery distally

cystic

right hepatic a. (or


superior mesenteric a.,
proper hepatic a., left
hepatic a.,
gastroduodenal a.)

no named branches

gall bladder

cystic a. arises from the right


hepatic a. in ~72% of cases; other
possible origins are noted at left
and are clinically relevant during
gall bladder surgery

dorsal pancreatic

splenic a.

right br., left br.

neck of the pancreas right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a.


anastomoses with the anterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
in the prepancreatic arcade

ductus deferens, artery of

umbilical a.; may be a


no named branches
branch of the superior or
inferior vesical a.

ductus deferens,
artery of the ductus deferens is
seminal vesical;
also known as: deferential a.
possibly supplies the
ureter

epigastric, inferior

external iliac a.

cremasteric a.

lower rectus
abdominis m.,
pyramidalis m.,
lower abdominal
wall

epigastric, superficial

femoral a.

cutaneous brs.

superficial fascia and superficial epigastric a. is one of


skin of the lower
three superficial arteries that arise
abdominal wall
from the femoral a. (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a. and
superficial external pudendal a.)

epigastric, superior

internal thoracic a.

no named branches

upper rectus
superior epigastric a. is the direct
abdominis m., upper continuation of the internal
abdominal wall
thoracic a.; it s anastomoses with
the inferior epigastric a. within
the rectus abdominis m.

esophageal

descending thoracic
aorta; left gastric a.

no named branches

lower 2/3rds of the


thoracic esophagus

there are usually two (sometimes


3) esophageal brs. off of the
aorta; the left gastric a. gives
esophageal brs. that ascend to
supply the abdominal esophagus
and lowest part of the thoracic
esophagus; anastomoses occur
between the esophageal brs. of
the aorta and left gastric a.

gastric, left

celiac a.

esophageal brs.

superior part of the


stomach near the
lesser curvature

left gastric a. anastomoses with


the right gastric a. on the lesser
curvature of the stomach; it also

inferior epigastric m.
anastomoses with the superior
epigastric m. within the rectus
abdominis m.

anastomoses with the esophageal


brs. of the thoracic aorta
gastric, right

proper hepatic a.

no named branches

inferior part of the


stomach near the
lesser curvature

right gastric a. anastomoses with


the left gastric a. on the lesser
curvature of the stomach

gastric, short

splenic a.

no named branches

fundus and upper


part of the stomach
near the greater
curvature

short gastric aa. reach the


stomach by passing through the
gastrosplenic ligament; they are
usually 4-5 in number

gastro-omental, left

splenic a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

mid-part of the
stomach near the
greater curvature;
greater omentum

left gastro-omental a.
anastomoses with the right
gastro-omental a. near the greater
curvature of the stomach; also
known as: left gastroepiploic a.

gastro-omental, right

gastroduodenal a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

lower part of the


pyloric region of the
stomach, right part
of greater curvature
of the stomach,
greater omentum

right gastro-omental a
anastomoses with the left gastroomental a. near the greater
curvature of the stomach; also
known as: right gastroepiploic a.

gastroduodenal

common hepatic a.

supraduodenal aa.,
retroduodenal aa., posterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal
a., anterior superior
pancreaticoduodenal a., right
gastro-omental a.

upper duodenum,
gastroduodenal a. supplies the
upper part of the
lowest portion of the foregut and
head of the pancreas; its derivatives
greater curvature of
the stomach on the
right

great anterior radicular

the spinal br. of the


lower posterior
intercostal a., subcostal
a., or upper lumbar a.,

no named branches

lower spinal cord

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the anterior
spinal a. at lower thoracic or
upper lumbar spinal cord levels

usually on left
hepatic, common

celiac trunk

gastroduodenal a., proper


hepatic a.

liver, upper parts of common hepatic a. supplies some


the duodenum, upper of the foregut derivatives
part of the pancreas,
right side of the
stomach

hepatic, left

proper hepatic a.

segmental aa.

left lobe of the liver,


quadrate lobe of the
liver, part of the
caudate lobe of the
liver

left hepatic a. supplies the liver


parenchyma and stroma; an
aberrant left hepatic a. may arise
from the left gastric a.

hepatic, proper

common hepatic a.

right gastric, right & left


hepatic

liver, lesser
curvature of the
stomach

proper hepatic a. supplies the


foregut derivatives associated
with the liver bud

hepatic, right

proper hepatic a.

cystic a., segmental aa.

right lobe of the


liver, part of the
caudate lobe of the
liver

right hepatic a. supplies the liver


parenchyma and stroma

ileocolic

superior mesenteric a.

colic br., anterior cecal br.,


cecum, appendix,
posterior cecal br., appendicular terminal portion of
a., ileal br.
the ileum

colic br. of the ileocolic a.


participates in the formation of
the marginal a.

iliac, common

abdominal aorta

external iliac a., internal iliac a. pelvis, lower limb

abdominal aorta bifurcates at the


level of the L4 vertebral body to
form the right and left common
iliac aa.; the common iliac artery
bifurcates anterior to the
sacroiliac articulation into its
terminal brs. (external iliac a. and
internal iliac a.)

iliac, external

common iliac a.

inferior epigastric a., deep

external iliac a. is continuous

lower limb

circumflex iliac a., femoral a.

with the femoral a., the name


change occurs at the inguinal
ligament; the common iliac artery
bifurcates anterior to the
sacroiliac articulation

anterior division gives rise to


pelvic viscera,
the : umbilical a., obturator a., gluteal region, hip,
uterine a., vaginal a., inferior
medial thigh
vesical a., middle rectal a.,
internal pudendal a., inferior
gluteal a.; posterior division
gives rise to the: iliolumbar a.,
lateral sacral a., superior gluteal
a.

common iliac artery bifurcates


anterior to the sacroiliac
articulation to form the internal
iliac a. and the external iliac a.

iliac, internal

common iliac a.

iliolumbar

internal iliac a., posterior iliac br., lumbar br.


division

iliacus m., psoas


major m., quadratus
lumborum m.

lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a.


sends a small spinal br. into the
vertebral canal

inferior epigastric

external iliac a.

lower rectus
abdominis m.,
pyramidalis m.,
lower abdominal
wall

inferior epigastric m.
anastomoses with the superior
epigastric m. within the rectus
abdominis m.

inferior mesenteric

abdominal aorta at the


left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3),
level of the L3 vertebral superior rectal a.
body

splenic flexure,
descending colon,
sigmoid colon,
superior part of
rectum

branches of the inferior


mesenteric a anastomose in the
marginal artery

inferior pancreatic

dorsal pancreatic, left br. no named branches

lower part of the


inferior pancreatic a. may be
body of the pancreas imbedded in the substance of the
gland

cremasteric a.

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal

superior mesenteric a.

anterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.,
posterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

lower duodenum,
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.
head of the pancreas supplies both the anterior and
posterior surfaces of the lower
duodenum and lower part of the
head of the pancreas

inferior phrenic

abdominal aorta

superior suprarenal aa.

diaphragm,
suprarenal gland

inferior phrenic a. is the first


abdominal branch of the aorta; it
may arise from the celiac trunk

inferior rectal

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

anus, ischioanal
fossa

inferior rectal a. anastomoses


with the middle rectal a. and the
superior rectal a.

inferior suprarenal

renal a.

numerous unnamed branches

inferior aspect of the inferior suprarenal a. may


suprarenal gland
anastomose with the superior
suprarenal a.

intercostal, posterior

highest intercostal
(upper 2 intercostal
spaces), descending
thoracic aorta (3rd-11th
intercostal spaces)

posterior br., spinal br., anterior intercostal muscles,


br., collateral br., lateral
spinal cord and
cutaneous br.
vertebral column,
deep back muscles,
skin and superficial
fascia overlying the
intercostal spaces

posterior intercostal aa. supply


the lateral and posterior portions
of the intercostal space; anterior
intercostal aa. supply the anterior
portions of the intercostal spaces

internal iliac

common iliac a.

anterior division gives rise to


pelvic viscera,
the : umbilical a., obturator a., gluteal region, hip,
uterine a., vaginal a., inferior
medial thigh
vesical a., middle rectal a.,
internal pudendal a., inferior
gluteal a.; posterior division
gives rise to the: iliolumbar a.,
lateral sacral a., superior gluteal
a.

common iliac artery bifurcates


anterior to the sacroiliac
articulation to form the internal
iliac a. and the external iliac a.

intestinal

superior mesenteric a.

arterial arches

jejunum, ileum

lateral sacral

internal iliac a., posterior spinal brs.


division

sacrum, sacral nerve there are usually 2 lateral sacral


rootlets, meninges,
aa. on each side, a superior one
adjacent muscles
and an inferior one

left colic

inferior mesenteric a.

ascending br., descending br.

descending colon

left colic a. anastomoses with the


middle colic a and the sigmoid
a.to form part of the marginal a.

left gastric

celiac a.

esophageal brs.

superior part of the


stomach near the
lesser curvature

left gastric a. anastomoses with


the right gastric a. on the lesser
curvature of the stomach; it also
anastomoses with the esophageal
brs. of the thoracic aorta

left gastro-omental

splenic a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

mid-part of the
stomach near the
greater curvature;
greater omentum

left gastro-omental a.
anastomoses with the right
gastro-omental a. near the greater
curvature of the stomach; also
known as: left gastroepiploic a.

left hepatic

proper hepatic a.

segmental aa.

left lobe of the liver,


quadrate lobe of the
liver, part of the
caudate lobe of the
liver

left hepatic a. supplies the liver


parenchyma and stroma; an
aberrant left hepatic a. may arise
from the left gastric a.

lumbar

abdominal aorta

anterior br., posterior br., spinal psoas major m.,


br.
psoas minor m.,
quadratus lumborum
m., spinal cord and
vertebral column,
deep back muscles

the 4 lumbar arteries on each side


arise from the posterior surface of
the aorta at the level of vertebrae
L1-L4; they course posterior to
the psoas major m.

marginal

formed by anastomoses

colic brs.

an important anastomosis for the

colon

intestinal aa. are 12-15 in number


and are found in the mesentery

of branches of the
ileocolic a., right colic
a., middle colic a., left
colic a., sigmoid a.

large intestine

median sacral

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

sacrum

median sacral a. appears to be the


continuation of the abdominal
aorta in the median plane,
although it is much smaller in
size

mesenteric, inferior

abdominal aorta at the


left colic a., sigmoid aa.(2-3),
level of the L3 vertebral superior rectal a.
body

splenic flexure,
descending colon,
sigmoid colon,
superior part of
rectum

branches of the inferior


mesenteric a anastomose in the
marginal artery

mesenteric, superior

abdominal aorta at the


inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., inferior part of the
level of the lower 1/3 of middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal head of the pancreas,
the L1 vertebral body
a., right colic a., ileocolic a.
distal duodenum,
jejunum, ileum,
cecum, appendix,
ascending colon,
transverse colon

superior mesenteric a. supplies


the midgut derivatives; brs. of the
superior mesenteric a. participate
in formation of the marginal
artery

middle colic

superior mesenteric

right br., left br.

transverse colon

middle colic a. anastomoses with


the right colic a. and the left colic
a. to form part of the marginal a.

middle rectal

internal iliac, anterior


division

no named branches

middle portion of the middle rectal a. anastomoses with


rectum
the inferior rectal a and the
superior rectal a.

middle suprarenal

abdominal aorta

numerous unnamed branches

medial side of the


suprarenal gland

middle suprarenal a. anastomoses


with the superior suprarenal a.
and the inferior suprarenal a.

musculophrenic

internal thoracic a.

anterior intercostal aa.

anterior diaphragm,
anterior aspects of
intercostal spaces 710 or 11

musculophrenic a. supplies
muscles that develop in the
septum transversum

pancreatic, caudal

splenic a.

numerous small aa. that supply tail of the pancreas


the pancreas

pancreatic, dorsal

splenic a.

right br., left br.

pancreatic, inferior

dorsal pancreatic, left br. no named branches

lower part of the


inferior pancreatic a. may be
body of the pancreas imbedded in the substance of the
gland

pancreatic, superior

splenic a.

no named branches

superior part of the superior pancreatic aa. are


body of the pancreas multiple small brs. arising from
the splenic a.

pancreatica magna

splenic a.

numerous unnamed brs. within body of the pancreas pancreatic magna is the largest
the pancreas
pancreatic branch to arise from
the splenic a.; it enters the
pancreas at the junction of its
middle 1/3 and left 1/3

pancreaticoduodenal,
anterior inferior

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

lower duodenum and anterior inferior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the anterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
to form the anterior pancreatic
arcade

pancreaticoduodenal,

gastroduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

upper duodenum and anterior superior

caudal pancreatic a. enters the tail


of the pancreas near the hilum of
the spleen; it may arise from the
left gastro-omental a.

neck of the pancreas right br.of the dorsal pancreatic a.


anastomoses with the anterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
in the prepancreatic arcade

anterior superior

head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.


