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The Use of Know-Want-Learn Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text to the Ninth Graders of SMPN 2 Sampang

The Use of Know-Want-Learn Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text to the Ninth Graders of SMPN
2 Sampang
Yuliana Tri Utami
English Education, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Surabaya
yulianautami@mhs.unesa.ac.id

Dr. H. Aswandi, M.Pd.


English Education, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Surabaya
aswandi@unesa.ac.id

Abstrak
Penelitian ini menyampaikan tentang sebuah strategi baru yang dapat digunakan oleh guru untuk
membantu siswa yang kesulitan dalam memahami teks yang mereka baca. Strategi ini adalah strategi
Know-Want-Learn (KWL) yang disarankan kepada siswa kelas sembilan SMPN 2 Sampang sebagai
strategi membaca mereka dalam mempelajari bahasa Inggris. Membaca adalah kemampuan pertama yang
sangat penting untuk dikuasai karena akan dapat membantu siswa memperoleh berbagai informasi
khususnya dalam menguasai sebuah bahasa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah bagaimana guru sebagai
pengajar dapat mengurangi kesulitan siswa dalam membaca. Salah satu caranya adalah menyediakan
pengajaran yang efektif dengan menggunakan strategi yang tepat. Strategi KWL dipilih untuk mengatasi
permasalahan ini melalui tiga langkah dasar kognitif yaitu; menghubungkan apa yang siswa ketahui,
menentukan apa yang siswa ingin pelajari, dan mengingat apa yang sudah dipelajari. Strategi KWL juga
membantu siswa mengembangkan keingintahuan mereka terhadap materi yang dipelajari dan
mempersiapkan berbagai pertanyaan sebelum, selama, dan setelah membaca untuk mengaitkannya
dengan materi. Peneliti menggunakan penelitian kualitatif untuk memperoleh pengertian lebih dalam
tentang studi ini.Data telah diperoleh melalui hasil pengamatan checklist dan field notes di kelas selama
empat pertemuan. Studi ini menghasilkan dua hal. Pertama, guru telah meyelesaikan proses belajar
mengajar melalui tiga langkah dasar kognitif dari pelaksanaan KWL dan sesuai dengan rencana
pembelajaran. Kedua, siswa menunjukkan respon yang baik. Mereka dapat mengembangkan pemahaman
mereka terhadap teks dengan menunjukkan inisiatif yang besar.
Kata Kunci: Strategi KWL, Pemahaman Membaca, Teks Report

Abstract
This study presented about the new strategy that can be used by the teacher to help the students who have
difficulties in comprehending the text they read. It was Know-Want-Learn (KWL) strategy which is
proposed for the ninth graders of SMPN 2 Sampang as their reading strategy in learning English. Reading
becomes the first skill that is crucial to be mastered because it assists the students achieve most of
information. Student who has a good skill in reading will be easier to gain new knowledge, especially for
language acquisition.The aim of this study is how the teacher as the instructor minimizes the students
reading difficulties. One of the ways is by providing effective instruction using an appropriate strategy.
KWL Strategy is chosen to solve this problem through three basic cognitive steps which are; accessing
what the students Know, determining what the students Want to learn, and recalling what the students did
Learn. It also helps the students develop their curiosity on the material and organize their inquiries before,
during and after reading to connect with their learning. The researcher adopted a qualitative research to
gain in-depth understanding about this study. The data was taken through the observation checklist and
field notes in classroom for four meetings. This study results two things. The first, the teacher is carried
out the learning process through three basic cognitive steps of KWL implementation and accordance with
the lesson plan. The second, the students showed good responses. They could develop their understanding
of the texts by showing great initiative.
Keywords:The KWL Strategy, Reading Comprehension, Report Text

