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Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877880

Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 Contents lists available at <a href=ScienceDirect Materials Letters journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matlet A hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea Chunyu Li ⁎ , Jim Lua Global Engineering and Materials Inc, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA article info Article history: Received 18 November 2008 Accepted 13 January 2009 Available online 26 January 2009 Keywords: Hyper-viscoelasticity Constitutive modeling Polyurea Rate-dependent material High strain rate abstract This letter presents a new constitutive model for polyurea by superposing the hyperelastic and viscoelastic behaviors of polyurea. The Ogden model is used for the hyperelastic part and its parameters are determined from curve fi tting of quasi-static test data. A nonlinear viscoelastic model is employed for describing the viscoelastic behavior and its relaxation time is obtained based on the test data of shear relaxation modulus. A special form of Zapas kernel for the damping function is found to be very effective to capture the viscoelastic behavior of polyurea subjected to wide ranges of strain rate. Both the versatility and accuracy of the model are examined via virtual testing. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Polyurea is a product from the chemical reaction between an isocyanate and an amine. It has been widely used in the coating industry, because of its extensive bene fi ts over existing epoxy adhesives and rubber linings in terms of impact, abrasion and corrosion resistance. With the development of polyurea spray coat- ings technology, speci fi cally formulated polyurea can be directly and ef fi ciently sprayed on the surface of structural components to enhance the mechanical strength and durability of civil and military structures. Previous experimental studies [1] have revealed that polyurea exhibits elastic and nearly incompressible behavior to volumetric deformations and its stress – strain behavior depends on strain rate, temperature and pressure [2,3] . Different from the rubbery behavior under low strain rates, polyurea displays a distinct leathery behavior [4] at high strain rates. Polyurea can be used in a wide range of temperature (from − 50 °C to 150 °C) and has shown a high heat resistance. However, its shear modulus decreases signi fi cantly with increasing temperature. The glass transition temperature T for polyurea is roughly − 50 °C [1] . Given the stiffening behavior of polyurea material with both increasing strain and strain rate, it has been used either as a protection coating on a metallic structure or an inserted layer between the outer facesheet and the foam core in a blast-tolerant sandwich structure. Both material certi fi cation and performance evaluation of polyurea coated structural components under hostile environment by tests will be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Development of a high fi delity constitutive model of polyurea is imperative to perform an optimal design of its coated components subjected to a combined dynamic and thermal loading. Currently, there are only two models have ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: chunyulee@hotmail.com (C. Li). 0167-577X/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2009.01.055 been developed speci fi cally for polyurea although some similar models have been proposed for other hyperelastic or viscoelastic materials [5,6] . One is an experimentally-based linear viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Amirkhizi et al. [2] . It incorporates the classical Williams – Landel – Ferry (WLF) time-temperature transformation and pressure sensitivity, in addition to a thermodynamic energy dissipation mechan- ism. The model can reproduce experimental results for con fi ned polyurea tests but has limited capability in simulating the uncon fi ned test data. The other is a more complex model proposed by Elsayed [7] which consists of an elastoplastic network acting in parallel with several viscoelastic networks. Quasi-incompressible Ogden-type potentials were used and the number of model parameters is a function of the number of active Ogden terms and relaxation mechanisms, thus a procedure based on genetic algorithms was employed to calibrate model parameters based on existing experimental data. Although this model is relatively successful in reproducing experimental data, it seems to be too complicated for engineering practice. A constitutive model for polyurea should cover a wide range of strain rates from static to high speed impact and capture both hyperelastic and viscoelasticmaterial behavior. A rational approach based on a combination of hyperelasticity theory and viscoelasticity theory is needed in deriving the constitutive model. Also, for its practical applications, the model should be comparatively simple to be implemented in a general purpose fi nite element code while its parameters can be determined experimen- tally from the standard tests. To meet the model requirements, this letter presents a new hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea. 2. Hyperelastic model for low strain rates Given the compliant rubber-like behavior of polyurea from quasi- static tests, a hyperelastic constitutive model is selected to characterize its rubbery stress – strain behavior at low strain rates. The constitutive " id="pdf-obj-0-7" src="pdf-obj-0-7.jpg">

