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RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION

Ships
Edition July 2016

Part 4 Systems and components

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DNV GL AS

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION


Ships
Edition July 2016

Part 4 Systems and components


Chapter 1 Machinery systems, general

The content of this service document is the subject of intellectual property rights reserved by DNV GL AS ("DNV GL"). The user
accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification
and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the
basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent.
DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge


from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

DNV GL AS

FOREWORD
DNV GL rules for classification contain procedural and technical requirements related to obtaining
and retaining a class certificate. The rules represent all requirements adopted by the Society as
basis for classification.

DNV GL AS July 2016

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com


If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shall
pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten
times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.
In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,
employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

Part 4 Chapter 1 Changes - current

CHANGES CURRENT
This document supersedes the October 2015 edition.
Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter,
section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

Main changes July 2016, entering into force 1 January 2017


Sec.3 Design principles
Sec.3 [1.1.7]: Paragraph added to cover new IACS UR M75 regarding ventilation arrangement for
emergency generator space.
Sec.3 [2.2.1]: Paragraph corrected to reflect that the environmental conditions are applicable for
machinery, equipment and appliances according to IACS UR M40.

Editorial corrections
In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

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Changes current.................................................................................................. 3
Section 1 General requirements..............................................................................6
1 Classification........................................................................................6
1.1 Application....................................................................................... 6
2 Definitions........................................................................................... 7
3 Documentation requirements for builder............................................. 9
3.1 Documentation requirements............................................................. 9
4 Certification and documentation requirements for manufacturers....... 9
4.1 Certification requirements.................................................................. 9
4.2 Documentation requirements............................................................. 9
5 Tests.................................................................................................. 10
5.1 Testing of machinery systems and components...................................10
Section 2 Materials................................................................................................11
1 General.............................................................................................. 11
1.1 Machinery parts.............................................................................. 11
1.2 Use of asbestos.............................................................................. 11
Section 3 Design principles................................................................................... 12
1 Arrangement...................................................................................... 12
1.1 General..........................................................................................12
1.2 Prevention of inadvertent operations................................................. 13
1.3 Communication and engineers alarm................................................ 13
1.4 Fire protection................................................................................ 13
1.5 Requirements dependent upon damage stability calculations.................14
1.6 Potentially hazardous, non-essential installations................................ 15
2 Construction and function..................................................................15
2.1 General..........................................................................................15
2.2 Environmental conditions................................................................. 15
2.3 Functional capability and redundancy................................................ 17
2.4 Failure effects.................................................................................19
2.5 Component design.......................................................................... 19
3 Reliability and availability..................................................................20
3.1 Application..................................................................................... 20
3.2 Reliability and availability analysis.....................................................20
4 Personnel protection..........................................................................20

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Contents

CONTENTS

Section 4 Control of machinery............................................................................. 21


1 Control and monitoring......................................................................21
1.1 General..........................................................................................21
1.2 Remote control of machinery........................................................... 21
1.3 Bridge control of machinery............................................................. 22
1.4 Bridge control of propulsion machinery.............................................. 22
1.5 Supervision from a control room...................................................... 23
1.6 Operation with periodically unattended machinery spaces.....................23
Section 5 Spare parts............................................................................................25
1 General.............................................................................................. 25
1.1 Machinery installations.................................................................... 25
1.2 Tables of recommended spare parts.................................................. 25
Changes historic................................................................................................ 31

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Contents

4.1 General..........................................................................................20

1 Classification
1.1 Application
1.1.1 This chapter contains overall requirements common for machinery, systems and components. Detailed
requirements are given in the relevant rule chapters in Pt.4.
1.1.2 The rules in this chapter apply to machinery, systems and components for ships and barges for the
assignment of main class.
1.1.3 For novel design of a component, a system or the complete arrangement of a vessel, and where the
existing rules are not suitable for the purpose, the design can be accepted provided that the overall safety
and availability level is found to be equivalent or better than that of the rules. The Society withholds the right
to request documentation, tests and trials additional to those specified in the rules.
For such designs an engineering analysis shall be prepared and submitted. The analysis shall as a minimum
include the following elements:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

Thorough definition of the ship, ship systems and components subject to the analysis.
Identification of requirements with which the ship or design will not comply.
Identification of the possible hazards introduced by the design.
Identification of failure modes, consequences of failures and system response (e.g. FMEA) and a test
program to verify the conclusions.
Determination of the required performance, safety and availability criteria addressed by corresponding
requirements applicable for traditional design.
Design philosophy and detailed description of the novel design, including a list of the assumptions used
in the design and any proposed operational restrictions or conditions.
Technical justification demonstrating that the alternative design and arrangements meet the required
performance criteria in accordance with the above.
Guidance note:
1)

For new technology, recommended practice DNVGL-RP-A203 can be a suitable basis for such analyses.

2)

Refer also to Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 regarding alternatives to detailed requirements in the rules.
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1.1.4 Compliance with the rules is required for installations and equipment necessary for performing the
main functions given in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 [1.2].
1.1.5 The rules give system requirements and prescribe minimum requirements for materials, design,
manufacture, inspection and testing.
1.1.6 For components to be installed onboard vessels with the class notation Naval, additional requirements
given in Pt.5 Ch.13 shall be fulfilled.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 1

SECTION 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

Table 1 Definitions
Term

Definition

active components

active components are components for mechanical transfer of energy, e.g.


pumps, fans, electric motors, generators, combustion engines and turbines. Heat
exchangers, boilers, transformers, switchgear or cables are not considered to be
active components.
availability is the ratio of actual service time to expected service time at sea.
Availability may be calculated from the following formula:

availability

engine room is the spaces containing propulsion machinery and machinery for
generation of electrical power
Guidance note:

engine room

Rooms within or adjacent to the engine room with visual contact with the machinery
should be considered to be part of the engine room.
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failure

failure in the rule context is a sudden event or deterioration causing loss of function

independently driven

an independently driven component is, when the function of the component and the
power supply of the component is independent of the main engine

load reduction

load reduction, implies that a unit is brought to a safe state under the prevailing
conditions, but the reduction shall be limited to a degree where the function the unit
serves is not lost, only degraded

machinery spaces

machinery spaces are all machinery spaces of category A and all other spaces
containing propulsion machinery, boilers, oil fuel units, steam and internal
combustion engines, generators and major electrical machinery, oil filling stations,
refrigerating, stabilizing, ventilation and air conditioning machinery, and similar
spaces, and trunks to such spaces
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/3.16)
machinery spaces of category A are those spaces and trunks to such spaces which
contain:

machinery spaces of category A

1)

internal combustion machinery used for main propulsion; or

2)

internal combustion machinery used for purposes other than main propulsion
where such machinery has in the aggregate a total power output of not less
than 375 kW; or

3)

any oil-fired boiler or oil fuel unit.

(SOLAS Ch. II-1/3.17)


mean time to failure (MTTF)

mean time to failure (MTTF) is the mean value of service time until failure occurs.
In the rule context, MTTF shall be considered to be equal to mean time between
failures (MTBF).

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 1

2 Definitions

mean time to repair (MTTR) is the mean value of time from occurrence of failure to
re-establishment of lost function

mutual independence

mutual independence between components means that the function of the


components and their power supply shall not dependent on some common
component or system

novel design

novel design is defined as technology or solutions for which the application of


prescriptive requirements in the rules of the Society is not suited
piping shall be defined to include the following components:
pipes
flanges with gaskets and bolts and other pipe connections

piping

expansion elements
valves, including hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and fittings
hangers and supports
flexible hoses
pump housings

piping system

a piping system shall be defined to include piping, as well as components in direct


connection to the piping such as pumps, heat exchangers, evaporators, independent
tanks etc. with the exception of main components such as steam and gas turbines,
diesel engines, reduction gears and boilers
For components that are subject to internal pressure and are not included in the
piping system, the design requirements in Ch.7 apply.

redundancy

redundancy is the ability to maintain or restore a function when one failure has
occurred. Redundancy can be achieved for instance by installation of more than one
unit (component redundancy) or by having two or more separate systems capable
of performing the same function (system redundancy).
redundancy types are defined by the time lag accepted upon restoring a lost
function, due to failure in a component or system, designed with redundancy

redundancy types

reliability

Redundancy type
0
1
2
3
not defined

Time lag in re-establishment of function


None (continuously available)
Up to 30 s
Up to 10 minutes
Up to 3 hours
More than 3 hours

reliability is the ability of a component or a system to perform its required function


without failure during a specified time interval
repairable failure in the machinery is a failure which is possible to be repair on board
and for which the following conditions are fulfilled:

repairable failure

shut down

1)

the machinery is arranged and designed to allow for repair work at sea

2)

spare parts or complete spare units necessary for permanent or provisional


repairs are kept on board

3)

tools, instruction manuals and other necessary facilities to perform the repair
work are kept on board

shut down, implies that a unit is brought to a safe state. The safe state may be stop
of a unit or decelerate rotating machinery to idle.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 1

mean time to repair (MTTR)

3.1 Documentation requirements


3.1.1 Documentation of machinery and systems shall be submitted to the extent specified in the following
chapters containing all the data necessary for approval. Where necessary, calculations and descriptions of the
plant are to be submitted.
3.1.2 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 2.
Table 2 Documentation requirements for the builder
Object

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

Propulsion control and


monitoring systems

I020 - Control system


functional description

Pre-warning and override facility for load reductions


and shut-downs.

AP

AP = For approval

3.1.3 For general requirements to documentation, including definition of the Info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
3.1.4 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

4 Certification and documentation requirements for manufacturers


4.1 Certification requirements
4.1.1 Machinery systems and components shall be certified according to the requirements in the relevant
rule chapters for the systems and components. Additionally, products shall be certified as required by Table
3.
Table 3 Certification required
Object

Certificate type

Issued by

Propulsion control and


monitoring systems

PC

Society

Certification standard*

Additional description

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society's rules

4.1.2 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


4.1.3 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

4.2 Documentation requirements


4.2.1 For products required to be certified, the manufacturer shall submit the documentation required by
Table 4.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 1

3 Documentation requirements for builder

Object

Documentation type

Propulsion control and


monitoring systems

I200 - Control and


monitoring system
documentation

Additional description

Info
AP

AP = For approval

4.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
4.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

5 Tests
5.1 Testing of machinery systems and components
5.1.1 Machinery and its component parts shall be subject to constructional and material tests, pressure and
leakage tests, and trials.
In the case of parts produced in series, other methods of testing can be agreed instead of the tests
prescribed, provided that the former are recognized as equivalent by the Society.
5.1.2 The Society reserves the right, where necessary, to increase the scope of the tests and also to test
those parts which are not expressly required to be tested according to the rules.
5.1.3 After installation on board of the main and auxiliary machinery, the installation as well as the
operational functioning of the machinery, including the associated ancillary equipment, shall be verified
according to rule requirements in the following chapters. Safety functions and safety equipment shall be
tested as far as practically feasible. Tests for safety equipment that has formerly been performed and
witnessed by the Society need not to be repeated.
In addition, the entire machinery installation is to be tested during sea trials, as far as possible under the
intended service conditions.
The tests shall be carried out according to approved test programmes, see Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.2 [1.6].

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 1

Table 4 Documentation requirements - products required to be certified

Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 2

SECTION 2 MATERIALS
1 General
1.1 Machinery parts
1.1.1 Requirements for documentation of quality and testing of materials intended for:

propulsion and auxiliary machinery


boilers and pressure vessels
electrical installations
instrumentation and automation
fire protection, detection and extinction
piping systems

are given in the respective chapters of Pt.4.

1.2 Use of asbestos


1.2.1 The use of asbestos is prohibited (Ref. Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.2 [1.2.4] and Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.4 [1.2.3]).

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1 Arrangement
1.1 General
1.1.1 All machinery, systems and components that are to be operated or subject to inspection and
maintenance on board shall be designed and arranged for easy access.
1.1.2 All components in a system shall be satisfactorily matched with regard to function, capacity and
strength. Relative motions between parts of the machinery shall be allowed for without inducing detrimental
stresses.
1.1.3 All machinery shall be equipped with control and instrumentation considered necessary for safe
operation of the machinery.
1.1.4 The following is applicable when local indication of pressure is required in the rules:
The scales of pressure gauges shall be dimensioned up to the specified test pressure. The maximum
permitted operating pressures shall be marked on the pressure gauges for boilers, pressure vessels and in
systems protected by safety valves.
Pressure gauges shall be installed in such a way that they can be isolated.
Lines leading to pressure gauges shall be installed in such a way that the readings cannot be affected by
liquid heads and hydraulic hammer.
1.1.5 All spaces, from which machinery is operated and where flammable or toxic gases or vapours may
accumulate, or where a low oxygen atmosphere may occur, shall be provided with adequate ventilation under
all conditions.
1.1.6 The capacity and arrangement of machinery spaces and emergency generator room ventilation shall
cover demands for operating the machinery, boilers and emergency generator at full power in all weather
conditions.
Ventilation inlets and outlets shall be located not less than 4.5 m above freeboard deck. Supply of air to
the engine room shall be ensured even in the event of failure of one ventilation fan. As an alternative to
the redundancy requirements in [2.3] alternative provision of air by adequate openings may be specially
considered.
The air inlets and air outlets on open deck shall be positioned such as to avoid the ingress of exhaust air
through the inlet openings into machinery space (short circuiting of air).
Guidance note:
Necessary capacity of ventilation may be calculated according to ISO 8861.
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1.1.7 Ventilation of the space containing the emergency source of electrical power or ventilators for radiator
of emergency generator engine, shall comply with the requirements in Pt.3 Ch.12 Sec.7 [4].
Ventilation louvers for emergency generator rooms and closing appliances where fitted to ventilators serving
emergency generator rooms shall comply with the following:
1)
2)

Ventilation louvers and closing appliances may either be hand-operated or power-operated (hydraulic /
pneumatic / electric) and are to be operable under a fire condition.
Hand-operated ventilation louvers and closing appliances are to be kept open during normal operation of
the vessel. Corresponding instruction plates are to be provided at the location where hand-operation is
provided.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

SECTION 3 DESIGN PRINCIPLES

4)
5)

Power-operated ventilation louvers and closing appliances shall be of a fail-to-open type. Closed
ventilation louvers and closing appliances are acceptable during normal operation of the vessel.
Power-operated ventilation louvers and closing appliances shall open automatically whenever the
emergency generator is starting / in operation.
It shall be possible to close ventilation openings by a manual operation from a clearly marked safe
position outside the space where the closing operation can be easily confirmed. The louver status (open /
closed) shall be indicated at this position. Such closing shall not be possible from any other remote
position.

1.1.8 If the pipe tunnels are entered via doors or hatches for operating (e.g. for normal operation of valves
or reading of measuring instruments) a mechanical ventilation shall be provided.
If the pipe tunnels are entered from the engine room the engine room ventilation system may be accepted as
sufficient means of mechanical ventilation.

1.2 Prevention of inadvertent operations


1.2.1 The machinery shall be so arranged that inadvertent operation, caused by human error, cannot lead to
the reduced safety of the ship and personnel.
1.2.2 The machinery and piping systems shall be arranged to prevent sea water, cargo or ballast from
reaching dry spaces of the ship or cargo (oils or chemicals) from being discharged overboard as a
consequence of inadvertent operations.
1.2.3 Systems and tanks shall be so arranged that leakage or any operation of valves will not directly lead to
increased risk of damage to machinery, ship or personnel due to mixing of different fluids.
1.2.4 Open or closed position of valves shall be easily visible.
1.2.5 If a valve's function in the system is not evident, there shall be adequate information on a name plate
attached to the valve.
1.2.6 All connections to sea shall be marked:
SEA DIRECT.

1.3 Communication and engineers alarm


1.3.1 At least two independent means shall be provided for communicating orders from the navigating bridge
to the position in the machinery space or in the control room from which the speed and direction of thrust
of the propellers are normally controlled: one of these shall be an engine-room telegraph which provides
visual indication of the orders and responses both in the machinery spaces and on the navigating bridge.
Appropriate means of communication shall be provided from the navigating bridge and the engine-room to
any other position from which the speed or direction of thrust of the propellers may be controlled.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/37)
1.3.2 An engineers' alarm capable of being operated from the engine control room or at the manoeuvring
platform, as appropriate, to alert personnel in the engineers' accommodation that assistance is needed in the
engine room, shall be provided (see SOLAS Ch. II-1/38).

1.4 Fire protection


1.4.1 Where references have been given to SOLAS, this shall be taken as SOLAS 74 including amendments
currently in force.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

3)

Guidance note:
Reference is made to MSC.1/Circ.1321 Guidelines for measures to prevent fires in engine rooms and cargo pump rooms.
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1.4.3 Fuel oil, lubrication oil, hydraulic oil and thermal oil are in this context regarded as Flammable liquids.
1.4.4 No tank containing flammable liquid shall be situated where spillage or leakage therefrom can
constitute a fire or explosion hazard, by coming into contact with heated surfaces (see SOLAS Ch.II-2/
Reg.4.2.2.3.3).
1.4.5 Flammable liquid lines shall not be located immediately above or near units of high temperature,
including boilers, steam pipelines, exhaust manifolds, silencers or other equipment required to be insulated
by [1.4.7]. As far as practicable, flammable liquid lines shall be arranged far apart from hot surfaces,
electrical installations or other sources of ignition and shall be screened or otherwise suitable protected to
avoid liquid spray or liquid leakage onto the sources of ignition (see SOLAS Ch.II-2/Reg.4.2.2.5.3).
1.4.6 For detailed arrangement of tanks and piping conveying flammable liquids, see Ch.6.
1.4.7 Surfaces with temperatures above 220C which may be impinged as a result of a flammable oil system
failure shall be properly insulated (see SOLAS Ch.II-2/Reg.4.2.2.6.1).
1.4.8 Precautions shall be taken to prevent any flammable liquid that may escape under pressure from any
pump, filter or heater from coming into contact with heated surfaces (see SOLAS Ch.II-2/Reg.4.2.2.6.2).
1.4.9 The surface of insulation materials shall be impervious to oil or oil vapours (see SOLAS Ch.II-2/
Reg.4.4.3).
1.4.10 The floor plating of normal passageways in machinery spaces of category A shall be made of
steel (SOLAS Ch.II-2/Reg.11.4.2).
1.4.11 Hydraulic power units shall be provided with adequate shielding in order to avoid potential oil
leakage, or spray coming into contact with any sources of ignition.
1.4.12 When purifiers for heated fuel oil are not located in a separate room, consideration shall be given with
regard to their location, ventilation conditions, containment of possible leakage and shielding from ignition
sources.
3

For machinery spaces of category A above 500 m , the purifiers shall be protected by a fixed local application
fire-extinguishing system.
Guidance note:
Reference is made to SOLAS Ch.II-2/Reg.10.5.6 and IMO MSC/Circ.913 for requirements regarding the fixed local application fireextinguishing system.
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1.5 Requirements dependent upon damage stability calculations


For vessels where damage stability requirements apply, precautions shall be taken to prevent
intercommunication through damaged pipe lines between flooded and intact compartments.
For this purpose, where any part of a pipe system is situated within the defined damaged area and the
pipe line has an open end in a compartment assumed to be intact, an isolating valve situated outside the
damaged area operable from the freeboard deck or from another position, accessible when the ship is in

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

1.4.2 The arrangement of machinery spaces shall be so that safe storage and handling of flammable liquids
is ensured. Materials used as flooring, bulkhead lining, ceiling or deck in control rooms, machinery spaces or
rooms with oil tanks shall be non-combustible.

Guidance note:
Requirements for damage stability may be found in inter alia SOLAS, the International Convention on Load Lines, MARPOL, IMO
Gas and Chemical Codes and for the additional class notations SF and Well Stimulation.
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1.6 Potentially hazardous, non-essential installations


1.6.1 Fixed refrigeration plants shall comply with the requirements in Ch.6 Sec.6.
1.6.2 Ballast water treatment system installations shall comply with safety requirements in Pt.6 Ch.7 Sec.1.

2 Construction and function


2.1 General
2.1.1 The machinery shall be so designed, installed and protected that risks of fire, explosions, accidental
pollution, leakage and accidents thereof will be acceptably low.
2.1.2 Reliability and availability of the machinery shall be adapted according to considerations of the
consequences from machinery failures and disturbances.
2.1.3 The design arrangement of machinery foundations, shaft connections, piping and ducting shall
take into account the effects of thermal expansion, vibration, misalignment and hull interaction to ensure
operation within safe limits.
Bolts and nuts exposed to dynamic forces and vibrations shall be properly secured.

2.2 Environmental conditions


2.2.1 All machinery, equipment and appliances covered by the rules shall be designed to operate under the
environmental conditions given in Table 1 to Table 3 if not otherwise specified in the detailed requirements for
the machinery, equipment or appliance:
Table 1 Water temperature
Coolant

Temperature [C]

Seawater

+32

1)

Charge air coolant inlet to charge air cooler

+32

1)

1) The Society may approve other temperatures in the case of ships not intended for unrestricted service.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

damaged condition shall be fitted. For bilge lines the remotely operated stop valves may be substituted by a
non-return valve.

Installations, components

Location, arrangement

Temperature range [C]

In enclosed spaces

0 to 45

On machinery components, boilers


Machinery and electrical installations

2)

In spaces, subject to higher or lower


temperatures
On the open deck

Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

Table 2 Air temperature

1)

According to specific
local conditions
25 to +45

1)

1) The Society may approve other temperatures in the case of ships not intended for unrestricted service.
2) See Ch.9 Sec.5 for electronic appliances.

Table 3 List, rolling, trim and pitch

1)

Angle of inclination (degrees)


Installations, components

Athwartships

Safety equipment, e.g. emergency power


installations, emergency fire pumps and
their devices, switch gear, electrical and
3)
electronic appliances
and remote control
systems

Fore and aft

Static

Dynamic

Static

15

0 22.5

Main and auxiliary machinery

22.5

4)

0 22.5

2)

4)

10

Dynamic

5)

0 7.5

5)

0 10

1) The Society may consider deviations from these angles of inclination taking into consideration the type, size and
service condition of the ship.
2) Athwartships and fore and aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
3) Up to an angle of inclination of 45 no undesired switching operations or operational changes shall occur.
4) In ships for the carriage of liquefied gases and of chemicals, the emergency power supply shall also remain operable
with the ship flooded to a final athwartships inclination up to a maximum of 30 degrees.
5) Where the length of the ship exceeds 100 m, the fore and aft static angle of inclination may be taken as 500/L
degrees where L = rule length of the ship, in m, as defined in Pt.3 Ch.1 Sec.4 [3.1.1].

2.2.2 Where the rules have requirements for capacity or power of machinery, these shall be determined at
the ambient reference conditions stated in Table 4.
The engine manufacturer is not expected to provide simulated ambient reference conditions at a test bed
unless specified in the relevant rule chapters.
Table 4 Ambient reference conditions for machinery
Parameter

Value

Total barometric pressure

1 bar

Ambient air temperature

45C

Relative humidity of air

60%

Sea water temperature

32C

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Guidance note:
A vibration level defined by a maximum velocity amplitude of 20 mm/s in the frequency range 5 to 50 Hz is considered as a
minimum. Higher tolerance levels may be required in the detailed requirements for the machinery, component or system.
External vibrations in this context are structure bound vibrations that the machinery, components or systems are exposed to from
the vessel structure. Self-induced vibrations are not considered in this respect.
This chapter does not set requirements to documentation of vibration tolerance for equipment in general. Where documentation is
required, this will be stated in the respective chapter for the equipment. Documentation may also be requested case-by-case for
other equipment, e.g. for novel equipment or for equipment not designed for marine applications.
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2.3 Functional capability and redundancy


2.3.1 Components and systems shall be arranged with redundancy so that a single failure of any active
component or system (see Sec.1 Table 1 for definition of active components) does not cause loss of any main
function for longer periods than specified in [2.3.6]. See Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 Table 2 for definition of the main
functions of a vessel.
2.3.2 Redundancy can either be arranged as component redundancy or system redundancy as defined in
Sec.1 Table 1.
2.3.3 For main functions served by single systems, redundancy shall be provided on a component level so
that no single failure in an active component causes a reduction of output power for the main function.
Guidance note:
For single propulsion systems, this implies that all auxiliaries shall be arranged and dimensioned so that any active component may
fail without affecting the propulsion power.
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2.3.4 For duplicated systems a single failure of an active component or a system shall not reduce the output
power for the main function, served by the duplicated system, to less than 40% of the nominal output rated
power. [2.3.1] and [2.3.2] shall be considered as general requirements. For evaluation of deviations or
equivalent solutions reference should be made to the relevant rule sections for the component or system in
question.
Guidance note:
For single engine propulsion plants all active components should be duplicated to satisfy [2.3.1] and [2.3.8]. Multi engine
propulsion plants or propulsion plants with combinations of diesel engines, gas turbines and/or electrical motors are considered
to provide redundancy on a system level. For these plants, duplication of the active components is not necessary provided that at
least 40% of output rated power for the main function is remaining in case of a single failure. For propulsion plants where less than
40% of output rated power remains, after a single failure, duplication of the active components will be required. Output rated
power is in this context the total rated propulsion power for the driven unit (e.g. one or several propellers).
All other main functions (see Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 [1.2]) should be treated accordingly.
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2.3.5 The following active components are general exceptions to [2.3.1] and are not required as part of the
designed redundancy, unless otherwise specified in the rules:

main engine
shafting, gear, driven unit (e.g. propeller)
anchor windlass
machinery for emergency power supply
auxiliary thrusters.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

2.2.3 Machinery, components and systems covered by the rules shall be constructed to withstand, without
malfunctioning, the external vibration levels they may be exposed to on board the vessel.

Components and systems supporting the propulsion function shall be arranged as redundancy type 1. Where
the operational service of the vessel is such that loss of propulsion will not entail considerable hazard to the
ship, redundancy type 2 may be accepted upon special consideration.
Components and systems supporting the steering function shall be arranged with redundancy according to
the requirements for steering gear in Ch.10.
Guidance note:
Redundancy type 2 for the propulsion function may typically be accepted for vessels not depending on own propulsion for
manoeuvring in narrow and congested waters.
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2.3.7 A longer restoration time for a function than prescribed in [2.3.6] may be accepted for failures of
certain components or systems, where the probability for failure of the component or system is considered to
be low. This will be subject to case-by-case acceptance.
Guidance note:
Example of a component or system that may be considered to have a low probability of failure is the bus bars in the main
switchboard.
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2.3.8 Active components, arranged as part of the designed redundancy, shall be so dimensioned that in the
event of a single failure sufficient capacity remains to cover demands at the maximum continuous load of the
component served.
Guidance note:
Only relevant for plants where it is required to have redundancy on a component level (e.g. single engine plants, see [2.3.2]).
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2.3.9 When two or more components are performing the same function, these shall be mutually independent
and at least one shall be independently driven. Components arranged as part of the designed redundancy,
yet only performing auxiliary functions to a main unit, can be directly powered by the main unit through
separate power transmissions, on the condition that these components are not necessary for the starting of
the main unit.
2.3.10 The machinery shall be so arranged and designed that all functions specified in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 [1.2]
can be maintained simultaneously in normal service at sea.
2.3.11 Maintenance tasks expected to occur regularly, e.g. weekly, shall be carried out without loss of
propulsion or steering.
2.3.12 Changeover from one normal operational mode to another normal operational mode of the machinery
shall be possible without interruption in propulsion or steering.
2.3.13 Machinery or equipment having remote or automatic control, shall in addition have alternative
provisions for attendance and operation.
2.3.14 The machinery shall be so arranged that it can be brought into operation from the dead ship
condition within 30 minutes using only the facilities available on board.
Dead ship condition is understood to mean that the entire machinery installation, including the power
supply, is out of operation and that auxiliary services such as compressed air, starting current from batteries

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

2.3.6 Components and systems supporting main functions of the vessel (see definition of main functions
in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 Table 2) shall be arranged as redundancy type 2 (see definition in Sec.1 Table 1). When
interruption of a function entails considerable hazard to other components or systems, or to the ship,
redundancy type 1 shall be arranged.

In order to restore operation from the dead ship condition, an emergency generator may be used provided
that it is ensured that the emergency power supply from it is available at all times. It is assumed that means
are available to start the emergency generator at all times.
2.3.15 The performance and capacity of auxiliary systems shall be adapted to the needs of the machinery
installations served.

2.4 Failure effects


2.4.1 In the event of failure, components and systems shall enter the least hazardous of the possible failure
states with regard to ship machinery, personnel and environment.
2.4.2 The probability that failure in a component causes damage or failure to other components, shall be
acceptably low.
2.4.3 Failure of one component in a system arranged as part of the designed redundancy shall not lead to
failure or damage to backup or parallel components or systems.