anastomoses with the anterior
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to
form the anterior pancreatic
arcade

pancreaticoduodenal,
inferior

superior mesenteric a.

anterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.,
posterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

lower duodenum,
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a.
head of the pancreas supplies both the anterior and
posterior surfaces of the lower
duodenum and lower part of the
head of the pancreas

pancreaticoduodenal,
posterior inferior

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

lower duodenum and posterior inferior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the posterior
superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
to form the posterior pancreatic
arcade

pancreaticoduodenal,
posterior superior

gastroduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

upper duodenum and posterior superior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the posterior
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to
form the posterior pancreatic
arcade

phrenic, inferior

abdominal aorta

superior suprarenal aa.

diaphragm,
suprarenal gland

inferior phrenic a. is the first


abdominal branch of the aorta; it
may arise from the celiac trunk

posterior cecal

ileocolic a.

may give off the appendicular


a.

posterior surface of
the cecum

posterior cecal a. supplies the


ileocecal junction

posterior inferior
pancreaticoduodenal

inferior
pancreaticoduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

lower duodenum and posterior inferior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the posterior

superior pancreaticoduodenal a.
to form the posterior pancreatic
arcade
posterior intercostal

highest intercostal
(upper 2 intercostal
spaces), descending
thoracic aorta (3rd-11th
intercostal spaces)

posterior br., spinal br., anterior intercostal muscles,


br., collateral br., lateral
spinal cord and
cutaneous br.
vertebral column,
deep back muscles,
skin and superficial
fascia overlying the
intercostal spaces

posterior intercostal aa. supply


the lateral and posterior portions
of the intercostal space; anterior
intercostal aa. supply the anterior
portions of the intercostal spaces

posterior superior
pancreaticoduodenal

gastroduodenal a.

pancreatic brs., duodenal brs.

upper duodenum and posterior superior


head of the pancreas pancreaticoduodenal a.
anastomoses with the posterior
inferior pancreaticoduodenal a. to
form the posterior pancreatic
arcade

radicular, great anterior

the spinal br. of the


lower posterior
intercostal a., subcostal
a., or upper lumbar a.,
usually on left

no named branches

lower spinal cord

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the anterior
spinal a. at lower thoracic or
upper lumbar spinal cord levels

rectal, inferior

internal pudendal a.

no named branches

anus, ischioanal
fossa

inferior rectal a. anastomoses


with the middle rectal a. and the
superior rectal a.

rectal, middle

internal iliac, anterior


division

no named branches

middle portion of the middle rectal a. anastomoses with


rectum
the inferior rectal a and the
superior rectal a.

rectal, superior

inferior mesenteric a.

two unnamed branches

superior part of the


rectum

superior rectal a. is the


continuation of the inferior
mesenteric a. after the sigmoid

brs. are given off; it anastomoses


with the middle rectal a. and the
inferior rectal a.
renal

abdominal aorta at the


inferior suprarenal a., apical
level of the upper border segmental a., anterior br:
of the L2 vertebra
superior anterior segmental a.,
middle anterior segmental a.,
inferior segmental a.; posterior
br.: posterior segmental a.

kidney, upper ureter, the right renal a. is longer than


suprarenal gland
the left renal artery; the right
renal artery passes posterior to
the inferior vena cava

retroduodenal

gastroduodenal a.

multiple unnamed brs.

posterior portion of
the 1st part of the
duodenum

retroduodenal aa. arise as


multiple small brs.

right colic

superior mesenteric (or


br. of)

ascending br., descending br.

ascending colon

right colic a. anastomoses with


the ileocolic a. and the middle
colic a. to form part of the
marginal a.

right gastric

proper hepatic a.

no named branches

inferior part of the


stomach near the
lesser curvature

right gastric a. anastomoses with


the left gastric a. on the lesser
curvature of the stomach

right gastro-omental

gastroduodenal a.

gastric brs., omental brs.

lower part of the


pyloric region of the
stomach, right part
of greater curvature
of the stomach,
greater omentum

right gastro-omental a
anastomoses with the left gastroomental a. near the greater
curvature of the stomach; also
known as: right gastroepiploic a.

right hepatic

proper hepatic a.

cystic a., segmental aa.

right lobe of the


liver, part of the
caudate lobe of the
liver

right hepatic a. supplies the liver


parenchyma and stroma

sacral, lateral

internal iliac a., posterior spinal brs.

sacrum, sacral nerve there are usually 2 lateral sacral

division

rootlets, meninges,
adjacent muscles

aa. on each side, a superior one


and an inferior one

sacral, median

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

sacrum

median sacral a. appears to be the


continuation of the abdominal
aorta in the median plane,
although it is much smaller in
size

short gastric

splenic a.

no named branches

fundus and upper


part of the stomach
near the greater
curvature

short gastric aa. reach the


stomach by passing through the
gastrosplenic ligament; they are
usually 4-5 in number

sigmoid

inferior mesenteric a.

ascending br., descending br.

sigmoid colon

sigmoid aa. are 2-3 in number;


they anastomose with the left
colic a. to help form the marginal
a.

splenic

celiac trunk

dorsal pancreatic a., pancreatic pancreas, spleen,


brs., pancreatica magna a.,
greater curvature of
caudal pancreatic a., short
the stomach
gastric aa., left gastro-omental
a., splenic brs.

splenic a. courses through the


substance of the pancreas near its
superior border; splenic artery is
very tortuous

subcostal

descending thoracic
aorta

spinal br., collateral br., lateral


cutaneous br.

vertebrae, spinal
cord; muscles, skin
& fascia of the upper
abdominal wall

subcostal a. is equivalent to a
posterior intercostal a., but is
named subcostal because it
courses inferior to the 12th rib

superficial epigastric

femoral a.

cutaneous brs.

superficial fascia and superficial epigastric a. is one of


skin of the lower
three superficial arteries that arise
abdominal wall
from the femoral a. (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a. and
superficial external pudendal a.)

superior mesenteric

abdominal aorta at the

inferior pancreaticoduodenal a., inferior part of the

superior mesenteric a. supplies

level of the lower 1/3 of middle colic a., jejunal a., ileal
the L1 vertebral body
a., right colic a., ileocolic a.

head of the pancreas,


distal duodenum,
jejunum, ileum,
cecum, appendix,
ascending colon,
transverse colon

the midgut derivatives; brs. of the


superior mesenteric a. participate
in formation of the marginal
artery

superior pancreatic

splenic a.

no named branches

superior part of the superior pancreatic aa. are


body of the pancreas multiple small brs. arising from
the splenic a.

superior rectal

inferior mesenteric a.

two unnamed branches

superior part of the


rectum

superior suprarenal

inferior phrenic a.

multiple small aa.

superior aspect of the superior suprarenal aa. are


suprarenal gland
numerous small vessels that enter
the suprarenal gland
independently

supraduodenal

gastroduodenal a.

no named branches

superior portion of
the 1st part of the
duodenum

suprarenal, inferior

renal a.

numerous unnamed branches

inferior aspect of the inferior suprarenal a. may


suprarenal gland
anastomose with the superior
suprarenal a.

suprarenal, middle

abdominal aorta

numerous unnamed branches

medial side of the


suprarenal gland

suprarenal, superior

inferior phrenic a.

multiple small aa.

superior aspect of the superior suprarenal aa. are

superior rectal a. is the


continuation of the inferior
mesenteric a. after the sigmoid
brs. are given off; it anastomoses
with the middle rectal a. and the
inferior rectal a.

supraduodenal a. supplies
branches to both the anterior and
posterior surfaces of the
duodenum

middle suprarenal a. anastomoses


with the superior suprarenal a.
and the inferior suprarenal a.

suprarenal gland

numerous small vessels that enter


the suprarenal gland
independently

trunk, celiac

abdominal aorta at the


level of the T12-L1
intervertebral disc

left gastric a., splenic a.,


common hepatic a.

stomach, lower
esophagus, liver,
upper duodenum,
pancreas, spleen

celiac trunk supplies the foregut


derivatives

umbilical

internal iliac a., anterior


division

superior vesical aa., a. of the


ductus deferens

superior part of the


bladder; ductus
deferens

distal to the branches described at


left, the lumen of the umbilical a.
becomes obliterated after birth
and the remnant of the vessel
becomes the medial umbilical
ligament

vesical, superior

umbilical a.

no named branches

superior aspect of the superior vesical aa.arise from the


bladder
umbilical a. proximal to where its
lumen becomes obliterated

Arteries of the Pelvis and Perineum - Arranged Alphabetically


Artery
aorta, abdominal

Source

Branches

the continuation inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac


of the descending trunk, middle suprarenal aa. (2),
thoracic aorta
lumbar aa. (4 pairs), superior
mesenteric a., renal aa. (2),
testicular/ovarian aa. (2), inferior
mesenteric a., median sacral a.,
common iliac aa. (2)

Supply to
abdominal wall;
gastrointestinal tract;
body below the level of
the respiratory
diaphragm

Notes
abdominal aorta passes
posterior to the diaphragm
(aortic hiatus) at the level of
the T12 vertebral body

of bulb of penis

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

bulb of the penis and


associated tissues

artery of the bulb of the penis


courses within the deep
perineal space to enter the deep
surface of the bulb

of bulb of vestibule

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

bulb of the vestibule


and associated tissues

artery of the bulb of the


vestibule courses within the
deep perineal space to enter the
deep surface of the bulb

clitoris, deep a. of

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

corpus cavernosum of
the clitoris

deep a. of the clitoris and


dorsal a. of the clitoris are the
terminal brs. of the internal
pudendal a.

clitoris, dorsal a. of

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

superficial structures of dorsal a. of the clitoris and


the clitoris
deep a. of the clitoris are the
terminal brs. of the internal
pudendal a.

cremasteric

inferior
epigastric a.

no named branches

cremaster m., coverings cremasteric a. is one of the


of the spermatic cord
contents of the spermatic cord;
it anastomoses with the
testicular artery distally

deep external pudendal

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m., deep external pudendal a. may


adductor longus m.;
arise from the medial
scrotum/labium majus circumflex femoral a.

deep, of clitoris

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

corpus cavernosum of
the clitoris

deep a. of the clitoris and


dorsal a. of the clitoris are the
terminal brs. of the internal
pudendal a.

deep, of penis

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

corpus cavernosum of
the penis

deep a. of the penis and dorsal


a. of the penis are the terminal
brs. of the internal pudendal a.

dorsal, of clitoris

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

superficial tissues of the dorsal a. of the clitoris and


clitoris
deep a. of the clitoris are the
terminal brs. of the internal
pudendal a.

dorsal, of penis

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

superficial tissues of the dorsal a. of the penis and deep


penis
a. of the penis are the terminal
brs. of the internal pudendal a.

ductus deferens, artery of

umbilical a.; may no named branches


be a branch of
the superior or
inferior vesical a.

ductus deferens,
seminal vesical;
possibly supplies the
ureter

epigastric, inferior

external iliac a.

cremasteric a.

lower rectus abdominis inferior epigastric m.


m., pyramidalis m.,
anastomoses with the superior
lower abdominal wall
epigastric m. within the rectus
abdominis m.

external pudendal, deep

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m., deep external pudendal a. may


adductor longus m.;
arise from the medial
scrotum/labium majus circumflex femoral a.

external pudendal, superficial femoral a.

no named branches

skin and superficial


fascia of the upper
medial thigh, skin of
the pubic region

superficial external pudendal a.


is one of three superficial
branches of the femoral a. near
the inguinal ligament (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a.,
superficial epigastric a.)

gluteal, inferior

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

unnamed muscular branches

gluteus maximus m.,


hip joint

inferior gluteal a. participates


in the formation of the cruciate
anastomoses of the hip

gluteal, superior

internal iliac,
superficial br., deep br.
posterior division

artery of the ductus deferens is


also known as: deferential a.

gluteus maximus m.,


superior gluteal a. participates
gluteus medius m.,
in the formation of the cruciate
gluteus minimus m., hip anastomoses of the hip

joint
iliac, common

abdominal aorta

external iliac a., internal iliac a.

pelvis, lower limb

abdominal aorta bifurcates at


the level of the L4 vertebral
body to form the right and left
common iliac aa.; the common
iliac artery bifurcates anterior
to the sacroiliac articulation
into its terminal brs. (external
iliac a. and internal iliac a.)

iliac, external

common iliac a.

inferior epigastric a., deep


circumflex iliac a., femoral a.

lower limb

external iliac a. is continuous


with the femoral a., the name
change occurs at the inguinal
ligament; the common iliac
artery bifurcates anterior to the
sacroiliac articulation

iliac, internal

common iliac a.

anterior division gives rise to the : pelvic viscera, gluteal


umbilical a., obturator a., uterine a., region, hip, medial
vaginal a., inferior vesical a.,
thigh
middle rectal a., internal pudendal
a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior
division gives rise to the:
iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a.,
superior gluteal a.

iliolumbar

internal iliac a., iliac br., lumbar br.


posterior division

iliacus m., psoas major


m., quadratus
lumborum m.

lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a.