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INTRODUCTION
There are four language skills that are mastered in
learning English. They are reading, listening, speaking,
and writing. Learning English does not only learn one of
the language skills, but also all of them integrated each
other. Reading is one of the most important academic
skills that should be improved by the students in order to
get the positive effect of it such as developing students
vocabulary knowledge, spelling and writing. Reading
ability is students capability to comprehend the text.
Comprehending the text is not simply translating some
words to the first language and expected reading the text
in good pronunciation, but also to find the meaning from
the context. The reader needs to comprehend the ideas of
the text in order to understand the meaning of the text
they read (Karang, 2014: xii). Reading ability also has
been viewed as a critical skill for the students in
academic success because those who have a good skill in
reading will be easier to reach the purpose of learning
and get some more information and new knowledge
directly.
Nowadays, most of the students have reading
difficulties especially in junior high schools. One of the
difficulties is to comprehend the meanings of passages.
They cannot identify the contents of the text they have
read. Denton (2007: 1) pointed out that the teacher who
teaches junior high school students are too aware that
only some students learn reading by the time after they
leave the elementary school. The numbers of students
also consider that reading is one of the difficult language
skills because they do not only simply translate the text
word by word, but are also able to understand and
comprehend the contents of the text itself. The question is
why the students have difficulties in their reading
comprehension. Students may lack some factors that are
the effective strategies used to help them understand what
they learn, organize their learning process, and remember
all of the information, and acceptable knowledge of the
text. The ability to understand the meaning of the text and
remember what they have read, decode one word to
another and have high motivation to read is also
important for reading comprehension. Choosing
appropriate strategy or technique makes student can be
success in their reading comprehension to avoid them
have reading difficulties and low motivation to read
because the students interest and motivation to the
material are also needed for learning.
Furthermore, lack of vocabulary or limited
English proficiency is also one of the factors that make
the students have reading difficulties in comprehending
the texts. It is also the factor why the students lose their
interest and motivation to learn English especially
reading. The students occasionally seek up the meaning
of the difficult or unfamiliar words of the text in the
dictionary. But, when they move to the texts and try to
connect one word to another, the students have difficult

to find the correct words based on the context of the


passage.
Duke and Pearson (2002: 205) noted that the process
of reading comprehension should be based on the
readers interest to read some kinds of the text which is
also referred to as good readers. Good readers are able to
determine the meaning of each words and the main idea
of the text, and they will find the peculiarity of the text
they read as needed. They link, compare, and integrate
their prior knowledge with the contents of the text. It can
help the readers to develop their curiosity and get more
interested to the text. They monitor their understanding of
the text, and make their reading works better. Good
readers are suggested to read different kinds of texts
differently such as narrative, descriptive, report etc.
When they read a narrative text, they closely attend to the
setting and characters in the text. When they read an
expository text, they frequently organize the idea and
review the summaries of what they read. They also can
be called as active readers because they look over the text
before they read in order to make some predictions or
accessing what they know about what will come next in
the text. These is how good readers to understand and
comprehend a text correctly. According to Duke and
Pearson (2002: 206) that comprehension is an engrossing,
continuing, and complex activity. Besides, for good
readers is both satisficing and productive. They do not
only read a book or texts and make predictions of it, but
also they use an effective reading strategy. It is also
important for the teacher and the students as a structural
design for build the comprehension instruction.
Based on the problem above the teacher should
have a goal to minimize reading difficulties and
maximize comprehension when they teach reading to the
students. One of the ways to minimize reading difficulties
is by providing effective instruction and a good strategy.
Pressley & Block (2002) stated some basic principles for
reading comprehension which have been discussed into a
process that involves decoding ability, vocabulary
knowledge, previous knowledge of the topics considered,
and appropriate strategies for understanding the text
(stated in Current Practice Alerts. 2007). It is required to
implement the appropriate strategies to solve students
reading difficulties in English and help the students
understand the meaning or main idea of the text they
read. KWL Strategy is preferred to solve it through three
basic cognitive steps (Know, Want to learn, Learn). KWL
Strategy is a new strategy that can be used by the students
as their reading strategy to link, compare and integrate
their prior knowledge to the new acquired knowledge
systematically structured and appropriately detailed, and
enable them to analyze what the new information they
had gained through the learning process (Northern
Ireland Curriculum, 2007: 44 & Ogle. 1987). It also can
be used for the students who have limited English
proficiency. It is proven by Brown and Day (1983) that
denoted KWL chart had a positive effect for the students