2.5 Component design


2.5.1 Components shall be designed with respect to the loads and ambient conditions which are expected to
occur. Accepted safety margins shall be used.
2.5.2 Exceptional conditions shall be considered when justified by the risk of damage or the consequences of
damage.
2.5.3 Where no specific requirements are given in the rules regarding dimensioning and choice of materials,
recognised standards and engineering principles may be applied.
2.5.4 If acceptable accuracy cannot be obtained by strength calculations, special tests for the determination
of the strength of the design may be required.
2.5.5 When it is of essential significance for the safety of the ship that the function of a component is
maintained as long as possible in the event of fire, materials with high heat resistance shall be used.
2.5.6 Materials with low heat resistance shall not be used in components where fire may cause outflow of
flammable or health hazardous fluids, flooding of any watertight compartment or destruction of watertight
integrity.
Guidance note:
Materials with high heat resistance are materials having a melting point greater than 925C. Materials with low heat resistance are
all other materials. Deviations from the above requirement will be subject to special considerations.
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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

etc., for bringing the main propulsion into operation and for the restoration of the main power supply are not
available.

3.1 Application
3.1.1 The requirements for reliability and availability apply to machinery for the main functions stated in Pt.1
Ch.1 Sec.1 [1.2] in general and to machinery for which these requirements are made applicable specifically
in the rules.

3.2 Reliability and availability analysis


3.2.1 For novel and non-conventional machinery documentation in regard to reliability and availability shall
be submitted upon request.
3.2.2 Recognised methods and formulae shall be used in the calculation of reliability, availability and related
parameters.
3.2.3 The documentation shall include a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) of the component
concerned.
3.2.4 When numerical calculations cannot be performed due to insufficient data, approval may be granted on
the basis of qualitative failure analyses of the component or system.
3.2.5 Documentation of calculation methods and computer programs shall be submitted upon request.

4 Personnel protection
4.1 General
4.1.1 Machinery, boilers and associated piping systems shall be so installed and protected as to reduce to
a minimum any danger to persons onboard, due regard being paid to moving parts, hot surfaces and other
hazards.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 3

3 Reliability and availability

1 Control and monitoring


1.1 General
1.1.1 The requirements in [1.2], [1.3] and [1.4] are additional to those given in Ch.9 and shall be applicable
when remote control is installed.
1.1.2 Main and auxiliary machinery essential for the propulsion, control and safety of the ship shall be
provided with effective means for its operation and control. All control systems essential for the propulsion,
control and safety of the ship shall be independent or designed such that failure of one system does not
degrade the performance of another system.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.1 and 31.5.1)
Guidance note:
Compliance with these rules and Ch.9 is regarded as compliance with the above mentioned requirements.
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1.1.3 It shall be possible for all machinery, essential for the safe operation of the ship, to be controlled from
a local position, even in the case of failure in any part of the automatic or remote control systems.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/49.4)
Guidance note:
Local position for electrical motors driving pumps, the local position is by the starter.
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1.2 Remote control of machinery


1.2.1 The engine room or the engine control room, if provided, is normally the main command location but
another permanently attended location may be accepted as a more suitable main command location.
It shall be possible at any time to take control of main functions locally at the machinery.
1.2.2 In general, automatic starting, operational and control systems shall include provisions for manually
overriding the automatic controls. Failure of any part of such systems shall not prevent the use of the manual
override.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.4)
1.2.3 Indicators shall be fitted on the navigation bridge, the main machinery control room and at the
manoeuvring platform, for:
propeller speed and direction of rotation in the case of fixed pitch propellers; and
propeller speed and pitch position in the case of controllable pitch propellers.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.8 and 31.5.6)
1.2.4 Remote starting of the propulsion machinery shall be automatically inhibited if conditions exist which
may hazard the machinery, e.g. turning gear engaged.
1.2.5 The design of the remote control system shall be such that in case of its failure an alarm will be given.
Unless the administration considers it impracticable the pre-set speed and direction of thrust of the propeller
shall be maintained until local control is in operation.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.7)

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 4

SECTION 4 CONTROL OF MACHINERY

1.3.1 Overload shall be indicated on the bridge if automatic load limitation is not arranged for.
1.3.2 An alarm shall be initiated on the bridge and in the engine room at starting failure.

1.4 Bridge control of propulsion machinery


1.4.1 The speed, direction of thrust and, if applicable, the pitch of the propeller shall be fully controllable
from the navigating bridge under all sailing conditions, including manoeuvring.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.1)
1.4.2 The remote control shall be performed, for each independent propeller, by a control device so designed
and constructed that its operation does not require particular attention to the operational details of the
machinery. Where multiple propellers are designed to operate simultaneously, they may be controlled by one
control device.
(see SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.2)
Guidance note:
For ships less than 500 gross tonnage, two handle controls may be accepted and some of the normally programmed operations
may instead be carried out manually.
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1.4.3 The main propulsion machinery shall be provided with an emergency stopping device on the navigating
bridge which shall be independent of the navigating bridge control system.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.3)
Guidance note:
If means are provided to stop the propulsion without stopping the main engine(s) (e.g. clutch arrangement) then this will be
accepted.
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1.4.4 Propulsion machinery orders from the navigation bridge shall be indicated in the main machinery
control room and at the manoeuvring platform.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.4)
1.4.5 Remote control of the propulsion machinery shall be possible only from one location at a time, at such
locations interconnected control positions are permitted. At each location there shall be an indicator showing
which location is in control of the propulsion machinery. The transfer of control between the navigating bridge
and machinery spaces shall be possible only in the main machinery space or the main machinery control
room. This system shall include means to prevent the propelling thrust from altering significantly when
transferring control from one location to another.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.5)
Guidance note:
The space where propulsion thrusters are located may in this context be regarded as the machinery space.
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1.4.6 It shall be possible to control the propulsion machinery locally, even in the case of failure in any part
of the remote control system. It shall also be possible to control the auxiliary machinery, essential for the
propulsion and safety of the ship, at or near the machinery concerned.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.6)

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 4

1.3 Bridge control of machinery

(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.9)


1.4.8 Automation systems shall be designed in a manner which ensures that threshold warning of impending
or imminent slowdown or shutdown of the propulsion system is given to the officer in charge of the
navigational watch in time to assess navigational circumstances in an emergency. In particular, the systems
shall control, monitor, report, alert and take safety action to slow down or stop propulsion while providing
the officer in charge of the navigational watch an opportunity to manually intervene, except for those cases
where manual intervention will result in total failure of the engine and/or propulsion equipment within a short
time, for example in the case of overspeed.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.2.10)
Guidance note:
The above is regarded to be fulfilled when:
1)

All parameters initiating slowdown and shutdown shall initiate an alarm at a set-point different from the slowdown/shutdown
set-point. These alarms shall be individually or in groups indicated on the navigating bridge whenever the propulsion
machinery is controlled from this position.
Exempted from the requirement to give a pre-warning are the following parameters:

2)

overspeed on rotating machinery

crankcase explosive condition using oil mist detection on diesel engines

short-circuit in electrical propulsion plants.

An override facility to manually intervene on all slowdowns and shutdowns shall be available for all parameters except those
which will result in total failure of the engine and/or propulsion equipment within a short time.
Note: examples of such parameters:

3)

lubricating oil pressure for rotating machinery

overspeed for rotating machinery for fluid film bearings

crankcase explosive condition on diesel engines

short-circuit conditions in electrical installation

high vibration for gas turbines.

For multi-engine propulsion plants, overriding of safety shutdowns is not required if manoeuvrability of the vessel is
maintained.
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1.5 Supervision from a control room


1.5.1 Where the main propulsion and associated machinery, including sources of main electrical supply, are
provided with various degrees of automatic or remote control and are under continuous manual supervision
from a control room the arrangements and controls shall be so designed, equipped and installed that the
machinery operation will be as safe and effective as if it were under direct supervision; for this purpose
Regulations 46 to 50 shall apply as appropriate. Particular consideration shall be given to protect such spaces
against fire and flooding.
(SOLAS Ch. II-1/31.3)
1.5.2 Ships intended to operate as described in [1.5.1] shall satisfy the requirements given in Pt.6 Ch.2
Sec.2 [4].

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 4

1.4.7 An alarm shall be provided on the navigating bridge and in the machinery space to indicate low
starting air pressure which shall be set at a level to permit further main engine starting operations. If
the remote control system of the propulsion machinery is designed for automatic starting, the number of
automatic consecutive attempts which fail to produce a start shall be limited in order to safeguard sufficient
starting air pressure for starting locally.

1.6.1 Ships intended to operate with periodically unattended machinery spaces shall be arranged and tested
as required in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.2.
Guidance note:
Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.2 is considered to meet the regulations of SOLAS Chapter II-1 Part E, Additional Requirements for Periodically
Unattended Machinery Spaces.
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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 4

1.6 Operation with periodically unattended machinery spaces

1 General
1.1 Machinery installations
1.1.1 Spare parts in general are not mandatory for retention of class. It is, however, assumed that an
inventory of spare parts sufficient to meet the needs posed by the ship's plans of operation is maintained on
board. Its content should be decided taking into consideration:
the probability of need as a consequence of likely failures
the likely failures and effect on the main functions
the possibility of the ship's staff effecting the necessary repairs.
Further guidance for spare parts is given in the relevant rule chapters in Pt.4.
1.1.2 For general guidance purposes, machinery and electrical installations in vessels intended for common
world wide trading are recommended to be provided with inventory of spare parts as listed in the Table 1 to
Table 6, including the necessary tools and instructions for replacement.
1.1.3 For systems and components related to main functions the recommendations of the manufacturer shall
be taken into account.
1.1.4 Any applicable statutory requirement of the country of registration of the vessel is also to be
considered.
1.1.5 The Society may require specific spare parts to be carried, if deemed necessary (mandatory
requirement). The extent and amount shall be decided on a case by case basis.
Guidance note:
The Society may require spare parts in cases where it is planned to do repairs on board instead of having redundancy on a
component or system level. This should only be considered for repairable failures and normally only for redundancy type 3.
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1.2 Tables of recommended spare parts


1.2.1 Spare parts for internal combustion engines for propulsion, see Table 1.
1.2.2 Spare parts for internal combustion engines driving electric generators, see Table 2.
1.2.3 Spare parts for main steam turbines, and auxiliary steam turbines driving electric generators, see Table
3.
1.2.4 Vessels with boilers supplying steam necessary for performing the main functions of a vessel are
recommended to be provided with spare parts in accordance with Table 4. See Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 Table 2 for
definition of the main functions of a vessel.
1.2.5 Spare parts for various machinery equipment, see Table 5.
1.2.6 Spare parts for electrical installations, see Table 6.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

SECTION 5 SPARE PARTS

Number
recommended

Item

Specification

Main bearings

Main bearings or shells for one bearing of each size and type fitted, complete with
shims, bolts and nuts
Pads for one face of tilting type thrust block, or

Main thrust block

1
1 set

Complete with metal thrust shoe of solid ring type, or

Inner and outer race with rollers, where roller thrust bearings are fitted

Cylinder liner

Cylinder liner, complete with joint rings and gaskets

Cylinder cover

Cylinder cover, complete with valves, joint rings, gaskets and rocker arms with
brackets. For engines without covers, the respective valves for one cylinder unit

Cylinder valves-

Cylinder cover bolts and nuts, for one cylinder

1/2 set

Exhaust valves, complete with casings, seats, springs and other fittings for one
cylinder

2 sets

Air inlet valve, complete with casings, seats, springs and other fittings for one
cylinder

1 set

Starting air valve, complete with casing, seat, spring and other fittings

Cylinder overpressure sentinel valve, complete

Fuel valves of each size and type fitted, complete with all fittings, for one engine

Connecting rod
bearings

Pistons

1 set

2)

Bottom end bearings or shells of each size and type fitted, complete with shims,
bolts and nuts, for one cylinder

1 set

Top end bearings or shells of each size and type fitted, complete with shims, bolts
and nuts, for one cylinder

1 set

Crosshead type: Piston of each type fitted, complete with piston rod, stuffing box,
skirt, rings, studs and nuts

Trunk piston type: Piston of each type fitted, complete with skirt, rings, studs,
nuts, gudgeon pin and connecting rod

Piston rings

Piston rings, for one cylinder

1 set

Piston cooling

Telescopic cooling pipes and fittings or their equivalent, for one cylinder unit

1 set

Cylinder
lubricators

Lubricator, complete, of the largest size, with its chain drive or gear wheels

Fuel injection
pumps

Fuel pump complete or, when replacement at sea is practicable, a complete set of
working parts for one pump (plunger, sleeve, valves, springs, etc.)

Fuel injection
piping

High pressure fuel pipe of each size and shape fitted, complete with couplings

Scavenge blowers
(including turbochargers)

Rotors, rotor shafts, bearings, nozzle rings and gear wheels or equivalent working
parts if other types

Scavenging system Suction and delivery valves for one pump of each type fitted

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1 set

3)

1 set

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

Table 1 Recommended spare parts for internal combustion engines for propulsion of ships for
1)
unrestricted service

Complete bearing bush, of each size fitted in the gear case assembly

1 set

Roller or ball race, of each size fitted in the gear case assembly

1 set

Main engine driven


air compressors

Piston rings of each size fitted

1 set

Gaskets and
packing

Special gaskets and packing of each size and type fitted for cylinder covers and
cylinder liners for one cylinder

1)

Suction and delivery valves complete of each size fitted

1/2 set
-

In case of multi-engine installations, the minimum recommended spares are only necessary for one engine.
a)

Engines with one or two fuel valves pr. cylinder: one set of fuel valves, complete

b)

Engines with three or more fuel valves pr. cylinder: two fuel valves complete per cylinder and sufficient number
of valve parts, excluding the body, to form with, those fitted in the complete valves, a full engine set.

2)

The spare parts may be omitted where it has been demonstrated, at the builders test bench for one engine of the
type concerned, that the engine can be manoeuvred satisfactorily with one blower out of action.

3)

The requisite blanking and blocking arrangements for running with one blower out of action shall be available on
board.
Guidance note:
The availability of other spare parts, such as gears and chains for camshaft drive, should be especially considered and decided
upon by the customer.
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Table 2 Recommended spare parts for internal combustion engines driving electric generators of
1)
ships with unrestricted service
Number
recommended

Item

Specification

Main bearings

Main bearings or shells for one bearing of each size and type fitted, complete with
shims, bolts and nuts

Cylinder valves

Exhaust valves, complete with casings, seats, springs and other fittings for one
cylinder

2 sets

Air inlet valves, complete with casings, seats, springs and other fittings for one
cylinder

1 set

Starting air valve, complete with casing, seat, springs and other fittings

Cylinder overpressure sentinel valve, complete

Fuel valves of each size and type fitted, complete, with all fittings, for one engine

1/2 set

Bottom end bearings or shells of each size and type fitted, complete with shims,
bolts and nuts, for one cylinder

1 set

Top end bearings or shells of each type fitted, complete with shims, bolts and nuts,
for one cylinder

1 set

Trunk piston type: Gudgeon pin with bushing for one cylinder

1 set

Piston rings

Piston rings, for one cylinder

1 set

Piston cooling

Telescopic cooling pipes and fittings or their equivalent, for one cylinder unit

1 set

Connecting rod
bearings

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

Reduction and/or
reverse gear

Fuel pump complete or, when replacement at sea is practicable, a complete set of
working parts for one pump (plunger, sleeve, valve springs, etc.)

Fuel injection
piping

High pressure fuel pipe of each size and type fitted, complete with couplings

Gaskets and
packings

Special gaskets and packings of each and type fitted, for cylinder covers and cylinder
liners for one cylinder

1)

1 set

Where the number of generators of adequate capacity fitted for essential service exceed the required number, no
spare are required for the auxiliary engines.

Table 3 Recommended spare parts for main steam turbines and auxiliary steam turbines driving
1) 2)3)
electric generators of ships with unrestricted service
Item

Specification

Number
recommended

Main bearings

Bearing bushes or roller bearings of each size and type fitted, the rotor, pinion and
gear wheel shafts, for one turbine

Turbine thrust

Pads of each size for one face of tilting type thrust, with liners, or rings for turbine
adjusting block, of each size fitted with assorted liners, for one turbine

1 set

Main thrust block

Tilting type: Pads for one face

4)

1 set

Roller type: Inner and outer race with rollers


Turbine shaft
sealing rings

Carbon sealing rings, where fitted, with springs, for each size and type of gland

Oil filters

Strainer baskets or inserts, for filters of special design, of each type and size

1
1 set
1 set

1)

In case of multi-turbine installations, the minimum required spare parts are only necessary for on turbine of each
type.

2)

The list covers auxiliary turbines as far as applicable.

3)

Where the number of generators of adequate capacity fitted for essential service exceed the required number, no
spare are required for the auxiliary engines.

4)

When the pads of one face differ from those of the other, a complete set of pads shall be provided.

Table 4 Recommended spare parts for boilers and steam-heated steam generators of ships with
unrestricted service
Number
recommended

Specification
Safety valves: springs of each size

Water gauge glasses of round type with packings

3 sets

Water gauge glasses of flat type with packings

1 set

Strainers: strainer basket of each size for fuel oil system

Fuel oil burner: parts subjected to wear, for each burner

1 set

Pressure gauge for steam drum

Tube stoppers or plugs of each size for boilers, superheater and economiser

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

Fuel injection
pumps

Item

Number
recommended

Specification

Pumps

1)

Piston pumps:

fuel oil
transfer

Valve with seats and springs each size fitted

1 set

Piston rings each type and size for one piston

1 set

feed water

Centrifugal pumps:

cooling
water
bilge water
lubrication
oil

Bearings of each type and size

Rotor sealings of each type and size

Gear type pumps:


Bearings of each type and size

Rotor sealings of each type and size

Air compressors

Suction and delivery valves complete for each size fitted

for essential
service

Piston rings for each type and size fitted for one piston

1)

in one unit

1/2 set
1 set

When a sufficiently rated standby pump is available, the spare parts may be dispensed with.

Table 6 Recommended spare parts for electrical installations of ships with unrestricted service
Item

Specification

Number recommended
1 complete brush holder,
1 set of brushes,

The spare parts shall be supplied


for each size and type of generator
required according to Ch.8.

1 set of any special tools required,


1 set of necessary spare parts for excitation and automatic
voltage regulation equipment.

Generators

1/3 of the number of main diodes for excitation,


For generators having excitation
and voltage regulation equipment
with semiconductors, the following is
recommended.

1 complete set of all other semiconductor


components, or alternatively
1 complete specimen of each assembled unit of such
components, if the units are such that it is impracticable to
carry out repairs on board.
1 set of contacts, subject to wear,
1 set of other parts, subject to wear,

For each repairable circuit-breaker on


each pole:
Switchboards

1 set of springs,
1 coil of each type used,
1 resistance element of each type used.
For 6 or less circuits-breakers of same type, 1 set of such spare
parts.

For each type of non-repairable


circuit-breaker (e.g. miniature
circuit-breakers):

5% of each size with a minimum of 2 of each size used.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

Table 5 Recommended spare parts for various machinery equipment of ships with unrestricted
service

1 set of any special tools and equipment for repairing mineralinsulated cables, where such cables are installed.

Cables

1 complete brush holder,


For each essential and important D.C. 1 set of brushes,
and A.C. motor with commutator or
1 set of any special tools.
slipring:
For 6 or less motors of the same size and type, 1 set of such
spare parts.

Motors

In addition to the spares stated


above for essential and important
D.C. and A.C. motors are
recommended for each size of
steering gear motor and motor
generator, if no standby electrical
machine is installed:

D.C. machinery: 1 armature of each size fitted, complete with


shaft and halt coupling, 1 field coil of each type fitted,
A.C. machinery: 1 stator complete of each size fitted.

For electric starting of main engines


on ships having only one main
propelling engine, with no other
means of starting:

1 complete starting motor.

1 set of the contacts which are subject to wear,


1 set of springs,
For each repairable control gear
of motors and other consumers,
intended for essential and important
services:
Control gear

For each type of non-repairable


control gear of motors and other
consumers intended for essential and
important services (e.g. some types
of small motor starters):
Portable
insulationresistance
measuring
instrument

Miscellaneous

10% of each different resistance element, with at least 1 of


each,
1 of each type coil used.
When 6 or less motors or other consumers are fitted with
control gear having interchangeable parts, it is normal to
provide one set of spares for the control gear which is provided
with the greatest number of parts.

5% of each size with a minimum of 2 of each size used.

Ships with electrical installation of 100 kW and above are


recommended to carry insulation-resistance measuring
instrument, having a D.C. test voltage of not less than the
installation's voltage.
For navigation lights with their pilot
lamps:

1 complete set of lamps.

Where the emergency lighting


voltage is different from the main
lighting voltage:

10% of the emergency lamps, with a minimum of 10.

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Part 4 Chapter 1 Section 5

10% of each size with a minimum of 12 of each size used, 3


fuse-bases of each size used.

For each type of fuses:

Part 4 Chapter 1 Changes historic

CHANGES HISTORIC
October 2015 edition
This is a new document.
The rules enter into force 1 January 2016.

Amendments January 2016


General
Only editorial corrections have been made.

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DNV GL AS

Page 31

DNV GL
Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables
organizations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification and
technical assurance along with software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime,
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SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION


Ships
Edition July 2016

Part 4 Systems and components


Chapter 2 Rotating machinery, general

The content of this service document is the subject of intellectual property rights reserved by DNV GL AS ("DNV GL"). The user
accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification
and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the
basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent.
DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge


from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

DNV GL AS

FOREWORD
DNV GL rules for classification contain procedural and technical requirements related to obtaining
and retaining a class certificate. The rules represent all requirements adopted by the Society as
basis for classification.

DNV GL AS July 2016

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com


If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shall
pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten
times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.
In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,
employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

Part 4 Chapter 2 Changes - current

CHANGES CURRENT
This document supersedes the January 2016 edition.
Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter,
section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

Main changes July 2016, entering into force 1 January 2017


Sec.2 Torsional vibrations
Sec.2 [2.3.1]: A new guidance note has been included regarding inertia of entrained water.

Sec.4 Shaft alignment


Sec.4 [2.1.4]: Procedure from shaft alignment calculation shall include description of method and be
possible to re-use when in service.

Sec.5 Electric power generation


Sec.5 [1.4]: A reference to Pt.4 Ch.3 for applicable load tests has been included.

Editorial corrections
In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

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Page 3

Changes current.................................................................................................. 3
Section 1 Introduction............................................................................................ 7
1 General................................................................................................ 7
1.1 Application and scope....................................................................... 7
2 Design principles................................................................................. 7
2.1 General........................................................................................... 7
3 Material and testing specifications...................................................... 8
3.1 General........................................................................................... 8
4 Welding specification...........................................................................9
5 Special materials and processes.......................................................... 9
5.1 General........................................................................................... 9
6 Foundations for machinery.................................................................. 9
6.1 General........................................................................................... 9
6.2 Documentation requirements............................................................10
6.3 Installation..................................................................................... 10
6.4 Certification requirements................................................................ 11
Section 2 Torsional vibrations...............................................................................12
1 General.............................................................................................. 12
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 12
1.2 Symbols and definitions...................................................................12
1.3 Ice class........................................................................................ 14
1.4 Documentation requirements............................................................14
2 Calculation......................................................................................... 15
2.1 General..........................................................................................15
2.2 Free vibration................................................................................. 16
2.3 Forced vibration frequency domain....................................................16
2.4 Forced vibration time domain........................................................... 19
2.5 Acceptance criteria..........................................................................20
3 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 22
3.1 Check of barred speed range........................................................... 22
3.2 Check of gear hammer....................................................................23
3.3 Check of stability for systems with flexible couplings when misfiring...... 23
3.4 Check of transients during clutching-in procedure............................... 23
3.5 Closed loop stability........................................................................ 24
4 Test procedure...................................................................................24

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Page 4

Part 4 Chapter 2 Contents

CONTENTS

Section 3 Lateral and axial shafting vibrations..................................................... 25


1 General.............................................................................................. 25
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 25
1.2 Definitions......................................................................................25
1.3 Documentation requirements............................................................26
2 Lateral vibration................................................................................ 27
2.1 Analysis......................................................................................... 27
3 Axial vibration................................................................................... 27
3.1 Analysis......................................................................................... 27
4 Measurements....................................................................................28
4.1 Axial vibration................................................................................ 28
4.2 Measurement program.....................................................................28
4.3 Measurement results....................................................................... 28
Section 4 Shaft alignment..................................................................................... 29
1 General.............................................................................................. 29
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 29
1.2 Definitions......................................................................................29
1.3 Documentation............................................................................... 30
2 Calculation......................................................................................... 30
2.1 General..........................................................................................30
3 Installation........................................................................................ 36
3.1 Inspection...................................................................................... 36
Section 5 Electric power generation..................................................................... 38
1 Prime mover driving electrical generators........................................38
1.1 Transient loads............................................................................... 38
1.2 Detrimental speed variation............................................................. 38
1.3 Speed recovery.............................................................................. 38
1.4 Load demand................................................................................. 38
1.5 Two step on-loading........................................................................ 38
1.6 Multistep on-loading........................................................................ 38
1.7 Emergency generator...................................................................... 40
1.8 Load sharing.................................................................................. 40
1.9 Reactive load..................................................................................40
1.10 Rated speed adjustment................................................................ 40
1.11 Synchronization.............................................................................40
1.12 Electric power supply system..........................................................40

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Contents

4.1 Measurements................................................................................ 24

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Contents

Changes historic................................................................................................ 41

1 General
1.1 Application and scope
1.1.1 These rules apply to rotating machinery used for the main functions defined in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 Table 2.
1.1.2 The rules cover design and construction, and provide procedural requirements for:

design assessment
survey at manufacturer
certification of components
survey during installation on board the vessel and on board testing.

2 Design principles
2.1 General
2.1.1 All machinery shall be designed so that expected deviations of influence parameters do not result in
unacceptable reduction of the reliability or safety. Influence parameters can be for example:

power and speed *


number of times passing through a barred speed range
machining notches in inaccessible areas
diesel engine misfiring
variation of elastic coupling characteristics
variation of damper characteristics
normal tear and wear
deviation between actual material properties of the component and the minimum specified properties (as
verified by test specimen).

* Where requirements for dimensions in Ch.2, Ch.3, Ch.4 and Ch.5 are based on power and revolutions per
minute, denoted by P and n0, the values applied are maximum continuous power (kW) measured on engine
output shaft and corresponding revolutions per minute.
However, for plants where overload occurs frequently (intermittent load), the scantling criteria may have to
be based on the overload, due to accumulated fatigue.
2.1.2 All parts shall be capable to withstand the stresses and loads peculiar to shipboard service, e.g. those
due to movements of the ship, vibrations, intensified corrosive attack, temperature changes and wave
impact, and shall be dimensioned in accordance with the requirements set out in the present chapter. In the
absence of rules governing the dimensions of parts, a relevant international standard (to be stated) or the
manufacturers standard shall be applied.
Where connections exist between systems or plant items which are designed for different forces pressures
and / or temperatures (stresses), safety devices shall be fitted which prevent the over-stressing of the
system or plant item designed for the lower design parameters. To preclude damage, such systems shall
be fitted with devices affording protection against excessive pressures and temperatures and/or against
overflow.
2.1.3 The manufacturer shall have a quality system in place that is suitable for the kind of certified product.
The surveyor may check that the most important elements of this quality system are implemented and may
carry out random inspections at any time.

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Page 7

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 1

SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

2.1.4 When the rules require calculations and or analyses, this shall contain objectives, premises,
assumptions and the conclusions.
2.1.5 The reliability and safety of components and complete units may also be documented by means of
approved tests or service experience. The latter shall only be considered if a relevant load history can be
documented. Acceptance of load history shall be decided case-by-case by the Society. Relevant load history
means a suitable operation period (e.g. more than 2 500 hours for propulsion) under running conditions
similar to the expected running conditions for the product to be approved.

3 Material and testing specifications


3.1 General
3.1.1 A material specification shall as a minimum contain the following:

type of material
chemical composition
production method (cast, hot rolled, separately forged, blank cut out of a forged bar of specified size, etc.)
type of heat treatment
minimum mechanical properties (which normally includes impact energy Charpy-V for quenched and
tempered steels).