sends a small spinal br. into the
vertebral canal

inferior gluteal

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

gluteus maximus m.,


hip joint

inferior gluteal a. participates


in the formation of the cruciate
anastomoses of the hip

inferior rectal

internal pudendal no named branches

anus, ischioanal fossa

inferior rectal a. anastomoses

unnamed muscular branches

common iliac artery bifurcates


anterior to the sacroiliac
articulation to form the internal
iliac a. and the external iliac a.

a.

with the middle rectal a. and


the superior rectal a.

inferior vesical

internal iliac a.,


anterior division
or it may arise
from the middle
rectal a.

no named branches

internal iliac

common iliac a.

anterior division gives rise to the : pelvic viscera, gluteal


umbilical a., obturator a., uterine a., region, hip, medial
vaginal a., inferior vesical a.,
thigh
middle rectal a., internal pudendal
a., inferior gluteal a.; posterior
division gives rise to the:
iliolumbar a., lateral sacral a.,
superior gluteal a.

common iliac artery bifurcates


anterior to the sacroiliac
articulation to form the internal
iliac a. and the external iliac a.

internal pudendal

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

inferior rectal a., perineal a., artery


of the bulb of the clitoris/penis,
urethral a., deep clitoral/penile a.,
dorsal clitoral/penile a.

anus, muscles of the


superficial and deep
perineal spaces,
clitoris/penis, posterior
aspect of the
scrotum/labium majus

internal pudendal a. is the


primary blood supply to the
perineum

labial, posterior

perineal a.

no named branches

posterior aspect of the


labium majus

posterior labial a. courses


through the superficial perineal
space

lateral sacral

internal iliac a., spinal brs.


posterior division

sacrum, sacral nerve


rootlets, meninges,
adjacent muscles

there are usually 2 lateral


sacral aa. on each side, a
superior one and an inferior
one

middle rectal

internal iliac,
anterior division

middle portion of the


rectum

middle rectal a. anastomoses


with the inferior rectal a and

no named branches

lower part of the


urinary bladder,
prostate/vagina

inferior vesical a. anastomoses


with the middle rectal a.

the superior rectal a.


obturator

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

pubic br., acetabular br., anterior


br., posterior br.

medial thigh and hip

anterior and posterior brs. pass


on the anterior and posterior
sides of the adductor brevis m.;
aberrant obturator a. arises
from the inferior epigastric a.
in 30% of cases

ovarian

abdominal aorta

tubal brs., uterine brs.

ovary, uterine tube

ovarian a. anastomoses with


the uterine a.

penis, deep

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

corpus cavernosum of
the penis

deep a. of the penis and dorsal


a. of the penis are the terminal
brs. of the internal pudendal a.

penis, dorsal

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

superficial tissues of the dorsal a. of the penis and deep


penis
a. of the penis are the terminal
brs. of the internal pudendal a.

penis, of bulb

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

bulb of the penis and


associated tissues

artery of the bulb of the penis


courses within the deep
perineal space to enter the deep
surface of the bulb

perineal

internal pudendal posterior labial/scrotal; deep br.


a.

posterior aspect of the


scrotum/labium majus;
muscles of the
superficial perineal
space

perineal a. courses superficial


to the superficial transverse
perineus m.; it courses with the
perineal n.

posterior labial

perineal a.

no named branches

posterior aspect of the


labium majus

posterior labial a. courses


through the superficial perineal
space

posterior scrotal

perineal a.

no named branches

posterior aspect of the


scrotum

posterior scrotal a. passes


superficial to the superficial

transverse perineus m.
pudendal, deep external

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m., deep external pudendal a. may


adductor longus m.;
arise from the medial
scrotum/labium majus circumflex femoral a.

pudendal, internal

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

inferior rectal a., perineal a., artery


of the bulb of the clitoris/penis,
urethral a., deep clitoral/penile a.,
dorsal clitoral/penile a.

anus, muscles of the


superficial and deep
perineal spaces,
clitoris/penis, posterior
aspect of the
scrotum/labium majus

internal pudendal a. is the


primary blood supply to the
perineum

no named branches

skin and superficial


fascia of the upper
medial thigh, skin of
the pubic region

superficial external pudendal a.


is one of three superficial
branches of the femoral a. near
the inguinal ligament (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a.,
superficial epigastric a.)

pudendal, superficial external femoral a.

rectal, inferior

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

anus, ischioanal fossa

inferior rectal a. anastomoses


with the middle rectal a. and
the superior rectal a.

rectal, middle

internal iliac,
anterior division

no named branches

middle portion of the


rectum

middle rectal a. anastomoses


with the inferior rectal a and
the superior rectal a.

rectal, superior

inferior
mesenteric a.

two unnamed branches

superior part of the


rectum

superior rectal a. is the


continuation of the inferior
mesenteric a. after the sigmoid
brs. are given off; it
anastomoses with the middle
rectal a. and the inferior rectal
a.

sacral, lateral

internal iliac a.,

spinal brs.

sacrum, sacral nerve

there are usually 2 lateral

posterior division

rootlets, meninges,
adjacent muscles

sacral aa. on each side, a


superior one and an inferior
one

sacral, median

abdominal aorta

5th lumbar aa.

sacrum

median sacral a. appears to be


the continuation of the
abdominal aorta in the median
plane, although it is much
smaller in size

scrotal, posterior

perineal a.

no named branches

posterior aspect of the


scrotum

posterior scrotal a. passes


superficial to the superficial
transverse perineus m.

superficial external pudendal femoral a.

no named branches

skin and superficial


fascia of the upper
medial thigh, skin of
the pubic region

superficial external pudendal a.


is one of three superficial
branches of the femoral a. near
the inguinal ligament (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a.,
superficial epigastric a.)

testicular

abdominal aorta

ureteric brs.

testis, epididymis,
lower part of the ductus
deferens, ureter near its
midpoint

testicular a. is one of the


contents of the spermatic cord;
the origin of the testicular a.
from the aorta at the L2
vertebral level indicates the
embryonic level of origin of
the testis prior to its descent

umbilical

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

superior vesical aa., a. of the ductus superior part of the


deferens
bladder; ductus
deferens

distal to the branches described


at left, the lumen of the
umbilical a. becomes
obliterated after birth and the
remnant of the vessel becomes
the medial umbilical ligament

urethral

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

penile urethra

urethral a. branches off of the


internal pudendal a. within the
deep perineal space

uterine

internal iliac a.,


anterior division

uterus, uterine tube

uterine a. anastomoses with the


ovarian a. and the vaginal a.; it
passes superior to the ureter in
the pelvis; remember the
saying "water under the
bridge"

vaginal

internal iliac a., numerous unnamed branches


anterior division;
occasionally it
arises from
uterine a.

vagina

anastomoses with the uterine


a.; participates in the formation
of the azygos arteries along the
lateral surface of the vagina

vesical, inferior

internal iliac a.,


anterior division
or it may arise
from the middle
rectal a.

no named branches

lower part of the


urinary bladder,
prostate/vagina

inferior vesical a. anastomoses


with the middle rectal a.

vesical, superior

umbilical a.

no named branches

superior aspect of the


bladder

superior vesical aa.arise from


the umbilical a. proximal to
where its lumen becomes
obliterated

vestibule, bulb of

internal pudendal no named branches


a.

bulb of the vestibule


and associated tissues

artery of the bulb of the


vestibule courses within the
deep perineal space to enter the
deep surface of the bulb

tubal br., vaginal br.

Artery of upper limb

Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

Notes

anterior
circumflex
humeral

axillary a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid m.; arm muscles near anterior circumflex humeral a.


the surgical neck of the
anastomoses with the posterior
humerus
circumflex humeral a.

anterior
interosseous

common interosseous
a.

muscular brs.; a. of the median flexor pollicis longus m.,


nerve
flexor digitorum profundus
m., pronator quadratus m.,
radius, ulna, carpal bones

anterior interosseous a. pierces the


interosseous membrane at its distal
end to reach the dorsal carpal
anastomosis

anterior ulnar
recurrent

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular brs.

medial side of elbow and


proximal ends of forearm
flexor mm.

anterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises in common with the posterior
ulnar recurrent a.

arch, deep palmar radial a., deep br. of


ulnar a.

palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd4th), perforating brs.

deep palm, digits including


the dorsum of the distal
phalangeal segment

deep palmar arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

arch, dorsal
carpal arterial

radial a., ulnar a.

dorsal metacarpal aa.

dorsum of the hand and


digits, excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

dorsal carpal arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

arch, superficial
palmar

ulnar a., superficial


common palmar digital aa. (3) superficial palm, palmar
palmar br. of the radial
surface of the digits
a.
excluding thumb, dorsum of
the distal phalangeal
segments of digits 2-5

superficial palmar arterial arch


receives the majority of its blood
supply from the ulnar a.

axillary

subclavian a. (axillary
a. is the continuation
of the subclavian
lateral to the 1st rib)

pectoralis minor m. crosses anterior


to the axillary artery and is used to
delineate the 3 parts mentioned at
left

1st part: superior thoracic a.;


pectoral region, shoulder
2nd part: thoracoacromial a., region and upper limb
lateral thoracic a.; 3rd part:
anterior humeral circumflex a.,
posterior humeral circumflex
a., subscapular a.

brachial

axillary a. (brachial a.
is the continuation of
the axillary a. distal to
the teres major m.)

deep brachial a., superior ulnar arm, forearm and hand


collateral a., nutrient a.,
inferior ulnar collateral a.;
terminal branches are the
radial a. and the ulnar a.

brachial a. normally terminates at


the level of the elbow, but high
branching may occur

brachial, deep

brachial a.

ascending br.; terminal


branches are the middle
collateral a. and radial
collateral a.

brachiocephalic
trunk

aortic arch

right common carotid a., right right side of the head and
subclavian a.
neck; right upper limb and
right side of the chest wall

there is only one brachiocephalic


trunk

carpal arterial
arch, dorsal

radial a., ulnar a.

dorsal metacarpal aa.

dorsal carpal arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

cervical,
transverse

thyrocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches, trapezius muscle and


possibly the dorsal scapular a. surrounding tissues

muscles and tissues of the


deep brachial a. spirals around the
posterior compartment of the shaft of the humerus in the radial
arm
groove where it is susceptible to
injury in mid-shaft fractures

dorsum of the hand and


digits, excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

transverse cervical a. gives rise to


the dorsal scapular a. ~30% of the
time

circumflex
axillary a., 3rd part
humeral, anterior

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid m.; arm muscles near anterior circumflex humeral a.


the surgical neck of the
anastomoses with the posterior
humerus
circumflex humeral a.

circumflex
humeral,
posterior

axillary a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid; arm muscles near the posterior circumflex humeral a.


surgical neck of the humerus anastomoses with the anterior
circumflex humeral a.; it passes
through the quadrangular space with
the axillary nerve

circumflex
scapular

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

teres major m., teres minor


m., infraspinatus m.

circumflex scapular a. anastomoses


with the suprascapular a. and the
dorsal scapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis

collateral,
inferior ulnar

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower medial arm

anastomoses with the anterior ulnar


recurrent a.

collateral, middle deep brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial head of triceps,


anconeus

anastomoses with the interosseous


recurrent a.

collateral, radial

deep brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower lateral arm

travels with the radial nerve;


anastomoses with the radial
recurrent a.

collateral,
superior ulnar

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial arm muscles

travels with the ulnar nerve;


anastomoses with posterior ulnar
recurrent a.

common
interosseous

ulnar a.

anterior interosseous a.,


posterior interosseous a.

deep structures of the forearm common interosseous a. supplies the


deep forearm flexor and deep
forearm extensor muscles

common palmar
digital

superficial palmar
arterial arch

proper palmar digital aa. (2)

palmar aspect two adjacent


digits

deep brachial

brachial a.

ascending br.; terminal


branches are the middle
collateral a. and radial
collateral a.

muscles and tissues of the


deep brachial a. spirals around the
posterior compartment of the shaft of the humerus in the radial
arm
groove where it is susceptible to
injury in mid-shaft fractures

deep palmar arch radial a., deep br. of


ulnar a.

palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd4th), perforating brs.

deep palm, digits including


the dorsum of the distal
phalangeal segment

deep palmar arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

digital, common
palmar

superficial palmar
arterial arch

proper palmar digital aa. (2)

palmar aspect two adjacent


digits

common palmar digital aa.


anastomose with palmar metacarpal
aa.

digital, proper
palmar

common palmar digital no named branches


a.

palmar aspect of each digit

proper palmar digital aa. supply the


dorsum of the distal phalangeal
segment and nail bed

common palmar digital aa.


anastomose with palmar metacarpal
aa.

dorsal carpal
arterial arch

radial a., ulnar a.

dorsal metacarpal aa.

dorsum of the hand and


digits, excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

dorsal carpal arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

dorsal digital, of
hand

dorsal metacarpal a.