The Use of Know-Want-Learn Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text to the Ninth Graders of SMPN 2 Sampang
to be able planning personal written expression of a topic
learned. The traditional of KWL chart consists of three
columns which are K, L and W. The K column is the
students written for what they already know about the
topic that supposed to complete before reading the text.
The W column is for students to list what they want to
know about the topic to decide what they would like to
learn about the topic and make up their own questions; it
is also will be completed before reading. The last L
column is for what students have gained and learned from
their reading; this step is completed during and after
finishing the reading (KWL Table Online, 2014:1). The
KWL strategy also can be used to set reading instruction
to students in the classroom. It increases motivation and
positive attitude of students and enables the teacher as an
instructor to understand students knowledge and
interests to the material they learned.
In the previous study, A.A.A Putri Dian Purnami
karang (2014: liii) has done her research and got the
result that the use of KWL strategy effectively improve
and increase the eighth grades students ability of SMPN
1 Amlapura in reading comprehension. The teacher gave
descriptive text and then implemented KWL strategy by
adapting the traditional KWL chart which consists of
three columns (Know, Want to learn Learn). In this
research, the researcher attempts to do the same kind of
research through different sample in order to know
whether the use of KWL strategy significantly help the
students to understand and comprehend the text they read
or not. According to The International Association for the
Evaluation of Educational Achievement, the reading
score of Indonesian students for East Asia is still low.
Indonesian students in different grade are capable to
comprehend 30% of reading material they have read, and
get some difficulties in their reading passages that are in
the form of explanation requiring cognitive process (IAE
for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. 2003). It
means that almost all of the students in Indonesia have
reading difficulties in comprehending the text such as in
elementary schools, junior high schools, senior high
schools and higher education. The researcher will attempt
to do this study to another school, especially to the ninth
graders of SMPN 2 Sampang. KTSP curriculum was
implemented in SMPN 2 Sampang which is expected for
developing students comprehension on specific subjects.
Therefore, the researcher focuses in different way by
using factual report text (syllabus of KTSP for ninth
graders of junior high school in KD 11.3) and adapting a
variation of KWL chart by adding two columns to the
traditional chart which are E column for evidence and
W column for what new wondering you can
investigate. Those columns will be located after L. The
purpose is to answer the question E for showing the
evidence that supports the statements in the previous
column, and the W for wondering, which used for
further questions. It is used whether it will encourage the
students develop their own understanding of how they
will discover more information. Alshatti (2012: 3) and
Fisher (2002: 71) pointed out that the purposes of using
KWL strategy is to help the student having deeper critical

thinking about the topic, and more organized for them in


having reading comprehension the text they have read.
This study will describe the ways of the teacher
implements the KWL strategy to teach reading of report
text and students responses in the process of teaching
reading by KWL strategy which also being the subject of
this study.
METHOD
The research design of this study was a qualitative
research. The purpose of this study was to describe how
the teacher implements KWL strategy to teach reading of
report text to the ninth graders of SMPN 2 Sampang, and
the students responses in the process of teaching reading
during and after using KWL strategy. According to Cohen
et al. (2007: 461) stated that qualitative data analysis, in
short, making sense of data in terms of the participants
definitions of the situation, noting patterns, themes,
categories and regularities. From the statement, it means
that qualitative research is to explain, to describe, to
summarize the implementation and to operate the same
problems in different context. The teacher and the ninth
graders of SMPN 2 Sampang were chosen as subject of
this study. The data was taken from each of meetings in
classroom. The researcher chooses this grade because one
of language skill that must be mastered is students
reading capability to comprehend the text and also to meet
a demand of component mastery based on the competency
in KTSP curriculum that was implemented in this school.
In this grade, the students learned how to read and
comprehend the report text (syllabus of KTSP for ninth
grades junior high school in KD 11.3).
In this study, the instrument was an important to be
used in collecting data of the study. There were some
kinds of instrument for collecting data that are
observation, task etc. and the right instrument would be
helpful to collect and process the data of this study. The
research design of this study is qualitative research;
therefore the researcher used observation checklist, and
field notes for describing the whole activities in the
classroom to obtain data in the form of words.This
observation checklist is used to answer the research
questions and to describe the whole activities in the
classroom and all information which is seen and heard
during teaching and learning process. The researcher acted
as non-participant observer. It means that the researcher
only observe and do not involve teaching and learning
activities with students directly. The technique to gain the
required data of it was the researcher sat in the back of the
class, observed the activities and took a note before,
during, and after the implementation of KWL Strategy.
Field note was used to add and get the main information
which is going on in the classroom activities between the
teacher and students during teaching and learning
activities. Field note was complete information and the
researcher made it after doing observation. In this study,
the researchers took a note the learning process from
beginning until the end of the class. The researcher wrote
the setting, people, reaction and events. Ary et al. (2010:
434) stated that field notes contain what the researcher has