3.1.2 An NDT specification shall as a minimum contain the following:


method of NDT
extent
acceptance criteria.
High stress areas shall be included in the NDT specification, in particular, zones with stress risers, such as
keyways, holes, splines, teeth and shrinkage surfaces.
For surfaces with specified hardness exceeding 400 HV, the extent of NDT shall be 100%.
All NDT work shall be performed according to a written procedure. The procedure shall be in compliance with
class guideline DNVGL-CG-0051, or other recognized standards. The surveyor may require that the procedure
is approved or qualified for the work.
Unless otherwise specified in these rules or in approved manufacturer's specification, acceptance criteria from
the following documents can be used for NDT of machinery components:
For forged components: IACS Recommendation no.68.
For cast components: IACS Recommendation no.69.
For welds: ISO 5817 Level B.
The extent of material testing and documentation thereof is specified for the various components dealt with
in Ch.3 to Ch.5.
3.1.3 Material specifications including material testing and documentation shall be in accordance with Pt.2.
If a material standard that deviates from Pt.2 is used, it may be required that the deviation is documented in
the form of a gap analysis, and justified by use of the principle of equivalency.
3.1.4 Blanks for gears and short shafts may be cut from forged bars without further forging.

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Page 8

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 1

The manufacturer (and designer, if producing under license) is committed to involve the Society in corrective
actions whenever failures occur to products certified by the Society and addressed in these rules, including
parts for which documents are submitted for information. The corrective actions include changes to design
and/or quality control. Failing to involve the Society, or to carry out proper corrective actions, may result in
withdrawal of the type approval as well as restrictions of future approvals and/or certification.

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 1

Such blanks are considered equivalent (regarding fatigue strength) to separate forgings (close to shape)
provided that the forging process has been approved by the Society.
Without this qualification the fatigue properties shall be assessed 20% below those of separate forgings.

4 Welding specification
For welded connections in components dealt with in Ch.3 to Ch.5 the specification shall at least contain:
welding procedure specification, see Pt.2 Ch.4 Sec.1 [3.2.1]
NDT specification containing:
method of NDT
extent
acceptance criteria.

5 Special materials and processes


5.1 General
5.1.1 For materials which are more tolerant towards fatigue loading than ordinary materials for example
due to high cleanliness (see Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 [1.6.10]), and for processes which lead to improved fatigue
properties such as continuous grain flow forging, shot peening, cold rolling etc., special approval may be
given based on adequate testing and documentation.

6 Foundations for machinery


6.1 General
6.1.1 Foundation is a device transferring loads from a heavy or loaded object to the vessel structure while
supporting structure is strengthening of the vessel structure, see Pt.3 Ch.3 Sec.5.
6.1.2 Foundations for machinery for propulsion, power generation and steering are subject to approval.
Additionally, foundation for azimuthing thrusters is subject to approval independent of function.
Guidance note:
As propulsion machinery is considered: driving engine or motor or turbine, reduction gear, separate thrust bearings and propulsion
thruster.
As power generating machinery is considered: driving engine or turbine and generator.
As steering gear machinery is considered: steering gear rudder actuator.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

6.1.3 The foundation shall be of sufficient strength to transmit loads and keep the machinery fixed under all
operation conditions.
Foundations for reciprocating combustion engines shall be in compliance with DNVGL-CG-0372 Foundation
and mounting of machinery.
Equivalent solutions may be accepted on a case by case basis
6.1.4 Resin casting compounds shall be type approved according to DNVGL-CP-0432 Pourable compounds
for foundation chocking.

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Page 9

6.2.1 For foundations for propulsion, steering and auxiliary machinery, the builder shall submit the
documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed by the Society as a part of the
class contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object

Documentation type

Additional description

Foundation arrangement

Z030 Arrangement plan

Including specification of foundation type.

FI

Fastening devices

C030 Detailed drawing

Including bolts, nuts, sleeves, stoppers and


fitted elements.

AP

Chocks, fixed

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

Chocks, adjustable

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

Cast synthetic foundations

Resilient mounts

Z100 Specification

Including material and design loads.

C040 Design analysis

Loads and fastening devices.

Z100 Specification

Including stiffness and damping.

C040 Design analysis

Vibration analysis, including maximum


deflections.

Info

AP, TA
FI
AP, TA
AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information; TA = Covered by type approval

6.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
6.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

6.3 Installation
6.3.1 Foundations for machinery for propulsion, power generation and steering are subject to survey by the
Society.

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Page 10

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 1

6.2 Documentation requirements

6.4.1 Certification requirements for foundations are summarized in Table 2.


Table 2 Certification requirements
Object

Certificate type

Issued by

Bolts

MC

Society

Certification standard*

Additional description
Including nuts.
Certificate issued by the
manufacturer may be
accepted for standard
bolts up to thread size
M39

PC

Builder

Measured tightening
torque for foundation
bolts

Cast
synthetic
foundations

TA

Society

For resin

Resilient
mounts

TA

Society

Type approval required


for standard designs

* Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.

6.4.2 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


6.4.3 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

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Page 11

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 1

6.4 Certification requirements

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 Scope
The rules in this section apply to all shafting used in rotating machinery for propulsion, power production,
steering and manoeuvring independent of type of driver except auxiliary plants with less than 200 kW rated
power.
1.1.2 Simplification
Only mechanical active systems shall be included in the analysis. De-clutched branches shall not be required
in the model. Electric power transmission, hydrodynamic couplings and torque converters shall not be seen
as components transferring torsional vibrations; consequently systems in both ends can be handled as
independent mass elastic systems.
1.1.3 Acceptance criteria
Acceptance criteria are found in the respective rule chapters for the components.
1.1.4 Coupled vibrations
Axial vibrations initiated by torsional vibrations are handled in Sec.3.
1.1.5 Forced vibration analysis
Time domain simulation can be used as alternative to conventional forced torsional vibration calculation. This
is suitable for determination of vibration outside the engine itself, such as in nonlinear couplings and gear
meshes. Relevant cases for simulation are presented in [2.4.3].

1.2 Symbols and definitions


Table 1 Symbols
Symbol

Unit

Explanation

n0

rpm

Rotational speed at maximum continuous power (mcr)

rpm

Rotational speed at which vibration are considered

Speed ratio defined as n/n0

T0

kNm

Rated torque (at maximum continuous power)

kNm

Mean torque at n

Tv

kNm

Vibratory torque amplitude at n

N/mm

N/mm

Torsional stress corresponding to T

Torsional stress corresponding to T

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 2

SECTION 2 TORSIONAL VIBRATIONS

Term

Definition

amplitude of vibratory
torque

Tv = 0.5 (maximum torque - minimum torque) during a time interval that covers the period
of the lowest order, including possible beat orders
This definition also applies for non-linear vibration and for synthesized linear vibration
where the average torque (which is the average between the maximum torque and the
minimum torque) differs significantly from the effective driving torque (mean torque T).
In such cases the mean torque used in various fatigue criteria shall be replaced with the
average torque.

driver

unit acting as power source to the shafting system, e.g. engine, electric motor, gas turbine,
steam turbine

engine

in this context engine is associated with reciprocating combustion engines independent of


fuel type

frequency domain

calculation where frequency is used as free variable, usually with rad/s or Hz as unit

mass elastic system

model consisting of inertias, springs and dampers representing the shafting system

misfiring

misfiring in a cylinder is defined as no fuel injection. The compression - expansion cycle is


assumed to be maintained under the same charge air pressure as normal

order

number of excitation cycles per cycle of an engine. One engine cycle is one revolution for
two-stroke engines and two revolutions for four stroke engines

natural frequency

natural frequency (or modal frequency) is the frequency at which a system tends to
oscillate in the absence of any driving or damping force. Number of natural frequencies is
equal to number of independent inertias

time domain

calculation where time is used as free variable, usually with seconds as unit

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Page 13

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 2

Table 2 Definitions

non periodic external excitation of the system. In this context it is associated with
operations as:
acceleration or deceleration through a barred speed range
starting and stopping operations, especially when driven inertia is multiple of drivers
inertia
clutching in
short circuit in PTO driven generators, especially when Kdyn/T0 > 10 in the PTO branch
propeller out of water and water jet aeration
ice impact dependent of ice class notation
system instability
The latter condition is in principle a transient condition even if it occurs at constant speed
because the excitation increases due to the feedback from the speed governor.

vibration mode shape

pattern with non-dimensional angular displacements of inertias along the shafting for a
given natural frequency

1.3 Ice class


1.3.1 Ice class notations are presented in Table 3:
Table 3 Ice class notations
Rule reference

Class

Notations

Pt.6 Ch.6 Sec.1

Basic Ice Strengthening

Ice(C), Ice(E)

Pt.6 Ch.6 Sec.2

Ice Strengthening for the


Northern Baltic

Ice(1A*), Ice(1A), Ice(1B), Ice(1C)

Pt.6 Ch.6 Sec.5

Polar Class

PC(1), PC(2), PC(3), PC(4), PC(5), PC(6), PC(7),


Icebreaker

All Ice class notations except Basic Ice strengthening require response torsional vibration analysis due to
propeller ice impact excitations. Definition of loads and how to apply them are found in the respective ice rule
chapters.

1.4 Documentation requirements


1.4.1 The builder, or a sub-supplier acting on behalf of the builder, shall submit the documentation required
by Table 4. The documentation shall be reviewed by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 4 Documentation requirements
Object

Document type

Additional description

Conventional propulsion
arrangement

C040 Design analysis

Forced vibration calculation, see [2.3]

C040 Design analysis

Systems with large transients.

Info
AP
AP, R

Forced vibration in time domain, see [2.4]


C040 Design analysis

Fatigue calculation

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AP, R

Page 14

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 2

transient torsional vibration

Measurement of torsional vibrations if


requested during approval

AP, R

C040 Design analysis

Forced vibration calculation, see [2.3]

AP

C040 Design analysis

Systems with large transients.

AP, R

Forced vibration in time domain, see [2.4]

Manoeuvring thruster
arrangement

Z241 Measurement report

Measurement of torsional vibrations if


requested during approval

C040 Design analysis

Tunnel thruster hydraulic or electric driven.


*)
Free vibration calculation see [2.2]

AP

C040 Design analysis

All other manoeuvring thrusters.

AP

Forced vibration calculation, see [2.3]


C040 Design analysis

AP, R

*)

Systems with large transients.

AP, R

Forced vibration in time domain, see [2.4]

Electric power generation

Z241 Measurement report

Measurement of torsional vibrations if


*)
requested during approval

C040 Design analysis

Forced vibration calculation, see [2.3]

C040 Design analysis

Systems with large transients.

AP, R
**)

Emergency electric power


generation

Measurement of torsional vibrations if


**)
requested during approval

C040 Design analysis

Forced vibration calculation, see [2.3]

Z241 Measurement report

Measurement of torsional vibrations if


**)
requested during approval

AP
AP, R

Forced vibration in time domain, see [2.4]


Z241 Measurement report

*)

**)

AP, R
**)

AP
AP, R

AP = For approval; FI = For information; R = On request

*)

Not required for auxiliary thrusters of 300 kW or less as these have no certification requirements. Thrusters used
for dynamic positioning is not auxiliary.

**)

Generator set not used for propulsion is defined as auxiliary and not scope of approval if less than 200 kW.

1.4.2 For general requirements to documentation, including definition of the Info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.4.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

2 Calculation
2.1 General
2.1.1 Analysis conclusion
All analysis reports shall have a conclusion. In case of forced vibration analysis the conclusion shall be based
on a comparison between calculated dynamic response and the permissible values for all the sensitive parts
in the plant. Assumptions, conditions and restrictions shall be presented.

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Propulsion and steering


thruster arrangement

Z241 Measurement report

Parameters of importance which are uncertain, varying or nonlinear are handled by use of extreme values.
It is not required to perform calculations with all combinations of these extreme data, but as a minimum the
influence shall be quantitatively considered and also addressed in the conclusions.
Uncertain parameters
Variation of essential data such as dynamic characteristics of elastic couplings and dampers shall be
considered. Especially rubber couplings and certain types of vibration dampers have wide tolerances of
stiffness and damping.
Variation of parameter values
For components like couplings having stiffness with strong dependency on vibratory torque and/or
temperature (as a consequence of power loss) calculation where these dependencies are included may be
requested.
Nonlinear characteristics
Systems with components having a strong nonlinear characteristic within the operation range with large
influence on the system dynamics shall be simulated in time domain.
Source of data
In vibration calculations the source of all essential data shall be listed. For data that cannot be given as
constant parameters the assumed parameter dependency and tolerance range shall be specified.

2.2 Free vibration


2.2.1 Analysis content
Natural frequency calculations of the complete system are required. These shall include tables of relative
displacement amplitudes, relative inertia torques, vector sums and, if used later, also their phase angles.
Specification of input data
Mass elastic system: Moments of inertia and inertia-less torsional elasticity/stiffness for each element in the
complete system
Components: List of components with technical data as found relevant.
Presentation of results
Tables: Relative displacement amplitudes, relative inertia torques, vector sums and, if used later, also
their phase angles.
Graphs: Vibration mode shapes.
2.2.2 Calculation method
Calculation of relevant natural frequencies and their corresponding mode shapes shall be carried out by
recognised calculation methods.
Guidance note:
Examples of recognised methods obtaining natural frequencies and their mode shapes are methodologies for direct matrix
solutions calculating eigenvalues. Alternatively, approximate methods as the iterative Holzers method can be used. Damping has
very little effect on natural frequency of the system, and hence the calculations for natural frequencies may be made on the basis
of no damping.
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2.3 Forced vibration frequency domain


2.3.1 Analysis content
Free vibration
Forced vibration shall include free vibration calculation see [2.2].

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2.1.2 Input data quality


General

Data to be specified as applicable:


Engine: Engine type, rated power, rated speed, cycles per revolution, design (in-line/V-type), number of
cylinders, firing order, cylinder diameter, stroke, stroke to connecting rod ratio, oscillating mass of one
crank gear, excitation see [2.3.3].
Vibration damper: Type, damping coefficient, moments of inertia, dynamic stiffness.
Elastic couplings: Type, damping coefficient, moments of inertia, dynamic stiffness.
Reduction / power take off (PTO) gears: Type, moment of inertia for wheels and pinions, individual gear's
ratios per mesh, effective stiffness.
Shafting: Shaft diameter of crankshafts, intermediate shafts, gear shafts, thrust shafts and propeller
shafts.
Propeller: Type, diameter, number of blades, pitch and expanded area ratio, moment of inertia in air,
moment of inertia of entrained water (for zero and full pitch for CP propellers).
Mass elastic system: Values of all inertias, stiffnesses and damping values including propeller damping.
Presentation of results
The results of the forced torsional vibration calculations shall be presented as relevant for the various
components in the system.
The results shall be presented as synthesis, including amplitude and phase from the orders representing
the largest contributions.
The results shall be presented by graphs including acceptance values, see [2.5].
Where barred speed range is required, maximum time for passing shall be specified.
Guidance note:
Propeller moment of inertia for entrained water shall be specified by propeller designer Ch.5 Sec.1 [1.2.5].
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.3.2 Calculation method and model


Method and mass elastic system
The forced torsional vibration shall be calculated by means of linear differential equations, one for each
lumped mass. Each mass shall be described by its inertia, connected by torsional springs to adjacent masses,
damping described as absolute (mass) damping and relative (shaft) damping, and excitation applied on
mass. Other recognized methods may be accepted upon request.
Representative parameter values
The parameters used in vibration calculations shall be representative for the actual speed, mean torque,
frequency, temperature, and vibratory torque. The latter implies that if an element is strongly dependent on
the level of the vibratory torque and used in a linear vibration calculation, then the whole calculation may
have to be made by iteration.
Two-stroke engine
Engine designers model and parameters shall be applied.
Propeller damping
In order to best represent the damping properties of a propeller, the Archers or Frahms approach with
torque dependent damping coefficients should be used. Alternative methods using a dynamic magnifier or
Schwaneckes empirical approach or other approaches shall be subject to special consideration. For planing
crafts damping shall be based on derivation of the actual torque characteristics, see guidance note.
Guidance note:
Propeller damping is a consequence of the propellers torque absorption characteristics, defined as C = dT/d, where T is absorbed
torque and

. The torque characteristic for non-planning vessels can be formulated as T = n , where is 2 in steady

state condition, but is somewhat higher due to the superimposed vibratory torque. The Archer number is defined as

The corresponding Frahm number is Q a/9,545. Archer number is depending on the actual propeller design and load, but is

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Specification of input data

is propeller inertia and is actual vibration frequency. The corresponding relative damping is = (/n)/2M. Dynamic magnifier or
relative damping should only be applied based on experience from measurements of similar plants.
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2.3.3 Excitation
Two-stroke engine
Engine excitation shall be based on harmonic tables of tangential crank pressure from engine designer
relevant for the actual engine with respect to type approval. Alternatively it can be based on measurements
of cylinder pressure for the actual engine.
Four stroke engine
In addition to the methods for two-stroke engines, simplified methods with generic predefined pressure-time
characteristics based on main engine data may be accepted.
Propeller excitation
Propeller excitation can be taken as a percentage of the actual mean torque according to Table 5 unless other
values are substantiated by the propeller manufacturer. The values are representative for max continuous f
orward operation. Propeller excitation for extreme steering manoeuvres of azimuth thrusters shall be taken
as 3 times the excitation in Table 5, unless other figures can be documented.
Table 5 Propeller excitation as percent of mean torque
Number of blades

Blade frequency

Double blade frequency

8%

2%

6%

2%

4%

1.5%

4%

1.5%

Other excitations
Other excitation sources as electric drive control system, water jet impeller pulses, universal joints (second
order), etc. may have to be taken into accountwhen it influences the system behaviour.
2.3.4 Conditions
Normal operation. For engines this shall be applied as uniform pressure distribution over all cylinders
Misfiring operation, only applicable for engines
Where the installation allows various operation modes, the torsional vibration characteristics shall be
investigated for all possible modes, see guidance note.
Guidance note:
Examples of designs to investigate are installations fitted with controllable pitch propellers for zero and full pitch, power take
off gear integrated in the main gear or at the forward crankshaft end for loaded and idling generator, clutches for engaged and
disengaged branches.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Selection of misfiring cylinder


For calculation in misfiring condition the misfiring cylinder shall be selected as follows:
for vibration modes and orders with vector sums almost equal zero, any cylinder may be selected
for vibration modes with significant vector sums (e.g. > 0.1 relative to maximum cylinder amplitude) either
- the cylinder which has the opposite phase angle of the vector sum should be selected or - calculating all
combinations and presenting the worst.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 2

typically in the range 24-30 for conventional propellers. Dynamic magnifier for absolute damping is defined as M = J/C, where J

2.4.1 Analysis content


Free vibration
Forced vibration shall include free vibration calculation, see [2.2].
Specification of input data
Engine data to be specified as applicable; Brand, model, bore, stroke, piston rod length, number of cylinders,
V-angle, firing sequence and max rpm.
2.4.2 Calculation method and model
Method and mass elastic system
The forced torsional vibration shall be calculated by numerical integration of differential equations as found
relevant for the system modelled.
Simplified model
The mass elastic system for numeric simulation can be simplified in order to remove high natural frequencies.
It is required to verify by natural frequency calculations that the simplified system has approximately the
same lower (only the important) frequencies as the detailed system.
Presentation of results
Simulation results shall be presented by graphs. Resolution and choice of parameters shall reflect the
intention of the simulation.
2.4.3 Relevant cases for simulation
Passing through a barred speed range
Simulation of fixed pitch propeller plants shall take into account the most important properties of the
propulsion, the ship mass and resistance (fully loaded) and the rpm control.
The result of transient vibration documentation shall contain the peak vibration level and an estimation of the
equivalent number of cycles. The acceptance criterion is the peak torque (or stress) and the corresponding
equivalent number of cycles that shall be used for the shaft calculations.
The equivalent number of cycles is defined as the number that results in the same accumulated partial
damage (Miners theory) as the real load spectrum. This equivalent number of cycles for passing up and
down through the barred speed range shall be multiplied with the expected number of passages during the
foreseen lifetime of the ship. A detailed method for evaluating the equivalent number of cycles and expected
number of passages is presented in class guideline DNVGL-CG-0038.
Ice impact loads
Response of non-harmonic impact loads from ice as described in the ice rules (see [1.3]) shall be simulated
in the time domain when shaft speed cannot be maintained due to ice loads. Frequency domain calculation in
resonant speed can be used as an option.
Large inertia loads
For plants that have a major critical resonance below idling speed and a low ratio of engine inertia to driven
machinery inertia, the transient vibration torque shall be considered. This applies e.g. to diesel generator sets
with highly elastic couplings and similar propulsion plants without clutch.
Clutching-in
The calculation of the system shall determine:

the
the
the
the

peak torque in couplings and gears


first decreasing torque amplitudes
heat developed in the clutch
flash power in the clutch.

The clutch parameters such as the actuation pressure-time characteristics and if necessary also the changing
coefficient of friction shall be used in the calculation.

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2.4 Forced vibration time domain

Torque measurements during the clutching-in may be required. This applies when calculations indicate peak
torques or amplitudes near the approved limits.
Short circuit in PTO driven generators
A possible short circuit in a generator is not to be detrimental for the power transmitting elements such as
couplings and gears. The purpose of the calculation shall determine the peak torques and amplitudes that
occur before the safety system (circuit breaker) is in action. The duration to be considered is 1 s.
Guidance note:
If the excitation torque (in the air gap between rotor and stator) is not specified, it can be assumed as:
T = T0 [10 e

-t/0.4

-t/0.4

sin( t) 5 e

sin(2 t)]

where:

/2 =

the electric net frequency (50 or 60 Hz)

time in s.

---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Influence of speed governor


When the speed governor influence has be taken into account it shall be done in the time domain.

2.5 Acceptance criteria


If any result is close to the acceptance limit and there are uncertainties in the calculations, vibration
measurements may be required, see [4].
2.5.1 Availability of main functions
In specifying prohibited ranges of operation it has to be observed that the navigating and manoeuvring
functions are not severely restricted.
2.5.2 Determination of barred speed range
Speed ranges or operating conditions where the following acceptance criteria are exceeded, shall be
barred for continuous operation. Corresponding signboards shall be fitted at all manoeuvring stands and all
tachometers marked with red. The tachometers shall be accurate within the tolerance +/-0.01 n0. A barred
speed range above = 0.8 is not permitted.
The width of a barred speed range shall be determined as follows:
range where permissible values are exceeded
extend with tachometer tolerance in both ends
further extension in case of unstable engine operation at any end of the barred range.
Guidance note:
For 2-stroke fixed pitch plants the width of the barred speed range should not be made unnecessary wide because this can result
in a too slow passage with the consequence of higher vibratory stress level and increased number of cycles with high stress level.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.5.3 Misfiring condition


Exceeding the acceptance limits in misfiring condition shall result in:
Restricted (e.g. < 0.5 hours) operation when the vibration level is acceptable for limited time (slow
heating of rubber elements)
Restricted driving or load condition (barred speed range or speed reduction etc.)
Rejection when the vibration level may be critical as e.g. speed governor response, heating of rubber
elements causing damping and stiffness to alter to further increase the vibration level, hard gear hammer,
etc.

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The results are not to exceed the permissible peak torques and amplitudes in couplings and gears in addition
to the permissible heat (J) and flash power (W) in the clutch.

For plants with gear transmissions, the shafts (inside as well as outside the gearbox or thruster) shall
be designed for at least the same vibration level as the gearing. Unless significantly higher vibration are
expected to occur somewhere in the shafting, documentation of the vibration levels in the shafts is not
required.
For direct coupled plants the vibration level (v) is not to exceed the values used for the shafting design with
regard to continuous operation. Alternatively, the calculated vibration for continuous operation may be used
for the shafting design.
For shafts that are designed on the basis of transient vibration, the torque amplitudes as well as number of
equivalent cycles per passage are not to exceed the prerequisites for the shaft design
Extended documentation to be submitted for designs where it is likely to expect high cycle fatigue due to
passing of barred speed range (See guidance note below).
Guidance note:
In this context high cycle fatigue is expected when high transient stress amplitudes are combined with a large number of cycles.
Total number of cycles is dependent of cycles for each passing of barred speed range (BSR) and the vessel's operation profile. A
5

large number of cycles are to be understood as above 10 cycles. Extended documentation shall contain fatigue analysis supported
by engine and propeller curves as relevant. Classification guideline DNVGL-CG-0038 Calculation of shafts in marine applications
can be used for fatigue analysis. DNVGL-CG-0038 calculates fatigue capacity based on Whler curve (S-N curve) and Miner sum.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.5.5 Crankshafts
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for crankshafts are found in Ch.3 Sec.1.
The permissible vibration torque (or shear stresses) and peak torque (only applicable to semi-built shafts)
are determined in connection with the engine approval. Other criteria may also apply, such as acceleration at
mass for cam drive branch or journal movements in bearings.
2.5.6 Vibration dampers
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for dampers are found in Ch.3 Sec.1.
Depending on the type of damper (viscous, rubber, steel spring) the following shall be considered:
dissipated power (all kinds)
vibration torque (rubber type and some steel spring types)
vibration angle (some steel spring types).
The limits specified in the respective type approvals apply.
2.5.7 Torsional elastic couplings
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for torsional elastic couplings are found in Ch.4 Sec.5.
Torsional elastic couplings have design limitations with respect to:
dissipated power
vibration torque.
These limits are for continuous operation. Higher values may be accepted for a limited time of operation if
twist amplitudes are monitored.
Transient vibration which occur occasionally (i.e. less than 50 000 times) such as clutching-in is not to exceed
neither TKmax1 nor TKmax.
Transient vibration which occur very infrequently indeed such as short circuit [2.4.3] are not to exceed
TKmax2.
Power loss need not be considered for transient operation.
2.5.8 Other couplings
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for actual components are found in Ch.4 Sec.4.

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2.5.4 Shafts
Design requirements with acceptance criteria for shafts are found in Ch.4 Sec.1.

Tooth couplings are limited with regard to cyclic torque reversals. The negative torque is not to exceed 20%
of T0 unless especially approved.
2.5.9 Gear transmissions
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for gear transmissions are found in Ch.4 Sec.2.
The permissible vibration torque in gear transmissions is limited as:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

In the full speed and load range (> 90% of rated speed and load) the vibration torque is not to exceed
(KA - 1)T0 where KA is the application factor used in the gear transmission approval.
The vibration torque is limited to 35% of T0 throughout the entire operation range.
Gear hammer (negative torque) is not permitted except in unloaded power take off branches, where
10% of T0 (referred to the subject shaft speed) and 15% short duration misfiring is permitted.
Transient vibrations shall not cause negative torques of more than 25% of T0.
Transient peak torques shall not exceed T0.
Transient peak torques shall not exceed the approved (KAP T0) or (1.5 T0).

2.5.10 Shrink fits including propeller fitting


Design requirements and acceptance criteria for shrink fits are found in Ch.4 Sec.1.
The estimated vibration torque shall not exceed the value used in the approval of the shrink fit connection.
Permissible vibration torque in shrink fit connections shall be considered for direct coupled plants and when
the peak torque in a barred speed range exceeds the peak torque at full load. Peak torque values during
misfiring operation shall be subject to special consideration.
2.5.11 Propellers
Design requirements and acceptance criteria for propellers are found in Ch.5 Sec.1.
No specific limitations apply unless especially mentioned in connection with the propeller approval.
2.5.12 Thrusters
See Ch.5 Sec.3.
2.5.13 Electric rotating machines generators, pumps, compressors etc.
The vibration level shall not exceed any limitation specified by designer of the electric generator or motor.
2.5.14 Speed governor
The vibration levels at the sensor location of flexibly coupled propulsion engines shall not exceed the value
specified by the engine manufacturer. If no value is specified and approved, tests and measurements shall be
made in order to verify that the governor response is insignificant.

3 Shipboard testing
3.1 Check of barred speed range
3.1.1 Time recording
Where a barred speed range (BSR) is required, passages through this BSR, both accelerating and
decelerating, are to be demonstrated. The times taken are to be recorded and are to be equal to or below
those times stipulated in the approved documentation. This also includes when passing through the BSR in
reverse rotational direction, especially during the stopping test. This applies both for manual and automatic
passing-through systems. The ship's draft and speed during all these demonstrations is to be recorded. In
the case of a controllable pitch propeller, the pitch is also to be recorded (IACS UR M51 [4.5]).

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For other couplings and similar components such as membrane couplings, universal joints, link couplings,
elements of composite materials, etc. the approved vibration torque shall not be exceeded.

For controllable pitch propellers, this shall be tested with both zero and full pitch unless otherwise agreed.
3.1.3 Quick pass through
Passing through a barred speed range shall be made in an optimum way. This means as quickly as possible.
If a specific procedure is given in the torsional vibration calculations, this shall be verified under the foreseen
operational conditions.
3.1.4 Signboard
When a barred speed range is required, signboards describing how to pass through shall be provided at all
engine operating stands.

3.2 Check of gear hammer


Reduction gears and power take off gears shall be detected for gear hammer in misfiring condition in
ranges specified in connection with the approval. Speed ranges where gear hammer occurs shall be barred
for continuous operation. However, in power take off gears light gear hammer in unloaded condition is
acceptable.