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Materials Letters

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matlet

Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 Contents lists available at <a href=ScienceDirect Materials Letters journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matlet A hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea Chunyu Li ⁎ , Jim Lua Global Engineering and Materials Inc, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA article info Article history: Received 18 November 2008 Accepted 13 January 2009 Available online 26 January 2009 Keywords: Hyper-viscoelasticity Constitutive modeling Polyurea Rate-dependent material High strain rate abstract This letter presents a new constitutive model for polyurea by superposing the hyperelastic and viscoelastic behaviors of polyurea. The Ogden model is used for the hyperelastic part and its parameters are determined from curve fi tting of quasi-static test data. A nonlinear viscoelastic model is employed for describing the viscoelastic behavior and its relaxation time is obtained based on the test data of shear relaxation modulus. A special form of Zapas kernel for the damping function is found to be very effective to capture the viscoelastic behavior of polyurea subjected to wide ranges of strain rate. Both the versatility and accuracy of the model are examined via virtual testing. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Polyurea is a product from the chemical reaction between an isocyanate and an amine. It has been widely used in the coating industry, because of its extensive bene fi ts over existing epoxy adhesives and rubber linings in terms of impact, abrasion and corrosion resistance. With the development of polyurea spray coat- ings technology, speci fi cally formulated polyurea can be directly and ef fi ciently sprayed on the surface of structural components to enhance the mechanical strength and durability of civil and military structures. Previous experimental studies [1] have revealed that polyurea exhibits elastic and nearly incompressible behavior to volumetric deformations and its stress – strain behavior depends on strain rate, temperature and pressure [2,3] . Different from the rubbery behavior under low strain rates, polyurea displays a distinct leathery behavior [4] at high strain rates. Polyurea can be used in a wide range of temperature (from − 50 °C to 150 °C) and has shown a high heat resistance. However, its shear modulus decreases signi fi cantly with increasing temperature. The glass transition temperature T for polyurea is roughly − 50 °C [1] . Given the stiffening behavior of polyurea material with both increasing strain and strain rate, it has been used either as a protection coating on a metallic structure or an inserted layer between the outer facesheet and the foam core in a blast-tolerant sandwich structure. Both material certi fi cation and performance evaluation of polyurea coated structural components under hostile environment by tests will be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Development of a high fi delity constitutive model of polyurea is imperative to perform an optimal design of its coated components subjected to a combined dynamic and thermal loading. Currently, there are only two models have ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: chunyulee@hotmail.com (C. Li). 0167-577X/$ – see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: 10.1016/j.matlet.2009.01.055 been developed speci fi cally for polyurea although some similar models have been proposed for other hyperelastic or viscoelastic materials [5,6] . One is an experimentally-based linear viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Amirkhizi et al. [2] . It incorporates the classical Williams – Landel – Ferry (WLF) time-temperature transformation and pressure sensitivity, in addition to a thermodynamic energy dissipation mechan- ism. The model can reproduce experimental results for con fi ned polyurea tests but has limited capability in simulating the uncon fi ned test data. The other is a more complex model proposed by Elsayed [7] which consists of an elastoplastic network acting in parallel with several viscoelastic networks. Quasi-incompressible Ogden-type potentials were used and the number of model parameters is a function of the number of active Ogden terms and relaxation mechanisms, thus a procedure based on genetic algorithms was employed to calibrate model parameters based on existing experimental data. Although this model is relatively successful in reproducing experimental data, it seems to be too complicated for engineering practice. A constitutive model for polyurea should cover a wide range of strain rates from static to high speed impact and capture both hyperelastic and viscoelasticmaterial behavior. A rational approach based on a combination of hyperelasticity theory and viscoelasticity theory is needed in deriving the constitutive model. Also, for its practical applications, the model should be comparatively simple to be implemented in a general purpose fi nite element code while its parameters can be determined experimen- tally from the standard tests. To meet the model requirements, this letter presents a new hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea. 2. Hyperelastic model for low strain rates Given the compliant rubber-like behavior of polyurea from quasi- static tests, a hyperelastic constitutive model is selected to characterize its rubbery stress – strain behavior at low strain rates. The constitutive " id="pdf-obj-0-17" src="pdf-obj-0-17.jpg">

A hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea

Chunyu Li , Jim Lua

Global Engineering and Materials Inc, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA

article info

Article history:

Received 18 November 2008 Accepted 13 January 2009 Available online 26 January 2009

Keywords:

Hyper-viscoelasticity Constitutive modeling Polyurea Rate-dependent material High strain rate

abstract

This letter presents a new constitutive model for polyurea by superposing the hyperelastic and viscoelastic behaviors of polyurea. The Ogden model is used for the hyperelastic part and its parameters are determined from curve tting of quasi-static test data. A nonlinear viscoelastic model is employed for describing the viscoelastic behavior and its relaxation time is obtained based on the test data of shear relaxation modulus. A

special form of Zapas kernel for the damping function is found to be very effective to capture the viscoelastic behavior of polyurea subjected to wide ranges of strain rate. Both the versatility and accuracy of the model are examined via virtual testing.

© 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Polyurea is a product from the chemical reaction between an isocyanate and an amine. It has been widely used in the coating industry, because of its extensive benets over existing epoxy adhesives and rubber linings in terms of impact, abrasion and corrosion resistance. With the development of polyurea spray coat- ings technology, specically formulated polyurea can be directly and efciently sprayed on the surface of structural components to enhance the mechanical strength and durability of civil and military structures. Previous experimental studies [1] have revealed that polyurea exhibits elastic and nearly incompressible behavior to volumetric deformations and its stressstrain behavior depends on strain rate, temperature and pressure [2,3]. Different from the rubbery behavior under low strain rates, polyurea displays a distinct leathery behavior [4] at high strain rates. Polyurea can be used in a wide range of temperature (from 50 °C to 150 °C) and has shown a high heat resistance. However, its shear modulus decreases signicantly with increasing temperature. The glass transition temperature T g for polyurea is roughly 50 °C [1]. Given the stiffening behavior of polyurea material with both increasing strain and strain rate, it has been used either as a protection coating on a metallic structure or an inserted layer between the outer facesheet and the foam core in a blast-tolerant sandwich structure. Both material certication and performance evaluation of polyurea coated structural components under hostile environment by tests will be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Development of a high delity constitutive model of polyurea is imperative to perform an optimal design of its coated components subjected to a combined dynamic and thermal loading. Currently, there are only two models have

Corresponding author. E-mail address: chunyulee@hotmail.com (C. Li).

0167-577X/$ see front matter © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

been developed specically for polyurea although some similar models have been proposed for other hyperelastic or viscoelastic materials [5,6]. One is an experimentally-based linear viscoelastic constitutive model proposed by Amirkhizi et al. [2]. It incorporates the classical WilliamsLandelFerry (WLF) time-temperature transformation and pressure sensitivity, in addition to a thermodynamic energy dissipation mechan- ism. The model can reproduce experimental results for conned polyurea tests but has limited capability in simulating the unconned test data. The other is a more complex model proposed by Elsayed [7] which consists of an elastoplastic network acting in parallel with several viscoelastic networks. Quasi-incompressible Ogden-type potentials were used and the number of model parameters is a function of the number of active Ogden terms and relaxation mechanisms, thus a procedure based on genetic algorithms was employed to calibrate model parameters based on existing experimental data. Although this model is relatively successful in reproducing experimental data, it seems to be too complicated for engineering practice. A constitutive model for polyurea should cover a wide range of strain rates from static to high speed impact and capture both hyperelastic and viscoelasticmaterial behavior. A rational approach based on a combination of hyperelasticity theory and viscoelasticity theory is needed in deriving the constitutive model. Also, for its practical applications, the model should be comparatively simple to be implemented in a general purpose nite element code while its parameters can be determined experimen- tally from the standard tests. To meet the model requirements, this letter presents a new hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model for polyurea.