RETAIN. Volume 05 Nomor 01 Tahun 2017, 164 - 172


seen and heard in classroom during teaching learning
activity. It may include photographs and audio and video
recordings.In this study, field note was used to record
anything that happens during teaching and learning
activities. How the teacher apply the strategy and
students responses toward the use of the strategy, whether
they can implement the use of KWL strategy well or not.
Therefore, all of the processes of implementation of KWL
strategy were noted in the field note. All the data of the
field notes described in the written form by the researcher
and draw the conclusion in the end of the sequences.
After collecting all of the data which were gotten from
observation checklist and field notes in the process of
teaching reading by using KWL strategy in classroom, the
researcher analyzed them descriptively. It means that this
research was described in the form of words, sentences, or
paragraph to get conclusion and suggestion of this study.
The data analysis technique was the technique
that was used to analyze all of the data which is related
with research question from this study to find the result
and the discussion. Miles, Huberman, & Saldanna (2014)
explained that data analysis within qualitative method has
three steps, those are data condensation, data display,
conclusion drawing, and verification. These three steps
were used in this study.
a. Data Condensation
Data condensation was the first step to analyze
the data collection of observation checklist and field notes
in this study. In order to have the validity of the needed
data, this study reduced the original data into the certain
data which was related to the research questions. The
researcher read and classified the result of observation
checklist from the first till the fourth meeting, then took
extensive notes to create some points of the result based
on the theoretical framework to have clear understanding
of what the data needed to be assigned to each research
question. After analyzed the observation checklist, the
researcher listened to each audio recording of the field
notes while read the transcript, then, took notes by
exploring the similarities and differences of the
implementation of KWL strategy to teach reading of
report text to the ninth graders of SMPN 2 Sampang in
classroom with related theories.
b. Data Display
The selected data were arranged in this step. The
arrangement of the data was displayed into description for
each meeting to be explained in the result and discussion
of this study.The observation checklist of the teachers
preparation is used for helping the process of analyzing
the ways the teacher implements KWL strategy to teach
reading of report text to the students related to the
theories. It was compared with the field notes in order to
find the valid answer of research question number one.
The display of recording data that had been transcript
eased the process of analyzing. Similar technique was
applied to get the answer of the research question number
two. If the result of data analysis of previous research
question represented how the teachers implements KWL
strategy to teach reading of report text to the students, the
research question number two would be resulted

differently. It was relating to the students responses in the


process of teaching reading by using KWL strategy.
c. Conclusion drawing and verification
The conclusion was drawn in this step for
answering the two research questions of this study. The
verification of the conclusion was required to interrelate
with the theories stated in Chapter 2. The first research
question was about the ways the teacher implements
KWL strategy to teach reading of report text to the
students that was answered through the theory of three
basic cognitive steps required for reading comprehension
using KWL strategy by Ogle (1986). The second research
question about students responses in the process of
teaching reading by using KWL strategy was answered
through the theory of the potential of using KWL strategy
by Alshatti (2012) and Fisher (2002). The teacher and the
students implemented the KWL strategy effectively, while
writing the ideas into all columns of KWL chart was
completed.
RESULTS
This research is designed for two or three meetings
with different report text for each. During the
observation, the researcher found that the teacher selected
two titles of the report text that can be used as material
for reading activity. The titles were Dolphins and
Tornado. Based on the students problem in
comprehending the text passage, this research was
expected to solve the students problem and make them
improve especially in comprehending report texts with
KWL strategy. The indication of students improvement
can be seen in the students individual score, students
attitude, and students responses before and after
implementing KWL strategy.
There were 27 students in the class. In the teaching
learning process, the teacher built fun and comfortable
class to make the student do not get bored. The facilities
that were supporting a comfortable class were desks,
chairs, white board, eraser and broad makers. The
arrangement of sit place the students was the students
chairs are at the back of the desk like a commonly the
arrangement of a traditional classroom in Indonesia
schools. This arrangement gave benefit to the teacher and
students get good interaction between them.
1. The First Meeting
The first meeting was conducted on February 6th 2016
in the ninth grade of SMP Negeri 2 Sampang (IX A
class). The class started from 08.30 am until 09.10 am.
The teacher and the researcher discussed strategies to
minimize the problems before starting the class. There
were 27 students, but at that time there were 26 students
because one of them could not attend the class. In the
beginning of the class, the teacher greeted the students
while prepared the material and then checked the
students attendance. The students were pleased to meet
the teacher. The teacher started the lesson by asking the
students some questions related with the material. The
teacher prepared the new topic while distributed the
exercise sheet or KWL chart to the students that will be