3.3 Check of stability for systems with flexible couplings when misfiring
Engines with elastic couplings shall be checked for stability of the speed governing system when provoked by
misfiring. For selection of misfiring cylinder, see approved torsional vibration calculations.
Unless otherwise stated in the approved torsional vibration calculations, the following apply for each plant on
board:
Single engine plant; The entire speed range with either full pitch or combination pitch shall be checked.
This may be done by a slow sweep or stepwise speed increase.
Two-engine plants (with common reduction gear); The same applies, but the misfiring of the engines
shall be combined. This may be done by keeping the selected misfiring for engine one, and first select a
cylinder at random for the second engine and afterwards select the adjacent cylinder, see guidance note.
Plants with more than two engines; Special considerations apply.
Diesel generator sets shall be checked at a minimum of 50% load and with another set operating in
parallel. All sets shall be tested.
Speed ranges where gear hammer occurs due to one misfiring cylinder shall be restricted for continuous
operation in that operation mode.
Guidance note:
Explanation to the two engine plant test: This is a test of low order (typical 0.5 order) instability and not two independent failures.
Hence, it is important that the two engines have different phase shift after a clutching in-out sequence, and that both engines
are misfiring in order to have enough imbalances to simulate worst case with 0.5 order resonance. Fuel rack oscillations peak to
peak (with combined misfiring for twin engines) less than 20% of the effective stroke (idle to full) are normally considered as
acceptable. For engines without fuel rack similar parameters are taken from engine monitoring system.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

3.4 Check of transients during clutching-in procedure


After the clutch characteristics (pressure - time) are checked, the clutching-in shall be checked at the
minimum respectively the maximum permissible engine speed for clutching-in. The speed governing system
shall respond with quickly damped oscillations.

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3.1.2 Border stability


The engine is to be checked for stable running (steady fuel index) at both upper and lower borders of the
barred speed range. Steady fuel index means an oscillation range less than 5% of the effective stroke (idle to
full index) (IACS UR M51 [4.5]).

The following may be requested, see type of speed governor


type and position of speed sensor.
Guidance note:
Evaluation of the torsional vibration system should be considered in case of conditions with high vibration at the governor pick up
position.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

4 Test procedure
4.1 Measurements
4.1.1 Instrumentation
When vibration measurements are required by the Society, the type of instrumentation, location of pickups,
signal processing method, and the measurement procedure shall be approved by the Society.
4.1.2 Measurement report
When vibration measurements are required by the Society, a complete report containing results from
unfiltered signals (e.g. shaft stresses) as well as processed signals (e.g. frequency analyses) shall be
submitted for approval.

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3.5 Closed loop stability

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 Scope
The rules in this section apply to all shafting used in rotating machinery for propulsion, power production,
steering and manoeuvring independent of type of driver except auxiliary plants with less than 200 kW rated
power.
1.1.2 Vibration regimes
The following vibration regimes are covered within this section:
lateral vibrations are handled as whirling, see [2]
axial vibration see [3].
The following regimes are covered in other rule chapters:

torsional vibrations see Sec.2


engine flexible mounting, see Ch.3 Sec.1
vibration level as environmental requirement, see Ch.1 Sec.3
class notations related to vibrations see Pt.6 Ch.8 Sec.1 and Pt.6 Ch.8 Sec.2.

1.1.3 Acceptance criteria


Acceptance criteria for components are found in the respective rule chapters for the components.
1.1.4 Coupled vibrations
Axial vibrations initiated by torsional vibrations can be handled as independent, but with the radial
component of excitation from the cylinder forces.
1.1.5 Forced vibration analysis
Time domain simulation may be requested in addition to forced vibration calculation in the frequency domain
for transient analysis.

1.2 Definitions
Table 1 Definitions
Term

Definition

axial vibration

vibration in the direction of the centre line

counter whirl

whirl vibration has opposite direction as the mean shaft rotation

forward whirl

whirl vibration has equal direction as the mean shaft rotation

lateral vibration

vibration in orthogonal direction to the centre line

order

number of excitations per shaft revolution

whirling

run out of shaft and shafting components with nodes in the shaft bearings

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SECTION 3 LATERAL AND AXIAL SHAFTING VIBRATIONS

1.3.1 The builder, or a sub-supplier acting on behalf of the builder, shall submit the documentation required
by Table 2. The documentation shall be reviewed by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 2 Documentation requirements
Object

Document type

Additional description

Conventional propulsion arrangement

C040 - Design analysis

Lateral vibration

C040 - Design analysis

*)

Propulsion and steering thruster


arrangement
Manoeuvring thruster arrangement

Axial vibration

C040 - Design analysis

Lateral vibration

C040 - Design analysis

*)

Axial vibration

C040 - Design analysis

Lateral vibration

C040 - Design analysis

Axial vibration

*)

Info
AP, R
AP, R

*)

AP, R
AP, R

*)

*)

AP, R
AP, R

AP = For approval; R = On request


*)

Default is free vibration calculation, but more extended calculations may be requested.
Guidance note 1:
Lateral vibration calculation may be requested during approval of shaft arrangement. Example of sensitive designs are; Shafts with
large bearing span/shaft diameter ratio, propellers with large overhang from aft most bearing, flexible support of aft most bearing
as typical for twin screw designs, large inertias without bearing support, tooth couplings without bending stiffness.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 2:
Axial vibration calculation may be requested during approval of shaft arrangement. Example of sensitive designs are; Long stroke
two-stroke engines without axial damper, shafting with length above 40 m, flexible couplings with interaction between torque and
axial deflection, propeller designs where natural blade bending frequency is equal to natural axial shaft frequency.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.3.2 For general requirements to documentation, including definition of the Info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.3.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.3.4 Drawings of the complete shafting arrangement shall be included in the design analysis. Type
designation of prime mover, gear, elastic couplings, driven unit, shaft seals etc. shall be stated on the
drawings. The drawings shall show all main dimensions as diameters and bearing spans, bearing supports
and any supported elements as e.g. oil distribution boxes.
1.3.5 The vibration calculations shall be accompanied by an analysis, which shall compare the result of
the calculation with the acceptance levels for all components in the system as relevant, and conclude with
respect to possible restrictions. Assumptions, conditions and restrictions shall be presented.

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1.3 Documentation requirements

2.1 Analysis
2.1.1 Extent and method of calculation
As a minimum, the calculations shall include the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the relevant
vibration modes.
2.1.2 Uncertain and variable parameters
A variation of parameters shall be included in the analysis in case of uncertain or variable important
parameters.
Guidance note:
Important but uncertain parameters as stiffness of aft stern tube bearing, resulting bearing load position, bearing load distribution
over length (if calculating with distributed bearing reaction), entrained water on propeller, etc. shall be varied within their probable
range and natural frequencies to be presented as corresponding graphs.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.3 Entrained water to propeller


Calculation of entrained water shall be presented.
2.1.4 First order acceptance criteria
st
Resonance with the shaft speed (1 order forward whirl) shall have a separation margin of at least 20% to
the operating speed range, guidance note.
Guidance note:
Example: A system with idle at 20 rpm and MCR at 100 rpm shall not have a 1st order fwd whirl in the range 16 to 120 rpm.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.5 Higher order acceptance criteria


Resonance caused by propeller blade passing (blade order) shall be avoided in the upper operating speed
range unless it is substantiated that resonance will not cause harmful response, see guidance note.
Guidance note:
Approval is based on an over-all evaluation, and resonance should be avoided above 80% of max rpm. Exceptions may be given: A
long shafting with many bearings is not found sensitive if the propeller is the main excitation source and the mode shape indicates
resonance in forward end of shafting. Also bearing designs where good damping is expected, e.g. high bearing length to diameter
ratio combined with a bouncing vibration mode, may justify acceptable resonance response at high rpm.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.6 Presentation of results


Results shall be presented both in way of numerical values and graphical e.g. as a Campell diagram. Mode
shapes of the natural frequencies shall be presented.

3 Axial vibration
3.1 Analysis
3.1.1 Extent and method of calculation
As a minimum, the calculations shall include the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the relevant
vibration modes.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 3

2 Lateral vibration

3.1.3 Acceptance criteria free vibration


If major critical resonance occurs near or in the operational speed range and no damper is foreseen, forced
axial vibration calculations shall be required.
3.1.4 Acceptance criteria forced vibration
In crankshafts, the stresses due to axial vibration shall not exceed the values used in connection with the
engine approval. The amplitudes at the front end of the crankshaft shall be within the engine designers
specified limit.
3.1.5 Presentation of results
Results shall be presented both in way of numerical values and graphical of the mode shapes of the natural
frequencies.

4 Measurements
4.1 Axial vibration
Measurements of axial vibrations shall be required if major critical resonance occurs near or in the
operational speed range and no damper is foreseen.

4.2 Measurement program


When vibration measurements are required, the type of instrumentation, location of pick-ups, signal
processing method, and the measurement procedure shall be approved by the Society.

4.3 Measurement results


A complete report containing results from unfiltered signals (e.g. shaft stresses) as well as processed signals
(e.g. frequency analyses) shall be submitted for approval.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 3

3.1.2 Uncertain and variable parameters


If the lowest vibration mode (with the node in the thrust bearing) is of significance to the conclusion, the
calculations shall be made with various thrust bearing stiffness in order to see the influence of an estimation
error.

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 Scope
The shaft alignment rules are only applicable for propulsion plants. For geared plants, the calculations are
only applicable for the low speed shaft line, which shall include the output gear shaft with radial bearings.
Vertical shaft alignment is always applicable, while horizontal alignment is applicable upon request.
1.1.2 Calculation versus specification
Propulsion plants as described in [1.3.2] require shaft alignment calculation.
All other plants need a shaft alignment specification only, see [1.3.3].
1.1.3 Aft most bearing
Acceptance criteria and modelling of aft most bearing are dependent of risk:
White metal lined aft stern tube bearing which is either double sloped, or has a journal diameter 500 mm
or greater, shall fulfil bearing lubrication requirement see [2.1.6].
Other propulsion plants where alignment calculation is required shall fulfil requirements in [2.1.5].
Guidance note:
Aft most bearing is in most cases to be understood as aft stern tube bearing, but can also be other designs e.g. strut mounted
bearings which are common in twin screw designs without skegs.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.1.4 Survey
Installation of propulsion plants requiring a shaft alignment calculation shall be verified by a surveyor.

1.2 Definitions
Table 1 Definitions
Term

Explanation

shaft alignment specification

description of the shaft alignment sufficient to carry out the installation. It shall
contain a procedure, verification data and offset from a defined reference line

shaft alignment calculation

all information required to evaluate the shaft alignment. It shall contain a shaft
alignment specification in addition to calculations as described in [2]

reference line

a straight virtual line defined by two chosen points in order to define vertical and
horizontal offsets

bearing reaction influence numbers

bearing loads as a consequence of a unit offset of a bearing. It is described by a


(N N) sized table for a model with N bearings

Definitions and symbols used in oil film criteria only are presented in [2.1.6].

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

SECTION 4 SHAFT ALIGNMENT

1.3.1 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 2. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.
1.3.2 Systems requiring shaft alignment calculation
Shaft alignment calculation report shall be submitted for approval for propulsion plants with one out of the
following criteria:
minimum shaft diameters (low speed side) of 400 mm or greater for single screw and 300 mm for twin
screw
gear transmissions with more than one pinion driving the output gear wheel, even if there is only one
single input shaft as for dual split paths
shaft generator or electrical motor as an integral part of the low speed shaft in diesel engine propulsion.
Upon request, shaft alignment calculations may also be required for other plants when these are considered
sensitive to alignment.
For required content of a shaft alignment calculation report, see [2.1.4].
1.3.3 Systems only requiring shaft alignment specification
For all propulsion plants other than those listed in [1.3.1], a shaft alignment specification shall be submitted
for information. The shaft alignment specification shall include the following items:
bearing offsets from the defined reference line
bearing slope relative to the defined reference line if different from zero
Installation procedure and verification data with tolerances e.g. gap and sag and jacking loads (including
jack correction factors and jack positions) and verification conditions (cold or hot, propeller submersion,
etc.).
Table 2 Documentation requirements
Object

Conventional propulsion
arrangement

Document type

Additional description

Info

C040 Design analysis

Shaft alignment calculation when required, see


[1.3.1]

AP

Z170 Installation manual

Shaft alignment specification when calculation is


not required, see [1.3.2]

FI

AP = For approval; FI = For information

1.3.4 For general requirements to documentation, including definition of the Info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.3.5 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

2 Calculation
2.1 General
2.1.1 Calculation input data
The shaft alignment calculations shall at minimum include the following input data:
propulsion plant particulars, e.g. rated power of main engine and propeller shaft rpm

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

1.3 Documentation

2.1.2 Alignment conditions


The shaft alignment calculations shall include the following conditions:

alignment condition (during erection of shafting)


cold, static, afloat, fully submerged propeller
hot, static, afloat, fully submerged propeller
hot, running with hydrodynamic propeller loads.

For geared shafting systems:


running conditions as required to verify gear acceptance criteria
all relevant combinations of prime mover operation
Horizontal alignment is upon request.
2.1.3 Influence parameters
The shaft alignment calculations shall take into account the influence of:
buoyancy of propeller
thermal rise of machinery components (including rise caused by heated tanks in double bottom and other
possible heat sources)
gear loads (horizontal and vertical forces and bending moments)
angular working position in gear bearings for gears sensitive to alignment, see guidance note 1
bearing wear (for bearings with high wear acceptance e.g. bearings with water or grease lubrication)
bearing stiffness (if substantiated by knowledge or evaluation, otherwise infinite)
hull and structure deflections, see guidance note 2
hydrodynamic propeller loads, see guidance note 3.
Guidance note 1:
For sensitive geared systems (e.g. gears with large face width or gears with more than one pinion driving the output wheel) even
small alignment offsets may have large influence on the gear face load distribution. In such systems, angular position of the shaft
has to be found by iteration. Vertical and horizontal offsets may be assessed by means of the vertical and horizontal forces in the
previous iteration step. Bearing clearances have to be taken into account, but the oil film thickness can usually be disregarded
(except for very light bearing loads). For fluid film bearings the angular working position may be estimated to 20 to 30 off the
direction of the force (except for very light bearing loads).
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 2:
Hull deflection is dependent of design, draught, trim, aft peak tank filling etc. Estimated deflections can be based on FEM
calculations, experience from similar designs etc. Larger safety margins should be applied when these deflections are unknown and
are expected to have influence on the alignment.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 3:
Rule paragraph [1.1.3] defines scope of aft most tail shaft bearing analysis dependent of risk. For propulsion plants where the
aft most bearing lubrication criteria are required; see [2.1.6]. For other plants, the hydrodynamic loads can be applied by either
verified measurements on similar designs or a default bending moment. The default bending moment should not be less than
0.05T0 downward and 0.40T0 upward, where T0 is propeller torque at mcr. For twin screw plants a range of 0.3T0 horizontally
and 0.2T0 vertical should be used.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

equipment list, i.e. manufacturer and type designation of prime mover, reduction gear (if applicable) and
bearings
geometry data of shafts, couplings and bearings, including reference to relevant drawings. For direct
coupled plants, the crankshaft model shall be according to the engine designer's guidelines
propeller data
bearing clearances.

bearing offsets from the defined reference line


calculated bearing reaction loads and pressures
bearing reaction influence numbers
graphical and tabular presentation of the shaft deflections with respect to the defined reference line
graphical and tabular presentation of the shaft bending stresses as a result of the alignment
nominal relative slope between shaft and bearing centrelines in aft most propeller shaft bearing (see
[2.1.5]) and if applicable, details of proposed slope-bore
results from aft stern tube bearing lubrication criteria, see [2.1.6]
a shaft alignment procedure with verification method and data with tolerances (e.g. aft bearing slope
and geometry, reference line, stern tube bearing offsets, calculated gap & sag values and jacking
loads including jack correction factors). The procedure shall clearly state at which vessel condition the
alignment verification shall be carried out (cold or hot, submersion of propeller etc.). Positions of jacks
and temporary supports have to be specified. The procedure shall be possible to use again when in
service.
2.1.5 Acceptance criteria
The shaft alignment has to fulfil the following acceptance criteria for all relevant operating conditions in
[2.1.2]:
acceptance criteria defined by manufacturer of the prime mover, e.g. limits for bearing loads, bending
moment and shear force at flange
acceptance criteria defined by the manufacturer of the reduction gear, e.g. limits for output shaft bearing
loads and load distribution between bearings
bearing load limits as defined by bearing manufacturer and Ch.4 Sec.1
zero or very low bearing loads are only acceptable if these have no adverse influence on whirling vibration
tolerances for gap and sag less than 5/100 mm are not accepted.
Acceptance criteria for aft most tail shaft bearing:
in hot static and hot running conditions the relative nominal slope between shaft and aft most propeller
-4
shaft bearing should not exceed 310 rad (0.3 mm/m) and 50% of min. diametrical bearing clearance
divided by the bearing length, whichever is less. For definition of relative nominal slope, see Figure 1. This
criterion is only applicable for single slope or no-slope bearings.
A white metal lined aft stern tube bearing which is either double sloped, or has a journal diameter 500 mm or
greater, shall fulfil requirements regarding hydrodynamic lubrication performance as stated in [2.1.6].

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

2.1.4 Results
The shaft alignment calculations shall at minimum include the following results:

2.1.6 Aft most bearing lubrication criteria


A white metal lined aft stern tube bearing which is either double sloped, or has a journal diameter 500 mm
or greater, shall be designed to ensure hydrodynamic lubrication in all operational conditions. The minimum
speed giving hydrodynamic lubrication (n0), has to be lower than the actual shaft speed (n). Both low speed
and full speed criteria have to be fulfilled, see guidance note 1.
For multi slope bearings the method applies to the bearing segment with highest nominal bearing pressure
for each operational condition.
Low speed criterion:
The minimum shaft speed ensuring hydrodynamic lubrication (n0,stat) is calculated for:
Hot static condition: No hydrodynamic propeller loads, n0,stat
nmin n0,stat
Full speed criterion:
The minimum shaft speed ensuring hydrodynamic lubrication (n0,dyn) is calculated for the following conditions
defined by the vertical hydrodynamic bending moment acting on the propeller, see guidance note 2 below:
Hot running condition 1: 15% of full torque downwards, n0,dyn1
Hot running condition 2: 40% of full torque upwards, n0,dyn2
nfull max{n0,dyn1 , n0,dyn2 }
The hydrodynamic propeller loads are defined as vertical bending moments as percentage of full speed
torque, see guidance note 2.
Calculation to be used for both criteria:

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

Figure 1 Relative nominal slope between bearing and shaft

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

Table 3 Calculated parameters


n0

minimum rotational shaft speed ensuring hydrodynamic lubrication [rpm]

h0

minimum required lubrication film thickness [mm]

peff

effective bearing pressure [N/m ]

Leff

length of locally pressurized area [mm], Leff L

KD

dimensionless size factor [ - ]

KL

dimension less length to diameter ratio [ - ]

Table 4 Dimensions and physical parameters


nmin

actual shaft speed for continuous slow speed operation [rpm]

nfull

actual max shaft speed for continuous operation [rpm], typical at MCR

diametrical bearing clearance [mm]. Use nominal diameter for std. double slope machining in lower part of
bearing, and actual diameter for trumpet shaped slope

bearing length, or segment length in case of multi slope bearing [mm]

the kinematic viscosity at 40C [cSt] of the lubricant. To be used as minimum viscosity acceptable for the
installation

bearing journal diameter [mm]

Table 5 Parameters from shaft alignment calculation, see Figure 2 and Figure 3
W

radial bearing load, W1 + W2 [N]

Wmax

max value of W1 and W2 [N]

Wmin

min value of W1 and W2 [N]

calculated relative slope between shaft and bearing at Wmax, either

1 or 2 [mm/m], see Figure 3

White metal lined stern tube bearings shall be modelled in the shaft alignment calculation as presented in
Figure 3. This is achieved by modelling the bearing with a support point at either bearing end (or at either
9
segment end for multi slope bearings). The total bearing stiffness shall not be taken less than 510 N/m,
9
and stiffness of each individual support point not less than 210 N/m, unless documented otherwise.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

Figure 2 Model of a shaft resting in a single slope or no-slope bearing

Figure 3 Model of a shaft resting in a double slope bearing


The following results from the calculation have to be presented:
n0,stat , n0,dyn1 , n0,dyn2 ,
Guidance note 1:
The calculation of minimum speed ensuring hydrodynamic lubrication is based on a quasi-empiric solution of the Reynolds equation
for journal bearings. Special conditions typical for stern tube bearings such as uneven load distribution and misalignment are
implemented. This method shall ensure lubrication in areas with maximum bearing pressure. The method shall set a limit for the
minimum continuous operational shaft speed and the minimum viscosity of the lubricant. Use of oil with high viscosity (above 200
cSt) generate viscous losses and heat, hence care has to be taken. The chosen viscosity () is the minimum value to be used as
stern tube lube oil. The calculated oil film thickness (h0) is a parameter to be seen as an integrated element of the calculation
method, and shall not be understood as an acceptance of actual oil film thickness. (L/D) < 2 is a limitation in the calculation
method, and not a limitation of the actual bearing length.
The centre load in a double slope bearing (see W2 in Figure 3) can be distributed to both bearing segments as there will be an oil
film in both segments. The load shall then be distributed proportional to the end loads, from this it follows that W2aft is W2W1/(W1
+ W3) and W2fwd is W2W3/(W1 + W3).

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turning gear is not seen as a continuous operation. It is not possible to fulfil the low speed criterion for very low speeds, but it is
recommended that steam plants operating with auto-spin shall have n0,stat not higher than 20 rpm. Electric propulsion plants able
to operate at low rpm should be special considered. Engine driven propulsion plants will have idle speed as nmin.
The full speed criterion includes the dynamic loads, and the criterion ensures that the oil film at full speed is able to handle a range
of different loads.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 2:
The hydrodynamic propeller load range is chosen in order to safeguard the performance of the aft most propeller shaft bearing in
all running conditions. This includes both straight running at MCR and manoeuvring.
If the propeller tip in some operational conditions is above or in the vicinity of the water line, a downward bending moment should
occur even at slow speeds. Running with a semi-submerged propeller at high rpm may harm the bearing.
For twin screw propulsion plants, the alignment calculations should also include the propeller induced horizontal loads.
Manoeuvring at high vessel speed shall generate large vertical and horizontal loads. The propeller induced loads are influenced
by the rotational direction of the propellers. Horizontal slope should be evaluated, but this requires a three dimensional analysis
which is not within scope of this rule paragraph. The angular working position of the shaft should not conflict with longitudinal oil
grooves.
It is not mandatory to carry out an independent hydrodynamic propeller load calculation.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.7 Verification data and tolerances


The tolerances in the alignment specification have to correlate with the tolerance ranges used in the
calculations. The final verification of the alignment shall be carried out afloat in at least one relevant
condition as mentioned in [2.1.2].
In special cases, verification in running condition by means of strain gauges and/or proximity transducers
may also be required. In such cases the measurement program shall be submitted for approval.
Tolerances for misalignment in way of slope and straightness of stern tube bearings have to be defined. The
tolerances shall reflect the calculation of lubricant film thickness see [2.1.6].

3 Installation
3.1 Inspection
3.1.1 All large welding work in the vicinity of the shafting shall be completed before sighting process and
insertion of propeller shaft. All large and heavy structure elements shall be in place before final verification of
shaft alignment, see guidance note in [3.1.4].
3.1.2 When shaft alignment calculations are required (see [1.3.2]), the stern tube bearing geometry shall
be measured and reported in presence of the surveyor after mounting of bearings, but prior to insertion of
the propeller shaft. Straightness, slope and ovality shall be within the specified tolerances. Each stern tube
bearing shall be checked at minimum three longitudinal positions. Equal procedure shall be applied on each
segment in case of multi slope bearing, see guidance note in [3.1.4].
3.1.3 The shaft alignment shall be within the tolerances given in the shaft alignment specification, see
guidance note in [3.1.4].

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

The low speed criterion is calculated for hot static condition without any dynamic load, and limits the slow speed operation. Use of

Guidance note:
Local effect verification: The designed geometry of stern tube bearings is based on the bearings ability to handle dynamic propeller
loads and weight loads from propeller shaft and propeller. The condition inside stern tube bearings is dependent of accuracy
both in design and installation. It has to be verified that the bearing's slope(s), ovality and straightness are within the alignment
specification with defined tolerances before propeller shaft is inserted. Global hull deflections should have limited influence to the
alignment inside the stern tube, but welding in vicinity of the stern tube may disturb the alignment. Aftmost bearing mounted in
struts should be evaluated case by case.
Global effect verification: Mounting of large hull sections should introduce extra weight which should introduce global hull
deflections. Large welding works and launching should also introduce hull deflections. Final verification of global shaft alignment
such as gap & sag and/or jacking should preferably be carried out afloat with most of the hull completed.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

3.1.5 For shafting installations not requiring approval (see [1.3.2]), documentation of the installation of the
shafting in accordance with the alignment specifications shall be submitted to the surveyor.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 4

3.1.4 When shaft alignment calculations are required (see [1.3.2]), the measured values of gap and sag
and/or jacking loads with force-displacement diagrams and/or alternative verification data shall be reported
in presence of the surveyor, see guidance note.

1 Prime mover driving electrical generators


1.1 Transient loads
Each prime mover used to drive main or emergency generator shall be fitted with a governor which shall
prevent transient frequency variations in the electrical network in excess of 10% of the rated frequency
with a recovery time to steady state conditions not exceeding 5 seconds when the maximum electrical step
load is switched on or off.
If a step load equivalent to the rated output of the generator is switched off, a transient speed variation in
excess of 10% of the rated speed may be acceptable, provided this does not cause the intervention of the
overspeed device as required by Ch.3 Sec.1 [5.3].

1.2 Detrimental speed variation


At all loads between no load and rated power, the permanent speed variation shall not deviate to a value that
may be detrimental to the reliability of any electric consumer.
Guidance note:
5% of the rated speed is considered as a safe value.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.3 Speed recovery


The speed at the actual power after a load change shall be stabilized and in steady-state condition within five
seconds, inside the permissible range for the permanent speed variation r.
The steady-state condition is considered reached when the permanent speed variation,
1% of the speed associated with the set power.

r, does not exceed

1.4 Load demand


Prime movers shall be selected in such a way that they shall meet the load demand within the ships mains.
See Ch.3 Sec.1 [9.3.4] and Ch.3 Sec.1 [9.4] for load tests.

1.5 Two step on-loading


Prime movers driving electric generators, shall be able to accommodate sudden loading from no-load to 50%,
followed by the remaining 50% of the rated generator power, duly observing requirements of [1.1] and [1.3].

1.6 Multistep on-loading


Application of the load in more than two steps is acceptable on the condition that:
the ship's electrical system is designed for the use of such generator sets
load application in more than two steps is considered in the design of the ship's electrical system and is
approved when the drawings are reviewed
during shipboard trials the functional tests shall be carried out. Step loads caused by sudden
disconnection of running generators shall be tested, and it shall be verified that the main source of electric
power is maintained at all time.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 5

SECTION 5 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION

Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 5

Guidance note:
Typically limiting curves for diesel engines can be seen in Figure 1 and examples of maximum load acceptance of large bore gas
engines with port injection depending on base load can be seen in Figure 2.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Figure 1 Example of limiting curves for loading 4-stroke diesel engines step by step from no load
to rated power as function of the brake mean effective pressure

Figure 2 Example of maximum load acceptance of a large bore gas engine with port injection
depending on base load.

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Emergency generator sets shall satisfy the governor conditions as per [1.1] and [1.2], even when:
a)
b)

their total consumer load is applied suddenly, or


their total consumer load is applied in steps, subject to;
the total load is supplied within 45 seconds since power failure on the main switchboard
the maximum step load is declared and demonstrated
the power distribution system is designed such that the declared maximum step loading is not
exceeded
the compliance of time delays and loading sequence with the above is to be demonstrated at ship's
trials.

1.8 Load sharing


For A.C. generating sets operating in parallel, the governing characteristics of the prime movers shall be such
that within the limits of 20% and 100% total load the load on any generating set shall not differ from its
proportionate share of the total load by more than 15% of the rated power of the largest machine or 25%
of the rated power of the individual machine in question, whichever is the less. For an A.C. generating set
intended to operate in parallel, facilities shall be provided to adjust the governor sufficiently fine to permit an
adjustment of load not exceeding 5% of the rated load at normal frequency. (IACS UR M3.2.6)

1.9 Reactive load


For reactive load sharing between generators running in parallel, see Ch.8 Sec.5 [2.4.1].

