Anda di halaman 1dari 9

r

f
i

UNIT 13
a)

Present perfect (l have done) (1)

Sttrdt this eramPle situatton:

o,N,

, ,: -L*

Tom is looking for his ker'. He can't find it.


He has lost his ker.

ti

,!l'*d

\]LJ:

'He has lost hrs ker'^ mcans that hc lost it a short time
rgo .rnJ hc srill t,.1.1"1 qor it.

(:'

This is the present perlect (simple) tense:


I/wehhev/You

*:::ri;::lii'

I (etc.) haven't
ht:/she hasn't

\,nr,
I

have
has

r""

r f,lr
-"nYl

il]:|.'j..' Iro,,r
'[,']li

past participle often


Nre forn-r the present perfect with have/has * the pttst ptticipte.The
(lost, written' done
irregular
are
verbs
ends in -ed (opened, decided) but many importani
etc.). See APPendir 2'

b)

*-11:

:W

- .:

$'itl-r the Present:


wl-rerr we use the present perfect there.is a connection
it
notL''
got
I've lost my key' (: I haven't

(: Ht is in Canada or on his way there now")


-_ Ji; h" go"t to iu'ludo'her
name. (: I can't rernembcr itnow.)
oh d.rrlI,r" forgotten
(: Is it clean ir'':t
hair?
- Have you washed your

'i:
: ll lll

happening:
C) \7e often use the present perfect to give new information or to :lnnotlnce a recent
Ite lost my key' Can you help me look ior iti

- Do you know about Jim? He's gone to Canade'


- Ow! I've burnt mYself' (: a short time irgo
You can use the present perfectwith iust
'No, thirnks. I'r'e iust had lunch''
- 'iVould you like something to eat?'
arrived?
- Hello, have You iust already
to say that something h;rs happened sooner than
*ith
p.tfect
You can use the p*t.i,i
expected: ,Don,t
u'ill you?' 'I've alreadl'posted it''
- .lwhen forget to post the letter,
started.'
is io* goi,-,g to start his new lob?' 'He has already
-

-:
-fr
.M

d)

Study the difference between gone to and been to:


is rirere now or she is on
(:
- ann is on hollday. She has gone to Italy. She
her waY there')
to ltalr-. : He r'vas there but now
- i.- ir'U"ck in England now. He has been
he has come back')
(See also Unit 119.)

For the present perfect see also Units 14-1 9'


For the p..r.,lt perfect and past simple see Units 20-1'
26

ta 1+ t

--..

i3.5

UNIT T4

Present perfect (l have done) (2)

UNIT

1.

i4.1 l'

:o

q.

-:

1?";

a)

Study this example conversation:

::;-

Dave: Have you travelled a lot, Norai


Nora: Yes, I've been to 47 different counrrie s.
Dave: Really? Have you ever been to Chinai

Nora:
Dave

Nora:

Yes, I've visited China twice.


NThat about India?
No, I've never been to India.

present
l
I

When we talk about a period o{ time that contir.rLres up ro rhe present, we use the present
perfect. Nora and Dave are talking about the places Nora hai visited in her life (which is
a period continuing up to the present).

Here are some more examples:


- 'Have you read Hamlet?' 'No, I haven't read any of Shakespeare's plays.'
- How many times have you been to the Unrted States?
- Susan really loves that film. She's seen it eight times.
Sam has lived in Belfast all his life. (or San.r has always lived in Belfast.)
'We
often use ever and never with the present perfect:
- Have you ever eaten caviar?
- Ve have never had a car.
\We often use the present perfect after a
superlatiue (see Unit 10-1d):
'IWhat
a boring film! It's the most boring film I're ever seen.
-

b) You have to use the present


Study this example situation:

'.)

.,?

perfect with This is the first time ..., It's the first time ... etc.