The Use of Know-Want-Learn Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text to the Ninth Graders of SMPN 2 Sampang
taught at that time. In the main activity, the teacher began
the activities by explaining the purpose of teaching to the
students that is about KWL strategy and the
implementation of it.
Then, the teacher introduced the topic (report text)
and asked students to open their handbook on page 324,
and then look over the report text with the title
Dolphin. The teacher asked the students to skim the
text by themselves once and list what they already knew
about the topic in the K column. After the teacher gave
the material and introduced the topic, the students began
by brainstorming everything they know about Dolphin.
The students recorded relevant information about the
topic that they know in the K column of the KWL chart.
It needed around 15-20 minutes to complete the chart.
There were some students have problems in completing
the K column. They were a little bit confused of what
should they do in K column. They were also difficult to
write in English. The teacher had to give some examples
to help them in completing the K column. There were
also some troublemakers that often made noise in
classroom. Some students talked with other students
without paying attention to the lesson. They looked like
not interested to do the activities. The teacher
consequently had to control the class and solve the
students problems. She came to the students chair one
by one and checked the students work. Then, she told the
students that she would give points to the students who
answered her questions and participated in the classroom
discussion. Unfortunately, the teaching learning process
had to be postponed because of the limited time.
Therefore, the teacher asked the students to submit the
KWL Chart in order to check the students work. Before
ending the class, the teacher gave the students feedback
related to the material and the learning process. The
teacher advised the students to change their attitude
during the process of learning in class. They had to
control themselves for not being careless. It was
bothering another class and disrupted the learning
activities. Last, she asked the students to prepare for the
next activities that they have to do in completing the
KWL chart. Then the teacher closed the class.

complete the next column which is W column. The


teacher invited students to list what else they would like
to learn. The teacher wrote the questions on whiteboard.
The students then generated a list of questions about what
they want to know about the topic. Then those questions
were listed in the W column. The students read the
material looking for the answers of their questions about
what they want to learn from the text. The students
translated the text with the teachers helped. It made the
students easily comprehend the text. The teacher also
reminded the students that their answer would be written
in the L column.
After reading, the teacher and students discussed
which of their questions they were able to answer and
make a chart that shows their answers. The problem in
the second meeting was in translating the questions from
Indonesian to English. If there is certain question remains
unanswered, they identify where to go to find the answer.
For gaining deep understanding about the text or
material, the teacher asked the students to work
individually to do exercises. The students were
confidence to ask question. They came to the teacher or
raised their hand and then asked the question if there was
a part they could not understand. In result, the students
felt enthusiastic in this activity. The students applied
KWL reading strategy and they shared their ideas into the
chart. The teacher built the students motivation to avoid
them gets bored in learning process in order to make
them being active. The teacher corrected the students
errors and solved the students problem related with the
learning process. Besides, the teacher asked the students
to give the evidences that support their answers into E
column. There were few students who became trouble
makers in class. They copied other students answer and
made noise by bothering others, thus the teacher
explicitly had to reprimand them in order to have an
efficient class. The time was not enough. Therefore, the
fifth column which is W column what new wonderings
you can investigate could not fill in that time. It would
be filled in the next meeting collected together with the
new topic. Thus in the post activity, all students could
finish their work and submit the exercise to the teacher.
The teacher and the students translated together the text
into Indonesia in order the students had deep
understanding about the text. Then, the teacher gave a
chance for the students to share their difficulties during
teaching-learning process. The teacher evaluated all of
the activities that were gained during teaching learning
process, and then closed the class.

2. The Second Meeting


The second meeting was conducted on February 13th
2016. There were 26 students in class. The lesson started
from 08.30 am until 09.10 am. As the teacher did before
in the previous meeting, she greeted the students first and
then checked the students attendance. At that time, the
students made noise in class that made the teacher
extremely had to control them. The teacher tried to build
an enjoyable situation in the class. She also announced
that she will give an extra score for those who actively
answer the question or share their ideas in the lesson.
While preparing the material, the teacher distributed the
KWL Chart to continue the previous material that had
postponed in the last meeting. The teacher explained the
next activities that should be done by the students in
completing the chart. After completing the K column in
the previous meeting, the teacher asked the students to

3. The Third Meeting


In the third meeting, the research was conducted on
February 17th 2016 in the same class. There were 27
students in class. The lesson started from12.10 pm until
12.50 pm. The teacher began the class by greeted the
students, then she checked the students attendance and
everybody was present. The teacher said to the students
that the activity for this meeting is similar with the
previous meeting, it was about KWL strategy by
completing the KWL chart based on the topic they would