2. Hyperelastic model for low strain rates

Given the compliant rubber-like behavior of polyurea from quasi- static tests, a hyperelastic constitutive model is selected to characterize its rubbery stressstrain behavior at low strain rates. The constitutive

878

C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877880

Table 1

Fitting parameters

 

12

3

4

5

6

μ i (MPa) 40.9183 16.6532 34.7554

27.7561

α i

7.6257 3.9473

3.4994

3.9430

G i (MPa) 15.8879 28.3111

38.1695

44.0718

66.9582

86.1898

ω i (ms)

301.61

0.13146

1.0556 ×10 3 4.3933 ×10 5 2.4659×10 6 1.6715×10 7

law for an isotropic hyperelastic material is decomposed into volumetric

and deviatoric parts. The deviatoric part is dened by an equation

relating the strain energy density of the material to the three invariants

of the strain tensor. By assuming the incompressible behavior of the

rubber-like material, the strain energy density W becomes a function of

the rst two invariants, i.e., W = W(I 1 , I 2 ), where I 1 = tr(B), I 2 = [I 2 tr(B 2 )]/

1

2 and B is the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor. Here, we only

consider the uniaxial loading case given the availability of experimental

data. For a specimen under uniaxial loading, the principal stretches can

be expressed as λ 1 = λ u , λ 2 = λ 3 = λ u 1/2 , where λ u stands for

the stretch in

the loading direction and λ u =1+ ε u with ε u denotes the engineering

strain in the loading direction. The left CauchyGreen deformation

2

tensor B is then B = diag[λ , λ 1 , λ 1 ] (the right CauchyGreen

u

u

u

deformation tensor C = B). There are several specic forms of the strain

energy density, such as by Arruda-Boyce [8], Mooney-Rivlin [9] and Neo-

Hookean [10]. Here we select the Ogden model [11], given by

W =

n

  • i = 1

2μ i

α

2

i

λ α i + λ α i + λ α i 3 :

1

2

3

ð1Þ

h

Thus, the Cauchy (true) stress σ 11 derived from the Ogden model is

n

σ 11 h = p h + λ u σ e

11 =

i = 1

2μ i

α i

λ α i λ

u

α i =2

u

;

ð2Þ

e

where σ 11 represents the engineering stress. The hydrostatic pressure

p h representing the volumetric part can be obtained by posing the

h

boundary condition associated with unconned tests σ 22

h

= σ 33

= 0, i.e.,

n

p h =

  • i = 1

2μ i

α i

λ

α i =2 λ α i =4

u

u

:

ð3Þ

The nal form of the Cauchy stress in the loading direction is thus

written as

n

σ h

11 =

i = 1

2μ i

α i

λ α i 2λ

u

α i =2 + λ α i =4

u

u

:

ð4Þ

To determine the parameters μ i and α i , the experimental data from

Sarva et al. [4] for polyurea under very low strain rate (0.0016 s 1 ) is

used for the nonlinear least square tting. The tted parameters are

878 C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 Table 1 Fitting

Fig. 1. Fitting the Ogden hyperelastic model.

listed in Table 1. Fig. 1 shows that the curve-t results are in good

agreement with the experimental data.

3. Nonlinear viscoelastic model for high strain rates

Having established the rate-independent hyperelastic model for

polyurea under static loading conditions, we are now focusing on the

rate-dependent characteristic of polyurea. A viscoelastic constitutive

law is a good choice for capturing its rate-dependent behavior. For

viscoelastic materials, the stress state depends on the strain and strain

rate histories. Here, we assume the material is isotropic and subjected

to small strains under an isothermal condition. But different from a

linear viscoelastic model used by Amirkhizi et al. [2] an assumption of

nonlinear viscoelasticity is made. The general constitutive relation-

ship can be expressed as [12]:

t

σ v = p v δ + Fðt Þ R fCðτ ÞgF T ðt Þ:

τ =

ð5Þ

where σ v is the Cauchy stress tensor, p v is the pressure in the viscoelastic

material, δ a Kronecker tensor, R a matrix functional that describes the

effect of strain history on stress, and F represents the deformation

gradient (F =diag[λ u , λ u 1/2 , λ u 1/2 ] for uniaxial loading). There have been

numerous approximations to represent the functional for viscoelastic

solids and uids [12,13]. Since the K-BKZ integral form [14] and its

variants are well-accepted, we adopt the form shown below

t

R fCðτ Þg =

τ =

−∞ / I 0

t

1 ; I

  • 2 0 mðt τ Þ E ðτ Þdτ :

:

ð6Þ

where ϕ(I 1 ',I 2 ') is a damping function with I 1 ',I 2 ' as the rst two

invariants of strain tensor C, and the strain rate is dened by

:

E =

1

2

:

F T F + F T F

:

;

ð7Þ

and m(t) is a relaxation function.