Ron is driving a car. He is very nervous and unsure because it's his first time
behind the wheel of a car. You can say:
This is the first time he has driven a car. (not 'drires')
ctr: He has never driven a car before.
Here are some more examples:
- Tom has lost his passport again. It's the second time he has lost it.
- Is this the first time you've been in hospital?

c)

Use the present perfect to say that you have never done something or rhat you haven't done
something during a period of time which continues up to rhe presenr:

have never smoked.

haven't smoked for three years. (not 'I don't smoke for ...')
haven't smoked since September. (not'I don 't smoke since ...')
Jill hasn't written to me for nearly a month.
- Jill has never driven a car.
For the difference berween for and since see Unit 19b.

: \rf
t{

14.4

-1 r- :"
I-- -r

.T

._
t-,
.rT
--

11"

2B

UNIT 15

_Ntr

Present perfect (l have done) (3)

-51

a)
t
i

Studv this example:

Tom: Have you heard from

George?

Ann: No, he hasn't written

to me recentlr'.

'W'e use
the present perfect when we

talk about .r
period of time that continues up to the present. Ton.r
and Ann are talking about the period benveen a
past
short time :rgo and now. So they say 'have you
heard'and 'he hasn't written'.

_:qeENrlY

'-32

."
_.,

Here are some more examples:


- Have you seen my dog? I can't find him ;lnvwhere.
is going fine. We haven't had .rnr-problems so far.
-* Everything
'We've
met a iot of interesting peopie in the last few days.
- Fred has been il1 a lot in the past few r-ears. hasn't he?
- I haven't seen George recently. Have vou i
For sentences with fior and since see Unit 18.

b)

c)

We often use the present perfect with yet (see also Unir 1 (.)- . Yet shows that the speaker is
expecting something to happen. Use yet only in quesrions anJ negative sentences:
- Has it stopped raining yet? (not'did it stop'
- I haven't told them about the accident \et. 1:,)t 'l didn't tell')
'We use the present perfect with this morning / this evening todav this week / this term etc.
(when these periods are not finished at the time of speaking
I've smoked ten cigarettes today. (perhaps
:

l'll smoke more before today finishes)


Has Ann had a holiday this year?
I haven't seen Tom this morning. Have vou i
Ron hasn't studied very much this term.
Bill is phoning his girl-friend again. That's
the third time he's phoned her this evening.

iasi

_*_-

present

d) We also use the present perfect continuous ( I have been doing u'he n u'e talk about a period
of time continuing up to the present:
- I haven't been feeling very well recently.
For the present perfect continuous see Units 16-18.
For the present perfect and past simple

30

see

Units 20-1.

-5"3

.'

"..

UNIT 16

UNIT 16

Present perfect continuous (l have been doing)

L6.l ln

tbis ;:

perie,t

a)

ExantPi,
Study this example siruarion:
--

-l

r-\-

l-

/ t\

l Annr
2 Bohh
3 Geori

it raining?
No, it isn't bur rhe ground is wet.
It has been raining.
Is

4 Janet

This is the present perfect continuous tense:


I/we/they/you have : I'r'eerc.) )
he/she/it has ,: he's erc.) I

16.2 This ti,';

Deen oomg

F,r,tntP'

the present perfect continuous when we talk about an action (quite a long action)
which began in the past and has recently stoppecl or just stopped. Here are ro-. e"n*pl.r,'
- You're out of breath. Have you been running?
I think hct been sunbathing.
- That rnan over there is bright red.
'W'hat
Why
are
your
clothes
so
dirty?
have vou been doing?
I've
been
talking
to
Tom
about
your
problem
and he thinls ...
-

Y.. Yt:

b) We also use the present perfect continuous

to ask or sa\- horv long something has been


happening. This time the action or situation began in the past and is"still hnpp.ii.rg or has
just stopped. Study this example:
It is raining now. It began to rain rwo hours ago and it
still raining.
It has

been raining

is

\-Llu

Yr-ru

a (ru"
I -"--

I6.3 \ri;.

Here are some more examples:


- How long have you been learning English?
- They've been waiting here for over air hour.
- I've been watching television since 2 o'clock.
- George hasn't been feeling very well recently.
- Have you been working hard today?
You can also use the present perfect continuous (with how long, for and since) for actions
repeated over a period of time:
- She has been playing tennis since she was eight.
- How long have you been smoking?
For more information about the present perfect * since/for, see units 1g-1 9.
For the difference between the present perfect simple and continuous, see Units 17-18.