1.10 Rated speed adjustment


The governors of the engines shall enable the rated speed to be adjusted over the entire power range with a
maximum deviation of 5%.

1.11 Synchronization
The rate of speed variation of the adjusting mechanisms shall permit satisfactory synchronization in a short
time.
Guidance note:
Relating to Ch.3 Sec.1 [5.2.1] and [1]:
The rated power and the corresponding rated speed relate to the conditions under which the engines are operated in the system
concerned.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.12 Electric power supply system


For further requirements related to main electric power supply system including the use of shaft generator,
see Ch.8 Sec.2 [2] and for emergency power supply system, see Ch.8 Sec.2 [3].

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Section 5

1.7 Emergency generator

January 2016 edition


This document supersedes the October 2015 edition.

Main changes January 2016, entering into force 1 July 2016


Sec.2 Torsional vibrations
Table 4: Added documentation requirement fatigue calculation for conventional propulsion arrangement.
[2.3.1]: Where barred speed range is required, maximum time for passing shall be specified.
[2.5.4]: Extended documentation to be submitted where it is likely to expect high cycle fatigue due to
passing of barred speed range including new guidance note.
[3]: Requirements for check of barred speed range have been updated to align with new IACS UR M51
[4.5].

October 2015 edition

General
This is a new document.
The rules enter into force 1 January 2016.

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Part 4 Chapter 2 Changes historic

CHANGES HISTORIC

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Part 4 Systems and components


Chapter 3 Rotating machinery - drivers

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accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification
and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the
basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent.
DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge


from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

DNV GL AS

FOREWORD
DNV GL rules for classification contain procedural and technical requirements related to obtaining
and retaining a class certificate. The rules represent all requirements adopted by the Society as
basis for classification.

DNV GL AS July 2016

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com


If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shall
pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten
times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.
In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,
employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

This document supersedes the January 2016 edition.


Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter,
section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

Main changes July 2016, entering into force 1 January 2017


Sec.1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines
Sec.1 [1.1]: The sub-section has been updated to further clarify rule application for engines less than
100kW and for engines not serving main functions or emergency services.
Sec.1 Table 1: The table has been updated to reflect requirements for TA and to clarify certification
requirements depending on engine size and service.
Sec.1 [1.4]: Requirement added for type approval of resilient mounts.
Sec.1 [2.14.1]: Paragraph updated to be in line with IACS UR M71 regarding applicability of Type tests for
in-line and V-engines.
Sec.1 [2.14.2]: Paragraph updated to reflect requirements for engines less than 100 kW.
Sec.1 [3]: Previous sub-section [3.1] regarding recognition of engine manufacturer's workshops has been
removed.
Sec.1 [3.2]: Paragraphs relating to testing of materials and components removed as the requirements are
given in other parts of the rules.
Sec.1 Table 8: The table has been corrected to be in conformance with IACS UR M72 and descriptions of
UT and CD have been added.
Sec.1 [4.1.6]: The paragraph has been updated to reflect scope for engines less than 100 kW.
Sec.1 [4.3]: Added load test requirement at approved intermittent overload in accordance with IACS UR
M51.
Sec.1 Table 9 - item 3.0: Requirement for monitoring of lube oil outlet temperature corrected to >2500Kw
pr cyl group to be in line with IACS UR M72.
Sec.1 Table 10 - item 3.0: Requirements for monitoring of turbocharger oil temperature and pressure
added to be in line with IACS UR M73.
Sec.1 [9.3]: Shipboard trial requirements updated to be in line with IACS UR M51
Sec.1 [10.2.6]: The requirement to install flame arrestors when gas is supplied in a mixture with air
through a common manifold has been removed.
Sec.1 Table 14: Footnotes B) and C) added for Containment test report in order to be in conformance with
IACS UR M73.
Sec.1 [11.1.5]: Paragraphs regarding recognition of manufacturers of turbochargers have been removed.
Paragraph regarding turbochargers manufactured under MSA agreement has been included.

Editorial corrections
In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

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Page 3

Part 4 Chapter 3 Changes - current

CHANGES CURRENT

Changes current.................................................................................................. 3
Section 1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines............................................. 8
1 General................................................................................................ 8
1.1 Application....................................................................................... 8
1.2 Documentation of the engine........................................................... 10
1.3 Drawing particulars......................................................................... 15
1.4 Documentation of arrangement........................................................ 15
1.5 Documentation of vibration.............................................................. 15
2 Design................................................................................................16
2.1 General..........................................................................................16
2.2 Approved materials......................................................................... 17
2.3 Safety valves and crankcase ventilation............................................. 18
2.4 Turning appliances and interlocking device......................................... 20
2.5 Crankshaft calculation..................................................................... 20
2.6 Fire protection and general requirements to piping systems fitted on
the engine...........................................................................................21
2.7 Hydraulic oil system........................................................................ 21
2.8 Fuel oil system............................................................................... 21
2.9 Fuel gas system............................................................................. 23
2.10 Charge air system, blowers and cooler............................................ 23
2.11 Starting equipment....................................................................... 23
2.12 Lubrication oil system....................................................................24
2.13 Cooling system............................................................................. 25
2.14 Type approval testing.................................................................... 25
2.15 Type testing data collection............................................................ 25
2.16 Type testing program.................................................................... 26
3 Testing and Inspection...................................................................... 30
3.1 Manufacturing inspections................................................................ 30
3.2 Testing of materials and components................................................ 30
3.3 Inspection during assembly..............................................................34
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................35
4.1 Application..................................................................................... 35
4.2 General engine tests....................................................................... 35
4.3 Testing of propulsion engines........................................................... 36
4.4 Testing of auxiliary driving engines and engines driving electrical
generators........................................................................................... 38

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Page 4

Part 4 Chapter 3 Contents

CONTENTS

5 Control and Monitoring...................................................................... 38


5.1 General..........................................................................................38
5.2 Speed governing.............................................................................39
5.3 Overspeed protection...................................................................... 40
5.4 Propulsion engines.......................................................................... 40
5.5 Auxiliary engines............................................................................ 44
5.6 Emergency engines......................................................................... 47
5.7 Oil mist detection/monitoring and alarm system (Oil mist detector)....... 49
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 50
6.1 Engine Alignment/Seating................................................................ 50
6.2 Accessibility of engines.................................................................... 51
6.3 Earthing.........................................................................................51
6.4 Starting with compressed air............................................................51
6.5 Electrical starting equipment............................................................ 51
6.6 Exhaust pipes.................................................................................51
6.7 Lubrication and fuel oil systems....................................................... 51
6.8 Crankcase ventilation pipes.............................................................. 52
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 52
7.1 Torsional and axial vibration.............................................................52
8 Installation Inspections..................................................................... 52
8.1 Engine Seating............................................................................... 52
8.2 Engine alignment............................................................................ 52
9 Shipboard Testing.............................................................................. 52
9.1 Shipboard testing (dock and sea trials)............................................. 52
9.2 General engine tests....................................................................... 52
9.3 Testing of engines for propulsion and main power supply..................... 53
9.4 Testing of engines driving auxiliaries................................................. 54
9.5 Engine vibration..............................................................................54
9.6 Opening up after testing..................................................................54
10 Gas only and dual fuel engines........................................................54
10.1 General........................................................................................ 54
10.2 Design......................................................................................... 55
10.3 Testing and inspection................................................................... 59
10.4 Workshop testing.......................................................................... 59
10.5 Control and monitoring.................................................................. 59
10.6 Arrangement.................................................................................62
10.7 Vibration...................................................................................... 62
10.8 Installations inspections................................................................. 62

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Contents

4.5 Survey after testing........................................................................ 38

10.10 Retrofit.......................................................................................62
11 Auxiliary equipment and components.............................................. 63
11.1 Turbochargers............................................................................... 63
11.2 Torsional vibration dampers.......................................................... 70
11.3 Axial vibration dampers................................................................. 71
11.4 Explosion relief valves................................................................... 71
Section 2 Gas Turbines......................................................................................... 73
1 General.............................................................................................. 73
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 73
1.2 Definitions......................................................................................73
1.3 Certification....................................................................................74
1.4 Documentation requirements - Manufacturer...................................... 75
1.5 Documentation requirements Builder.............................................. 78
2 Design and Construction....................................................................80
2.1 General..........................................................................................80
2.2 Component design requirements manufacturer................................ 82
2.3 Systems Design requirements - package provider / builder...................83
2.4 Enclosure, Fire Safety..................................................................... 87
3 Control and Monitoring...................................................................... 88
3.1 Gas Turbine Control........................................................................ 89
3.2 Monitoring and instrumentation system............................................. 91
3.3 Auxiliary system controls................................................................. 91
3.4 Control stations.............................................................................. 91
4 Arrangement...................................................................................... 92
4.1 Alignment and reaction forces.......................................................... 92
4.2 Mounting in general........................................................................ 92
4.3 Rigid mounting............................................................................... 93
4.4 Resilient mounting.......................................................................... 93
5 System vibration................................................................................94
5.1 General..........................................................................................94
5.2 Documentation of vibration analysis.................................................. 94
5.3 gas turbine vibration....................................................................... 95
6 Tests and trials..................................................................................95
6.1 Tests, General................................................................................ 95
6.2 Testing of material and components.................................................. 97
6.3 Tests on components (manufacturers works)..................................... 98
6.4 Type approval test (manufacturers works).........................................98

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Contents

10.9 Shipboard testing.......................................................................... 62

6.6 Inspection of condition of parts (Borescope / tear down).................... 102


6.7 Certification testing (FAT, manufacturers works)............................... 103
6.8 Certification test program.............................................................. 103
6.9 Inspection of condition of parts (Borescope)..................................... 105
6.10 Shipboard trials...........................................................................105
Section 3 Steam Turbines................................................................................... 107
1 General............................................................................................ 107
1.1 Application................................................................................... 107
1.2 Certification requirements.............................................................. 107
1.3 Documentation requirements - Manufacturer.................................... 107
1.4 Documentation requirements - Builder.............................................108
2 Design.............................................................................................. 108
2.1 General........................................................................................ 108
2.2 Component design requirements..................................................... 109
3 Inspection and testing.....................................................................109
3.1 General........................................................................................ 109
4 Workshop testing.............................................................................110
4.1 General turbine tests..................................................................... 110
5 Control and monitoring....................................................................111
5.1 General........................................................................................ 111
5.2 Speed governing........................................................................... 111
5.3 Safety functions and devices.......................................................... 112
5.4 Monitoring.................................................................................... 112
6 Arrangement.................................................................................... 114
6.1 General arrangement..................................................................... 114
6.2 Arrangement of propulsion machinery..............................................115
7 Vibrations........................................................................................ 115
7.1 Torsional vibrations....................................................................... 115
8 Installation inspections................................................................... 116
8.1 General........................................................................................ 116
9 Shipboard testing............................................................................ 116
9.1 General........................................................................................ 116
9.2 Auxiliary turbines.......................................................................... 116
9.3 Propulsion turbines........................................................................116
Changes historic.............................................................................................. 117

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Page 7

Part 4 Chapter 3 Contents

6.5 Type testing program.................................................................... 100

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The requirements in this section apply to all reciprocating internal combustion engines installed on DNV
GL classed ships.
Reciprocating internal combustion engine used for main functions listed in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.1 Table 2 or
emergency duty are subject to approval, certification, installation survey and shipboard testing according to
these rules.
1.1.2
"Reciprocating internal combustion engine" in this section is referred to as "engine"
1.1.3 For the purpose of these requirements, engines are:
diesel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil
dual-fuel engines, fuelled with liquid fuel oil and/or with gaseous fuel
gas-only engines, fuelled with gaseous fuel only and ignited by either a spark or micropilot of liquid fuel oil
1.1.4
Depending on engine speed, engines are divided into:
Low-Speed Engines means engines having a rated speed of less than 300 rpm
Medium-Speed Engines means engines having a rated speed of 300 rpm and above, but less than 1400
rpm
High-Speed Engines means engines having a rated speed of 1400 rpm or above
1.1.5 Definition of engine type
The type specification of an engine is defined by the following data:

manufacturer's type designation


cylinder bore
stroke
method of injection (direct, indirect)
valve and injection operation (by cams or electronically controlled)
fuels which can be used (liquid, dual-fuel, gaseous)
working cycle (4-stroke, 2-stroke)
method of gas exchange (naturally aspirated or supercharged)
rated power per cylinder at rated speed as well as mean effective pressure, see [2.1.8]
method of pressure charging (pulsating pressure system or constant-pressure charging system)
charge air cooling system (with or without intercooler, number of stages)
cylinder arrangement (in-line, vee).

1.1.6 Diesel engines used for main function or emergency duty with power less than 100 kW, the
requirements in this section are limited to the below listed items :
1)
2)
3)
4)

insulation of hot surfaces, see [2.6]


jacketing of high-pressure fuel oil lines, see [2.8.7]
screening of pipe connections in piping containing flammable liquids, see [2.6] and [2.8]
requirements for starting equipment if applicable, see [2.11.3] and [2.11.4]

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Page 8

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

SECTION 1 RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

8)
9)

requirements for type testing as given in [2.14.2]


requirements for workshop testing as given in [4.1.6]
requirements for control and monitoring according to [5.6], except for emergency fire-extinguishing sets,
shut down due to low lubricating oil pressure according to Table 9 to be provided.
requirements for shipboard testing as given in [9]
certification required according to [1.1.15]

For dual-fuel and gas-only engines additional requirements in [10] applies.


1.1.7 Engines used neither for main functions nor emergency duty
Diesel engines used neither for main functions nor emergency duty, the requirements in this section are
limited to [1.1.6] 1), 2) & 3) and 9).
Compliance shall be demonstrated during shipboard testing.
For dual-fuel and gas-only engines additional requirements in [10] applies.
Guidance note:
These engines can be type approved based on the same document requirements as applicable for diesel engines used for main
functions.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.1.8 Engines driving generators in electric propulsion systems shall be equipped with sensors and monitored
as propulsion engines (Table 9) and with safety actions according to Table 10.
1.1.9 Type Testing
Engines shall be Type Tested according to requirements stated in this section.
For more information regarding the Society's Type Approval scheme, see DNVGL-CG-0338.
1.1.10 For diesel engines intended for other purposes than those listed in [1.1.1], only the requirements
given by IMO, referred to as the two first bullets in [1.1.6] have to be fulfilled.
1.1.11 In case of engines intended for vessels approved for unmanned machinery installations (Class
Notation E0), Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.2 applies in addition to the requirements in this section.
1.1.12 For all engine installations intended for running on crude oil or gas, additional requirements are given
in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5 and Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.6.
1.1.13 Regarding the use of marine fuels with a sulphur content not exceeding 0.1 % m/m and minimum
viscosity of 2 cSt the engine manufacturers recommendations with respect to e.g. fuel change-over process,
lubricity, viscosity and compatibility shall be described in the operation manual.
1.1.14 The rules in [2] to [5] apply to the engine, its components and its internal systems. The rules in [6]
to [9] apply to the installation of the engine, the engine and its system dynamics, which are influenced by
the engine, and the shipboard testing.
1.1.15 Certification requirements
Engines shall be delivered with a product certificate according to Table 1.
Table 1 Certification required
Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Diesel
Engine

PC

Society

Additional description

Engines used for main function or emergency duty

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Page 9

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

5)
6)
7)

Certificate
type

Issued by

Diesel
Engine

TA

Society

(PC)

(Society)

Additional description

Engines used for main function or emergency duty


(Equipment not having valid type approval certificate may be accepted
on the basis of a DNV GL product certificate)

Diesel
Engine

TA

Society

(PC)

(Manufacturer)

Engines used for main function or emergency duty


(Equipment not having valid type approval certificate may be accepted
on the basis of a product certificate issued by the manufacturer)

Diesel
Engine

TA

Society

All engines not used for main function nor emergency

(PC)

(Manufacturer)

(Equipment not having valid type approval certificate may be accepted


on the basis of a product certificate issued by the manufacturer)

Gas fuelled
Engine

PC

Society

All

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society's Rules


Certification standard is the DNV GL rules.
PC or MC issued by the Society (based on the DNV GL rules) = VL certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
PC or MC issued by the Manufacturer (based on the DNV GL rules) = Works certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)

For general certification requirements see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


For a definition of the certification types see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
1.1.16 Engines manufactured under license
For engines manufactured under licence, the licensee shall submit the following documents for approval:
comparison of all the drawings and documents as per Table 2 - Table 5, where applicable, indicating the
relevant drawings used by the licensee and the licensor
all drawings of modified components, as per Table 2 - Table 5 together with the licensor's declaration of
consent to the modifications
a complete set of approved drawings or list of approved drawing shall be put at the disposal of the local
inspection office of the Society as a basis for the performance of tests and inspections. This shall include
the drawings marked "P" in the Info column in Table 2.
1.1.17 Engines manufactured under Manufacturing Survey Arrangement
Trunk engines which will be manufactured in mass or in series, can be produced according to agreed
Manufacturing Survey Arrangement (MSA). More information can be found in DNV GL Class guideline DNVGLCG-C-0483.
1.1.17.1 Document requirements for Engines manufactured under MSA
Engine types that shall be produced according to a MSA, must be documented with DNVGL data sheet
ENG921 in addition to the requirements in these rules.

1.2 Documentation of the engine


1.2.1 General
Drawings, data, specifications, calculations and other information shall be submitted as applicable according
to Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4, except for items covered by a valid type approval.

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Page 10

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Object

1.2.2 Design modifications


Following initial approval of an engine type by the Society, only those documents listed in Table 2 to Table 4
which embodies design modifications shall be resubmitted for approval.
1.2.3 Approval of engine components
The manufacturers shall request approval from the Society for exhaust gas turbochargers, torsional vibration
dampers, crankcase relief valves etc, see [11] for more information. For oil mist detectors see [5.7].
Table 2 Documentation of engine fuelled by liquid fuel oil
No. Additional description

Documentation type

Info

01

Engine particulars, Society forms ENG 901, ENG 911 and ENG
921

Z110 Data sheet

FI

02

Engine cross section

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

03

Engine longitudinal section

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

C020 - Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

04

Bedplate and crankcase/engine block


- cast
- welded design, with welding details and welding instructions

TA
TA)

C030 - Detailed drawing

FI

C020 - Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

C020 - Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

C030 Detailed drawing

FI

Cylinder cover/ head , assembly

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

Cylinder cover/head

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

Thrust bearing assembly

06

Thrust bearing bedplate


-cast

2)

2)

- welded design, with welding details and welding instructions


Frame/framebox/cylinder jacket/ block/gearbox
- cast
- welded design, with welding details and instructions

1) 3)

Tie rod
4)

09

TA)

AP

05

08

TA)

C030 - Detailed drawing

1)

07

TA)

4)

TA)

TA)
TA)

TA)
TA)

TA)
TA)
P)

TA)

10

Cylinder liner

C030 Detailed drawing

FI

11

Crankshaft details, each cylinder number [2.5]


- data sheet for calculation of crankshaft stress

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

Z110 - Datasheet

FI

12

Crankshaft assembly for each number of cylinders [2.5]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

13

Thrust shaft or intermediate shaft, if integrated in the engine

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

14

Shaft coupling bolts [2.5]

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

15

Counter weight (if not integral with crankshaft)


4)
- including fastening

C030 Detailed drawing


C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

16

Connecting rod

C030 Detailed drawing

FI

17

Connecting rod, assembly

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

4)
4) 5)

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TA)

TA)
TA)
TA)
TA)

TA)
TA)

FI

TA)
TA)

Page 11

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Documentation listed in Table 2 - Table 4 marked with a "P" in the info field , are additional documentation
required to be submitted if production applies for the facility.

5)

Documentation type

Info

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing


C030 Detailed drawing

FI
P
AP

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing


C030 Detailed drawing

FI
P
AP

TA)

18

Crossheads, assembly
- Crosshead

19

Piston rod assembly


- Piston rod

20

Piston, assembly
- piston crown/head

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing


C030 Detailed drawing

FI
P
AP

21

Camshaft arrangement and high pressure pump drive,


4) 5)
assembly

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

22

Material data for engine main parts with information on non6)


destructive material tests and pressure tests [2.2]

M010 - Material specification, metals

AP

23

Arrangement of foundation (for main engines only) [1.4]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

24

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of the starting


7)
air system [1.3.2], [2.11]

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

25

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of the fuel oil


7)
system [1.3.2], [2.8]

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

26

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of the


7)
Lubrication oil system
[1.3.2],[2.12]

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

27

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of the Cooling


7)
water system
[1.3.2],[2.13]

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

28

Schematic diagram of engine control and safety system,


including list of set points of required alarms and shutdowns
[5]

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

29

Schematic diagram of engine electronic components, systems


and FMEA, including list of set points of required alarms and
8)
shutdowns
[5]

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

30

Shielding and insulation of the exhaust system [2.6.1]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

31

Shielding of high pressure parts containing flammable liquids,


assembly [2.8.7]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

32

Crankcase explosion relief valves, arrangement an


9)
details [1.3.1], [2.3]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

33

Operation manual
and Maintenance manual

Z163 Maintenance manual


Z161 Operation manual

FI
TA)
FI

34

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of hydraulic


7)
system on the engine [1.3.5], [2.7]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

Z252 - Test procedure at manufacturer


Z262 - Report from test at manufacturer

AP
TA)
AP

5)

4) 5)

8)

10)

35

10)

Type Approval Test program and


Type Approval report
[2.14] to [2.16]

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TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

Page 12

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

No. Additional description

Documentation type

Info

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

- Control valves

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

- bodies

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

- accumulators for hydraulic oil and fuel oil

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

- piping with connections

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

37

Arrangement of oil mist detection and/or alternative alarm


12)
arrangements, monitoring and alarm system
[5.7]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

38

Schematic layout or other equivalent documents of Exhaust and


7)
charge air system [1.3.2], [2.10]

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

39

Documentation of vibration, mass elastic data and excitation


values [1.5], Ch.2 Sec.2

C040 Design analysis

FI

40

Flywheel

C020 - Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

41

Construction and arrangement of torsional vibration dampers

C020 - Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

- for main bearings

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

- for cylinder heads and exhaust valve (two stroke design)

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

- for connecting rods

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

High pressure parts for fuel oil injection system


- High-pressure pumps
36

11)
TA)
TA)
TA)
TA)
TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)

TA)
TA)

Bolt and studs


42

P)
P)
P)

Table 3 Additional documentation for gas fuelled engines, see [10].


No. Additional description

Documentation type

Info

43

Functional description of gas fuelled engine

Z060 Functional description

FI

44

Engine safety concept, including system FMEA with regard to


gas as fuel

Z071 - Failure mode and effect analysis


(FMEA)

FI

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

TA)

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

TA)

Fuel gas system including double wall piping and ventilation


8)
system [10.2.9]
7)

45

- Schematic layout of fuel gas system

- Schematic layout of ventilation system

7)

- Fuel gas system


- Fuel gas piping and flange design

TA)

TA)

TA)

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

TA)

Z265 Calculation report

AP

TA)

C020 Assembly or arrangement drawing

AP

TA)

Z265 Calculation report

AP

TA)

S015 - Piping system schematic layout

AP

TA)

Charge air system[10.2.6]:


46

- Documentation of sufficient strength if relief valve is not


installed arrangement
- Relief valve arrangement if installed
Engine exhaust gas system:

47

- Documentation of sufficient strength if relief valve is not


installed arrangement [10.2.6]
- Relief valve arrangement if installed [10.2.6]

TA)

48

Testing procedure for gas detection system [10.4]

Z252 - Test procedure at manufacturer

FI

49

Testing procedure for gas tightness [10.4]

Z252 - Test procedure at manufacturer

FI

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TA)

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

No. Additional description

Object

Additional description

Documentation type
13)

Turbocharger

Info
TA)

[11.1]

AP

Torsional vibration
damper

[11.2]

AP

Axial vibration damper

[11.3]

FI

Engine

TA)

TA)

Alarm and monitoring, see [5]

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

Safety System, see [5]

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

Speed control / governor /


combustion, see [5]

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

Gas Valve Unit (GVU), see Pt.6


Ch.2 Sec.5

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

AP

Table 5 Remarks to Table 2 - 4


TA = Covered by Type approval
AP = For approval
FI = for information
P = Required if engine production applies
1)

the welding procedure specification shall include details of pre and post weld heat treatment, welding consumables
and fit-up conditions

2)

If integrated with engine and not in the bedplate

3)

Only for one cylinder

4)

Applies to engines with cylinder diameter > 150 mm

5)

Only necessary if sufficient details are not shown on the transverse cross section and longitudinal section

6)

For comparison with the Society requirements for material, NDT and pressure testing as applicable

7)

Integrated in engine design and the auxiliary system

8)

If engines incorporate electronic control systems a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) shall be submitted
to demonstrate that failure of an electronic control system shall not result in any significant reduction of engine
performance

9)

Only for engines with bore 200 mm, or a crankcase volume 0.6 m

10) Operation and service manuals shall contain maintenance requirements (servicing and repair) including details of
any special tools and gauges that shall be used with their fitting/settings together with any test requirements on
completion of maintenance
11) The documentation has to contain specifications of pressures, pipe dimensions and materials
12) only for engines with bore > 300 mm, or a total engine break power of 2250 kW
13) Shall be type approved, either as a separate component or as an integral part of the diesel engine. Not applicable to
turbochargers serving cylinder groups with combined power less than or equal to 1000 kW

1.2.4 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2
1.2.5 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.2.6 For details about NDT specification, see Ch.2 Sec.1 [3.1.2]

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Table 4 Additional documentation for auxiliary equipment and components

1.3.1 Crankcase relief valve arrangement


The documentation of crankcase relief valve arrangement shall indicate

make and type of valves


the number of valves
their position
the free area of the relief valves
the crankcase volume.

1.3.2 Starting and charge air, Fuel-, lubrication-, hydraulic- and cooling water systems
The schematic drawing of the charge air, fuel oil, lubrication oil, cooling water and hydraulic oil systems only
need to show design pressures and required pumps/blowers, valves, filters and sensors. For starting air
system the safety devices shall be shown, if applicable.
1.3.3 Turbochargers
Turbochargers are usually type approved separately, but may also be approved as part of the engine. Same
document requirements apply. See [11.1] for requirements regarding documentation, design and testing.
1.3.4 Electronic components and systems
Electronic components and systems which are necessary for the control of engines shall be approved
according to [5] and Ch.9.
1.3.5 Electronic engine management system is a collective term for electronic systems governing fuel oil
injection, exhaust valve operation, operation of high pressure fuel oil injection pumps etc.
The documentation required per Table 2 and Table 3 shall provide a principal description of the system(s) as
well as reference to valid type approval certificates for the associated software and hardware.
In case of a failure of an electronic control system, the equipment shall enter a safe state defined and
proven by a structured analysis (e.g. FMEA), which has to be provided by the Electronic engine management
system's manufacturer. This analysis shall include all possible failure modes and effects.

1.4 Documentation of arrangement


The following plans and particulars shall be in accordance with the engine designer/manufacturer's
specifications and be submitted by the builder for approval:
1)
2)

Foundation/Seating arrangement , see Ch.2 Sec.1 [6] .


Top stay arrangement, if applicable, including reaction forces. See Ch.2 Sec.1 [6].

Resilient mounts used under engines, to be type approved by the society, see [CP-0144]

1.5 Documentation of vibration


Mass elastic data and table of excitations shall be included in the documentation as information, either as an
appendix to the datasheet, a separate document or as an example of a torsional vibration calculation. Also
see Ch.2 Sec.2.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

1.3 Drawing particulars

2.1 General
2.1.1 Rated power
Engines shall be designed such that their rated power when running at rated speed can be delivered as a
continuous power. This shall be done in accordance with the specifications of the engine manufacturer at
ambient conditions as defined in Ch.1 Sec.3 [2.2]. Engines shall be capable of operating continuously within
power range

in Figure 1 and intermittently in power range

. The extent of the power ranges shall be

specified by the engine manufacturer.


2.1.2 Maximum continuous power shall be understood as the standard service power which an engine is
capable of delivering continuously, provided that the maintenance is carried out as stated by the engine
manufacturer.
2.1.3 The maximum continuous power shall be specified in such a way that an overload power of 110 % of
the rated power can be achieved. Deviations from the overload power value require the agreement of the
Society.
2.1.4 Subject to the approval of the Society, engines for special vessels and special applications may be
designed for a continuous power (fuel stop power) which cannot be exceeded.
2.1.5 For main engines, a power diagram, Figure 1 shall be prepared showing the power ranges within which
the engine is able to operate continuously and for short periods under service conditions.