no named branches

dorsal aspect of 1/2 digit,


excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

dorsal digital aa. do not supply the


nail bed

dorsal metacarpal 1st: radial a.; 2-4:


dorsal carpal arterial
arch

dorsal digital aa. (2)

dorsum of 2 adjacent digits,


excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

each dorsal metacarpal a. gives off a


perforating br. that anastomoses
with the deep palmar arterial arch

dorsal scapular

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m.,


rhomboideus major m.,
rhomboideus minor m.

dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with


the suprascapular a. and the
subscapular a. to form the scapular
anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a
branch of the transverse cervical a.
in ~30% of cases

humeral, anterior axillary a., 3rd part


circumflex

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid m.; arm muscles near anterior circumflex humeral a.


the surgical neck of the
anastomoses with the posterior
humerus
circumflex humeral a.

humeral,
posterior
circumflex

axillary a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid; arm muscles near the posterior circumflex humeral a.


surgical neck of the humerus anastomoses with the anterior
circumflex humeral a.; it passes
through the quadrangular space with
the axillary nerve

inferior ulnar
collateral

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower medial arm

anastomoses with the anterior ulnar


recurrent a.

interosseous
recurrent

posterior interosseous
a.

unnamed muscular branches

anconeus m., elbow joint

interosseous recurrent a.
anastomoses with the middle
collateral a.

interosseous,

common interosseous

muscular brs.; a. of the median flexor pollicis longus m.,

subclavian a., 3rd part

anterior interosseous a. pierces the

anterior

a.

nerve

flexor digitorum profundus


m., pronator quadratus m.,
radius, ulna, carpal bones

interosseous,
common

ulnar a.

anterior interosseous a.,


posterior interosseous a.

deep structures of the forearm common interosseous a. supplies the


deep forearm flexor and deep
forearm extensor muscles

interosseous,
posterior

common interosseous
a.

interosseous recurrent

muscles of the posterior


(extensor) forearm
compartment: supinator m.,
abductor pollicis longus m.,
extensor pollicis longus m.,
extensor pollicis brevis m.,
extensor indicis m.

posterior interosseous a. passes


proximal to the interosseous
membrane to reach the extensor
compartment of the forearm

lateral thoracic

axillary, 2nd part

unnamed muscular branches

serratus anterior m., parts of


adjacent muscles, skin and
fascia of the anterolateral
thoracic wall

lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in


that it enters the serratus anterior
from its superficial surface

metacarpal,
dorsal

1st: radial a.; 2-4:


dorsal carpal arterial
arch

dorsal digital aa. (2)

dorsum of 2 adjacent digits,


excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

each dorsal metacarpal a. gives off a


perforating br. that anastomoses
with the deep palmar arterial arch

metacarpal,
palmar

deep palmar arch

proper palmar digital aa.

interosseous mm., deep hand palmar metacarpal aa. join with the
common palmar digital aa.

middle collateral deep brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial head of triceps,


anconeus

anastomoses with the interosseous


recurrent a.

palmar arch, deep radial a., deep br. of


ulnar a.

palmar metacarpal aa. (2nd4th), perforating brs.

deep palm, digits including


the dorsum of the distal
phalangeal segment

deep palmar arterial arch receives


the majority of its blood supply
from the radial a.

palmar arch,
superficial

ulnar a., superficial


common palmar digital aa. (3) superficial palm, palmar
palmar br. of the radial
surface of the digits

interosseous membrane at its distal


end to reach the dorsal carpal
anastomosis

superficial palmar arterial arch


receives the majority of its blood

a.

proper palmar digital aa. (2)

excluding thumb, dorsum of


the distal phalangeal
segments of digits 2-5

supply from the ulnar a.

palmar aspect two adjacent


digits

common palmar digital aa.


anastomose with palmar metacarpal
aa.
proper palmar digital aa. supply the
dorsum of the distal phalangeal
segment and nail bed

palmar digital,
common

superficial palmar
arterial arch

palmar digital,
proper

common palmar digital no named branches


a.

palmar aspect of each digit

palmar
metacarpal

deep palmar arch

proper palmar digital aa.

interosseous mm., deep hand palmar metacarpal aa. join with the
common palmar digital aa.

pectoral

thoracoacromial trunk

unnamed muscular branches

pectoralis major m.,


pectoralis minor m.

posterior
circumflex
humeral

axillary a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

deltoid; arm muscles near the posterior circumflex humeral a.


surgical neck of the humerus anastomoses with the anterior
circumflex humeral a.; it passes
through the quadrangular space with
the axillary nerve

posterior
interosseous

common interosseous
a.

interosseous recurrent

muscles of the posterior


(extensor) forearm
compartment: supinator m.,
abductor pollicis longus m.,
extensor pollicis longus m.,
extensor pollicis brevis m.,
extensor indicis m.

posterior interosseous a. passes


proximal to the interosseous
membrane to reach the extensor
compartment of the forearm

posterior ulnar
recurrent

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of the elbow,


forearm flexor mm.

posterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises from a common trunk with
the anterior ulnar recurrent a.

princeps pollicis

radial a.

two brs. to the thumb

palmar aspect of the thumb

arteria princeps pollicis is similar in

pectoral a. accompanies the lateral


pectoral n.

including the dorsum of the


distal phalangeal segment

function to a proper digital aa.; this


artery has a large pulse which can be
felt when attempting to take the
pulse of a patient - use fingers to
feel for the patient's pulse

proper palmar
digital

common palmar digital no named branches


a.

palmar aspect of each digit

proper palmar digital aa. supply the


dorsum of the distal phalangeal
segment and nail bed

radial

brachial a.

radial recurrent a., palmar


carpal br., superficial palmar
br., dorsal carpal br., 1st dorsal
metacarpal a., princeps pollicis
a., radialis indicis a., deep
palmar arterial arch

posterior elbow, posterior


forearm, posterior hand, deep
portion of palmar side of the
hand, thumb

radial a. provides the majority of


blood supply to the deep palmar
arterial arch; normally it arises at the
level of the elbow but may high
branching of the brachial a. may
result in the radial a. arising as
proximal as the axilla

radial collateral

deep brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower lateral arm

travels with the radial nerve;


anastomoses with the radial
recurrent a.

radial recurrent

radial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lateral side of the elbow and


adjacent extensor muscles

radial recurrent a. anastomoses with


the radial collateral a.; it courses in
the groove between the
brachioradialis m. and the brachialis
m.

radialis indicis

radial a.

no named branches

lateral (radial) side of the


index finger

arteria radialis indicis is equivalent


to a proper digital a.

recurrent,
anterior ulnar

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular brs.

medial side of elbow and


proximal ends of forearm
flexor mm.

anterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises in common with the posterior
ulnar recurrent a.

recurrent,
interosseous

posterior interosseous
a.

unnamed muscular branches

anconeus m., elbow joint

interosseous recurrent a.
anastomoses with the middle

collateral a.
recurrent,
posterior ulnar

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of the elbow,


forearm flexor mm.

posterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises from a common trunk with
the anterior ulnar recurrent a.

recurrent, radial

radial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lateral side of the elbow and


adjacent extensor muscles

radial recurrent a. anastomoses with


the radial collateral a.; it courses in
the groove between the
brachioradialis m. and the brachialis
m.

scapular,
circumflex

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

teres major m., teres minor


m., infraspinatus m.

circumflex scapular a. anastomoses


with the suprascapular a. and the
dorsal scapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis

scapular, dorsal

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m.,


rhomboideus major m.,
rhomboideus minor m.

dorsal scapular a. anastomoses with


the suprascapular a. and the
subscapular a. to form the scapular
anastomosis; dorsal scapular a is a
branch of the transverse cervical a.
in ~30% of cases

subclavian

brachiocephalic a.
(right), aortic arch
(left)

1st part: vertebral a.,


thyrocervical trunk, internal
thoracic a.; 2nd part:
costocervical trunk; 3rd part:
dorsal scapular a. (70%)

neck, brain, spinal cord,


thyroid gland, larynx,
shoulder, chest muscles,
upper limb

subclavian a. is continuous with the


axillary a., the name change occurs
at the lateral border of the first rib;
anterior scalene muscle passes
anterior to the subclavian a.,
dividing it into 3 parts

subscapular

axillary a., 3rd part

circumflex scapular a.,


thoracodorsal a.

subscapularis m., teres major the circumflex scapular branch of


m., teres minor m.,
the subscapular a.anastomoses with
infraspinatus m.
the suprascapular a. and the dorsal
scapular a. in the scapular
anastomosis

superficial
palmar arch

ulnar a., superficial


common palmar digital aa. (3) superficial palm, palmar
palmar br. of the radial
surface of the digits
a.
excluding thumb, dorsum of
the distal phalangeal
segments of digits 2-5

superficial palmar arterial arch


receives the majority of its blood
supply from the ulnar a.

superior thoracic axillary a., 1st part

unnamed muscular branches

muscles of intercostal spaces superior thoracic a. anastomoses


1 and 2
with the intercostal aa. for
intercostal spaces 1 and 2

superior ulnar
collateral

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial arm muscles

travels with the ulnar nerve;


anastomoses with posterior ulnar
recurrent a.

suprascapular

thyrocervical trunk

muscular

supraspinatus &
infraspinatus, shoulder joint

anastomoses with the circumflex


scapular a. and the dorsal scapular a.
to form the scapular anastomosis

thoracic, lateral

axillary a., 2nd part

unnamed muscular branches

serratus anterior m., parts of


adjacent muscles, skin and
fascia of the anterolateral
thoracic wall

lateral thoracic a. is a rare case in


that it enters the serratus anterior
from its superficial surface

thoracic, superior axillary a., 1st part

unnamed muscular branches

muscles of intercostal spaces superior thoracic a. anastomoses


1 and 2
with the intercostal aa. for
intercostal spaces 1 and 2

thoracoacromial

axillary a., 2nd part

pectoral br., clavicular br.,


acromial br., deltoid br.

pectoralis major m.,


pectoralis minor m.,
subclavius m., deltoid m.,
shoulder joint

thoracoacromial trunk pierces the


costocoracoid membrane

thoracodorsal

subscapular a.

unnamed muscular branches

latissimus dorsi m.

thoracodorsal a. accompanies the


thoracodorsal n.

trunk,
brachiocephalic

aortic arch

right common carotid a., right right side of the head and
subclavian a.
neck; right upper limb and

there is only one brachiocephalic


trunk

right side of the chest wall


trunk,
thyrocervical

subclavian a., 1st part

inferior thyroid a., transverse


cervical a., suprascapular a.

lower neck, posterior


shoulder, thyroid gland

thyrocervical trunk does not give


rise to the ascending cervical a.- it is
a branch of the inferior thyroid a.

ulnar

brachial a.

anterior ulnar recurrent a.,


medial side of the anterior
posterior ulnar recurrent a.,
forearm, posterior forearm,
common interosseous a.,
superficial palm, fingers
palmar carpal br., dorsal carpal
br., deep palmar br., superficial
palmar arterial arch

ulnar a. supplies the majority of


blood to the superficial palmar
arterial arch; it normally arises at the
level of the elbow, but high
branching of the brachial a. may
cause the ulnar a. to arise as far
proximally as the axilla

ulnar collateral,
inferior

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

lower medial arm

anastomoses with the anterior ulnar


recurrent a.

ulnar collateral,
superior

brachial a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial arm muscles

travels with the ulnar nerve;


anastomoses with posterior ulnar
recurrent a.

ulnar recurrent,
anterior

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular brs.

medial side of elbow and


proximal ends of forearm
flexor mm.

anterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises in common with the posterior
ulnar recurrent a.

ulnar recurrent,
posterior

ulnar a.

unnamed muscular branches

medial side of the elbow,


forearm flexor mm.

posterior ulnar recurrent a. often


arises from a common trunk with
the anterior ulnar recurrent a.

Arteries of the Lower Limb - Arranged Alphabetically


Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

Notes

anterior lateral malleolar

anterior tibial a. no named branches

lateral side of the ankle

anterior medial malleolar

anterior tibial a. no named branches

medial side of the ankle anterior medial malleolar a.


anastomoses with the posterior
medial malleolar a.

anterior tibial

popliteal a.

anterior tibial recurrent

anterior tibial a. no named branches

anterior side of the knee anterior tibial recurrent a.


and adjacent muscles
anastomoses with the genicular aa.
to participate in the formation of the
genicular anastomosis

aorta, abdominal

the
continuation of
the descending
thoracic aorta

inferior phrenic aa. (2), celiac


trunk, middle suprarenal aa. (2),
lumbar aa. (4 pairs), superior
mesenteric a., renal aa. (2),
testicular/ovarian aa. (2), inferior
mesenteric a., median sacral a.,
common iliac aa. (2)

abdominal wall;
abdominal aorta passes posterior to
gastrointestinal tract;
the diaphragm (aortic hiatus) at the
body below the level of level of the T12 vertebral body
the respiratory
diaphragm

arch, plantar arterial

lateral plantar
a.

