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Elementary Statistics

Tenth Edition

and the Triola Statistics Series

by Mario F. Triola

Slide

Chapter 1

Introduction to Statistics

1-1 Overview

1-2 Types of Data

1-3 Critical Thinking

1-4 Design of Experiments

Slide

Section 1-1

Overview

Slide

Overview

A common goal of studies and surveys

and other data collecting tools is to

collect data from a small part of a larger

group so we can learn something about

the larger group.

In this section we will look at some of the

ways to describe data.

Slide

Definition

Data

observations (such as measurements,

genders, survey responses) that have

been collected

Slide

Definition

Statistics

a collection of methods for

planning studies and experiments,

obtaining data, and then organizing,

summarizing, presenting,

analyzing, interpreting, and drawing

conclusions based on the data

Slide

Definition

Population

the complete collection of all

elements (scores, people,

measurements, and so on) to be

studied; the collection is complete

in the sense that it includes all

subjects to be studied

Slide

Definitions

Census

Collection of data from every

member of a population

Sample

Subcollection of members

selected from a population

Slide

Sample data must be collected in an

appropriate way, such as through a

process of random selection.

If sample data are not collected in

an appropriate way, the data may

be so completely useless that no

amount of statistical torturing

can salvage them.

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

Section 1-2

Types of Data

Slide

10

Key Concept

about using sample data to make

inferences (or generalizations) about

an entire population. It is essential to

know and understand the definitions

that follow.

Slide

11

Definition

Parameter

a numerical measurement

describing some characteristic of a

population.

population

parameter

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

12

Definition

Statistic

a numerical measurement describing

some characteristic of a sample.

sample

statistic

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

13

Definition

Quantitative data

numbers representing counts or

measurements.

Example: The weights of supermodels

Slide

14

Definition

Qualitative (or categorical or

attribute) data

can be separated into different categories

that are distinguished by some nonnumeric

characteristic

Example: The genders (male/female) of

professional athletes

Slide

15

described by distinguishing

between discrete and continuous

types.

Slide

16

Definition

Discrete data

result when the number of possible values

is either a finite number or a countable

number

(i.e. the number of possible values is

0, 1, 2, 3, . . .)

Example: The number of eggs that a hen

lays

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

17

Definition

Continuous (numerical) data

result from infinitely many possible values

that correspond to some continuous scale

that covers a range of values without gaps,

interruptions, or jumps

Example: The amount of milk that a cow

produces; e.g. 2.343115 gallons per day

Slide

18

Levels of Measurement

levels of measurement. Four of

these levels are discussed in the

following slides.

Slide

19

Definition

Nominal level of measurement

characterized by data that consist of names,

labels, or categories only, and the data cannot

be arranged in an ordering scheme (such as

low to high)

Example: Survey responses yes, no,

undecided

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

20

Definition

Ordinal level of measurement

involves data that can be arranged in some

order, but differences between data values

either cannot be determined or are

meaningless

Example: Course grades A, B, C, D, or F

Slide

21

Definition

Interval level of measurement

like the ordinal level, with the additional

property that the difference between any two

data values is meaningful, however, there is

no natural zero starting point (where none of

the quantity is present)

Example: Years 1000, 2000, 1776, and 1492

Slide

22

Definition

Ratio level of measurement

the interval level with the additional property

that there is also a natural zero starting point

(where zero indicates that none of the

quantity is present); for values at this level,

differences and ratios are meaningful

Example: Prices of college textbooks ($0

represents no cost)

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

23

Nominal - categories only

Ordinal - categories with some order

Interval - differences but no natural

starting point

point

Slide

24

Recap

In this section we have looked at:

Basic definitions and terms describing data

Parameters versus statistics

Types of data (quantitative and qualitative)

Levels of measurement

Slide

25

Section 1-3

Critical Thinking

Slide

26

Key Concepts

Success in the introductory statistics

course typically requires more common

sense than mathematical expertise.

common sense is used when we think

critically about data and statistics.

Slide

27

Misuses of Statistics

Slide

28

Voluntary response sample

(or self-selected sample)

one in which the respondents themselves

decide whether to be included

In this case, valid conclusions can be

made only about the specific group of

people who agree to participate.

Slide

29

on samples that are far too small.

Example: Basing a school

suspension rate on a sample of

only three students

Slide

30

Misuse # 3- Graphs

information given in the graph, so as not to be misled by the

graphs shape.

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

31

Misuse # 4- Pictographs

each dimension in proportion to the actual amounts of oil

consumption.

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

32

Misuse # 5- Percentages

sometimes used. For example, if you

take 100% of a quantity, you take it all.

110% of an effort does not make sense.

Slide

33

Loaded Questions

Order of Questions

Refusals

Correlation & Causality

Self Interest Study

Precise Numbers

Partial Pictures

Deliberate Distortions

Slide

34

Recap

In this section we have:

Reviewed 13 misuses of statistics

Illustrated how common sense can play a

big role in interpreting data and statistics

Slide

35

Section 1-4

Design of Experiments

Slide

36

Key Concept

If sample data are not collected in an

appropriate way, the data may be so

completely useless that no amount of

statistical tutoring can salvage them.

Slide

37

Definition

Observational study

observing and measuring specific

characteristics without attempting to modify

the subjects being studied

Slide

38

Definition

Experiment

apply some treatment and then observe its

effects on the subjects; (subjects in

experiments are called experimental units)

Slide

39

Definitions

Cross

sectional study

at one point in time

Retrospective

back in time

Prospective

(called cohorts) sharing common factors

Slide

40

Definition

Confounding

occurs in an experiment when the

experimenter is not able to distinguish

between the effects of different factors

Slide

41

Blinding

treatment or placebo

Blocks

Completely

of random selection

Rigorously

Controlled Design

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

42

Replication

repetition of an experiment when there are

enough subjects to recognize the differences

from different treatments

Sample Size

use a sample size that is large enough to see

the true nature of any effects and obtain that

sample using an appropriate method, such as

one based on randomness

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

43

Definitions

Random Sample

members of the population are selected in

such a way that each individual member has

an equal chance of being selected

(of size n)

possible sample of the same size n has the

same chance of being chosen

Copyright 2007 Pearson Education, Inc Publishing as Pearson Addison-Wesley.

Slide

44

Random Sampling

selection so that each

individual member has an

equal chance of being selected

Slide

45

Systematic Sampling

Select some starting point and then

select every k th element in the population

Slide

46

Convenience Sampling

use results that are easy to get

Slide

47

Stratified Sampling

subdivide the population into at

least two different subgroups that share the same

characteristics, then draw a sample from each

subgroup (or stratum)

Slide

48

Cluster Sampling

divide the population into sections

(or clusters); randomly select some of those clusters;

choose all members from selected clusters

Slide

49

Random

Systematic

Convenience

Stratified

Cluster

Slide

50

Definitions

Sampling error

the difference between a sample result and the true

population result; such an error results from chance

sample fluctuations

Nonsampling error

sample data incorrectly collected, recorded, or

analyzed (such as by selecting a biased sample,

using a defective instrument, or copying the data

incorrectly)

Slide

51

Recap

In this section we have looked at:

Types of studies and experiments

Controlling the effects of variables

Randomization

Types of sampling

Sampling errors

Slide

52

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