Figure 1 Example of a power diagram

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2 Design

2.1.7 Power increase within 10 %


If the combustion pressure, mean effective pressure and/or rpm of a type tested and operationally proven
engine is increased by less than 10 %, a new type test may not be required provided that evidence of
successful service experience in similar applications or internal testing are submitted. Approval of the power
increase includes review of the relevant drawings.
2.1.8 Power increase above 10 %
If the rated power (continuous power) of a type tested and operationally proven engine is increased by
more than 10 %, a new type test is required. Approval of the power increase includes review of the relevant
drawings.
2.1.9 De-rated engine used to document higher power within 10 %
If an engine has been design approved, and internal testing per Stage A is documented to a rating higher
than the one type tested, the Type Approval may be extended to the increased power/mep/rpm upon
submission of an Extended Delivery Test Report including:
Test at over speed (only if nominal speed has increased)
Rated power, i.e. 100 % output at 100 % torque and 100 % speed corresponding to load point 1, two
measurements with one running hour in between
Maximum permissible torque (normally 110 %) at 100% speed corresponding to load point 3 or maximum
permissible power (normally 110 %) and speed according to nominal propeller curve corresponding to
load point 3a, for at least 30 min
100 % power at maximum permissible speed corresponding to load point 2, for at least 30 min

2.2 Approved materials


2.2.1 The mechanical characteristics of materials used for the components of engines shall conform to Pt.2
Ch.2.
The materials approved for the various components are shown in Table 6 together with the minimum
required characteristics.
Table 6 Approved materials
Approved materials
2

Forged steel Rm 360 N/mm

Society's
rules

Components

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 [4]

Crankshafts

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 [3]

Connecting rods
Pistons rods
Crossheads
Pistons and piston crowns
Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels

Rolled or forged steel rounds Rm 360 N/mm

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 [9]

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Tie rods
Bolts and studs

Page 17

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.1.6 Power increase within 5 %


If the combustion pressure, mean effective pressure and/or rpm of a type tested and operationally proven
engine is increased by less than 5 %, a new type test is not required. Approval of the power increase
includes review of the relevant drawings.

Special grade cast steel Rm 440 N/mm and

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.8 [3]

Special grade forged steel Rm 440 N/mm

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 [4]

Components

Throws and webs of built-up crankshafts


Bearing transverse girders (viewable)

Cast steel

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.8 [3]

Pistons and piston crowns


Cylinder covers/heads
Camshaft drive wheels
Engine blocks
Bedplates

Nodular cast iron, preferably ferritic grades Rm


2
350 N/mm

Cylinder blocks
Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.9 [2]

Pistons and piston crowns


Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels
Valve bodies
Engine blocks
Bedplates

Lamellar / grey cast iron Rm 200 N/mm

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.9 [3]

Cylinder blocks
Cylinder liners
Cylinder covers/heads
Flywheels

Structural steel, all the Societys steel grades for


plate thickness 35 mm
Structural steel, the Societys steel grades VLB for
plate thickness > 35 mm
Structural steel, unalloyed, for welded assemblies

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.2 [3],


Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.2 [4]

Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.2 [3]

Welded cylinder blocks


Welded bedplates
Welded frames
Welded housings

2.2.2 Materials with properties deviating from the requirements specified may be used only with the
Societys explicit permission. The Society requires proof of the suitability of such materials.

2.3 Safety valves and crankcase ventilation


2.3.1 Crankcase safety relief valves
Crankcase safety relief valves to safeguard against overpressure in the crankcase shall be fitted to all engines
3
with a cylinder bore of 200 mm or a crankcase volume of 0.6 m .
All separated spaces within the crankcase, e.g. gear or chain casings for camshafts or similar drives, shall be
3
equipped with additional safety devices if the volume of these spaces exceeds 0.6 m .
Table 7 Crankcase safety relief valves
Cylinder diameter D (mm)/
3
Crankcase volume V (m )

Number of
crank-throws

Number of safety relief valves

200 D 250 or V > 0.6

One at each end of the engine

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Society's
rules

Approved materials

200 D 250

Number of
crank-throws
>8

Number of safety relief valves


As above plus one near the middle of the engine

250 < D 300

One in way of each alternate crank-throw, minimum 2

D > 300

One in way of each crank-throw

2.3.2 Relief valves


Crankcase safety relief valves shall be approved according to [11.4].
2

2.3.3 The free area of each crankcase safety relief valve shall not be less than 45 cm . The combined free
2
3
area of the valves fitted on an engine shall not be less than 115 cm /m of the crankcase gross volume.
Guidance note 1:
Each one of the crankcase safety relief valves required to be fitted, may be replaced by not more than two crankcase safety relief
2

valves of smaller area, provided that the free area of each valve is not less than 45 cm .
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 2:
The total volume of stationary parts within the crankcase may be discounted in estimating the crankcase gross volume (rotating
and reciprocating components should be included in the gross volume).
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--Guidance note 3:
2

A space communicating with the crankcase via a total free cross-sectional area of > 115 cm /m of volume need not be considered
as a separate space.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.3.4 Safety devices shall be provided with a manufacturers installation and maintenance manual that is
pertinent to the size and type of device as well as on the installation on the engine. A copy of this manual
shall be kept on board of the ship.
2.3.5 Crankcase airing and venting
The airing of crankcases and any arrangement which could produce air intake within the crankcase is in
principle not allowed.
Where crankcase venting systems are provided, their clear opening shall be dimensioned as small as
practically possible.
Where provision has been made for forced extracting of lubrication oil mist, e.g. for monitoring the oil mist
concentration, the vacuum in the crankcase shall not exceed 2.5 mbar.
In case of two-stroke engines the lubrication oil mist from the crankcase shall not be admitted into the
scavenge manifolds respectively the air intake pipes of the engine.
2.3.6 Warning notice
A signboard shall be fitted either on the control stand or, preferably, on a crankcase door on each side of
the engine. It shall specify that the crankcase doors or sight holes, in case of detected oil mist, shall not be
opened before a reasonable time has passed. The time shall be sufficient to permit adequate cooling after
stopping the engine.
2.3.7 Crankcase doors and sight holes
Crankcase doors and their fittings shall be so dimensioned as not to suffer permanent deformation due to the
overpressure occurring during the time needed for the safety equipment to respond.
2.3.8 Crankcase doors and hinged inspection ports shall be equipped with appropriate latches to effectively
prevent unintended closing.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Cylinder diameter D (mm)/


3
Crankcase volume V (m )

2.4.1 Engines shall be equipped with suitable and adequately dimensioned turning appliances.
2.4.2 The turning appliances shall be of the self-locking type.
2.4.3 An automatic interlocking device shall be provided to ensure that the engines cannot start up while the
turning gear is engaged.

2.5 Crankshaft calculation


2.5.1 Design methods
Crankshafts shall be designed to withstand the stresses occurring when the engine runs at rated power and
speed. Calculations shall be based on the Class Guideline DNVGL-CG-0037.
Other methods of calculation may be used provided that they do not result in dimensions smaller than those
obtained by applying the aforementioned Class Guideline.
2.5.2 Maximum nominal altering torsional stress
The maker of the engine shall apply for approval of a maximal additional (vibratory) shear stress, which is
referred to the crank with the highest load due to mean torque and bending forces.
This approved additional shear stress may be applied for first evaluation of the calculated vibratory stresses
2
in the crankshaft via the torsional vibration model. Common values are between 30 and 70 N/mm for
2
medium and high speed engines and between 25 and 40 N/mm for two stroke engines, but special
confirmation of the value considered for judgement by the Society is necessary. For further details, see Ch.2
Sec.2.
2.5.3 When the approved limit for the vibratory stresses for the crankshaft of the engine as defined
under [2.5.2] is exceeded, special considerations may be applied to define a higher limit for the special
investigated case. For this detailed system calculations (combined axial / torsional model) and application of
the actual calculated data within the model in accordance to the Class Guideline DNVGL-CG-0037, as quoted
under [2.5.1] are necessary. Such special considerations, especially the application of combined axial and
torsional vibration calculations, may only be considered for direct coupled two stroke engine plants. For such
evaluations the acceptability factor in accordance to [2.5.2] shall in no case be less than 1.15 over the whole
speed range.
2.5.4 Class Guideline DNVGL-CG-0037 also contains requirements for safety versus slippage of semi-built
crankshafts. (Fully built crankshafts shall be considered on basis of equivalence with these requirements.)
The required minimum safety factor against slippage is 2.0. This is valid for the highest peak torque in the
crankshaft and also taking the shrink fitting procedure into account. The maximum shrinkage amount is
limited by the permissible amount of plastification of the web and journal materials.
2.5.5 Split crankshafts
Only fitted bolts shall be used for assembling split crankshafts.
2.5.6 Power-end flange couplings
The bolts used to connect power-end flange couplings shall be designed as fitted bolts in accordance with
Ch.4 Sec.1 [1.2.3].
If the use of fitted bolts is not feasible, the Society may agree to the use of an equivalent frictional resistance
transmission. In these cases the corresponding calculations shall be submitted for approval.
2.5.7 Impact torqued due to operation in ice
For direct coupled propulsion engines (i.e. no elastic coupling) in ships with class notation ICE, the
crankshaft and the crankshaft bolts shall be designed for the ice impact torques. The procedure for

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.4 Turning appliances and interlocking device

2.5.8 Torsional vibration, critical speeds


See Ch.2 Sec.2 [2].
2.5.9 Torsional vibration dampers
For torsional vibration dampers the following requirements apply, see [11.2]:
sub-contracted dampers of standard design (including design concept) shall be type approved.
dampers of tailor made (unique) design may be case by case approved.
dampers produced by the engine manufacturer shall be type approved either as a separate product or as
a part of the engine.

2.6 Fire protection and general requirements to piping systems fitted on the
engine
2.6.1 Maximum surface temperature
All exposed surfaces shall be kept below the maximum permissible temperature of 220C.
Surfaces that reach higher temperatures shall be insulated with material having non oil-absorbing surface, or
equivalently protected so that flammable fluids spray reaching the surface cannot be ignited.
Guidance note:
Insulation by use of detachable lagging wrapped around hot exhaust manifold is an example of means where inadequate
workmanship (during e.g. maintenance work onboard by crew) should expose hot spots. Water cooled exhaust manifold is on the
other hand typically a mean of insulating, which may not be affected by workmanship, all depending on the design,(e.g. areas in
way of flanged connections where the water is not sufficiently cooling the metal).
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.6.2 Screening
All pipe connections in piping containing flammable liquids with pressure above 1.8 bar shall be screened
or otherwise suitably protected to prevent as far as practicable oil spray or oil leakage onto potentially hot
surfaces.
Potentially hot surfaces are those surfaces which when left uninsulated may reach a temperature of >220C
and for which workmanship affects the efficiency of the insulation.
Any means applied to protect pipe connections as required per [2.6.2] should not deteriorate when
dismantled and re-assembled (during e.g. maintenance work). Proper re-assembly shall be possible without
the need of spare parts.
2.6.3 Flexible hoses and compensators
Use of flexible hoses and compensators in fuel oil, fuel gas, lubrication oil and hydraulic oil systems is only
permitted where necessary in order to allow for relative movements.
Flexible hoses with couplings (see Ch.6 Sec.9 [4]) and bellows (see Ch.6 Sec.9 [5.3]) shall be type approved.
Exempted are bellows used in the exhaust line installed on the engine before the turbocharger .

2.7 Hydraulic oil system


2.7.1 [2.6] applies.
2.7.2 Double piping or shielding including both end connections is required for high pressure hydraulic
systems on engines.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

calculation of the applicable impact torque is given in the Rules for Classification of Ships Pt.5 Ch.1. The
applicable impact torque is additional to the engine vibration torque and is of special importance for the
safety against slippage.

2.8.1 [2.6] applies.


2.8.2 General
Only pipe connections with metal sealing surfaces or equivalent pipe connections of approved design may be
used for fuel injection lines.
2.8.3 Feed and return lines shall be designed in such a way that no unacceptable pressure surges occur in
the fuel supply system. Where necessary, the engines shall be fitted with surge dampers approved by the
Society.
2.8.4 All components of the fuel system shall be designed to withstand the maximum peak pressures which
may occur in the system.
2.8.5 If fuel oil reservoirs or dampers with a limited life cycle are fitted in the fuel oil system the life cycle
together with overhaul instructions shall be specified by the engine manufacturer in the operation and
maintenance manuals.
2.8.6 Oil fuel lines shall not be located immediately above or near units which have high temperature, steam
pipelines, exhaust manifolds, silencers or other equipment required to be insulated. The number of joints in
such piping systems shall be kept to a minimum.
2.8.7 Shielding
All external high pressure fuel injection lines between injection pumps and injection valves shall be shielded
by jacket pipes in such a way that any leaking fuel is:
safely collected
drained away unpressurized and
alarm upon leakage.
The high pressure fuel pipe and the outer jacket pipe shall be of permanent assembly.
2.8.8 Fuel leak drainage
Appropriate design measures shall be introduced to ensure that leaking fuel is drained efficiently and cannot
enter into the engine lubrication oil system.
2.8.9 Heating, thermal insulation, re-circulation
Fuel lines, including fuel injection lines, to engines which are operated with preheated fuel shall be insulated
against heat losses and, when necessary, provided with heating.
Means of fuel re-circulation shall be provided.
2.8.10 Filters
Fuel oil filters mounted directly on the engine shall not be located above rotating parts or in the immediate
proximity of hot components.
2.8.11 Where the arrangement stated in [2.8.10] is not feasible, the rotating parts and the hot components
shall be shielded.
2.8.12 Filters shall be so arranged that fluid residues can be collected by adequate means, e.g. an oil pan.
The same applies to lubrication oil filters if oil can escape when the filter is opened.
2.8.13 Change-over filters with two or more chambers shall be equipped with means enabling a safe
pressure release before opening and a proper venting before re-starting of any chamber. Shut-off devices
shall be used. It shall be clearly visible, which chamber is in and which is out of operation.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.8 Fuel oil system

venting when put into operation


depressurizing before being opened.
Valves or cocks with drain pipes led to a safe location shall be used for this purpose.

2.9 Fuel gas system


2.9.1 [10.2.9] applies.

2.10 Charge air system, blowers and cooler


2.10.1 General
Means shall be provided for regulating the temperature of the charge air within the temperature range
specified by the engine manufacturer.
2.10.2 The charge air lines of engines with charge air coolers shall be provided with sufficient means of
drainage.
2.10.3 Safety devices in scavenging air ducts
In 2-stroke engines, charge air spaces in open connection to the cylinders shall be fitted with:
safety valves which shall open quickly in case of an overpressure
a connection to an approved fire-extinguishing system that is entirely separate from the fire-extinguishing
system of the engine room.
2.10.4 Exhaust gas turbochargers
The documentation, construction and testing of exhaust gas turbochargers are covered by [11.1].
2.10.5 Exhaust gas turbochargers shall exhibit no critical speed ranges over the entire operating range of
the engine.
2.10.6 The lubrication oil supply shall be ensured during start-up and run-down of the exhaust gas
turbochargers.
2.10.7 Even at low engine speeds, main engines shall be supplied with charge air in a manner that ensures
reliable operation.
2.10.8 Emergency operation of single propulsion engines shall be possible in the event of a turbocharger
failure.
2.10.9 Auxiliary blowers
All single propulsion 2-stroke engines shall be fitted with at least two auxiliary blowers where necessary.
2.10.10 For single propulsion 2-stroke engines with only one turbocharger, intended for driving a fixed
pitch propeller, the auxiliary blowers shall have a capacity sufficient to operate the engine continuously at an
engine speed of approximately 40 % of the rated speed along the theoretical propeller curve.
2.10.11 The engine speed at which the auxiliary blowers are started and stopped shall be selected taking
into account the necessity of passing quickly through a barred speed range, see Ch.2 Sec.2 [3.1].

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.8.14 Oil filters fitted in parallel for the purpose of enabling cleaning without disturbing supply of filtered oil
to engines (e.g. duplex filters) shall be provided with arrangements that shall minimize the possibility of a
filter under pressure being opened by mistake. Filters/ filter chambers shall be provided with suitable means
for:

2.11.1 General
For requirements related to starting arrangement, see Pt.4 Ch.6 for starting air piping systems and Ch.8 for
electrical starting arrangement.
2.11.2 Starting equipment for emergency generating sets
Requirements for starting arrangements for emergency generating sets are given in Ch.8 Sec.2.
2.11.3 Start-up of emergency fire-extinguisher sets
[2.11.4] applies.
Engines driving emergency fire pumps shall be so designed that they can be started by hand at a
temperature of 0C.
If the engine can be started only at higher temperatures, or where there is a possibility that lower
temperatures may occur, heating equipment shall be fitted to ensure reliable starting.
2.11.4 If manual start-up using a hand crank is not possible, the emergency fire-pump shall be fitted with a
starting device approved by the Society which enables at least 6 starts to be performed within 30 minutes,
two of these being carried out within the first 10 minutes.
2.11.5 Safety devices in the starting air system
In order to protect the starting air system against explosion arising from improper functioning of the starting
valve, the following devices shall be fitted:

an isolation non-return valve or equivalent at the starting air supply connection to each engine
a bursting disc or flame arrester:
in way of the starting valve of each cylinder for direct reversing engines having a main starting manifold
at the supply inlet to the starting air manifold for non-reversing engines.

The bursting discs or flame arresters may be omitted for engines having a bore not exceeding 230 mm.

2.12 Lubrication oil system


[2.6] applies. For requirements related to lubrication oil arrangement, see [6.7].
2.12.1 Engine sumps serving as oil reservoirs shall be so equipped that the oil level can be monitored, and if
necessary, topped up during operation. Means shall be provided for completely draining the oil sump.
2.12.2 Main lubrication oil pumps driven by the engine shall be designed to maintain the supply of
lubrication oil over the entire operating range.
2.12.3 Lubrication oil systems for cylinder lubrication which are necessary for the operation of the engine
and which are equipped with electronic dosing units shall be approved by the Society.
2.12.4 Filters
Lubrication oil filters mounted directly on the engine shall not be located above rotating parts or in the
immediate proximity of hot components.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.11 Starting equipment

2.13.1 [2.6] applies as found relevant.


2.13.2 General
Main cooling water pumps driven by the engine shall be designed to maintain the supply of cooling water
over the entire operating range.

2.14 Type approval testing


2.14.1 General
Upon finalisation of every new type of engine, one engine shall be presented for type testing.
Type testing of an in-line engine may not cover the V-engine. However, a V-engine test will cover the inline
engine.
The type testing shall preferably be made with the type of fuel oil for which the engine is intended.
However, for engines intended for running on heavy fuel oil, the verification of the engines suitability for this
type of fuel may be postponed to the sea trial.
2.14.2 Type testing of engines with less power than 100 kW
Engines with rated power less than 100 kW shall be subjected to the following type tests:
verification of compliance with requirements for jacketing of high-pressure fuel oil lines see [2.16.4.6].
screening of pipe connections in piping containing flammable liquids, see [2.16.4.6]
verification of compliance with requirements for insulation of hot surfaces, see [2.16.4.6].

2.15 Type testing data collection


2.15.1 All relevant equipment for the safety of personnel shall be operational during the type testing.
2.15.2 Ambient conditions
The following particulars shall be recorded:

ambient air temperature


ambient air pressure
atmospheric humidity
external cooling water temperature
fuel and lubrication oil characteristics.

2.15.3 Engine data shall be measured and recorded according to the specification of the engine designer and
approved by the Society.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.13 Cooling system

2.16.1 Preconditions for type approval testing


Preconditions for test engines subjected to type approval testing are:
the engine conforms to the specific requirements for the series and has been suitably optimized for the
intended duty
the Society is informed of major inspections and measurements carried out by the manufacturer during
work tests necessary for a reliable and continuous operation
the Society has issued approved drawings based on the documents to be submitted in accordance with
Table 2 to Table 4.
2.16.2 Scope of type approval testing
The type approval test is subdivided into three stages, namely:
Stage A - Internal tests
Functional tests and collection of operating values including test hours during the internal tests. The result
shall be made available to the Society during the type test.
Stage B - Type test
This test shall be performed in the presence of the surveyor.
Stage C - Component inspection
Upon completion of the tests, major components shall be presented to the Society for inspection.
The operating hours of the engine components that are presented for inspection after type testing in
accordance with [2.16.2] shall be stated.
2.16.3 Stage A - Internal tests
Functional tests and the collection of operating data shall be performed during the internal tests. The engine
shall be operated at the load points selected by the engine manufacturer and the pertaining operating values
shall be recorded. The load points shall be selected according to the range of application of the engine.
2.16.3.1 Normal operating conditions
This includes the load points 25 %, 50 %, 75%, 100 % and 110 % of the rated power
a)
b)

along the nominal (theoretical) propeller curve and/or at constant speed for propulsion engines
at rated speed with constant governor setting for generator drive.
The limit points of the permissible operating range as defined by the engine manufacturer shall be
tested.

2.16.3.2
High speed engines shall be tested for at least 100 hours at full load. High speed propulsion engines shall
carry out a low cycle fatigue test of at least 500 cycles, idle-full load-idle, using the steepest load ramp that
may apply.
2.16.4 Stage B - Type test
During the type test all the tests listed below under [2.16.4.1] to [2.16.4.5] shall be carried out in the
presence of the surveyor. The results of individual tests shall be recorded and signed by the surveyor.
Deviations from this program, if any, require the Society's agreement.
2.16.4.1 Type testing data collection
All relevant equipment for safety of personnel shall be operational during the type testing.
The following particulars shall be recorded:
ambient air temperature

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2.16 Type testing program

ambient air pressure


atmospheric humidity
external cooling water temperature
fuel and lubrication oil characteristics.

As a minimum the following engine data shall be measured and recorded

2)

engine r/min
torque
maximum combustion pressure for each cylinder
mean indicated pressure for each cylinder
lubrication oil pressure and temperature. The measurements shall cover all readings as required per Table
9 to Table 11 (reference is made to footnote 3), whichever is applicable
lubrication oil pressure and temperature at turbocharger inlet/ outlet as applicable, see Table 9
cooling water pressure and temperatures
exhaust gas temperature before and after turbine and, where required, from each cylinder. To be
measured also if installed due to manufacturers minimum sensor delivery
1)
exhaust gas pressure before turbine
r/min of turbocharger (applicable when the turbocharger is served by a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW)
charging air pressure
charging air temperature before and after cooler
jacket cooling temperature
piston cooling temperature (in case of separate cooling medium).
Guidance note:
1)

The data need not necessarily be taken from the engine that is presented for type test - stage B. Data recorded from
development engines used during type test - stage A can be accepted. The combustion data shall be recorded from a
representative number of cylinder units, e.g. 1/3 of all cylinders. These data shall be presented to the attending surveyor in
connection with type test - stage B, and included in the final type test report.

2)

Exemptions to the listed parameters may be accepted pending limitations due to accessibility of the measuring points for the
specific engine design and engine size.
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2.16.4.2 Test of safety systems


Prior to start of running the load points, the following safety precautions shall be tested:

Test of the safety system, over speed, oil mist detection and low lubricating oil pressure
Leakage test of double walled high pressure injection fuel oil lines, with alarm indication
Demonstration of proper screening of pipe connections
Test of mechanical starting interlocking device

2.16.4.3 Load points


Load points at which the engine shall be operated shall conform to the power/speed diagram in Figure 2.
The data to be measured and recorded when testing the engine at various load points shall include all the
parameters necessary for an assessment.
The operating time per load point depends on the engine size and on the time for collection of the operating
values. The measurements shall in every case only be performed after achievement of steady-state
condition.
An operating time of 0.5 hour may be assumed per load point.
At 100 % output (rated power) in accordance with [2.16.3.1] an operating time of 2 hours is required. At
least two sets of readings shall be taken at an interval of 1 hour in each case.
1)

Rated power (continuous power)

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

3)

The operation point 100 % output at maximum allowable speed corresponding to load point 2 has to be
performed.
Maximum permissible torque

4)

The maximum permissible torque results at 110 % output at 100 % speed corresponding to load point
3 or at maximum permissible power ( 110 % at a speed according to the nominal propeller curve
corresponding to load point 3a.
Minimum permissible speed for intermittent operation
The minimum permissible speed for intermittent operation has to be adjusted:
at 100 % torque corresponding to load point 4
at 90 % torque corresponding to load point 5

5)

Part-load operation
For part-load operation the operation points 75 %, 50 %, 25 % of the rated power at speeds according
to the nominal propeller curve at load points 6, 7 and 8 and proceeding from the nominal speed at
constant governor setting have to be adjusted corresponding to load points 9, 10 and 11.

Figure 2 Power/speed diagram

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2)

The rated power is defined as 100 % output at 100 % torque and 100 % speed (rated speed)
corresponding to load point 1.
100 % power

engines with one turbocharger, when rotor is blocked or removed


engines with two or more turbochargers, when the damaged turbocharger is shut off.
Engines intended for fixed pitch propeller application shall be able to run continuously at a speed (r/min) of
approximately 40 % of full engine speed along theoretical propeller curve when one turbocharger is out of
operation.
Guidance note:
The engine manufacturer should state whether the achievable output is continuous. If there is a time limit, the permissible
operating time should be indicated.
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2.16.4.5 Functional tests


Functional tests shall be carried out as follows:

ascertainment of lowest engine speed according to the nominal propeller curve


starting tests for non-reversible engines and/or starting and reversing tests for reversible engines
governor test, see [5.2.1] and [5.2.2]
test of the safety system particularly for overspeed, oil mist and failure of the lubrication oil system, etc.
test of electronic components and systems according to the test program approved by the Society
for electronically controlled engines integration tests to demonstrate that the response of the complete
mechanical, hydraulic and electronic system is as predicted for all intended operational modes. The scope
of these tests shall be proposed by the manufacturer/licensor based on the FMEA required in Table 3, and
agreed by the Society.
The functioning of water drain from the charge air system shall be demonstrated, during engine operation
2.16.4.6 Fire protection measures
Verification of compliance shall be demonstrated for jacketing of high-pressure fuel oil lines, screening of pipe
connections in piping containing flammable liquids, including alarm upon leakage of fuel oil and insulation of
hot surfaces
Insulation of hot surfaces shall be verified while running the engine at rated power.
Measurements of surface temperatures shall be done by use of infrared thermoscanning equipment or by an
equivalent measurement technique when approved by the Society. Results shall be verified by use of contact
thermometers.
2.16.5 Stage C - Component inspection
The crankshaft deflections shall be measured in the specified (by designer) condition (except for small
engines where no specification exists).
Immediately after the test run the components of one cylinder for in-line engines and two cylinders for in-V
engines shall be presented for inspection as follows:

piston, removed and dismantled


crosshead bearing, dismantled
crank bearing and main bearing, removed
cylinder liner in the installed condition
cylinder cover/ head, valves disassembled
camshaft, camshaft drive and crankcase with opened covers

For V-engines, the cylinder units shall be selected from different cylinder banks and different crank throws.
If deemed necessary by the surveyor, further dismantling of the engine may be required.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.16.4.4 Emergency operation in case of damaged turbocharger


Engines intended for single propulsion shall demonstrate the achievable output in case of turbocharger
failure :

2.16.7 Type approval certificate


After successful performance evaluation of the test and of the required documents, the Society shall issue
a Type Approval Certificate. The Type Approval Certificate is valid for a period of 5 years. Validity may be
renewed on application by the engine designer.

3 Testing and Inspection


3.1 Manufacturing inspections
3.1.1 The manufacturing of engines required to be provided with the Society Certification is subject to
supervision by the Society. The scope of supervision can be agreed upon, see DNVGL-CP-0483.

3.2 Testing of materials and components


3.2.1 For individually produced engines, the parts listed in Table 8 shall be subjected to material tests, NDT
tests and hydraulic tests as listed in Table 8.
3.2.2 Welded seams of important engine components may be required to be subject to approved methods of
testing.
3.2.3 When possible defects are revealed by any of the tests as specified in Table 8, additional nondestructive testing may be required.
3.2.4 Results from the testing and inspection as required in [3.2] shall be evaluated against the acceptance
criteria found in applicable NDT specifications as listed in Table 2.
Where the corresponding NDT specification is not listed in Table 2, test and inspection results shall fulfil the
revision of the designer's specification valid at date of testing.
3.2.5 Ancillaries not covered by Table 8 such as pumps, electric motors, coolers, piping, filters, valves, etc.
that are delivered as integral parts of the fuel oil, lubrication, hydraulic and pneumatic operation and cooling
systems on the engine, shall be checked as found relevant by the engine manufacturer.
Table 8 Certification, Testing and inspection requirements for engines its components and
systems
Object

Additional description

Certificate type

Issued by

Applicable for All Engine sizes


Alarm and
monitoring system

See [5]

PC

Society

Safety system

see [5]

PC

Society

Speed control/
governor, electrical

See [5]

PC

Society

Gas Valve unit


(GVU), control
system

See Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5

PC

Society

Welded bedplate

Component certificate

PC

Society

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

2.16.6 Type approval test report


The results of the type approval test shall be compiled in a report which shall be submitted to the Society.