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

deep foot; its plantar


plantar arterial arch anastomoses
metatarsal brs. and their with the deep plantar br. of the
brs. supply the toes,
dorsalis pedis a.
including the dorsum of
the distal phalangeal
segment

arcuate

dorsalis pedis

dorsal metatarsal aa. (3)

dorsum of the foot,

anterior tibial recurrent a.,


anterior leg; dorsum of
posterior tibial recurrent a.,
foot and deep foot
anterior malleolar a., medial
malleolar a., lateral malleolar a.,
dorsalis pedis a.

anterior lateral malleolar a.


anastomoses with the posterior
lateral malleolar a. and the
perforating br. of the fibular a.

anterior tibial a. becomes


continuous with the dorsalis pedis
a.; the name change occurs at the
level of the ankle joint

arcuate a. anastomoses with the

a.

excluding the pollex and lateral tarsal a.


the distal phalangeal
segments of the digits

circumflex femoral, lateral

deep femoral a. ascending br., transverse br.,


descending br.

lateral thigh and hip

lateral circumflex femoral a. arises


from the femoral a. in ~14% of
cases

circumflex femoral, medial

deep femoral a. ascending br., descending br.

medial thigh and hip

medial circumflex femoral a. arises


from the femoral a. in ~20% of
cases

circumflex fibular

anterior tibial

unnamed muscular branches

proximal portion of
lateral leg

arises from the tibial a. before the


tibial a. pierces the interosseous
membrane

circumflex iliac, superficial

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

superficial fascia of
lower abdomen and
thigh

superficial circumflex iliac a.


crosses the upper thigh parallel to
the inguinal ligament

deep external pudendal

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m.,


adductor longus m.;
scrotum/labium majus

deep external pudendal a. may arise


from the medial circumflex femoral
a.

deep femoral

femoral a.

medial circumflex femoral a.,


lateral circumflex femoral a.,
perforating aa. (3 or 4)

hip joint, proximal


thigh, posterior thigh

deep femoral a. is the primary


blood supply to muscles of the
posterior compartment of the thigh

deep plantar

dorsalis pedis

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

deep foot; its plantar


metatarsal brs. and their
brs. supply the toes,
including the dorsum of
the distal phalangeal
segment

anastomoses with lateral plantar a.


to form the plantar arterial arch; the
branches mentioned at left arise
from the plantar arterial arch

descending genicular

femoral a.

saphenous br., articular brs.

skin and superficial


structures of the medial

descending genicular a.
anastomoses with the genicular brs.

aspect of the knee and


upper leg

of the popliteal a.

digital, proper plantar

plantar
metatarsal a.,
from the
plantar arterial
arch

no named branches

plantar aspect of each


digit

proper plantar digital aa. supply the


dorsum of the distal phalangeal
segment and nail bed

dorsal digital, of foot

dorsal
metatarsal a.

no named branches

dorsal aspect of 1/2


digit, excluding the
distal phalangeal
segment

dorsal digital aa. do not supply the


nail bed

dorsal metatarsal

dorsalis pedis
(1st), arcuate
(2nd-4th)

dorsal digital aa. (2)

dorsum of digits,
excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a


perforating br. that anastomoses
with the plantar arterial arch

dorsalis pedis

anterior tibial a. lateral tarsal a., medial tarsal a.,


arcuate a., 1st dorsal metatarsal
a., deep plantar a.

dorsal aspect of the foot; dorsalis pedis a. anastomoses with


the plantar arterial arch; the anterior
tibial artery continues as the
dorsalis pedis - the name change
occurs at the level of the ankle

external iliac

common iliac
a.

inferior epigastric a., deep


circumflex iliac a., femoral a.

lower limb

external iliac a. is continuous with


the femoral a., the name change
occurs at the inguinal ligament; the
common iliac artery bifurcates
anterior to the sacroiliac articulation

external pudendal, deep

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m.,


adductor longus m.;
scrotum/labium majus

deep external pudendal a. may arise


from the medial circumflex femoral
a.

external pudendal,
superficial

femoral a.

no named branches

skin and superficial


superficial external pudendal a. is
fascia of the upper
one of three superficial branches of
medial thigh, skin of the the femoral a. near the inguinal

pubic region

ligament (see also: superficial


circumflex iliac a., superficial
epigastric a.)

femoral

external iliac a. superficial epigastric a.,


thigh, leg and foot
superficial circumflex iliac a.,
superficial external pudendal a.,
deep external pudendal a., deep
femoral a., descending genicular
a., popliteal a.

femoral a. is continuous with the


popliteal a., the name change
occurs at the adductor hiatus

femoral, deep

femoral a.

hip joint, proximal


thigh, posterior thigh

deep femoral a. is the primary


blood supply to muscles of the
posterior compartment of the thigh

femoral, lateral circumflex

deep femoral a. ascending br., transverse br.,


descending br.

lateral thigh and hip

lateral circumflex femoral a. arises


from the femoral a. in ~14% of
cases

femoral, medial circumflex

deep femoral a. ascending br., descending br.

medial thigh and hip

medial circumflex femoral a. arises


from the femoral a. in ~20% of
cases

fibular

posterior tibial
a.

nutrient br., lateral malleolar a.,


communicating br., perforating
br.

muscles and fascia of


the lateral leg ankle

fibular a. anastomoses at the ankle


with the anterior and posterior tibial
aa.; also known as: peroneal a.

genicular, descending

femoral a.

saphenous br., articular brs.

skin and superficial


structures of the medial
aspect of the knee and
upper leg

descending genicular a.
anastomoses with the genicular brs.
of the popliteal a.

genicular, inferior lateral

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of the


knee

inferior lateral genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the

medial circumflex femoral a.,


lateral circumflex femoral a.,
perforating aa. (3 or 4)

genicular anastomosis
genicular, inferior medial

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of the


knee

inferior medial genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

genicular, middle

popliteal a.

no named branches

cruciate ligaments and


deep structures of the
knee

middle genicular a. anastomoses


with the other genicular brs. of the
popliteal a., circumflex fibular a.
and anterior tibial recurrent a. to
form the genicular anastomosis

genicular, superior lateral

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of knee

superior lateral genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

genicular, superior medial

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of knee

superior medial genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

gluteal, inferior

internal iliac a., unnamed muscular branches


anterior
division

gluteus maximus m., hip inferior gluteal a. participates in the


joint
formation of the cruciate
anastomoses of the hip

gluteal, superior

internal iliac,
posterior
division

gluteus maximus m.,


superior gluteal a. participates in
gluteus medius m.,
the formation of the cruciate
gluteus minimus m., hip anastomoses of the hip

superficial br., deep br.

joint
iliac, common

abdominal
aorta

external iliac a., internal iliac a.

pelvis, lower limb

abdominal aorta bifurcates at the


level of the L4 vertebral body to
form the right and left common
iliac aa.; the common iliac artery
bifurcates anterior to the sacroiliac
articulation into its terminal brs.
(external iliac a. and internal iliac
a.)

iliac, external

common iliac
a.

inferior epigastric a., deep


circumflex iliac a., femoral a.

lower limb

external iliac a. is continuous with


the femoral a., the name change
occurs at the inguinal ligament; the
common iliac artery bifurcates
anterior to the sacroiliac articulation

iliolumbar

internal iliac a., iliac br., lumbar br.


posterior
division

iliacus m., psoas major lumbar br. of the iliolumbar a.


m., quadratus lumborum sends a small spinal br. into the
m.
vertebral canal

inferior epigastric

external iliac a. cremasteric a.

lower rectus abdominis


m., pyramidalis m.,
lower abdominal wall

inferior gluteal

internal iliac a., unnamed muscular branches


anterior
division

gluteus maximus m., hip inferior gluteal a. participates in the


joint
formation of the cruciate
anastomoses of the hip

inferior lateral genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of the


knee

inferior lateral genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

inferior medial genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of the

inferior medial genicular a.

inferior epigastric m. anastomoses


with the superior epigastric m.
within the rectus abdominis m.

knee

anastomoses with the other


genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

lateral plantar

posterior tibial
a.

proper plantar digital a. to lateral deep foot; the plantar


side of 5th digit
arterial arch and its brs.
supply the toes,
including the distal
phalangeal segment
dorsally

lateral plantar a. becomes


continuous with the plantar arterial
arch

lateral tarsal

dorsalis pedis
a.

no named branches

tarsal bones and joints


of the lateral foot

lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with


the arcuate a.

lumbar

abdominal
aorta

anterior br., posterior br., spinal


br.

psoas major m., psoas


minor m., quadratus
lumborum m., spinal
cord and vertebral
column, deep back
muscles

the 4 lumbar arteries on each side


arise from the posterior surface of
the aorta at the level of vertebrae
L1-L4; they course posterior to the
psoas major m.

malleolar, anterior lateral

anterior tibial a. no named branches

lateral side of the ankle

anterior lateral malleolar a.


anastomoses with the posterior
lateral malleolar a. and the
perforating br. of the fibular a.

malleolar, anterior medial

anterior tibial a. no named branches

medial side of the ankle anterior medial malleolar a.


anastomoses with the posterior
medial malleolar a.

malleolar, posterior lateral

fibular a.

calcaneal brs.

lateral side of the ankle

malleolar, posterior medial

posterior tibial

no named branches

medial side of the ankle posterior medial malleolar a.

posterior lateral malleolar a.


anastomoses with the anterior
lateral malleolar a.

a.

anastomoses with the anterior


medial malleolar a.

medial plantar

posterior tibial
a.

digital brs. (3)

medial side of the sole


of the foot

medial tarsal

dorsalis pedis
a.

no named branches

tarsal bones and joints


medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number;
of the medial side of the they anastomose with the medial
foot
malleolar aa.

metatarsal, dorsal

dorsalis pedis
(1st), arcuate
(2nd-4th)

dorsal digital aa. (2)

dorsum of digits,
excluding the distal
phalangeal segment

metatarsal, plantar

plantar arterial
arch

perforating br., plantar digital aa. interosseous mm., deep


(2)
portions of the foot;
digits including the
dorsum of the distal
phalangeal segment

plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose


with dorsal metatarsal aa.

middle genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

middle genicular a. anastomoses


with the other genicular brs. of the
popliteal a., circumflex fibular a.
and anterior tibial recurrent a. to
form the genicular anastomosis

obturator

internal iliac a., pubic br., acetabular br., anterior medial thigh and hip
anterior
br., posterior br.
division

plantar arterial arch

lateral plantar
a.

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

cruciate ligaments and


deep structures of the
knee

medial plantar a. anastomoses with


the plantar metatarsal aa., but does
not usually participate in formation
of the plantar arterial arch

each dorsal metatarsal a. gives off a


perforating br. that anastomoses
with the plantar arterial arch

anterior and posterior brs. pass on


the anterior and posterior sides of
the adductor brevis m.; aberrant
obturator a. arises from the inferior
epigastric a. in 30% of cases

deep foot; its plantar


plantar arterial arch anastomoses
metatarsal brs. and their with the deep plantar br. of the
brs. supply the toes,
dorsalis pedis a.

including the dorsum of


the distal phalangeal
segment
plantar metatarsal

plantar arterial
arch

perforating br., plantar digital aa. interosseous mm., deep


(2)
portions of the foot;
digits including the
dorsum of the distal
phalangeal segment

plantar metatarsal aa.anastomose


with dorsal metatarsal aa.

plantar, deep

dorsalis pedis

plantar metatarsal aa. (4)

deep foot; its plantar


metatarsal brs. and their
brs. supply the toes,
including the dorsum of
the distal phalangeal
segment

anastomoses with lateral plantar a.


to form the plantar arterial arch; the
branches mentioned at left arise
from the plantar arterial arch

plantar, lateral

posterior tibial
a.

proper plantar digital a. to lateral deep foot; the plantar


side of 5th digit
arterial arch and its brs.
supply the toes,
including the distal
phalangeal segment
dorsally

lateral plantar a. becomes


continuous with the plantar arterial
arch

plantar, medial

posterior tibial
a.

digital brs. (3)

medial side of the sole


of the foot

medial plantar a. anastomoses with


the plantar metatarsal aa., but does
not usually participate in formation
of the plantar arterial arch

popliteal

femoral a.

anterior tibial a., posterior tibial


a., 5 genicular brs.

knee, leg and foot

the popliteal a. is the continuation


of the femoral a., the name change
occurs at the adductor hiatus

posterior lateral malleolar

fibular a.

calcaneal brs.

lateral side of the ankle

posterior lateral malleolar a.


anastomoses with the anterior
lateral malleolar a.

posterior medial malleolar

posterior tibial
a.

no named branches

medial side of the ankle posterior medial malleolar a.


anastomoses with the anterior
medial malleolar a.

posterior tibial

popliteal a.

fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex posterior and lateral leg,


fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, plantar aspect of the
communicating br., posterior
foot
medial malleolar brs., medial
calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a.,
medial plantar a.