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be learned, and then she asked them to actively
participate in this activity. She also allowed each student
to discuss it with a friend next to her/him. After
distributing the KWL chart to the students, the teacher
gave them different topic and different form of report
text. The teacher asked the students to open the book
Mentari on page 179 and look over the text untitled
Tornado.
Students began the activity by written the things they
already know into K column and the things they would
like to learn before reading in the form of questions into
W column of the KWL chart, then they continued to read
the text Tornado. After reading, the teacher and
students discussed which of their questions they were
able to answer. The students completed the chart with
things they have learned in L column and gave the
support for each statement into E column. They already
understand what they have to do. Without direction, they
could facilely complete the chart. The students had
eagerness to learn. The students applied KWL reading
strategy easily and they shared their ideas and discussed
it with their friend. The students were confidence to ask
some questions to the teacher if there was a certain word
or sentence they did not understand yet. They could enjoy
doing the exercise. While implementing the KWL
strategy, the teacher controlled the class and was ready to
help the students difficulties during the process of
understanding the text.
In the end of the class, the students submitted their
work to the teacher. Then, the teacher and the students
discussed the obstacles they faced during the activity. The
teacher also reminded the students that there was still one
column did not fill yet, it was the fifth column what new
wonderings you can investigate. She explained a little
bit about filling the fifth column. She asked the students
to prepare some questions for two topics Dolphin and
Tornado in the next meeting. Then, before she closed
the class, she asked the students to pray.
4. The Fourth Meeting
This research was conducted on February 20th 2016
in the same class. There were 25 students in class. The
class started from 08.30 am until 09.10 am. The teacher
greeted the students and checked the students attendance
by asking to the students the reason of two students could
not attend the class. Then, she asked one of the students
borrows several dictionaries from the library for helping
the students do the exercise. In this meeting the teacher
explained what they should do in the fifth column or W
column (what new wonderings you can investigate) based
on the two topics which are Dolphin and Tornado.
The students actively answered and shared their ideas
by asking some questions. The teacher wrote all the
questions on the whiteboard while stimulating the
students to give a comment or an idea about what they
want to know from the topics that was not mention in the
text. There were 8 further questions for Dolphins and 8
questions for Tornado. The students then generated a
list of those questions and were listed in the W column.
The teacher helped the students to translate the questions

into English, she translated three of questions in every


topic and the rest were translated by the students. The
teacher decided the class into 5 groups. One group
consisted of 5 or 6 members. The teacher asked them to
answer all the questions that they had made and written
into W column what new wonderings you can
investigate. Each member of each group would answer
one or two question and could choose the question as
they want, but the question had to be different one
another. The students had big effort to do the exercise
because of their limited English proficiency.
Unfortunately, when the students did the exercise, the
time was over. The teacher had to close the class and the
exercise that had not been done yet was a take home. It
would be submitted on February 22th 2016. Before
closed the class, the teacher evaluated the teaching
learning process at that time and gave a feedback for the
students only a little. In result, the students did all the
exercise properly.
DISCUSSION
After all the results of implementing KWL strategy
have been explained, this section provided deeper
explanation by verifying them with related theories and
to be presented as final results. Based on the results of the
first till fourth meeting in implementing KWL strategy, it
was found that the KWL strategy had been worked well.
It deals with Ogle and Alshattis arguments regarding the
implementation of KWL strategy that KWL Strategy had
three basic cognitive steps required; accessing what I
know, determining what I want to know, and recalling
what I did learn as a result of reading. The
implementation of KWL strategy to the ninth graders (IX
A) of SMPN 2 Sampang satisfactorily had been worked
through three basic cognitive steps. The researcher and
the teacher as a collaborator already facilitated each
student a KWL chart in order to make the students easier
during reading activity.
1) The ways of the English teacher implement the
KWL strategy to teach reading of report text to
the students
Because of the limited time, the implementation of KWL
strategy was done in four meetings with different topic of
report text, and it made the analysis become more
efficient. The teacher had a preparation before the
teaching learning activity such as a lesson plan, teaching
media and the material. She did the activity based on the
lesson plan by using KWL strategy as the learning
technique that was accordance with the theory. According
to Ogle (1986: 565) KWL strategy also named as a
logical three-step procedure for the three basic cognitive
steps required; accessing what the students know,
determining what the students want to learn, and recalling
what the students did learn as a result of reading. In the
beginning of the class, she had greeted and checked the
students attendance and then gave some questions
related with the topic within the exercise sheet (KWL
chart) appropriately. She used two languages for
communication which are Indonesian and English. It
helped the teacher easier to get the students involvement