The relaxation function is generally represented by a series of simple

exponentials, or so-called Prony series, with its individually dened

relaxation time. In the literature, different number of exponential terms

(e.g.1, 2 or 5), thus different relaxation times were selected driven by the

required delity of the curve-t model [1517]. While the use of

combination of relaxation times and other undetermined parameters

can provide a good t of the experimental data of stressstrain curves, it

has no physical foundation and rational for a specic combination. In

fact, the relaxation times depend on the microstructure of a material.

Motion within the microstructure determines the relaxation time of the

material and its activation depends on temperatures and corresponding

loading rates. For example, at higher temperatures, the molecular

relaxation processes are more easily and frequently activated due to the

878 C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 Table 1 Fitting

Fig. 2. Fitting of the master curve to nd relaxation times.

C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877880

879

C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 879 Fig. 3. Comparison

Fig. 3. Comparison of experimental data and model predictions.

̇

̇

Substitution of the strain rate E

11 = λ u λ

u and the pressure p v into

Eq. (12) yields the stress for the viscoelastic polyurea in the loading

direction:

σ v

11 =

1

2

λ

1

u

t 2

0 λ

u

A + A I 2 3 i mðt τ Þ λ u dτ

h

1

2

0

:

+ λ

2

t

u

0 λ u

A + A I 2 3 i mðt τ Þ λ u dτ :

h

1

2

0

:

ð14Þ

Adding up Eqs. (4) and (14) together, we have the hyper-

h

viscoelastic stress for polyurea σ 11 = σ 11

v

+ σ 11

. In this total stress-

deformation formulation, only two parameters A 1 and A 2 are

undetermined and they can be obtained by curve-tting of the

experimental data associated with a uniaxial high strain rate testing.

4. Results and discussions

higher thermal energy. In this study, therefore, we propose to determine

the relaxation function based on the shear modulus relaxation rst

before computing other curve-tting parameters.

Knauss [1] conducted relaxation tests on polyurea at various

temperatures. The experimental data is shown in Fig. 2, in which the

data has been shifted according to the time-temperature shift

principle. The applicability of the shift process is assured by the

rather smooth master relaxation curve. The standard WLF shift

function has been given as [1]

aðT Þ = 10 A T

ð

T ref

Þ= B + T T ref

ð

Þ ;

ð8Þ

with A = 8.86, B = 171 °C and T ref =0 °C. The master curve can be

approximated by a Prony series with a number of terms:

n

G ref ðt Þ = G + G i e t =ω i :

ð9Þ

i = 1

Fig. 2 shows our nonlinear regression to the master curve using a

6-term Prony series. The tting parameters are summarized in Table 1.

The value of the goodness of t R 2 , which is computed from the sum of

the squares of the distances of the points from the best-t curve

determined by the nonlinear regression and then normalized to the

sum of the square of the distances of the points from a horizontal line

through the mean of all G ref values, is 0.9998. This is much close to 1.0

and indicates that the model ts the data better.

Because G is not related to time, the relaxation function m(t τ) in

Eq. (6) can then be assumed as

6

mðt τ Þ =

i = 1

G i e ðt τ Þ=ω i ;

ð10Þ

for isothermal deformations. After some strenuous trials, the damping

function ϕ in Eq. (6) is taken as a special form of Zapas kernel [18],

/ðτ Þ = A 1 = ð A + I 3Þ;

1

ð11Þ

where I = A 2 I 1 ' + (1 A 2 )I 2 ' and A 1 and A 2 are undetermined parameters.