",'"

F r- - rr'+

I K;ir
i-{.

for two hours.

We often usethe present pertect continuous in this way,


especially with how long, for and since.

.12

"

i.
--

1----

f, { --

u-r:'i

16.4 i';:-:-'

;,:"_;,':i

I \{,,
I \tri

-: T:,r

r!
UNIT T7

been doing) or
Present Pe:-ea - ::1: nuous (l have
present perfecl s ^^. e (l have done)?

a) Stuclv tl-rese eranrpie sitLirltlons

Nl
ijit
r\\,\

m
Ann's clothes :rre coverecl in paint'
Shc has been

painting the ceiling'

Has been Painting rs the Present


perf ect c<tntintrous tense'
\X/e are interested in the

action' It

cloes not Inatter u'hether something

has been finished or not' In the


examplc, the action has not beer.l

The ceiling u',rs u'hitc' Now it's blue'


She has

paintcd the ceiling'

Has painted is tl-re Pre-serl


l)

erfect

sit?lPle tense'

This time, the inrportant thing isWe


thnt r,r,r.thing hat he en finished'
the
of
result
are interested iri thc
action, not in the rrcrron itself '

finished.
Here are some Pairs of exarnPles:
Tom's hands are very dirtY' He
has been rePairing the"car'
You've been imoking too rnuch
less'
re cet.rtly. Yor'r should smclke
b)

c rtse

tltt'c'tttlittu"l'ls [()rnl to \11y

holr, long something has bee rr


happening:
Arrn has been writing letters

all day.

Hor.v long have You been reading

that book?
1t'flttis
Jirrr ha' been PlaYing
rince 2 o'clock.

34

We ttse the sitttple fornl to sav how


much u'e have done. hou' nlan-v things
we
rt c have dottc, or hou tltnr rimes
have done soinethillg:

Ann has written ten letters todaY'

How manY Pages of that book have


vor.r read?

three times
Jim has plaYed tennis
this I'veek.

present perfect and how long?.


Urttt 18 for more iuformation abor'rt the
know' You have to say
continr-rous form, for example
Son-ie r,e rbs .1rc not r.tsed in thc
see Unit 3b'
verbs
it-""'lt tte knt"''ing'1" Ent a liit of these
have knorvn t,'or
'''

Sec

C)

The car is going ag'litl nou" Tom


has rePaired it'
Someboi,u has smoke d all mY cigarettes. Tl-re P:-rcket i: tl.til-'tl '

UNIT 18

Present perfect (l have done / r have been


doing)
with how long for and since

lI r frf,,ar

F--r

Study this examplg situarion:

I lre
I ttkr
I l-Itr
4 Fhrc
i FIor
6 Flo.s
- Shch

Botr and Alice are married- They got married


exactly
20 years ago. So todav is th.l. jOt"h wedding
anniversary.

They have been married for 2O years.


presenr

ro s.ay how long something


Y:
:::!: or holr. perfect
nas exrsted
long something

has been happeniig.

I hev are

marrred.

1 How long have rher.been married?

{( ft.1. have been married for


20 vears-

xr"

ffiffi:I;":nni',!L*;d.i,i? j.]i'.*ft:"":illat exist ror a rong rime (especiauv ir we say


- My father has arways worked hard- (not "has arr,r.ays been working,)
we use the continuous for situations over a shorter,i-.co,,rr..,
- John has been Iiving in London rinc. 'Janua;-'-'-'
--r- John has always lived in London-

d) Some verbs (for examplete,,have, know)


are not normally used in the continuous (see
unit
3b for a list and llnitl+ for"have j,
How Iong have Bob and Alice been married?
Tom has had a cold for the,past week. (not.hasbeen
having,)
Tom and I have knovrn erch othe. sinc. *e
were ar school.

e)