Additional description

Certificate type

Issued by

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

Semi-built crankshaft Component certificate

PC

Society

Crank throw

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

Accumulators of
common rail fuel or
servo oil system with
a capacity of >0,5
l with a capacity of
>0,5 l

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

Hydraulic testing

2)

PC

Manufacturer

High pressure fuel


injection pump body

Hydraulic testing

2)

D>300mm

PC

Manufacturer

D300mm

TR

Bearing transverse
girders, cast Steel

Welded frame box

Crankshaft, made in
one piece

Forged main journal


and journals with
flange

Connecting rod with


cap

Coupling bolts for


crankshaft

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Object

Page 31

Additional description

High pressure fuel


injection valves (only
for not auto-fretted)

Hydraulic testing

High pressure fuel


injection pipes
including common
fuel rail

C+M

High pressure
common servo oil
system

C+M

2)

2)

Hydraulic testing
(only for not autofretted)

Certificate type

Issued by

D>300mm

PC

Manufacturer

D300mm

TR
MC

Manufacturer

D>300mm

Manufacturer

D300mm

TR

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

Hydraulic testing

2)

D>300mm

PC

Manufacturer

Hydraulic testing

2)

D300mm

TR

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Object

Additional requirements for engines with Cylinder bore D > 300 mm


Cylinder liner

C+M
Hydraulic testing

Cylinder head,
cast steel

2)

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Hydraulic testing

2)2)

PC

Manufacturer

Cylinder head,
nodular cast-/
lamellar cast iron

Hydraulic testing

2)

PC

Manufacturer

Cylinder head,
forged

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

NDT Report

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

UT+CD
Hydraulic testing

2)

Bolts and studs for


main bearings

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Bolts and studs for


cylinder heads

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Bolts and studs for


connecting rods

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Thread making

TR

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

Cooler, both sides

1)

C+M
Hydraulic testing

2)

Additional requirements for engines with Cylinder bore D > 400 mm

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Additional description

Certificate type

Issued by

Piston crown,
cast steel

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Society

UT+CD, CD again after final machining (grinding)

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Piston crown, forged

Piston rod, if
applicable

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Object

Additional requirements for engines with Cylinder power P > 400 kW/cyl
Engine block,
lamellar cast iron

Hydraulic testing

Engine block,
nodular cast iron

M
Hydraulic testing

2)

2)

PC

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

Additional requirements for engines with Cylinder power P > 800 kW/cyl
Piping, pumps,
actuators, etc. for
hydraulic drive of
valves, if applicable

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

Hydraulic testing

2)

PC

Manufacturer

Engine driven pumps


(oil, water, fuel,
bilge)

Hydraulic testing

2)

PC

Manufacturer

Bearings for main,


crosshead, and
crankpin

TR

Manufacturer

UT (for full contact between basic material and


bearing metal)

TR

Manufacturer

Dimensional control

PC

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

Additional requirements for Cross head engines:


2)

Cylinder block,
lammelar cast-/
nodular cast iron

Hydraulic testing

Welded cylinder
frames

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

NDT Report

Manufacturer

PC

Manufacturer

UT+CD
2)

Exhaust gas valve


cage

Hydraulic testing

Cross head

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Society

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Page 33

Tie rod

Additional description

Certificate type

Issued by

UT+CD ( CD again after final machining (grinding


and polishing)

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Component certificate

PC

Society

C+M

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT Report

Manufacturer

Thread making

TR

Manufacturer

Certification standard is the DNV GL rules.


PC or MC issued by the Society (based on the DNV GL rules) = VL certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
PC or MC issued by the Manufacturer (based on the DNV GL rules) = Works certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
M+C = Material properties include chemical composition and mechanical properties, and also surface treatment such as
surface hardening (hardness, depth and extent), peening and rolling (extent and applied force).
NDT = Non-destructive examination means e.g. ultrasonic testing, crack detection by MPI or DP.
UT=Ultrasonic testing
CD=crack detection
1)

Charge air coolers need only be tested on the water side

2)

Hydraulic testing is applied on the water or oil side of the component. Items are to be tested by hydraulic pressure
at the pressure equal to 1.5 times the maximum working pressure. High pressure parts of the fuel injection system
are to be tested by hydraulic pressure at the pressure equal to 1.5 maximum working pressure or maximum
working pressure plus 300 bar, whichever is the less. Where design or testing features may require modification of
these test requirements, special consideration may be given.

3.2.6 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


3.2.7 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

3.3 Inspection during assembly


3.3.1 For crosshead engines the report on alignment of the bedplate, the crankshaft deflection, the guides
and pistons shall be reviewed by the surveyor. The crankshaft deflections shall be reported at the different
manufacturing steps.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Object

4.1 Application
4.1.1 Engines shall be subjected to trials on the test bed at the manufacturer's works and under the
Society's supervision. The scope of these trials shall be as specified below. Exceptions to this require the
agreement of the Society.
4.1.2 All relevant equipment for safety of personnel shall be operational during the workshop testing.
4.1.3 Scope of works trials
During the trials the operating values corresponding to each load point shall be measured and recorded
by the engine manufacturer. All the results shall be compiled in a test report to be issued by the engine
manufacturer.
In each case all measurements conducted at the various load points shall be carried out under steady
operating conditions.
The readings for 100 % power (rated power at rated speed) shall be taken twice at an interval of at least 30
minutes
4.1.4 After running on the test bed, the fuel delivery system of main engines shall be so adjusted that after
installation on board overload power cannot be delivered. The limitation of the fuel delivery system shall be
secured permanently.
4.1.5 Subject to the prescribed conditions, engines driving electrical generators shall be capable of overload
operation (110 % rated power) in order to utilize 100 % of rated load in parallel operation.
4.1.6 Workshop testing of engines less than 100 kW
For engines with rated power less than 100 kW, scope of workshop tests is identical with that of type testing,
see [2.14.2].

4.2 General engine tests


4.2.1 Ambient condition
The following external shall be recorded:

ambient air temperature


ambient air pressure
atmospheric humidity
external cooling water temperature.

4.2.2 Engine performance


Engine data shall be measured and recorded according to the specification of the engine manufacturer and
approved by the Society.
Guidance note:
The operating time per load point depends on the engine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for
collection of the operating values. An operating time of 0.5 to 1 hour should be assumed per load point.
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4.2.3 Integration tests


For electronically controlled engines integration tests shall be conducted to demonstrate that the response of
the complete mechanical, hydraulic and electronic system is as predicted for all intended operational modes.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

4 Workshop testing

4.2.4 Demonstration of fire protection measures


The following fire protection measures shall be demonstrated:
jacketing of high-pressure fuel oil lines, including system for detection of leakage, see [2.8.6],
screening of pipe connections in piping containing flammable liquids, see [2.6.2].
insulation of hot surfaces shall be randomly verified with the readings obtained during type test, see
[2.6.1] while running the engine at 100 % load, alternatively at the overload approved for intermittent
use. Use of conventional contact thermometers may be accepted at discretion of the attending surveyor.
However, if there have been made revisions to the insulation interface additional enhanced measurements
to those conducted during type test may be required.

4.3 Testing of propulsion engines


4.3.1 Propulsion engines for direct propeller drive
The load tests shall be performed according to a) - c), functional tests according to d) - h).
a)

100 % power (rated power)


at 100 % engine speed (rated engine speed)

b)

for at least 60 minutes after reaching the steady state condition


110 % power
at 103 % rated engine speed
for at least 15 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition

c)

After the test bed trials the output shall be limited to the maximum continuous power (100 % power) so
that the engine cannot be overloaded in service.
At approved intermittent overload (if applicable)

d)

for at least 15 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition


90 %, 75 %, 50 % and 25 % power depending on application as follows:
The propeller curve based on the propeller law
This applies if the engine is driving a fixed pitch propeller, water jet or controllable pitch propeller with
variable r/min and pitch limited to nominal value.
Or:
The modified propeller curve
This applies if the engine is driving a controllable pitch propeller that:
is intended to use a higher pitch than the nominal when running at reduced r/min In this case, the
load point with lowest r/min at 100 % of maximum continuous rated torque shall be added
has a combinator pitch control using reduced pitch at lower speeds. In this case the pitch limitations
have to be stated on a signboard for the purpose of manual operation.
Or:
At constant speed
This applies if the engine is driving a controllable pitch propeller with constant speed or a generator for
propulsion.

e)

test of starting and reversing manoeuvres

f)

test of governor and independent overspeed protection device

g)

test of engine shutdown devices

h)

test of oil mist detection or alternative system, if available

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

The scope of these tests shall be proposed by the manufacturer/licensor based on the FMEA required in Table
2 and Table 3 and agreed by the Society.

test of mechanical starting interlocking device

Guidance note:
The 90 % power given in c), may be replaced by the project specific Normal Continues Rating (NCR).
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4.3.2 Main engines for electrical propeller drive


The load tests shall be performed according to a) - c), functional tests according to d) - h)
a)

100 % power (rated power):

b)

for at least 60 minutes after reaching the steady state condition


110 % power:
for at least 15 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition

c)

After the test bed trials the output of engines driving generators shall be so adjusted that overload
(110 %) power can be supplied in service after installation on board in such a way that the governing
characteristics and the requirements of the generator protection devices can be fulfilled at all times.
At approved intermittent overload (if applicable)

d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)

for at least 15 minutes after reaching the steady-state condition


75 %, 50 % and 25 % power and idle run
start-up tests
test of governor and independent overspeed protection device
test of engine shutdown devices
test of oil mist detection or alternative system, if available
test of mechanical starting interlocking device

4.3.3 Testing of surge margins


Propulsion engines with a turbocharger which is served by cylinder groups with combined power in excess
of 2 500 kW shall be tested with regard to surge margins. The below mentioned tests may be waived if
successfully tested earlier on an identical configuration of engine and turbocharger
For 4-stroke engines, the following test shall be performed without indication of surging:
at rated power, the speed shall be reduced with constant torque (fuel index) down to 90 % power
with 50 % power at 80 % speed (propeller characteristic for fixed pitch), the speed shall be reduced to 72
% while keeping constant torque (fuel index).
For 2-stroke engines, the surge margin shall be demonstrated by at least one of the following methods:
1)
2)

Engine working line established at the workshop testing of engine (w/turbocharger) shall be plotted
into the compressor map of the turbocharger. There shall be at least 15 % surge margin in the full load
range, i.e. working flow shall be 15 % above the theoretical flow at surge limit (at constant pressure).
Sufficient surge margin shall be demonstrated by sudden fuel cut-off to at least one cylinder. For
applications with more than one turbocharger, cut the fuel supply to the cylinder closest upstream to
each turbocharger.
This test shall be performed at two different engine loads:
The maximum power permitted for one cylinder misfiring.
The engine load corresponding to a charge air pressure of about 0.6 bar (but without auxiliary
blowers running).

3)

Sufficient surge margin shall be demonstrated by an abrupt (< 2 sec) reduction in power from MCR to 50
% of MCR.
Acceptance criteria for alternative 2) and 3):

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

i)

4.4 Testing of auxiliary driving engines and engines driving electrical


generators
4.4.1 The scope of tests shall be performed according to [4.3.2].
4.4.2 In case of engines driving electrical generators the rated electrical power as specified by the
manufacturer shall be verified as minimum power.

4.5 Survey after testing


4.5.1 All inspection covers shall be opened and the condition after trial shall be surveyed by the Society
representative.
4.5.2 The crankshaft deflections shall be measured and checked according to the manufacturers
specification. The condition of the crankshaft at the time of deflection measurements (hot or cold) shall be
noted on the record.
4.5.3 Component inspection
The extend of random checks of components to be presented for inspection after the work shop test, shall be
agreed with the Society representative.
Guidance note:
Typical components for inspection after the engine's work shop test :

camshaft drive train

cams and cam rollers

one piston to be removed for inspection of the unit.

one crosshead with bearing and guide, if applicable

one crankpin bearing

one cylinder head with valves disassembled

one main bearing

If deemed necessary by the surveyor, further dismantling of the engine may be required.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5 Control and Monitoring


5.1 General
5.1.1 The requirements in this sub-section are in addition to those given in Ch.9. For requirements related to
design of the control and monitoring system in terms of:

automatic control
remote control
safety system
when, where and how to present alarms
what kind of indication to be presented where
system operation and maintenance
power distribution

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

no continuous surging is accepted, and the turbocharger shall stabilise itself at the new load within 20
seconds.

In case of engines intended for vessels approved for unmanned machinery installations (Class Notation E0),
Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.2 and in case of gas fuelled ship installations, Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5 applies in addition to these
requirements.
5.1.2 Electronic components and systems
Electronic components and systems shall be approved and certified according to [1] and [3].
For electronic components and systems which are necessary for the control of internal combustion engines
the requirements in Sec.1 applies.
5.1.3 In the case of engine installations up to a total output of 600 kW, simplifications can be agreed with
the Society.
Guidance note:
Control and monitoring according to Table 11, is acceptable, but shut down due to low lube oil pressure according to Table 9 to be
provided.
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5.2 Speed governing


5.2.1 Main and auxiliary engines
Each engine not used to drive an electrical generator shall be equipped with a speed governor or regulator
adjusted such that the engine speed cannot exceed the rated speed by more than 15 %.
5.2.2 Engines driving electrical generators
For engine requirements to load response and speed variations in steady state and in transient operations,
see Ch.2 Sec.5 [1.1].
5.2.3 Use of electrical/electronic governors
5.2.3.1 The governor and the associated actuator shall, for controlling the respective engine, be suitable
for the operating conditions laid down in the rules and for the requirements specified by the engine
manufacturer.
The regulating conditions required for each individual application as described in [5.2.1] and [5.2.2] shall be
satisfied by the governor system.
For requirements to power supply arrangement, see Ch.9.
Speed sensor cabling shall be mechanically well protected.
Alarms to warn of faults in the governor system shall be arranged.
Governors for engines, other than those driving electrical generators, which keep the last position upon
power failure, are regarded as fulfilling the redundancy type R0. Power supply to have redundancy type R0.
5.2.3.2 Requirements applying to main engines
For single engine plants it has to be ensured that in case of a failure of the electrical/ electronic governor
or electronic engine management system the control of the engine can be taken over by another control
device, within the time required by redundancy type described in Ch.1 Sec.3. Electronic governors shall have
their power supply independent of other consumers and the governor including its power supplies shall be
arranged with redundancy type R0.
To ensure continuous speed control or immediate resumption of control after a fault at least one of the
following requirements shall be satisfied:
a)
b)

the governor system has an independent back-up system or


there is a redundant governor assembly for manual change-over with a separately protected power
supply or

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

see Ch.9 Sec.3.

the engine has a manually operated fuel admission control system suitable for manoeuvring.

5.2.3.3 Requirements applying to auxiliary engines driving electrical generators


Each auxiliary engine shall be equipped with its own governor system.
In the event of a fault of components or functions which are essential for the speed control in the governor
system, the speed demand output shall be set to 0 (i.e. the fuel admission in the injection pump shall be
set to 0). Alarms to warn of faults in the governor system shall be arranged.

5.3 Overspeed protection


5.3.1 In addition to the normal governor, each engine with a rated power of 220 kW or over shall be fitted
with an independent overspeed protection device so adjusted that the engine speed cannot exceed the rated
speed by more than 20 % except for diesel engines driving generators where protection device shall prevent
the engine speed from exceeding the rated speed by more than 15 %.
5.3.2 For engines operating in areas defined as gas hazardous zones or spaces (see applicable class
notation), an additional device that automatically shuts the air inlet in case of overspeed is required. This
device shall activate at the same speed level as the overspeed protective device required in [5.3.1]. For
engines with turbochargers that can suffer overspeed due to a sudden shut of air intake, the shutting device
shall be between the turbocharger and the engine.
Guidance note:
Relating to [5.3.1]:
An independent overspeed protection device means a system all of whose component parts, including the drive, function
independently of the normal governor.
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5.4 Propulsion engines


5.4.1 The propulsion engines shall as a minimum be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according to
Table 9 if not otherwise approved.
5.4.2 Local control station
For local operation without remote control of the propulsion plant a local control station shall be installed
from which the plant can be operated and monitored.
5.4.3 Indicators according to Table 9 shall be clearly visible at the local main engine control station.
5.4.4 Temperature indicators shall be provided at the local control station or directly on the engine.
5.4.5 Barred speed ranges shall be marked in red on the tachometers.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

c)

System

Item

Valid for
engine
1)
type

Leakage from jacketed


high pressure pipes
1.0 Fuel oil
system

Fuel oil pressure at


engine inlet

Gr 1
Indication
alarm
load reduction

C, T

IL, IR, A

Lubrication oil to all


bearings, inlet pressure

IR, IL, LA,

C, T

IR, IL, LA

Turbocharger lubrication
4)
oil inlet pressure

IR, IL, LA

Piston coolant outlet


flow each cylinder

AS

SH

If installed with a
valve/throttle in the
oil supply line

Applicable only when


the T/C is served by
group of cylinders
> 2500 kW

IR, HA

16)

4.0 Piston
cooling system

Fuel oil viscosity


is accepted as
alternative

C, T

Speed of turbocharger

Piston coolant inlet


pressure (common)

Level monitoring
of leakage tank or
equivalent

IR, IL, HA

Lubrication oil to
torsional vibration
dampers, inlet pressure

Turbocharger lubrication
6)
3.0 Turbocharger oil outlet temperature
system

Comments

IL, IR, LA

Fuel oil temperature at


3)
engine inlet

Lubrication oil to
all bearings, inlet
temperature

Gr 3
Shut
down
with
alarm

4)

2.0 Lubricating
oil system

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
2)
alarm

If not forced system,


oil temperature near
bearings

IR, HA

Applicable only when


the T/C is served by
group of cylinders
> 1 000 kW

IR or IL, LA, LR

Load reduction and


automatic start of
stand-by pump is not
required if the coolant
is oil taken from the
main lubrication oil
system of the engine

AS

IL, IR, HA, LR

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Table 9 Control and monitoring of propulsion engines

Item

Cylinder cooling inlet


pressure or flow

5.0 Cylinder
cooling medium

6.1 Pneumatic
return of
exhaust valve

C, T

IR, IL, HA

Control air pressure (if


arranged)

C, T

IR or IL, LA

Starting air pressure

C, T

IR or IL, LA

Exhaust gas valve air


spring pressure

IR or IL, LA

C, T

IL or IR

Charge air temperature,


under each piston (fire
detection)

LR

Charge air temperature


at charge air cooler
outlet

C, T

IL or IR, HA

Charge air pressure

7.0 Charge air


system

HA
IR, LR

Exhaust gas temp after


7)
each cylinder
8.0 Exhaust gas
system

load reduction

IR, IL, LA

cylinder cooling water


temperature at engine
outlet

6.0 Starting
and control air
systems

alarm

Exhaust gas temp


9)
before T/C

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
2)
alarm

AS

Gr 3
Shut
down
with
alarm

Comments

Monitoring of
expansion tank
level, with alarm
at low level, is an
acceptable alternative
for engines with
cylinder power
< 130 kW
Temperature to be
monitored for each
cylinder if individual
stop valves are fitted
for the cylinder
jackets, otherwise
main outlet.
Sensor location so
as to enable alarm in
event of closed valve

Pressure readings
shall be taken at the
supply line locally on
the engine

8)

C, T
IR, HA, LR

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LR is only required
when the T/C is
served by group of
cylinders
> 2 500 kW

Page 42

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

Valid for
engine
1)
type

Gr 1
Indication

Valid for
engine
1)
type

Item

9.0 Hydraulic oil


system

Leakage from jacketed


high pressure pipes for
hydraulic operation of
valves

alarm
load reduction

C, T

12.0 Chain
tension

13.0 Crankcase
explosive
11)
condition

14. Misfire

15)

Gr 3
Shut
down
with
alarm

IL, IR
C, T

Over speed protection

SH

Excessive time within


10)
barred speed range

Position feeler sensor

IL

LR

HA

SH

12)

A
LR

SH

12)

C, T

A, LR

Oil mist detection

Detection of misfire

Applicable if 220
kW, see [5.3]
SH shall be activated
automatically

Where applicable

13)

Other systems than oil


14)
mist detection

Comments

Level monitoring
of leakage tank or
equivalent

Engine speed/direction
of rotation
10.0/11.0
Engine speed/
direction of
rotation

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
2)
alarm

Shall be activated
automatically
Either LR or SH
Shall be activated
automatically
Chosen LR depends
on permissible misfire

Gr 1 = Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2
Gr 3
IL
IR

= Sensor for automatic start of standby pump

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Sensor for shut down


= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored engine component or system
= Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

Gr 1
Indication

Item

alarm
load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
2)
alarm

Gr 3
Shut
down
with
alarm

Comments

1)

C = Crosshead engine, T = Trunk engine.

2)

To be provided when stand-by pump is required, see Ch.1.

3)

For engines running on heavy fuel oil only.

4)

Pressure to be monitored for all inlets to main bearings, crosshead bearings, camshaft bearings and turbocharger
where pressure may differ due to presence of pumps, throttles, rotor seals or pressure reduction valves

5)

Only for engine output

6)

Where outlet temperature from each bearing cannot be monitored due to the engine/turbocharger design alternative
arrangements may be accepted. Continuous monitoring of inlet pressure and inlet temperature in combination with
specific intervals for bearing inspection in accordance with the turbocharger manufacturers instructions may be
accepted as an alternative.

7)

Applicable when cylinder power > 500 kW.

8)

Alarm with request for load reduction to be given in case of excessive average exhaust gas temperature. This
applies when there is no separate sensor before T/C, and the T/C is served by a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW. The
alarm level shall be set with due considerations to safe operation of T/C.

9)

Applicable only when the T/C is served by a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW and if no individual exhaust gas
temperature for each cylinder.

220 kW

10) When driving in barred speed range in excess of approved maximum duration set by torsional vibration level in the
shafting (where deemed necessary, limitations in duration shall be given in connection approval of torsional vibration
analysis). This safety device shall only be required when so stated in connection with approval of torsional vibration
analysis.
11) Applicable to engines of 2 250 kW and above, or with cylinder diameter > 300 mm.
12) One Crankcase explosive condition monitoring device having two independent outputs for detecting alarm and shutdown is acceptable
13) Oil mist detectors shall be type tested in accordance with IACS UR M67.
14) Alternative methods of monitoring may be approved by the Society, see [5.7.10]
15) If required by torsional vibration calculations, diesel engines with cylinder output of 130 kW and above shall have
means to detect misfire.
16) On turbocharging systems where turbochargers are activated sequentially, speed monitoring is not required for the
turbocharger(s) being activated last in the sequence provided all turbochargers share the same intake air filter and
they are not fitted with waste gates

5.5 Auxiliary engines


5.5.1 The auxiliary engines shall as a minimum be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according to Table
10 if not otherwise approved.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

Valid for
engine
1)
type

Gr 1
Indication

System

Item

Gr 1
Indication
alarm
load reduction

Leakage from jacketed


high pressure pipes
1.0 Fuel oil
system

2.0 Lubricating
oil system

3.0
Turbocharger
system

Fuel oil pressure at


engine inlet

5.0 Exhaust gas


system

Level monitoring of leakage


tank or equivalent

IL, IR
IL, IR, A

Lubrication oil to main


bearings, inlet pressure

IL, or IR, LA,

Lubrication oil to
main bearings, inlet
temperature

IR, or IL, HA

Turbocharger lubrication
oil inlet pressure

IR or IL, LA

Fuel oil viscosity is accepted


as alternative
AS

SH

3)

Applicable only when the


T/C is served by group of
cylinders
> 2500 kW

IR or IL, HA

If not forced system, oil


temperature near bearings
Speed of turbocharger

4.0 Cylinder
cooling medium

Gr 3
Shut
Comment
down with
alarm

Fuel oil temperature at


2)
engine inlet

Turbocharger lubrication
4)
oil outlet temperature

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
1)
alarm

Cylinder cooling inlet


pressure or flow

IR or IL, HA

Applicable only when the


T/C is served by group of
cylinders > 1 000 kW

IR or IL, LA

Monitoring of expansion tank


level, with alarm at low level,
is an acceptable alternative
for engines with cylinder
power < 130 kW

AS

cylinder cooling water


temperature at engine
outlet

IR, or IL, HA, LR

Exhaust gas temp after


5)
each cylinder

IR or IL, HA,
6)
LR

SH may replace LR for electric


power generating engines

IR or IL, HA, LR

The LR is only required when


the T/C is served by group of
cylinders > 2 500 kW
SH may replace LR for electric
power generating engines

Exhaust gas temp before


7)
T/C

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SH

Either LR or SH

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Table 10 Control and monitoring of auxiliary engines

Item

alarm
load reduction

6.0 Hydraulic oil


system

Leakage from jacketed


high pressure pipes for
hydraulic operation of
valves

Engine speed

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
1)
alarm

Gr 3
Shut
Comment
down with
alarm

Level monitoring of leakage


tank or equivalent

For engines other than for


electric power generation,
local indication is an
acceptable alternative

IL, IR

7.0/8.0 Engine
speed/direction
of rotation
Overspeed protection

9.0 Crankcase
explosive
8)
condition

14. Misfire

12)

Oil mist detection

10)

Other systems than oil


11)
mist detection

Detection of misfire

SH

HA

SH

9)

SH

9)

A, LR

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SH

13)

Applicable if P 220 kW, see


[5.3].
SH shall be activated
automatically
Shall be activated
automatically
Shall be activated
automatically
Depending on permissible
misfire, LR is accepted as
alternative to SH for auxiliary
engines other than driving
generators

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

Gr 1
Indication

Item

alarm
load reduction

Gr 1 =

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
1)
alarm

Gr 3
Shut
Comment
down with
alarm

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shut down
= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored engine component or system
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm
Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

To be provided when stand-by pump is required.

2)

For engines running on heavy fuel oil only

3)

Only for engine output

4)

Where outlet temperature from each bearing cannot be monitored due to the engine combined with the
turbocharger design, alternative arrangements may be accepted. Continuous monitoring of inlet pressure and
inlet temperature in combination with specific intervals for bearing inspection in accordance with the turbocharger
manufacturers instructions may be accepted as an alternative.

5)

Individual exhaust temperature when cylinder power > 500 kW.

6)

Alarm with request for load reduction to be given in case of excessive average exhaust gas temperature. This
applies when there is no separate sensor before T/C, and the T/C is served by a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW. The
alarm level shall be set with due considerations to safe operation of T/C.

7)

Applicable only when the T/C is served by a group of cylinders > 1 000 kW and if no individual exhaust gas
temperature for each cylinder. The alarm level shall be set with due considerations to safe operation of T/C.

8)

Applicable to engines of 2 250 kW and above, or with cylinder diameter 300 mm.

9)

One Crankcase explosive condition monitoring device having two independent outputs for detecting alarm and shutdown is acceptable.

220 kW

10) Oil mist detectors shall be type tested in accordance with IACS UR M67.
11) Alternative methods of monitoring may be approved by the Society, See [5.7.10]
12) If required by torsional vibration calculations, diesel engines with cylinder output of 130 kW and above shall have
means to detect misfire.
13) One device detecting alarm and shut-down is acceptable. Failure of the device shall be monitored and alarmed.

5.6 Emergency engines


5.6.1 The requirements of [5.6] apply to engines for emergency duty.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

Gr 1
Indication

Table 11 Control and monitoring of engines for emergency duty


Gr 1
Indication
System

Item

alarm
load
reduction

1.0 Fuel oil


system

2.0 Lubricating
oil system

4.0 Cylinder
cooling
medium

7.0/8.0 Engine
speed
9.0 Crankcase
explosive
2)
condition

Leakage from jacketed


high pressure pipes

IL, LA

lubrication oil
temperature at engine
inlet

IL, HA

cylinder cooling water


temperature at engine
outlet

IL, HA

cylinder cooling water


pressure / flow at
engine inlet

IL, LA

Comment

Level monitoring of leakage tank or


equivalent

HA applicable if P 220 kW

LA applicable if P 220 kW

IL

Overspeed protection
Oil mist detection

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Lubrication oil to
main bearings, inlet
pressure

Engine speed

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
1)
alarm

3)

Other systems than oil


4)
mist detection

SH

Applicable if P 220 kW, see [5.3]


Shall be activated automatically

HA
A

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

5.6.2 Engines for emergency duty shall as a minimum be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according
to Table 11, if not otherwise approved. No additional protective function shall result in a shutdown.

System

Item

alarm
load
reduction

Gr 1 =

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
stand-by
pump with
1)
alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shut down
= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored engine component or system
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
SH

= Alarm activated for logical value


= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed.