posterior tibial recurrent

anterior tibial a. no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus anastomoses with the other


m.
genicular aa. to participate in the
formation of the genicular
anastomosis

proper plantar digital

plantar
metatarsal a.,
from the
plantar arterial
arch

no named branches

plantar aspect of each


digit

proper plantar digital aa. supply the


dorsum of the distal phalangeal
segment and nail bed

pudendal, deep external

femoral a.

unnamed muscular branches

origins of pectineus m.,


adductor longus m.;
scrotum/labium majus

deep external pudendal a. may arise


from the medial circumflex femoral
a.

pudendal, superficial
external

femoral a.

no named branches

skin and superficial


fascia of the upper
medial thigh, skin of the
pubic region

superficial external pudendal a. is


one of three superficial branches of
the femoral a. near the inguinal
ligament (see also: superficial
circumflex iliac a., superficial
epigastric a.)

recurrent, anterior tibial

anterior tibial a. no named branches

posterior tibial a. is the direct


continuation of the popliteal a. the
name change occurs at the inferior
border of the popliteus m. where
the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial
a. bifurcates on the medial side of
the foot to give rise to the medial
plantar a. and lateral plantar a.

anterior side of the knee anterior tibial recurrent a.

and adjacent muscles

anastomoses with the genicular aa.


to participate in the formation of the
genicular anastomosis

recurrent, posterior tibial

anterior tibial a. no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus anastomoses with the other


m.
genicular aa. to participate in the
formation of the genicular
anastomosis

superficial epigastric

femoral a.

cutaneous brs.

superficial fascia and


skin of the lower
abdominal wall

superficial epigastric a. is one of


three superficial arteries that arise
from the femoral a. (see also:
superficial circumflex iliac a. and
superficial external pudendal a.)

superficial external
pudendal

femoral a.

no named branches

skin and superficial


fascia of the upper
medial thigh, skin of the
pubic region

superficial external pudendal a. is


one of three superficial branches of
the femoral a. near the inguinal
ligament (see also: superficial
circumflex iliac a., superficial
epigastric a.)

superior lateral genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

lateral aspect of knee

superior lateral genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

superior medial genicular

popliteal a.

no named branches

medial aspect of knee

superior medial genicular a.


anastomoses with the other
genicular brs. of the popliteal a.,
circumflex fibular a. and anterior
tibial recurrent a. to form the
genicular anastomosis

sural

popliteal a.

unnamed muscular aa.

gastrocnemius m.,
soleus m., plantaris m.

sural aa. are often confused with the


inferior genicular aa. during
dissection

tarsal, lateral

dorsalis pedis
a.

no named branches

tarsal bones and joints


of the lateral foot

lateral tarsal a. anastomoses with


the arcuate a.

tarsal, medial

dorsalis pedis
a.

no named branches

tarsal bones and joints


medial tarsal aa. are 2-3 in number;
of the medial side of the they anastomose with the medial
foot
malleolar aa.

tibial recurrent, anterior

anterior tibial a. no named branches

anterior side of the knee anterior tibial recurrent a.


and adjacent muscles
anastomoses with the genicular aa.
to participate in the formation of the
genicular anastomosis

tibial recurrent, posterior

anterior tibial a. no named branches

posterior knee, popliteus anastomoses with the other


m.
genicular aa. to participate in the
formation of the genicular
anastomosis

tibial, anterior

popliteal a.

anterior tibial recurrent a.,


anterior leg; dorsum of
posterior tibial recurrent a.,
foot and deep foot
anterior malleolar a., medial
malleolar a., lateral malleolar a.,
dorsalis pedis a.

anterior tibial a. becomes


continuous with the dorsalis pedis
a.; the name change occurs at the
level of the ankle joint

tibial, posterior

popliteal a.

fibular a. (peroneal), circumflex posterior and lateral leg,


fibular a., nutrient a. of the tibia, plantar aspect of the
communicating br., posterior
foot
medial malleolar brs., medial
calcaneal brs., lateral plantar a.,
medial plantar a.

posterior tibial a. is the direct


continuation of the popliteal a. the
name change occurs at the inferior
border of the popliteus m. where
the popliteal a. bifurcates; the tibial
a. bifurcates on the medial side of
the foot to give rise to the medial
plantar a. and lateral plantar a.

Arteries of the Head and Neck - Arranged Alphabetically


Artery

Source

Branches

Supply to

Notes

alveolar, anterior superior infraorbital a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary incisor and canine anterior superior alveolar a.


teeth; part of the maxillary
is located between the
sinus
inner and outer tables of
bone of the maxilla

alveolar, inferior

maxillary a.

lingual br., mylohyoid a.,


dental brs., mental a.

mandibular teeth and


gingiva; mandible;
mylohyoid m.

inferior alveolar a. runs


with the inferior alveolar
nerve within the
mandibular canal

alveolar, middle superior

infraorbital a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary premolar teeth;


part of the maxillary sinus

middle superior alveolar a.


is located between the
inner and outer tables of
bone of the maxilla

alveolar, posterior
superior

maxillary a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary molar teeth; part


of the maxillary sinus

posterior superior alveolar


a. enters the maxilla in the
infratemporal fossa

angular

facial a.

no named branches

orbicularis oculi m. and


lacrimal sac

angular a. is the terminal


branch of the facial a.

anterior cerebral

internal carotid a.

anterior communicating a.,


medial frontobasal a., polar
frontal a., callosomarginal a.,
precuneal a.

medial and inferior portions


of the frontal lobe; medial
side of the parietal lobe;
corpus callosum and part of
the limbic lobe; olfactory
bulb and tract; optic nerve,
optic chiasm and optic tract

the anterior communicating


a. unites the two anterior
cerebral aa. across the
midline

anterior communicating

anterior cerebral a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

anterior communicating a.

is a short vessel of
anastomosis which crosses
the midline to join the
paired anterior cerebral aa.;
it is part of the Circle of
Willis
anterior deep temporal

maxillary a.

no named branches

anterior part of temporalis


m. and surrounding deep
tissues

anterior deep temporal a.


branches in the
infratemporal fossa and
runs deep to temporalis m.

anterior ethmoidal

ophthalmic a.

anterior meningeal a., anterior anterior ethmoidal air cells,


septal br., anterior lateral nasal frontal paranasal sinus, dura
br.
mater in the anterior cranial
fossa, nasal mucosa,
olfactory nerves

anterior ethmoidal a. leaves


the orbit through the
anterior ethmoidal
foramen, then runs forward
on the cribriform plate

anterior inferior cerebellar basilar a.

labyrinthine (usually)

pons (motor nucleus of


cranial nerve V, chief
sensory nucleus of cranial
nerve V, abducens nucleus,
facial nucleus, superior
salivatory nucleus);
cerebellum; inner ear

shares its region of supply


with branches of the basilar
a.

anterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

they accompany the ventral


rootlets to reach the spinal
cord

meninges; spinal cord; spinal anterior radicular aa.


nerve; ventral rootlets
anastomose with the
anterior spinal a.

anterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve X,

anterior spinal a.
anastomoses with the
anterior radicular brs. of

intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar, lateral sacral
aa.)

nucleus ambiguus, spinal


accessory nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

the spinal rami of the


vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar and lateral sacral
aa.

anterior superior alveolar

infraorbital a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary incisor and canine anterior superior alveolar a.


teeth; part of the maxillary
is located between the
sinus
inner and outer tables of
bone of the maxilla

anterior tympanic

maxillary a.

no named branches

middle ear

anterior tympanic a. passes


through the petrotympanic
fissure along with the
chorda tympani n.

aortic arch

the continuation of the


ascending aorta

brachiocephalic trunk, left


common carotid a., left
subclavian a.

the entire body except the


heart

aortic arch continues as the


descending thoracic aorta;
the fibrous ligamentum
arteriosum connects to the
inferior surface of the
aortic arch and it marks the
location of the fetal ductus
arteriosus aortic arch
continues as the descending
thoracic aorta

ascending cervical

inferior thyroid a.

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the neck

ascending cervical a.
ascends on the anterior
surface of the anterior
scalene m. beside the
phrenic n.

ascending palatine

facial a.

no named branches

superior pharyngeal
constrictor, soft palate,
palatine tonsil

ascending palatine a. shares


supply of the tonsil bed
with 4 other aa. (see also:

tonsillar br. of the facial a.,


palatine br. of the
ascending pharyngeal a.,
tonsillar br. of the dorsal
lingual a., tonsillar br. of
the descending palatine a.)
ascending pharyngeal

external carotid a.

pharyngeal brs., inferior


tympanic a., posterior
meningeal a.

pharynx, meninges

ascending pharyngeal a.
arises from the medial side
of the external carotid a.
close to the birfurcation

auricular, deep

maxillary a.

no named branches

external auditory meatus,


tympanic membrane

deep auricular a. is small


and difficult to dissect

auricular, posterior

external carotid a.

stylomastoid br., auricular br., part of the external ear, scalp posterior auricular and
occipital br.
and deeper structures
greater occipital share their
posterior to the ear
region of distribution

basilar

formed by the joining of pontine brs., anterior inferior


the two vertebral aa.
cerebellar a., superior
cerebellar a., two posterior
cerebral aa. (terminal brs.)

brachiocephalic trunk

aortic arch

right common carotid a., right right side of the head and
subclavian a.
neck; right upper limb and
right side of the chest wall

there is only one


brachiocephalic trunk

buccal

maxillary a.

no named branches

buccal a. runs with the


buccal branch of CN V

pons (motor nucleus of


basilar a. contributes blood
cranial nerve V, chief
to the cerebral arterial
sensory nucleus of cranial
circle
nerve V, abducens nucleus,
facial nucleus, superior
salivatory nucleus);
oculomotor nucleus; nucleus
of Edinger-Westphal;
cerebellum; posterior
cerebrum

cheek and associated


muscles

caroticotympanic

internal carotid a.

no named branches

tympanic cavity

caroticotympanic a. courses
through the petrous portion
of the temporal bone

carotid, common

brachiocephalic trunk
external carotid a., internal
(right), aortic arch (left) carotid a.

most of the head and upper


neck

common carotid a.
bifurcates at the level of the
superior border of the
thyroid cartilage; the
internal carotid a. and the
external carotid a. are its
terminal brs.; the carotid
sinus and carotid body are
located at the bifurcation

carotid, external

common carotid a.

superior thyroid a., ascending upper neck, face and scalp


pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial
a., occipital a., posterior
auricular a., maxillary a.,
superficial temporal a.

external carotid a. is the


primary blood supply to the
face and superficial head;
the maxillary a. and
superficial temporal a. are
its terminal branches

carotid, internal

common carotid a.

none in the neck; in the head:


ophthalmic a., posterior
communicating a., anterior
cerebral a., middle cerebral a.

brain; eye and orbit;


forehead

internal carotid a. is the


primary blood supply to the
brain; it anastomoses with
the vertebral aa. and the
contralateral internal
carotid a. in the cerebral
arterial circle (of Willis);
anterior and middle
cerebral aa. are the terminal
brs. of the internal carotid
a.

central, of retina

ophthalmic a.

superior nasal br., inferior


nasal br., superior temporal

retina

central a. of the retina is the


sole blood supply to the

br., inferior temporal br.

retina; it has no significant


collateral circulation and
blockage of this vessel
leads to blindness; its
branches are viewed in a
funduscopic exam

cerebellar, anterior
inferior

basilar a.

labyrinthine a. (usually)

pons (motor nucleus of


cranial nerve V, chief
sensory nucleus of cranial
nerve V, abducens nucleus,
facial nucleus, superior
salivatory nucleus);
cerebellum; inner ear

anterior inferior cerebella


a. shares its region of
supply with branches of the
basilar a.

cerebellar, posterior
inferior

vertebral a.

posterior spinal a.

part of cerebellum; medulla


(cochlear nucleus, vestibular
nucleus, dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve X,
nucleus ambiguus)

posterior inferior cerebellar


a. shares its region of
supply with the vertebral a.
and anterior spinal a.
(watershed region)

cerebellar, superior

basilar a.

no named branches

upper cerebellum; trochlear


nucleus

there may be more than one


superior cerebellar a.
arising from the basilar a.
on each side

cerebral, anterior

internal carotid a.

anterior communicating a.,


medial frontobasal a., polar
frontal a., callosomarginal a.,
precuneal a.

medial and inferior portions


of the frontal lobe; medial
side of the parietal lobe;
corpus callosum and part of
the limbic lobe; olfactory
bulb and tract; optic nerve,
optic chiasm and optic tract

the anterior communicating


a. unites the two anterior
cerebral aa. across the
midline

cerebral arterial circle

an anastomotic circle of this is an anastomotic loop;


blood vessels formed by major named vessels connect

brain and midbrain

also known as: arterial


circle of Willis

portions of the
here, but there are no named
following vessels:
branches of the arterial circle
posterior cerebral aa.
(2); posterior
communicating aa. (2);
internal carotid aa. (2);
anterior cerebral aa. (2);
anterior communicating
a.
cerebral, middle

internal carotid a.

lateral frontobasal a.;


frontal, parietal and temporal the middle cerebral a. is the
prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral lobes, especially on their
direct continuation of the
sulcal a.; central sulcal a.;
lateral surfaces
internal carotid a.
anterior parietal a.; posterior
parietal a.; anterior, middle
and posterior temporal aa.

cerebral, posterior

basilar a.

posterior cerebral a.; anterior


and posterior temporal brs.;
medial occipital a.

part of the brainstem


the two posterior cerebral
(oculomotor nucleus,
aa. are the terminal brs. of
nucleus of Edingerthe basilar a.
Westphal, trochlear nucleus);
medial and inferior portions
of the temporal lobe;
occipital lobe

cervical, ascending

inferior thyroid a.