The Use of Know-Want-Learn Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text to the Ninth Graders of SMPN 2 Sampang
in the learning process. It was caused the students
limited English proficiency.
In the main activity, the teacher had explained the
purpose of teaching and the rule of strategy. She gave the
material and introduced the topic (the report text). She
also gave the students a chance to ask a question related
with the material by delivering them through some
explanation. Based on the three basic cognitive steps, the
first step that the teacher have done was by stimulating
the students to mention what they have known about the
topic and she asked the students to write down their ideas
into K column of the chart. The second step, after the
teacher had the students list ideas and concepts related to
the topic, she invited the students to list what else they
would like to know. After eliciting the questions from
several students, the teacher discussed the questions that
the students are most interested in having answered and
asked each student to write those questions into W
column of KWL chart. She motivated the students by
praising them and giving an extra score for those who
actively participated in the classroom discussion or
answered the teachers questions. She controlled the class
and solved the students problem without discriminating
one student to another. The third step, the teacher had the
students read the text and remind the students that they
should try to answer their W questions as they fill in the
L column. In addition, the teacher asked the students to
write the evidence for supporting their answers into E
column.
In the end of the class, the teacher discussed the
information that students recorded in the L column. The
teacher and the students translated together the text in the
end of KWL implementation. She evaluated the learning
process and allowed the students to ask question related
to the learning process. She gave the students feedback to
increase their motivation, build on their existing
knowledge and help them reflect on what they have
learned because the students who received lots of
feedback were better able to comprehend the material
they had just read. The last, she asked the students to
prepare themselves in the next meeting and closed the
class by saying thank you and good bye. Completing the
fifth column was done in the fourth column. Based on the
explanation above, the teacher had carried out the
learning process through three basic cognitive steps of
KWL implementation (Ogle. 1986) and accordance with
the lesson plan that aims to enable the students analyze
some information and the meaning contained of the
report text they read.

English proficiency of the students. The students often


made noise when the process of completing the chart was
running. They talked with their friends without paying
attention to the teacher explanation at first. They also had
lack of vocabularies in English. They could not speak or
write in English well. They spoke in Indonesia too much.
When the teacher tried to explain the material in English,
they asked the teacher to translate it into Indonesia. Some
students often answered the teachers question in
Indonesia or their mother tongue. Therefore, the teacher
had to combine between English and Indonesian for their
communications in the teaching learning process and thus
the students had difficulty to read moreover they had to
comprehend some kinds of texts they have read; one of
them was to read a report text. The teacher also found the
students problem about applying KWL strategy such as,
when the first time they recorded their ideas in the K
column. They had confused to write what they know
about the topic since it was the first time for them. It
needed extra time around 15-20 minutes for the students
to fill the K column. The students were not confidence to
ask. Many of them kept silent and waited the teacher
come to the chair.
In the second meeting, the students were more
enthusiastic in doing the exercise. They were confidence
to ask. If there was a part that they could not understand
yet, they came to the teacher or raised their hand and then
asked the question. They actively shared their ideas and
complete the chart. They needed only around 15 minutes
to complete three columns of the chart which are W
(what do you want to know), L (what do you have
learned) and E (the evidence) column. They could
understand the instruction effortlessly and made the
process of teaching learning run fluently. The teacher and
the students could participate to the classroom discussion.
The problem in the second meeting was in translating the
questions from Indonesian to English. They did not only
need a dictionary but also the teachers help. The
important thing was they had big effort to do the exercise.
They finished their exercise on time and submitted it to
the teacher.
In the third meeting, the students were responsive to
the teachers instruction. They did the exercise easily.
They actively implemented the strategy and participate to
the discussion.
The students built fun learning.
Sometimes, they made jokes in order to avoid them
getting bored to the lesson. They had understood what
they have to do in completing the chart. Firstly, they
started by brainstorming any prior knowledge they may
have on the topic and make a list of what they want to
know about the topic into K and W column. Second, they
answered the W questions in the L column within the
evidence into E column. They did not need long time to
do the exercise; they managed the time as well as
possible. Unluckily, they could not fill the fifth column
because of the limited time and it would be filled in the
fourth meeting.
The fourth meeting would be the last of the
implementation of KWL strategy. The students actively
shared their ideas into the fifth column (what new

