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Elements of Research Design

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Aresearchdesigncanbedescribedasaconceptualstructurewithinwhichresearchisgoingto
becarriedout.Itcomprisestheblueprintforthecollection,measurementandanalysisofdata.

Decisionswithregardstowhat,where,when,howmuch,bywhatmeansconcerninganenquiry

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oraresearchdesignaretaken.Aresearchdesignisthearrangementofconditionsforcollection
and evaluation of data in a fashion which is designed to combine relevance to the research
purposewitheconomyinprocess.

What are the Essential Elements of Research


Design ?

TypesofExploratoryResearch

Thekeyelementsofgoodresearchdesignareasunder:
a. Research Design is a plan which identifies the sources and kinds of information strongly

DifferentTypesofResearchDesigns

relatedtotheresearchproblem.
b.Itisastrategyindicatingwhichmethodisgoingtobeemployedforcollectingandanalyzing
thedata.

FeaturesofExploratoryResearch

c. Additionally, it consists of the time and cost budgets because most research is done under
thesetwoconstraints.Inanutshellaresearchdesignmustcontain
Aclearstatementoftheresearchproblem.
Methods and techniques to be utilized for gathering information from the population to be
researched.
Approachtobeutilizedinprocessingandanalyzingdata.

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Figure:ElementsofResearchDesign
PurposeoftheStudy
Exploratorystudy:Carriedoutwhennotmuchisknownabouttheproblemathand,orno
details are available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the

StepsinResearchDesign

past.
Descriptive study: Carried out as a way to determine and be able to describe the
characteristics of the variables of interest in a situation characteristics of the variables of
interestinasituation.
Studies which engage in hypotheses testing generally explain the nature of certain
relationships, or establish the differences among groups or the independence of two or
morefactorsinasituation.

TypeofInvestigation
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CausalityResearchDesign:Acausalstudyisaninquirytounderstandthecauseofoneor
moreproblems.
Acorrelationalstudy:Isaninquirytofindoutthekeyvariableslinkedtotheproblem.
Acausalstudyquestion:
Doescigarettesmokingcausecancer?
Acorrelationalstudyquestion:
Arecigarettesmokingandcancerassociated?
Or

Arecigarettesmoking,consumingalcohol,andchewingtobaccorelatedtocancer?
Ifso,whichofthesecontributesmosttothevarianceinthedependentvariable?
ReadAlso:MajorComponentsofResearchDesign
ResearcherInterference
Theextentofinterferencebytheresearcherwiththenormalflowofworkattheworkplacehasa
direct effect on whether the study performed is causal or correlational.A correlational study is
carried out in the natural environment of the corporation with minimal interference by the
researcherwiththenormalflowofwork.
In studies carried out to determine causeandeffect relationships, the investigator attempts to
adjustspecificvariablesinordertostudytheoutcomesofsuchmanipulationonthedependent
variable of interest. Put simply, the researcher intentionally changes certain variables in the

settinganddisruptstheeventsastheynormallyhappeninthebusiness.
StudySetting
Correlational research is carried out in noncontrived settings (normal settings), as opposed to
mostcausalstudiesarecarriedoutincontrivedsettings.
UnitofAnalysis

The unit of analysis means the degree of aggregation of the data gathered through the
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subsequentdataanalysis.
Individual
Dyads
Groups
Organizations
Cultures
TimeHorizon

CrossSectional Studies: A study can be carried out in which data are collected only once,
perhapsduringaperiodofdaysorweeksormonths,tobeabletoansweraresearchquestion.
ReadAlso:BasicElementsofResearchDesign
Longitudinal Studies: Researching people or phenomena at several point in time to be able to
answer the research question. Due to the fact that data are collected at two different points in
time, the study is not crosssectional kind, but is carried longitudinally across a period of
time. Longitudinal studies take a longer period and energy and cost a lot more than cross
sectionalstudies.Havingsaidthat,wellplannedlongitudinalstudiescanhelpyoutorecognize
causeandeffectrelationships.
For example, you can study the product sales before and after an advertising campaign, and
provided other environmental changes havent influenced on the results, you can attribute the
increaseinthesalesvolume,ifany,totheadvertisement.

A good research design must contain: a clear statement, Methods and techniques for data
collection,processingandanalyzingdata.
ReadAlso:Elementsofaresearchproblem
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Comments
SKotrappasays:
October16,2013at17:54

Hi!!veryniceresearcharticle,ihavetwoissuestoshareandgetfeedback.
1)Whereisthatvalidation(dataanalysis)afterdatacollection,measurementsandanalysis?
2)Isthisresearchissubjectiveorobjective?

albertasiedusays:
April22,2015at05:12

Yourinformationisverybriefbuthelpfulandeasytounderstand

NishanRajbhandarisays:
October15,2015at23:05

Thankyousomuch.Yourarticlewaseasytounderstandandhelpedmealotinmyexams..

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