P;;:*l'r;i'.1,[}:"'simple

(I do) or continuous (I am doing) to


say how long something

_ I,ve been waiting here for hoar- (not "I


am wairing,)
_ How long have you knownanTom?
(nat "doyou t ro#i

36

rt

Fx.lr@

b) 'we use the presenr perfect conrinuous


fi \1.: been doing) ro say
how ,ong something has
been happening- Note that the aaion-is sdf
f,rpp."i.-ffi*i "
- I,ve been learning English fo. along time.
- Sorry I'm lltg- Hawe you been waitlng long?
- It's been raining since I got up this mlrnirig.
Sometimes the action-is r,..p.i.d actio"n (see
also U"it 1;'bl,
- Tom has been driving for ten years.
How long have you been smoling?
The continuous (I have bee-n dorng) or the simple
(I have done) can be used for acrions
repeated over a long period:
- I"ve been coflecting r ,vecofiected stamps since I was a child.
c)

f|115:

I -\lr r
I Btrfo
I I livc
{ hrs
r I.r*,
r, lbo
- Ird:
i Drxr

eDil
(-o&

I r"r

lA? Ia d6n,
frr.
f=uryaa

J.* h
Brfl rr
) -trrm lc
{ I nzrr
I

-Lft

bor

T.lnn

lrd

I{;-

Ttrer-rc

UNIT 19

Present perfect
with when

\,'i

itn how long and past simple

Since and for


a)

(I did) ro ilsk or srt\' ti l:;,: r',rI:rhirrq happened:


- A: When did it start r'rrilingi'
B: It started rairlir-rg at one o'c1ncA- an hour ago'
frrsr meet-:
- A: When did Tom and Ann
$'ere at school I a long time ag.o.
ffie.r'
r./hen
ll: Thev firsr met
doing to ask or say how ptng, somcthir-rg
be.-n
tr
have
/
LJsc theltrcsentirrf.ri(rhrr. dorr.
the present):
(up
h:rs bcen happening
-Howto
'
has it been rainingi
long
A:
R: lt's been iaining since one o'c1ocl- fot an hout'
arlcl Atln knolvn each otl'rer?
- A: How long haveTotn
since the,v were at school I for a long time.
other
each
f,n.r*r,
B: Th.y'r"

Use

b)

the

past simple

Since and for


\7e use both since and forto sa-y- hor'v long somethilrq h,rs been happening:
8 o'clock'
- I've becn rn'aiting for 1'ou since
hours'
two
for
for
votl
lvaititlg
- I've becn
'$(le
S o 'clock)
period
the
of
beginlrirlg
the
use since n'hen \\'c srly
'Wc use for when \\'Ie sa-Y the periocl of tin're (two hours '

slnce

,-

for wvo hours


(period)

-10 o'clock
(now)

8 o'clock
(beginning of Period)
slnce

o'ciock
Mondav
.l
2 Mav
April
8

We clo not

hours
rrinutes
rlrrr. .l.tr \
sir motrths

1977

fivo

a rveek

Christr.nas

ten

five 1'ears
it lr,tlg lttttr'

lunchtinre
we arrivecl

ages

She's becr.r working here since April. (: from


She,s been rvorkin! hcre for six months. irrol

lhaver.r't sec6 To,n since Monday.

Lrse

.\pril ttntil nou')


''irlec sir months')

(: fronl \krnc1i1\'Lllltil

now)

Ihaven,tseenTomforthreedays.(ttclt.sincethree.lar-s,)
for i,-, c*p..ssiotrs rvith all (all day / all morning ' all $eek / all my life etc'):
I'vc livci he.e all my life' (not 'for all my life')

C) N, ,t t' t ltr' \trtlLttlre How long is it since .'.?:


had a holiclay?
-A:r) Hou,long is it since Iyou
It's two years since hacl a holidav' (: I h'rverr r hacl a holiclay for tu'o
-D:
yea rs.

t8

It' s ages since Tom visitecl

us.

(:

He hasn't visitcd

Lrs

for ages.)

past simple
Present perfect (l have done) or

UNIT 20

(l did)? (1)

' l' *

'lr'

,1
",

a) Study this cxamPle

This is Tom.

H. rt io'-rking for

He has lo.'t

Ir. \.r, fir'-rr'/lt

This means

ti.rr.tt irt'

his key' Hc car-r't find

it'

pcrfcct)

hrsn't got his key now'

Fivc minutes later:

Now Tom has found his kev'


now'
This means that he hrls $ot his key
perfect)
Has he lost his ker'? pic''ofi
lt"
found
has
He
No, he hasn't.