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the neck

ascending cervical a.
ascends on the anterior
surface of the anterior
scalene m. beside the
phrenic n.

cervical, deep

costocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the


posterior neck

deep cervical a.
anastomoses with the
occipital a. near the
occipital bone

cervical, transverse

thyrocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches, trapezius muscle and


possibly the dorsal scapular a. surrounding tissues

transverse cervical a. gives


rise to the dorsal scapular
a. ~30% of the time

choroidal

internal carotid a.

no named branches

choroid plexus; optic nerve,


optic chiasm and optic tract

choroidal a. follows the


optic tract

ciliary, anterior

muscular brs. of the


ophthalmic a.

no named branches

anterior part of eyeball

anterior ciliary aa. course


deep to the conjunctiva to
reach the region
surrounding the iris

ciliary, posterior

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

eyeball

posterior ciliary aa. may be


classified as short
(supplying the posterior
eyeball) and lone
(supplying the anterior
eyeball); short and long
posterior ciliary aa. are
identical in their size and
course external to the
eyeball

common carotid

brachiocephalic trunk
external carotid a., internal
(right), aortic arch (left) carotid a.

most of the head and upper


neck

common carotid a.
bifurcates at the level of the
superior border of the
thyroid cartilage; the
internal carotid a. and the
external carotid a. are its
terminal brs.; the carotid
sinus and carotid body are
located at the bifurcation

communicating, anterior

anterior cerebral a.

an anastomotic connection

anterior communicating a.
is a short vessel of
anastomosis which crosses

perforating aa.

the midline to join the


paired anterior cerebral aa.;
it is part of the Circle of
Willis
communicating, posterior internal carotid a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

a vessel of anastomosis
which connects the internal
carotid a. to the posterior
cerebral a.; part of the
cerebral arterial circle (of
Willis)

costocervical trunk

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

deep muscles of the


posterior neck; posterior
ends of the first 2 intercostal
spaces

costocervical trunk is
located between the
anterior scalene m. and the
middle scalene m.; it arches
posteriorly over the
cervical parietal pleura

cricothyroid

superior thyroid a.

no named branches

cricothyroid m., inferior


pharyngeal constrictor m.

cricothyroid a. travels with


the external br. of the
superior laryngeal n.

deep cervical

costocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches

deep muscles of the


posterior neck

deep cervical a.
anastomoses with the
occipital a. near the
occipital bone

descending palatine

maxillary a.

greater palatine a., lesser


palatine a.

palate

descending palatine a.
accompanies the greater
palatine n. within the
palatine canal

dorsal lingual

lingual a.

no named branches

posterior tongue, palatine


tonsil, soft palate

dorsal lingual a. is only one


of five arteries that supply
the tonsil bed

dorsal nasal

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

dorsum of the nose

dorsal nasal a. anastomoses


with the angular a.

dorsal scapular

subclavian a., 3rd part

unnamed muscular branches

levator scapulae m.,


rhomboideus major m.,
rhomboideus minor m.

dorsal scapular a.
anastomoses with the
suprascapular a. and the
subscapular a. to form the
scapular anastomosis;
dorsal scapular a is a
branch of the transverse
cervical a. in ~30% of
cases

ethmoidal, anterior

ophthalmic a.

anterior meningeal a., anterior anterior ethmoidal air cells,


septal br., anterior lateral nasal frontal paranasal sinus, dura
br.
mater in the anterior cranial
fossa, nasal mucosa,
olfactory nerves

ethmoidal, posterior

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

external carotid

common carotid

superior thyroid a., ascending upper neck, face and scalp


pharyngeal a., lingual a., facial
a., occipital a., posterior
auricular a., maxillary a.,
superficial temporal a.

facial

external carotid a.

ascending palatine a., tonsilar


br., submental a., superior
labial a., inferior labial a.,
lateral nasal a., angular a.

anterior ethmoidal a. leaves


the orbit through the
anterior ethmoidal
foramen, then runs forward
on the cribriform plate

posterior ethmoidal air cells; posterior ethmoidal a.


olfactory nerves
leaves the orbit through the
posterior ethmoidal
foramen
external carotid a. is the
primary blood supply to the
face and superficial head;
the maxillary a. and
superficial temporal a. are
its terminal branches

lower part of the palatine


the angular branch of the
tonsil, submandibular gland, facial a. anastomoses with
facial muscles and fascia
the ophthalmic a.

facial, transverse

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

parotid gland, masseter m.,


facial muscles and skin

transverse facial a.
anastomoses with branches
of the buccal, infraorbital
and facial aa.

greater palatine

descending palatine a.

no named branches

hard palate, palatine glands,


palatine mucosa

greater palatine a.
accompanies the greater
palatine n., it is endangered
by anesthetic injections for
dental procedures

inferior alveolar

maxillary a.

lingual br., mylohyoid a.,


dental brs., mental a.

mandibular teeth and


gingiva; mandible;
mylohyoid m.

inferior alveolar a. runs


with the inferior alveolar
nerve within the
mandibular canal

inferior labial

facial a.

no named branches

skin, muscles, fasciae and


mucosa of the lower lip

inferior labial a. shares its


region of distribution with
branches of the mental a.

inferior laryngeal

inferior thyroid a.

no named branches

internal part of the inferior


larynx

inferior laryngeal a.
accompanies the inferior
laryngeal n.

inferior thyroid

thyrocervical trunk

ascending cervical a., inferior


laryngeal a., esophageal brs.,
tracheal brs., glandular brs.

thyroid gland, lower larynx,


upper trachea, upper
esophagus, deep neck
muscles

inferior thyroid a. gives rise


to the ascending cervical a.
as it arches medially

internal carotid

common carotid a.

none in the neck; in the head:


ophthalmic a., posterior
communicating a., anterior
cerebral a., middle cerebral a.

brain; eye and orbit;


forehead

internal carotid a. is the


primary blood supply to the
brain; it anastomoses with
the vertebral aa. and the
contralateral internal
carotid a. in the cerebral
arterial circle (of Willis);

anterior and middle


cerebral aa. are the terminal
brs. of the internal carotid
a.
infraorbital

maxillary a.

anterior superior alveolar a.,


middle superior alveolar a.

maxillary sinus, maxillary


incisors, canine and
premolar teeth, skin of the
cheek below the orbit,
mucosa over the maxillary
alveolar arch and the
adjacent cheek

infraorbital a. is one of four


terminal branches of the
maxillary a. (see also:
descending palatine a.,
sphenopalatine a., posterior
superior alveolar a.)

labial, inferior

facial a.

no named branches

skin, muscles, fasciae and


mucosa of the lower lip

inferior labial a. shares its


region of distribution with
branches of the mental a.

labial, superior

facial a.

septal br.

skin, muscles, fasciae and


mucosa of the upper lip,
lower part of the anterior end
of the nasal septum

superior labial a. supplies


the orbicularis oris m. and
the levator labii superioris
m.

labyrinthine

anterior inferior
cerebellar a. (or basilar
a.)

no named branches

internal ear

labyrinthine a.
accompanies cranial nerves
VII and VIII through the
internal acoustic meatus

lacrimal

ophthalmic a.

lateral palpebral aa. (2)

lacrimal gland, lateral sides


of the eyelids

lacrimal a. accompanies the


lacrimal n.

laryngeal, inferior

inferior thyroid a.

no named branches

internal part of the inferior


larynx

inferior laryngeal a.
accompanies the inferior
laryngeal n.

laryngeal, superior

superior thyroid a.

no named branches

internal aspect of the


superior larynx

superior laryngeal a.
penetrates the thyrohyoid
membrane in company

with the internal br. of the


superior laryngeal n.
lateral nasal

facial a.

no named branches

lateral side of the nose

lateral nasal a. anastomoses


with the dorsal nasal a.

lateral palpebral

lacrimal a.

superior br., inferior br.

lateral sides of the upper and the 2 lateral palpebral aa.


lower eyelids
anastomose with the two
medial palpebral aa. to
form the superior and
inferior palpebral arches

lesser palatine

descending palatine a.

no named branches

muscles of the soft palate,


mucosa and glands of the
soft palate, upper part of the
tonsil bed

lingual

external carotid a.

suprahyoid br., dorsal lingual


brs., deep lingual a.,
sublingual a.

tongue, suprahyoid muscles, lingual a. is the 2nd branch


palatine tonsil
off of the anterior side of
the external carotid a.; it
may arise in common with
the facial a.

lingual, deep

lingual a.

no named branches

anterior tongue

deep lingual a. is the


terminal br. of the lingual a.

lingual, dorsal

lingual a.

no named branches

posterior tongue, palatine


tonsil, soft palate

dorsal lingual a. is only one


of five arteries that supply
the tonsil bed

masseteric

maxillary a.

no named branches

masseter m.

masseteric a. passes
through the mandibular
notch to enter the deep
surface of the masseter m.

maxillary

external carotid a.

deep auricular a., anterior


deep face, infratemporal
tympanic a., middle meningeal fossa, tympanic cavity,

lesser palatine a. is
endangered by anesthetic
injections for dental
procedures

maxillary a. may course


medial or lateral to the

a., inferior alveolar a.,


masseteric a., posterior deep
temporal a., anterior deep
temporal a., buccal a.,
posterior superior alveolar a.,
infraorbital a., a. of the
pterygoid canal, descending
palatine a., sphenopalatine a.

muscles of mastication

lateral pterygoid m.

medial palpebral

ophthalmic a.

superior br., inferior br.

medial aspects of the upper


and lower eyelids

the 2 medial palpebral aa.


anastomose with the two
lateral palpebral aa. to form
the superior & inferior
palpebral arches

meningeal, middle

maxillary a.

frontal br., parietal br., petrous most of the dura mater


br., superior tympanic br.
(approx. 80%), bones of the
cranial vault

middle meningeal a. passes


through the foramen
spinosum; it may be torn
by a fracture at the pterion;
it is encircled by the
auriculotemporal n.

mental

inferior alveolar a.

no named branches

mental a.passes through the


mental foramen; it
anastomoses with the
inferior labial a.; it
accompanies the mental n.

middle cerebral

internal carotid a.

lateral frontobasal a.;


frontal, parietal and temporal the middle cerebral a. is the
prefrontal sulcal a.; precentral lobes, especially on their
direct continuation of the
sulcal a.; central sulcal a.;
lateral surfaces
internal carotid a.
anterior parietal a.; posterior
parietal a.; anterior, middle
and posterior temporal aa.

middle meningeal

maxillary a.

frontal br., parietal br., petrous most of the dura mater

skin, superficial fascia and


facial mm. of the chin and
lower lip

middle meningeal a. passes

br., superior tympanic br.