2) The Students Responses during Implementation


of KWL Strategy
Depending on the theory of Alshatti (2012: 16) that
the potential of KWL strategy is to facilitate studentcentered learning and promote positive changes in
students attitude and enthusiasm during the learning
process. The students showed good responses. They
could facilely complete the chart and involve into the
learning activity. The problems that happened in the first
meeting were the situation in the class and the limited

RETAIN. Volume 05 Nomor 01 Tahun 2017, 164 - 172


wonderings you can investigate). This column filled for
further questions to help the students discover more
information from other sources that was not mentioned in
the text. According to Alshatti (2012: 3) and Fisher
(2002: 71), the purposes of using KWL strategy to help
the student having deeper critical thinking about the
topic, and more organized for them in having reading
comprehension the text they read. It could be seen when
the students could present their own questions and
monitor their comprehension to the text. Some questions
were list in the fifth column. The students looked for the
answer from other sources and it was conform to the
expectation. At the end, the students have done the
exercise using KWL strategy completely. It could be said
that step by step, the students had deeper critical thinking
about the topic.
The students achievement could be seen from the
final result or score obtained from the two exercises or
two topics which denoted that the second exercise scores
of the students were higher than the first exercise scores.
It means that the students could develop their
understanding of the texts they read. Although they have
limited English proficiency and spoke in Indonesia too
much, they had been trying to use English during the
activity. Based on the students responses during the
process of implementing KWL strategy in class; the
researcher concluded that KWL strategy is an effective
strategy used by the students to develop their reading
comprehension to the text and their involvement to the
lesson. The implementation of KWL strategy also looked
interesting; it was seen from the condition of the class
which is fun and enjoyable. The students showed great
initiative. Many students purposed a lot of questions to
solve their difficulties during they did the exercise. They
shared their ideas to complete the KWL chart based on
the teachers instruction. They had high motivation to do
it. They were also excited when the teacher together
translated the text into Indonesia. They were disciplined
in doing the exercise. They could submit the exercise on
time. They used the time effectively which made the
teaching learning activity efficient. The students showed
good responses when the teacher gave them immediate
feedback. They kept on paying attention to the teachers
explanation and took a note as needed.
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Conclusion
After doing the analysis of The Use of Know-WantLearn (KWL) Strategy to Teach Reading of Report Text
to the Ninth Graders of SMPN 2 Sampang, the writer
concluded that:
The implementation of KWL strategy was done in the
fourth meeting. In the first meeting, the students were a
little bit confused to complete the KWL chart since it was
the first time for them applying KWL strategy in their
learning activity. However, the teaching and learning
activities became better from the first to the fourth
meeting. The teacher and the students were able to use
KWL strategy effectively. The teacher was able to
implement the KWL strategy to the students through

three basic cognitive steps; accessing what the students


know (K column), determining what the students want to
know (W column), and recalling what the students did
learn (L column). She also could build positive changes
in students attitudes such as student interest, motivation
and lesson involvement during the learning process.
The students showed good responses. They were able
to elicit their prior knowledge of the topic in the text
which helps them develop their curiosity on the topic and
gets them more interested about the topic in learning;
decided what they would like to learn about the topic
which gives them motivation to read and make up their
own questions; monitored their comprehension because it
allows them to identify what they understood; justified
their proposed explanation of their answer; and had
deeper critical thinking about what new wonderings
about the topic which gives them a chance to add their
knowledge.
Suggestion
Based on the result of the research finding in this
study, the researcher would like to give some suggestion
for the teacher, the students, and also the other researcher,
such as: The teachers are suggested to explain clearly
about KWL strategy before starting to implement the
strategy in order to get the students attention and
participant to the lesson. KWL strategy is expected to
give some contributions to the teacher for helping the
students in term of comprehension, motivation, interest,
and learning involvement in a classroom. The students
are suggested to pay their attention to the teacher
explanation during teaching and learning process,
therefore they can reach the purpose of learning. Besides,
the students who have the same difficulties can use the
KWL strategy as means for helping them in reading. The
next researchers are suggested to attempt the same kind
of research with different sample in the use of KWL
strategy in order to know whether this strategy can
significantly help the students problem in reading
comprehension. The next researchers can use different
kind of text and adapt other variation of KWL strategy.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Deepest gratitude was sent to Dr. H. Aswandi, M.Pd.
asmy advisor and the second writer of this article, for his
insights and suggestions encouraged this study to be
completed.
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