Did he lose his

ke,v? 1p'r-'i sttnple)

Yes, he did.

now he has found


He lost (ltast sintple) hr' kcv bLrt
(present Perfect) tt'

now')
higl-r norv')
have risen again' (: Jllgi rre
- f'"ttt fell but norv the'v
*'hich are not
(I have done) for happenings .r lcti..ts
b) D. n.t use the presenr per{ccr
wt
cvt'r)t\):
;;;;:,;J*iil."'ttt p"itnt tfor exrmplc' histt'rierl
invente'l'

r';'*

g' (rol'have
h ;' J'i;';;;;ip'i'.'tin (rzol'has
written')

- Sh"ktt;;"t *tott Hinlet'

-HowrnanysymphoniesdidBeethovencompose?trlol'has"'composed')

c)Weuse.the.ptt',:ntperfegt(Ihavedone)togivcnewinform:'rtionortoannoLlncearecent
.tt"m"llt- use the past simple
if *," .u,-,,i,-,.," t?, talk about it, we
happenrng tr." ,-,,-,ir':f :;, nui
(I

did):

- A: ow! I've burntdomYselll


u; ;;; diJ;;" thet? (r,/.'hrve vou done')

;si.t',,'i'11;'lJii 'rJ[::J:ff1]'0"'
i:*
"'
rn".^iiii"', it. o/'hasn't
B: vell, it

i,
For more

40

wasn,t

do

(n

been
it has been')

A, i ,r.nna.. who it was then. (n o/'who


simpie see Unit
abor'it the pt"'"ni pttftti and past

'ntot*otit"-'

-,+ done')
haven't

21'

:"'

UN'T 2L
a)

Present perfect (l have done) or past simple


(r did)? (2)

Do not use rhe present perfect (I have done u'he r \ ou are talking about a finished time in
the past (for example: yesterday) t\r'o vears ago. in 19-9, when I was a child). Use a past
tense:

- Tom lost his key yesterday. ,7tot'has lost')


- Did you see the film on television last night? (not'have you seen')
- Mr Greaves retired from his iob nro vears ago. (not'has retired')
- I ate a lot of sw-eets when I was a child. ,not 'have eaten')

Use a past tense

Compare:

to ask when something happened:


What time did they arrive? (zzol'have thev arrived')
When were you t:orn? (not 'har-e vou been born')

Tom has lost his key. (present perfect';


Here we are not thinking of the past action; we are thinking of the present result of the
action: he is without his key now. '
- Tom lost his key yesterday. (past sintple,
Here we are thinking of the action in the past. We don't knorv whether Tom is still without
his key.

b) Now compare

these sentences:

Present perfect (I have done)

Past sintple (I did)

I've smoked 20 cigarettes today.

I smoked 20 cigarettes yesterday.

Today is a period of time which continues


up to the present. It is not a finished
time. So we use the present perfect.

Yesterdav is a finished time in the


past. So \\'e Llse the past simple.

present

present

,-.,-.--_-----,1

'today '

r'r.:,,-',tirm'e).:. il. : ..,.

..

'

:a.

!*
'.'l

..

Tom hasn't been ill ,ftt *".


Have you seen Ann this morning?
(lt is still morning.)
Have you seen Ann recently?
'We've been waiting for an hour. (\7e are

stillwaiting.)
Ian has lived in London for six years.
(I{e still lives there.)
I have never played golf (in my life).
The present perfect always has
connection witli the present.
See

42

Units l3-20.

yesterday

(tun{iniehed

past

-:.:_l
past

--

,,

,'l

(finished :

ill last
Tom wasn't--'l*d

.,

l
]

year.

Did you see Ann this morning?


(It is now afternoon.)
Did you see Ann last week?
'We
waited (or *'ere waiting) for an
hour. (We are no ionger waiting.)
Ian lived in Scotland for ten years.
(He no longer lives there.)
I didn't play golf when I was on
holiday last summer.
The past simple tells us only about
the past.
See Units 11 , 12 and 20.