Substituting Eq. (11) into Eq. (6) and then Eq. (5) and neglecting the

effect of deformation history prior to loading on the stress, we obtain

σ v = p v δ + F

n

t

0

h

A + A

1

2

I 2 3 i mðt τ Þ E ðτ Þdτ o

0

:

F T :

ð12Þ

Considering the free boundary condition of the transverse stress

and

:

E 22 = λ 2

:

λ 2 =

1

2

λ

2

u

:

̇

λ u (the stretching rate λ u is equal to the

engineering strain rate ε̇ 11 ), the pressure p v can be obtained as

p v =

1

2

λ

1

u

t 2

0

λ

u

A + A I 2 3 i mðt τ Þ λ u dτ :

h

1

2

0

:

ð13Þ

In this study, the data for the unconned uniaxial compression test at strain rate of 2250 s 1 from Sarva et al. [4] is used to determine the parameters A 1 and A 2 . The parameters determined from the tting are A 1 = 0.1435 and A 2 = 0.1098. Fig. 3 displays the comparison between the test data and our prediction from the present model. The symbols triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon and circle represent, respectively, the test data under the strain rate 0.0016/s, 80/s, 800/s, 2250/s and 6500/s. The color lines represent predictions of our present model with gray, cyan, wine, blue and red stand for the result under the strain rate 0.0016/s, 80/s, 800/s, 2250/s and 6500/s, respectively. It can be seen that the prediction of the present model is in a very good agreement with the experimental data for a large range of strain rates. In addition, the delity of the present model is also evaluated via its comparison with prediction from other existing models, as shown in Fig. 4. Clearly, higher accuracy has been achieved from the present model in simulating the polyurea constitutive behavior than the model given by Amirkhizi et al. [2] As shown in Fig. 4, our model captures the early response more accurately than the model developed by Elsayed [7]. Given the simplicity of the present model, it can be used as a strongly competitive alternative to Elsayed's model.

5. Conclusions

This letter presents a new constitutive model for polyurea by

including both its hyperelastic and viscoelastic behavior. The Ogden

model is used for the hyperelastic part and its parameters are curve

tted using the quasi-static test data. A nonlinear viscoelastic model is

proposed to characterize its viscoelastic part and the relaxation time is

determined based on the test data of the shear relaxation modulus. A

special form of Zapas kernel for the damping function is found to be

very effective in prediction of the viscoelastic behavior of polyurea

subjected to a wide range of strain rates. It is expected that this new

constitutive model can be implemented in general purpose nite

element code as a user-dened material model to assess and design of

a protective structure subjected to extreme dynamic loading.

C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877 – 880 879 Fig. 3. Comparison

Fig. 4. Comparison of the present model with existing models.

880

C. Li, J. Lua / Materials Letters 63 (2009) 877880

Acknowledgement

This work is supported by the Ofce of Naval Research under

Contract N00014-08-C-0614 with Dr. Roshdy Barsoum as the Program

Manager.

References

[1] W.G. Knauss, Final report to the Ofce of Naval Research. (ONR Grant No. N00014- 03-1-0539), CIT, Pasadena, CA. [2] Amirkhizi AV, Isaacs J, Mcgee J, Nemat-Nasser S. Philos Mag 2006;86:584766. [3] Yi J, Boyce MC, Lee GF, Balizer E. Polymer 2006;47:31929. [4] Sarva SS, Deschanel S, Boyce MC, Chen W. Polymer 2007;48:220813. [5] Qi HJ, Boyce MC. Mech Mater 2005;37:81739.

[6] Reese S, Govindjee S. Int J Solids Struct 1998;35:345582. [7] T.M. Elsayed, PhD dissertation, California Institute of Technology (2008). [8] Arruda E, Boyce MC. J Mech Phys Solids 1992;41:389. [9] Mooney M. J Appl Phys 1940;11(582). [10] Treloar LRG. Proc Phys Soc 1948;60:135.

[11] Ogden RW. Proc R Soc Lond 1972;A326:56584. [12] Lockett FJ. Nonlinear viscoelastic solids. New York: Academic Press; 1972.

[13]

Carreau PJ, De Kee DCR, Chhabra RP. Rheology of polymeric systems: principles and applications. New York: Hanser Publishers; 1997.

[14] Tanner RI. J Rheology 1988;32:673. [15] Osaki K, Ohta S, Fukuda M, Kulata M. J Polym Sci 1976;14(1701). [16] Wagner MH. Rheol Acta 1979;18(33). [17] Yang LM, Shim VPW, Lim CT. Int J Impact Eng 2000;24:545. [18] Zapas LJ. J Res Natl Bur Stand 1966;70A(525).