(approx. 80%), bones of the


cranial vault

through the foramen


spinosum; it may be torn
by a fracture at the pterion;
it is encircled by the
auriculotemporal n.

middle superior alveolar

infraorbital a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary premolar teeth;


part of the maxillary sinus

middle superior alveolar a.


is located between the
inner and outer tables of
bone of the maxilla

middle temporal

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

temporalis m.

middle temporal a.
anastomoses with the
posterior br. of the deep
temporal a.

mylohyoid

inferior alveolar a.

no named branches

mylohyoid m.

mylohyoid a. accompanies
the mylohyoid n. to the
mylohyoid m.; a rare artery
because it enters the
superficial surface of its
target muscle

nasal, dorsal

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

dorsum of the nose

dorsal nasal a. anastomoses


with the angular a.

nasal, lateral

facial a.

no named branches

lateral side of the nose

lateral nasal a. anastomoses


with the dorsal nasal a.

occipital

external carotid a.

sternocleidomastoid brs.,
auricular br., mastoid br.,
descending br., occipital brs.

lateral neck, posterior neck,


posterior scalp

occipital a. anastomoses
with the deep cervical a.; it
courses with the greater
occipital nerve on the
posterior surface of the
head

ophthalmic

internal carotid a.

central retinal a., lacrimal a.,

optic nerve, optic chiasm

ophthalmic a. provides the

muscular brs., anterior


ethmoidal a., posterior
ethmoidal a., medial palpebral
a., supraorbital a.,
supratrochlear a., dorsal nasal
a.

optic tract, retina,


only artery to the retina
extraocular mm., eyelids,
(central retinal a.)
forehead, ethmoidal air cells,
lateral nasal wall, dorsum of
the nose

palatine, ascending

facial a.

no named branches

superior pharyngeal
constrictor, soft palate,
palatine tonsil

ascending palatine a. shares


supply of the tonsil bed
with 4 other aa. (see also:
tonsillar br. of the facial a.,
palatine br. of the
ascending pharyngeal a.,
tonsillar br. of the dorsal
lingual a., tonsillar br. of
the descending palatine a.)

palatine, descending

maxillary a.

greater palatine a., lesser


palatine a.

palate

descending palatine a.
accompanies the greater
palatine n. within the
palatine canal

palatine, greater

descending palatine a.

no named branches

hard palate, palatine glands,


palatine mucosa

greater palatine a.
accompanies the greater
palatine n., it is endangered
by anesthetic injections for
dental procedures

palatine, lesser

descending palatine a.

no named branches

muscles of the soft palate,


mucosa and glands of the
soft palate, upper part of the
tonsil bed

lesser palatine a. is
endangered by anesthetic
injections for dental
procedures

palpebral, lateral

lacrimal a.

superior br., inferior br.

lateral sides of the upper and the 2 lateral palpebral aa.


lower eyelids
anastomose with the two
medial palpebral aa. to

form the superior and


inferior palpebral arches
palpebral, medial

ophthalmic a.

superior br., inferior br.

medial aspects of the upper


and lower eyelids

the 2 medial palpebral aa.


anastomose with the two
lateral palpebral aa. to form
the superior & inferior
palpebral arches

pharyngeal, ascending

external carotid

pharyngeal brs., inferior


pharynx
tympanic, posterior meningeal

posterior auricular

external carotid a.

stylomastoid br., auricular br., part of the external ear, scalp posterior auricular and
occipital br.
and deeper structures
greater occipital share their
posterior to the ear
region of distribution

posterior cerebral

basilar a.

posterior cerebral a.; anterior


and posterior temporal brs.;
medial occipital a.

part of the brainstem


the two posterior cerebral
(oculomotor nucleus,
aa. are the terminal brs. of
nucleus of Edingerthe basilar a.
Westphal, trochlear nucleus);
medial and inferior portions
of the temporal lobe;
occipital lobe

posterior communicating

internal carotid a.

perforating aa.

an anastomotic connection

a vessel of anastomosis
which connects the internal
carotid a. to the posterior
cerebral a.; part of the
cerebral arterial circle (of
Willis)

posterior deep temporal

maxillary a.

no named branches

posterior part of the


temporalis m.

posterior deep temporal a.


branches in the
infratemporal fossa and
runs deep to temporalis m.

arises from the medial side


of the external carotid a.
close to the birfurcation

posterior ethmoidal

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

posterior ethmoidal air cells; posterior ethmoidal a.


olfactory nerves
leaves the orbit through the
posterior ethmoidal
foramen

posterior inferior
cerebellar

vertebral a.

posterior spinal a.

part of cerebellum; medulla


(cochlear nucleus, vestibular
nucleus, dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve X,
nucleus ambiguus)

posterior radicular

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; spinal posterior radicular aa.


nerve; dorsal rootlets
accompany the dorsal
rootlets; they anastomose
with the posterior spinal aa.

posterior septal

sphenopalatine a.
(several small brs.)

no named branches

posterior aspect of the nasal


septum

posterior septal a. supplies


the mucous membrane of
the nasal septum

posterior spinal

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar,
lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

spinal cord, especially the


dorsal columns; medulla
(nucleus cuneatus and
nucleus gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the
posterior radicular brs. of
the spinal rami of the
vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar and lateral sacral
aa.

posterior superior alveolar maxillary a.

dental brs., mucosal brs.

maxillary molar teeth; part


of the maxillary sinus

posterior superior alveolar


a. enters the maxilla in the
infratemporal fossa

quadrigeminal

no named branches

trochlear nerve; corpora

blockage of the

posterior cerebral

posterior inferior cerebellar


a. shares its region of
supply with the vertebral a.
and anterior spinal a.
(watershed region)

quadrigemina

quadrigeminal a. results in
paralysis of the superior
oblique m. of the eye

radicular, anterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

they accompany the ventral


rootlets to reach the spinal
cord

meninges; spinal cord; spinal anterior radicular aa.


nerve; ventral rootlets
anastomose with the
anterior spinal a.

radicular, great anterior

the spinal br. of the


lower posterior
intercostal a., subcostal
a., or upper lumbar a.,
usually on left

no named branches

lower spinal cord

radicular, posterior

they arise as multiple


branches of several
vessels (vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
lumbar, and lateral
sacral aa.)

no named branches

meninges; spinal cord; spinal posterior radicular aa.


nerve; dorsal rootlets
accompany the dorsal
rootlets; they anastomose
with the posterior spinal aa.

sphenopalatine

maxillary a.

posterior lateral nasal brs.,


posterior septal brs.

posterolateral nasal wall,


sphenopalatine a.
posteroinferior nasal septum, accompanies the
hard palate behind the
nasopalatine n.
maxillary incisor teeth

spinal, anterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar, lateral sacral
aa.)

pial arterial plexus

meninges; spinal cord;


medulla (dorsal motor
nucleus of cranial nerve X,
nucleus ambiguus, spinal
accessory nucleus and
hypoglossal nucleus)

great anterior radicular a.


anastomoses with the
anterior spinal a. at lower
thoracic or upper lumbar
spinal cord levels

the anterior spinal a.


anastomoses with the
anterior radicular brs. of
the spinal rami of the
vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar and lateral sacral

aa.
spinal, posterior

contributions received
from several arteries
(posterior inferior
cerebellar, vertebral,
posterior intercostal,
subcostal, lumbar,
lateral sacral aa.)

pial arterial plexus

spinal cord, especially the


dorsal columns; medulla
(nucleus cuneatus and
nucleus gracilis)

paired; posterior spinal aa.


anastomose with the
posterior radicular brs. of
the spinal rami of the
vertebral, posterior
intercostal, subcostal,
lumbar and lateral sacral
aa.

stylomastoid

posterior auricular a.

no named branches

tympanic cavity, mastoid air stylomastoid br. of the


cells
posterior auricular a. passes
through the stylomastoid
foramen in company with
the facial n.

subclavian

brachiocephalic a.
1st part: vertebral a.,
(right), aortic arch (left) thyrocervical trunk, internal
thoracic a.; 2nd part:
costocervical trunk; 3rd part:
dorsal scapular a. (70%)

neck, brain, spinal cord,


thyroid gland, larynx,
shoulder, chest muscles,
upper limb

subclavian a. is continuous
with the axillary a., the
name change occurs at the
lateral border of the first
rib; anterior scalene muscle
passes anterior to the
subclavian a., dividing it
into 3 parts

sublingual

lingual a.

no named branches

mylohyoid m., sublingual


gland, floor of the mouth

sublingual a. is one of three


branches of the lingual a.
(see also: dorsal lingual a.,
deep lingual a.)

submental

facial a.

no named branches

muscles, skin and fascia


under the chin;
submandibular gland

submental a. supplies the


submandibular gland and
the mylohyoid m. in
addition to the skin and
superficial fascia

superficial temporal

external carotid a.

transverse facial a.; anterior


auricular brs.; zygomaticoorbital a.; middle temporal a.;
frontal br.; parietal br.

scalp of the lateral side of


the head; lateral face;
temporalis m.

superficial temporal a. and


maxillary a. are the
terminal branches of the
external carotid a.

superior cerebellar

basilar a.

no named branches

upper cerebellum; trochlear


nucleus

there may be more than one


superior cerebellar a.
arising from the basilar a.
on each side

superior labial

facial a.

septal br.

skin, muscles, fasciae and


mucosa of the upper lip,
lower part of the anterior end
of the nasal septum

superior labial a. supplies


the orbicularis oris m. and
the levator labii superioris
m.

superior laryngeal

superior thyroid a.

no named branches

internal aspect of the


superior larynx

superior laryngeal a.
penetrates the thyrohyoid
membrane in company
with the internal br. of the
superior laryngeal n.

superior thyroid

external carotid a.

infrahyoid br.,
thyroid gland, upper part of
sternocleidomastoid br.,
the larynx, infrahyoid mm.,
superior laryngeal a.,
sternocleidomastoid m.
cricothyroid br., glandular brs.

superior thyroid a. is
usually the first branch of
the external carotid a.

supraorbital

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

muscles, skin and fascia of


the forehead

supraorbital a. accompanies
the supraorbital n.

suprascapular

thyrocervical trunk

muscular

supraspinatus &
infraspinatus, shoulder joint

anastomoses with the


circumflex scapular a. and
the dorsal scapular a. to
form the scapular
anastomosis

supratrochlear

ophthalmic a.

no named branches

muscles, skin and fascia of


the medial forehead

supratrochlear a.
accompanies the

supratrochlear n.
temporal, anterior deep

maxillary a.

no named branches

anterior part of temporalis


m. and surrounding deep
tissues

anterior deep temporal a.


branches in the
infratemporal fossa and
runs deep to temporalis m.

temporal, middle

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

temporalis m.

middle temporal a.
anastomoses with the
posterior br. of the deep
temporal a.

temporal, posterior deep

maxillary a.

no named branches

posterior part of the


temporalis m.

posterior deep temporal a.


branches in the
infratemporal fossa and
runs deep to temporalis m.

temporal, superficial

external carotid a.

transverse facial a.; anterior


auricular brs.; zygomaticoorbital a.; middle temporal a.;
frontal br.; parietal br.

scalp of the lateral side of


the head; lateral face;
temporalis m.

superficial temporal a. and


maxillary a. are the
terminal branches of the
external carotid a.

thoracic, internal

subclavian a. (1st part)

pericardiocophrenic a.,
perforating brs., anterior
intercostal aa., mediastinal
brs., thymic brs.,
musculophrenic a., superior
epigastric a.

mediastinum, anterior
thoracic wall, anterior
abdominal wall, respiratory
diaphragm

internal thoracic a. is also


known as: internal
mammary a.

thyrocervical trunk

subclavian a., 1st part

inferior thyroid a., transverse


cervical a., suprascapular a.

lower neck, posterior


shoulder, thyroid gland

thyrocervical trunk does


not give rise to the
ascending cervical a.- it is a
branch of the inferior
thyroid a.

thyroid, inferior

thyrocervical trunk

ascending cervical a., inferior


laryngeal a., esophageal brs.,

thyroid gland, lower larynx,


upper trachea, upper

inferior thyroid a. gives rise


to the ascending cervical a.

tracheal brs., glandular brs.

esophagus, deep neck


muscles

as it arches medially

thyroid, superior

external carotid a.

infrahyoid br.,
thyroid gland, upper part of
sternocleidomastoid br.,
the larynx, infrahyoid mm.,
superior laryngeal a.,
sternocleidomastoid m.
cricothyroid br., glandular brs.

superior thyroid a. is
usually the first branch of
the external carotid a.

thyroidea ima

brachiocephalic a. or
aortic arch

no named branches

transverse cervical

thyrocervical trunk

unnamed muscular branches, trapezius muscle and


possibly the dorsal scapular a. surrounding tissues

transverse cervical a. gives


rise to the dorsal scapular
a. ~30% of the time

transverse facial

superficial temporal a.

no named branches

transverse facial a.
anastomoses with branches
of the buccal, infraorbital
and facial aa.

trunk, brachiocephalic

aortic arch

right common carotid a., right right side of the head and
subclavian a.
neck; right upper limb and
right side of the chest wall

there is only one


brachiocephalic trunk

trunk, costocervical

subclavian a., 2nd part

deep cervical a., highest


intercostal a.

deep muscles of the


posterior neck; posterior
ends of the first 2 intercostal
spaces

costocervical trunk is
located between the
anterior scalene m. and the
middle scalene m.; it arches
posteriorly over the
cervical parietal pleura

trunk, thyrocervical

subclavian a., 1st part

inferior thyroid a., transverse

lower neck, posterior

thyrocervical trunk does

isthmus of the thyroid gland, thyroidea ima a. is present


upper trachea
in 10% of individuals; it is
clinically significant
because it is a midline
artery in the region of
tracheostomy; ima means
"lowest"

parotid gland, masseter m.,


facial muscles and skin

cervical a., suprascapular a.

shoulder, thyroid gland

not give rise to the


ascending cervical a.- it is a
branch of the inferior
thyroid a.

tympanic, anterior

maxillary a.

no named branches

middle ear

anterior tympanic a. passes


through the petrotympanic
fissure along with the
chorda tympani n.

vertebral

subclavian a.(1st part)

spinal brs., muscular brs.,


anterior spinal a., posterior
inferior cerebellar a.,
medullary brs., meningeal
brs., basilar a.

deep neck, cervical spinal


cord, spinal cord; medulla
(dorsal motor nucleus of
cranial nerve X, nucleus
ambiguus, spinal accessory
nucleus and hypoglossal
nucleus)

vertebral a. anastomoses
with the internal carotid a.
in the cerebral arterial
circle (of Willis); it courses
through the transverse
foramina of vertebrae C1C6