1)

To be provided when stand-by pump is required, see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.

2)

Applicable to engines of 2 250 kW and above, or with cylinder diameter > 300 mm.

3)

Oil mist detectors shall be type tested in accordance with IACS UR M67.

4)

Alternative methods of monitoring may be approved by the Society, see [5.7.10]

5.6.3 Manual stop devices for the emergency generator prime mover shall only be arranged in the room it is
located and in close vicinity to the entrance door to the room.
5.6.4 Combined emergency and harbour generator
If the emergency generator is used as harbour generator, monitoring system shall be installed as required by
auxiliary engines for unattended machinery operation listed in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.2 Table 8. When operating as
emergency generator the safety devices shall not cause interruption of the emergency power supply, except
for protective functions listed in Table 11.

5.7 Oil mist detection/monitoring and alarm system (Oil mist detector)
5.7.1 For multiple engine installations each engine shall be provided with a separate oil mist detector and an
individual alarm.
5.7.2 Oil mist detectors shall be type approved and tested in accordance with IACS UR M67.
5.7.3 The oil mist detector shall be installed in accordance with the engine designers and the system
manufacturers instructions and recommendations.
5.7.4 Function tests shall be performed on the engine test bed at manufacturers workshop and on board
under the conditions of "engine at standstill" and "engine running at normal operating conditions" in
accordance with test procedures approved by the Society.
5.7.5 The oil mist detector shall include a self-checking device giving an alarm if the performance is
deteriorated.
5.7.6 Where sequential oil mist detection/monitoring arrangements are provided, the sampling frequency
and time shall be as short as reasonably practicable.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Gr 1
Indication

schematic layout of engine oil mist detector showing location of engine crankcase sample points and
piping arrangement together with pipe dimensions to detector/monitor
evidence of study to justify the selected location of sample points and sample extraction rate (if
applicable) in consideration of the crankcase arrangements and geometry and the predicted crankcase
atmosphere where oil mist can accumulate
maintenance and test manuals
information of type approval of the detection/monitoring system and functional tests at the particular
engine.
5.7.8 A copy of the documentation supplied with the system such as maintenance and test manuals shall be
provided on board ship.
5.7.9 The readings and the alarm information from the oil mist detector shall be capable of being read from
a safe location away from the engine.
5.7.10 Alternative methods
Where alternative methods are provided to prevent the build-up of a potentially explosive condition within
the crankcase (independent of the reason, e.g. oil mist, gas, hot spots, etc.), details shall be submitted for
the consideration of the Society. The following information shall be included in the details and submitted for
approval:
engine particulars - type, power, speed, stroke, bore and crankcase volume
details of arrangements preventing the build-up of potentially explosive conditions within the crankcase,
e.g. bearing temperature monitoring, oil splash temperature, crankcase pressure monitoring, recirculation arrangements, crankcase atmosphere monitoring
evidence that the arrangements are effective in preventing the build-up of potentially explosive conditions
together with test details or details of in service experience
operating instructions and maintenance and test instructions
5.7.11 Active safety measures
Where it is proposed to use alternative active technologies to minimize the risk for a potential crankcase
explosion, details of the arrangement and the function description shall be submitted for approval.

6 Arrangement
6.1 Engine Alignment/Seating
6.1.1 Engines shall be mounted and secured to their shipboard foundations in conformity with Ch.2 Sec.1
[6].
6.1.2 Epoxy resin shall be type approved by the Society.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

5.7.7 Arrangements of the oil mist detector shall be submitted for approval. The following particulars shall be
included in the documentation:

6.2.1 Engines shall be so arranged in the engine room that all the assembly holes and inspection ports
provided by the engine manufacturer for inspections and maintenance are accessible. A change of
components, as far as practicable on board, shall be possible.
Guidance note:
Requirements related to space and construction has to be considered for the installation of the engines.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

6.3 Earthing
6.3.1 For main engines it is necessary to ensure that the limits specified by the engine manufacturers for the
difference in electrical potential (Voltage) between the crankshaft/shafting and the hull are not exceeded in
service. Appropriate earthing devices including limit value monitoring of the permitted voltage potential shall
be provided.

6.4 Starting with compressed air


6.4.1 Reference is given to Ch.6 Sec.5 [9.3].

6.5 Electrical starting equipment


6.5.1 Reference is given to Ch.8.

6.6 Exhaust pipes


6.6.1 Where exhaust pipes are led overboard near the water line, means shall be provided to avoid the
possibility of water entering the engine.
6.6.2 Exhaust pipes from several engines shall not be connected, but have separate outlets, unless
precautions are taken to prevent the return of exhaust gases to a stopped engine.
6.6.3 All hot surfaces shall be properly insulated. There shall be no surface temperature in excess of 220C,
see [4.2.4].
6.6.4 Exhaust Gas Back Pressure
The back pressure of the exhaust system shall not exceed the maximum allowable limit as specified by
the engine designer. In case several exhaust pipes are joined into one common pipe, the maximum back
pressure shall not be exceeded with all combined engines operating at rated power, unless it can be
documented that such a situation is not likely to occur under normal operational conditions.
The exhaust system is defined to include any component and piping installed downstream of the engine exit.

6.7 Lubrication and fuel oil systems


6.7.1 The combination of the oil drainage lines from the crankcases of two or more engines is not allowed.
6.7.2 Drip trays under filters for fuel, lubrication and hydraulic oils shall be provided.

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6.2 Accessibility of engines

6.8 Crankcase ventilation pipes


The vent pipes and oil drain pipes of two or more engines shall not be combined. Exemptions may be
approved if an interaction of the combined systems is inhibited by suitable means.
Guidance note:
Oil vapour from the ventilation pipes should preferably be led to free air.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

7 Vibration
7.1 Torsional and axial vibration
7.1.1 Ch.2 Sec.2 and Ch.2 Sec.3 applies.
Acceptance criteria to be decided based on crankshaft calculation in [2.5].

8 Installation Inspections
8.1 Engine Seating
Engines shall be mounted and secured to their shipboard foundations in conformity with Ch.2 Sec.1 [6].
8.1.1 Installation is subject to survey in accordance with Ch.2.

8.2 Engine alignment


The crankshaft alignment shall be checked every time an engine has been aligned on its foundation by
measurement of the crank web deflection and/ or other suitable means.
For the purpose of subsequent alignments, notes shall be taken of:
the draught/load condition of the vessel
the condition of the engine - cold/preheated/hot.

9 Shipboard Testing
9.1 Shipboard testing (dock and sea trials)
9.1.1 After the conclusion of the running-in programme prescribed by the engine manufacturer engines shall
undergo the trials specified below.
9.1.2 Unless otherwise stated, a surveyor shall attend the tests and inspections given in [9].
9.1.3 The scope of the shipboard trials may be extended in consideration of special operating conditions such
as towing, trawling, etc.

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6.7.3 Pipe connections in piping containing flammable liquids shall be adequately screened. The screening
shall ensure that leakage from pipe connections does not reach potentially hot surfaces. Any insulated
surface, where the temperature may exceed 220C in the event that insulation is detached or otherwise is
degraded, shall be regarded a potentially hot surface, see [2.6].

9.2.1 The suitability of main and auxiliary engines to burn residual oils or other special fuels shall be
demonstrated if the machinery installation is designed to burn such fuels.
9.2.2 Starting tests shall be made in order to document the required starting air energy capacity.
9.2.3 The control, alarm and safety functions shall be tested, see Table 9, Table 10 and Table 11 . Items
tested and documented in the engine workshop test, need not be retested.
9.2.4 Insulation of hot surfaces as required in [2.6] shall be checked during maximum load as defined in
[9.3.1] by measuring surface temperature.
Guidance note:
Although use of conventional contact thermometers may be accepted at the discretion of the attending surveyor, it is advised to
use Infrared Thermoscanning Video Equipment or similar for documentation. Such equipment may be required where there has
been made revisions to the insulation interface.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

9.3 Testing of engines for propulsion and main power supply


9.3.1 Propulsion engines driving fixed pitch propellers
The tests shall be carried out as follows:
a)

at rated engine speed


for at least 4 hours

b)

and
at 103 % rated engine speed:

c)

for 30 minutes where the engine adjustment permits, see [4.1.4]


At approved intermittent overload (if applicable)

d)
e)
f)

for duration as approved


determination of the minimum speed (loaded condition)
starting and reversing manoeuvres, see [6.4]
in reverse direction of propeller rotation at a minimum speed of 70 % rated engine speed:

g)
h)
i)

10 minutes
testing of the monitoring and safety systems
correct start and stop of auxiliary blowers.
check of barred speed range, see Ch.2 Sec.2 [3].

9.3.2 Propulsion engines driving controllable pitch propellers


[9.3.1] applies.
Controllable pitch propellers shall be tested with various propeller pitches. Where provision is made for
operating in a combinator mode, the combinator curves shall be plotted and verified by measurements.
9.3.3 Propulsion engines also driving power take off (PTO) generator
[9.3.1] applies.
If applicable, [9.3.2] applies
100 % PTO power at engine rated speed, for at least 1 hour.
9.3.4 Engines driving generators for electrical propulsion and/or main power supply or
emergency power supply
The tests shall be carried out as follows:

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9.2 General engine tests

100 % power (rated electrical power of generator)

b)

for at least 1 hour


110 % power ( rated electrical power of generator)

c)
d)
e)

for at least 10 minutes


demonstrate the engines load response, see Ch.2 Sec.5 [1]
starting manoeuvres, for pneumatic system seeCh.6 Sec.5 [9.3], for electric starting equipment see Ch.8
Sec.2 [5].
testing of the monitoring and safety systems.
Guidance note:
The electrical propulsion line shall be tested at 100 % propulsion power for at least 4 hours.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

9.4 Testing of engines driving auxiliaries


9.4.1
The tests shall be carried out as follows:
a)

at 100 % rated power and speed

b)

for at least 30 min


at approved intermittent overload (if applicable)
for duration as approved

9.5 Engine vibration


9.5.1 For resiliently mounted engines, the engine movements shall be observed during the misfiring tests of
the engine at as high load as possible. The engine shall not reach contact with the stoppers, see Ch.2 Sec.1
[6]. None of the engine connections such as exhaust pipe compensators, cooling water bellows, lubrication oil
pipes, etc. shall restrict the engine movements.

9.6 Opening up after testing


9.6.1 For engines supplied and installed in assembled condition, there are no requirements for opening up
after testing unless there is any reason to suspect any abnormal wear of, or damage to, engine components.
9.6.2 Unless otherwise approved, inspection according to [4.5] applies for propulsion engines supplied in
sections and assembled onboard.

10 Gas only and dual fuel engines


10.1 General
10.1.1 The rules in this section apply to gas only engines or dual fuel engines installed in ships.
The rules are applicable for engines where natural gas in gaseous state is used as fuel. If other gases are
used as fuel special considerations shall have to be made, and additional requirements may be relevant.
10.1.2 Definitions
Definitions addressing gas as fuel as given in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5.

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a)

= valve or injector on the engine which controls the gas supply to the engine according to
the engines actual gas demand.
= the safety concept is a document describing the safety philosophy with regard to gas as
fuel. It describes how risks associated with this type of fuel are controlled under normal
operating conditions as well as possible failure scenarios and their control measures.

10.2 Design
10.2.1 General Functional Requirements
In case of a normal stop or an emergency shutdown, the gas fuel supply shall be shut off not later than the
ignition source. It shall not be possible to shut off the ignition source without first or simultaneously closing
the gas supply to each cylinder or to the complete engine. Shut off of the gas fuel shall not be dependent on
the shut off of the ignition source.
Guidance note:
Firing of the gas-air mixture is not explicitly limited to the use of pilot fuel. Other ignition methods may be accepted if suitable.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.2 System Configuration


Gas fuelled engines shall either be designed to be installed in a gas safe machinery space or an ESD
protected machinery space as defined in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5 [3.2.2].
For installations in gas safe machinery spaces, the connection of gas piping and ducting to the gas admission
valves shall provide complete coverage of the double ducting and make replacement and/or overhaul of
gas admission valves and cylinder covers possible. The double ducting is also required for gas pipes on the
engine itself, and all the way until gas is supplied into the chamber.
Guidance note:
If gas is supplied into the charge air just in front of the inlet valve, double ducting may be omitted on the charge air inlet pipe, on
the condition that a gas detector is fitted above the engine.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.3 Functional requirements, gas-only engines


10.2.3.1 The starting sequence shall be such that fuel gas is not admitted to the cylinders until ignition is
activated and the engine has reached a minimum rotational speed.
10.2.3.2 If combustion has not been detected by the engine monitoring system within 10 s after opening of
the gas injection valve the gas supply shall be automatically shut off and the starting sequence terminated.
Guidance note:
More than 10 seconds may be accepted between gas injection start and automatic starting sequence shut off, if the gas is not
injected directly to each cylinder or to each cylinder air inlet, but is mixed with combustion air in a common system. However,
Safety Concept and FMEA should show acceptable level of risk.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.3.3 When restarting after a failed start attempt admission of fuel gas to the cylinders shall not be
possible before the exhaust gas system has been purged with an air volume of at least 3 times the volume of
the exhaust gas system before the turbocharger(s).
Guidance note:
Purging may be carried out by for example running the engine on starting air for a predetermined number of revolutions.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

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Gas admission
valve
Safety concept

10.2.4.1 Dual fuel engines shall start, activate normal stop and perform low power operation on oil fuel only.
Gas injection shall not be possible without a corresponding pilot oil injection. In case of shut-off of the gas
fuel supply, the engines shall be capable of continuous operation by oil fuel only.
Guidance note:
If it can be documented that a dual fuel engine can safely start, stop and operate on low load in gas mode, this may be approved.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.4.2 Changeover to and from gas fuel operation shall only be possible at a power level where it can
be done with acceptable reliability as demonstrated through testing. On completion of preparations for
changeover to gas operation including checks of all essential conditions for changeover, the changeover
process itself shall be automatic. Manual interruption should be possible in all cases.
10.2.4.3 Firing of the gas-air mixture in the cylinders shall be initiated by injection of pilot fuel. The amount
of pilot fuel fed to each cylinder shall be sufficient to ensure a positive ignition of the gas mixture.
10.2.4.4 In case of shut-off of the gas fuel supply or engine failure related to gas operation, engines shall be
capable of continuous operation by oil fuel only.
10.2.4.5 Engine power and speed shall not be influenced during fuel change-over process. An automatic
system shall provide for a change-over procedure with minimal fluctuations in engine power and speed.
10.2.4.6 The change-over process from gas mode to oil mode shall be possible under all operating
conditions.
10.2.5 Gas fuelled engine crankcase and safety equipment
10.2.5.1 The crankcase of gas engines shall be provided with crankcase explosion relief valves as specified in
[2.3.1] and [11.4].
Smaller engines than specified in [2.3.1] shall either document that the crankcase has sufficient strength to
withstand the worst case explosion or install sufficient type approved explosion relief valves.
10.2.5.2 The minimum required total relief area of crankcase explosion relief valves shall be calculated by
engine maker considering explosions of fuel gas air mixtures and oil mist.
10.2.5.3 For engines where the space below the piston is in direct communication with the crankcase a
detailed evaluation regarding the hazard potential of fuel gas accumulation in the crankcase shall be carried
out and included in the safety concept, see [10.5.3].
Each engine other than two-stroke crosshead diesel engines shall be fitted with vent systems for crankcases
and sumps independent of other engines.
10.2.6 Gas fuelled engine mixture inlet and exhaust system
10.2.6.1 The mixture inlet and exhaust system shall be designed to withstand explosions of gas air mixture.
This shall be documented by means of either:
1)
2)

documentation demonstrating that the mixture inlet system has sufficient strength to contain the worst
case explosion; or
explosion relief venting to prevent excessive explosion pressures. It should be ensured that the explosion
relief venting is installed in a way that it discharges the combustion products safely. The explosion
venting shall be led away from where personnel may be present.

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10.2.4 Functional requirements, dual fuel engines

10.2.6.3 Explosion relief valves for inlet- and exhaust manifolds shall be approved for the application in
accordance with [11.4] by the Society.
10.2.6.4 The arrangement of explosion relief valves shall be approved for each engine type. The following
documents shall be submitted:
drawing of arrangement of explosion relief valves (incl. number, type, locations, etc.)
drawings of protected component (air inlet manifold, exhaust manifold, etc.) (incl. specification of max.
working pressure, max. working temperature, max. permissible explosion pressure, etc.)
evidence of effectiveness of flame arrester at actual arrangement
Guidance note:
Evidence can be provided by suitable tests or by theoretical analysis.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.7 Purging system on gas fuelled engines


10.2.7.1 Means shall be provided to ensure that any un-burnt fuel mixture can be purged from the manifolds
trough the exhaust system.
10.2.7.2 Unless otherwise specified in the Safety Concept documentation and FMEA, purging shall be carried
out:
prior to each engine start
after starting failure
after each gas operation of gas-fuelled engine.
10.2.7.3 The purging system shall be automatically operated.
10.2.8 Arrangement of cooling water, lubricating oil and fuel systems
10.2.8.1 Means shall be provided to degas fuel gas from the systems if there is a possibility that fuel gas can
leak directly into the systems.
10.2.8.2 Gas detectors shall be provided, see [10.5.2].
10.2.8.3 Flame arresters shall be provided at the vent pipes and pipes shall be led to a safe location.
10.2.9 Fuel gas system
10.2.9.1 The design and arrangement of fuel piping including secondary enclosures on gas engines shall
comply with the requirements in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5.
10.2.9.2 Activation of the double block and bleed valves prior to the gas engine as required by Pt.6 Ch.2
Sec.5 [9.3.8] shall be possible by the engine control system and safety system

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10.2.6.2 The requirements in [10.2.6.2] can be omitted if the gas concentration within the manifolds is
controlled and monitored and if combustion of unburned charge within the manifolds can be excluded. A
justification of how this can be achieved shall in this case be submitted.

Guidance note:
Flexible bellows, single and double walled, may be used on the engine provided that it has been demonstrated that the bellow
should not fail due to mounting misalignment and vibration. Endurance against high cycle fatigue has to be documented at least by
7

the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc. (EJMA) calculation or equivalent. (i.e. more than 10 cycles).
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.2.9.4 Gas admission valves shall be located directly at each cylinder inlet.
10.2.9.5 High pressure gas shall be blown directly into the cylinders without prior mixing with combustion air.
10.2.9.6 The gas admission/injection valve shall be controlled by the engine control system according to the
actual gas demand of the engine.
10.2.9.7 Gas admission by a common gas admission valve and mixing of gas combustion air before the
cylinder inlet, may be acceptable subject to an acceptable level of risk being determined in the safety concept
and system FMEA.
10.2.10 Ignition system
10.2.10.1 The ignition system shall provide proper ignition of the gas at all operating conditions.
10.2.10.2 The ignition system shall be provided with an automatic self-check which is operated prior to gas
supply to the engine. If failure in the ignition has been detected, an alarm shall be given and supply of gas to
the engine shall not be possible.
10.2.10.3 Safe and reliable operation of the ignition system shall be demonstrated and documented by a
system FMEA.
10.2.10.4 During normal stop of the engine, the fuel gas supply shall be shut off automatically before the
ignition source.
10.2.10.5 If ignition has not been detected in any cylinder on a spark ignited engine within an engine specific
time after operation of the gas admission valve, gas supply shall be automatically shut off and the starting
sequence terminated. Any unburned gas mixture shall be purged from the exhaust system.
10.2.11 Electrical systems on the engine
10.2.11.1 For electrical equipment and sensors in hazardous areas the explosion protection requirements in
Ch.8 applies.
10.2.12 Type approval test for gas-fuelled engines
10.2.12.1 Gas-fuelled engines shall be type approved by the Society.
10.2.12.2 The scope of type approval testing stated in [2.14] applies as far as applicable to gas-fuelled
engines. Additional or differing requirements reflecting gas specific aspects are listed below. The type test
program shall be approved by the Society.
10.2.12.3 Internal tests (Stage A):
engine operation with limiting gas properties as specified by the engine manufacturer (methane number,
lower heat value)

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10.2.9.3
Gas piping on an engine shall be designed and installed taking into account vibrations and movements during
engine operation.

10.2.12.4 Type tests (Stage B):

load acceptance test and load cut off


fuel change-over procedures (for dual fuel engines)
combustion monitoring
safety system
alarm system
monitoring system
control system
gas detection
tightness tests of gas piping and double wall pipes and ducts
ignition system
automatic gas shut off
turbocharger waste gate, by-pass, etc.
ventilation system
start, stop, emergency stop
verification tests resulting from the system FMEA
testing of start blocking.

10.3 Testing and inspection


See [3]

10.4 Workshop testing


In addition to the requirements of [4], the following items shall be tested during works trials of gas-fuelled
engines:

tightness test of gas system


testing of systems for combustion monitoring
testing of gas shut off and fuel change-over (dual-fuel engines) procedures
testing of start blocking

For dual fuel engines the requirements in [4] shall be tested in both diesel and in gas mode. Additionally the
following items shall be tested:
Fuel change over at lowest possible load
Fuel change over at highest possible load
Guidance note:
Fuel change over is to be done from diesel to gas and from gas to diesel
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10.5 Control and monitoring


10.5.1 General requirements
10.5.1.1 Requirements regarding gas supply and automatic activation of gas supply valves (double block and
bleed valves, master gas valve) to the engine are specified in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5.

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gas concentration in the crankcase at different engine operation conditions. Results shall be determined
and specified in a suitable manner.

10.5.1.3 The engine operating mode shall always be clearly indicated to the operating personnel.
10.5.1.4 In addition to the requirements given in Table 9, Table 10, and Table 11, control and monitoring as
given in Table 12 is as a minimum required for gas engines.
Table 12 Control and monitoring of gas-fuelled engines
System

Item

Valid for
engine
type

Gr.1
Indication
alarm
load
reduction

1.0 Ignition
System

Spark ignition system


or pilot injection
system failure

GT

2)

DF

GT

6)

Misfire each cylinder

A, GT

2)

DF

A, GT

6)

3)

2.0 Combustion
monitoring
Knocking
Cylinder lubrication
4)
flow
3.0 Fuel
injection valve
cooling system
5)

A, GT

DF

LA

DF

Fuel injection valve


cooling medium
pressure

DF

4.0 Gas
injection valve
sealing oil
system

Gas injection valve


sealing oil pressure

5.0 Gas fuel


knock-out
drums, if fitted

Gas fuel knock-out


drums liquid level

6.0 Gas supply

Gas pressure in gas


supply

7.0 Crank case

Piston failure and


abnormal piston
blow-by

with alarm

A, LR

DF

Fuel injection valve


cooling medium
temperature

Gr.2
Automatic start
of standby
pump

LA, GT

AS

G
DF

DF

DF

1)

Automatic start
of standby pump
is not required
if main pump is
engine driven

6)

G
DF

Comments

SH may replace LR
for electric power
generating engine

6)

HA

Gr.3
Shutdown
with alarm

LA

For high-pressure
injection only

HA

IL or IR,
LA, HA

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10.5.1.2 Combustion conditions of each cylinder shall be automatically detected, monitored and controlled to
prevent knocking and misfiring.

Item

Valid for
engine
type

Gr.1
Indication
alarm
load
reduction

Gr 1
Gr 2
Gr 3
LA
HA
A
AS
SH
LR
GT
IL
IR
G
DF

Gr.2
Automatic start
of standby
pump
with alarm

Gr.3
Shutdown
with alarm

Comments

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

System

1)

= Common sensor for indication, alarm, load reduction


= Sensor for automatic start of standby pump
= Sensor for shut down.
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Alarm activated
= Automatic start of standby pump with alarm
= Shut down.
= Load Reduction
= Gas trip
= Indication Local
= Indication Remote
= Gas only engine
= Dual fuel engine

1)

Only for propulsion engines

2)

Automatic gas trip of the specific cylinder or the complete engine can be accepted.

3)

Exhaust temperature deviation may be accepted as means of detecting ignition failure, individually on each cylinder

4)

If applicable,
each lubricator unit to be monitored

5)

Dual fuel engines only, for all injection valves that require cooling

6)

Automatic change-over to fuel oil mode is required.

10.5.2 Gas detection


10.5.2.1 A continuous gas detection system shall be provided, see Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.5
10.5.2.2 The gas detection system shall be in operation as long as fuel gas is supplied to the engine.
10.5.3 Safety concept and system FMEA
10.5.3.1 The safety concept shall describe the safety philosophy with regard to gas as fuel and in particular
address how risks associated with this type of fuel is controlled. The safety concept shall also describe
possible failure scenarios and the associated control measures.
10.5.3.2
In the system FMEA possible failure modes related to gas as fuel shall be examined and evaluated in detail
with respect to their consequences on the engine and the surrounding systems as well as their likelihood of
occurrence and mitigating measures. Verification tests shall be defined. Aspects to be examined include, but
shall not be limited to:

gas leakage, both engine internal and release of gas to the engine room
shut off of gas supply
incomplete/ knocking combustion
deviation from the specified gas composition

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malfunction of the ignition system


uncontrolled gas admission to engine
switch over process from gas to fuel and vice versa for dual fuel engines
explosions in crankcase, scavenging air system and exhaust gas system
uncontrolled gas air mixing process, if outside cylinder
interfaces to other ship systems, e.g. control system, gas supply

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

10.6 Arrangement
See [6]

10.7 Vibration
See [7]

10.8 Installations inspections


See [8]

10.9 Shipboard testing


10.9.1 General engine tests
Gas fuelled engines shall be tested according to the below requirements, in addition to [9]

test of gas detection systems


leakage test of gas fuel system
test of ventilation systems
test of starting interlock devices
test of gas trip
test of monitoring and safety system during gas operation

10.9.2 Dual fuel engine tests


dual fuel engines shall be tested according to the below requirements , in addition to [9] and [10.9.1]

1 hour at 100 % rated power (constant speed)


1 hour at 100 % rated speed (propeller curve)
10 min at lowest load specified by the engine manufacturer
fuel change-over (dual-fuel engines) procedures
fuel change over at highest possible load
fuel change over at lowest possible load

For dual fuel engines, starting in gas mode shall not be possible, also after a shutdown in gas mode
operation, see [10.2.4]
Guidance note:
The 4 hour performance test at 100 % rated power / speed [9.3], can be carried out to include 1 hour in gas operation
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

10.10 Retrofit
Acceptance criteria and procedure for conversion of existing oil-fuelled diesel engines into gas-fuelled or dualfuel engines shall be individually agreed with the Society.

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11.1 Turbochargers
11.1.1 Application and document requirements
11.1.1.1 Turbochargers are categorised in three categories depending on power served by each
turbocharger:

Category A
Category B
Category C

= 1 000 kW
= > 1 000 kW and 2 500 kW
= > 2 500 kW

11.1.1.2 Certification required


Turbochargers of category B and C shall be delivered with a product certificate according to Table 13, that is
based on the applicable elements of design approval in [11.1.1] to [11.1.3].
Table 13 Certification required
Object

Certificate type

Issued by

Additional description

Turbocharger

NA

NA

Category A

PC

Manufacturer

Category B

PC

Society

Category C

Certification standard is the DNV GL rules.


PC issued by the Society (based on the DNV GL rules) = VL certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
PC issued by the Manufacturer (based on the DNV GL rules) = Works certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)

For general certification requirements see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


For a definition of the certification types see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
11.1.1.3 Documentation required
Turbochargers of category A, B and C shall be documented as follows:
Table 14 Documentation of turbochargers
Additional description
Cross sectional drawing with principal dimensions
Type Test program
Type Test report

Documentation type
A) B) C)

B) C)

B) C)

Documentation of containment

A) B) C)

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Info

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

FI

Z252 Test procedure at


manufacturer

AP

Z262 - Report from test at


manufacturer

AP

Z262 - Report from test at


manufacturer

AP

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

11 Auxiliary equipment and components

Operational data and limitations

B) C)

Documentation type

Info

maximum allowable operating speed (r/min)


alarm level for overspeed (r/min)
maximum allowable exhaust gas temperature before turbine
alarm level for exhaust gas temperature before turbine
maximum allowable compressor pressure ratio
minimum lubrication oil inlet pressure and alarm level
minimum lubrication oil inlet pressure (design level)

Z100 Specification

FI

Z100 Specification

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

FI

M010 Material specification,


metals

AP

M060 Welding procedures (WPS)

AP

S010 Piping diagram (PD)

AP

Z163 - Maintenance manual

FI

Z161 Operation manual

FI

Information on lifetime, considering creep, low cycle fatigue and high cycle
C)
fatigue

Z100 Specification

FI

Documentation of safe torque transmission when the disc is connected to the


C)
shaft with interference fit , see [11.1.2.7]

Z100 Specification

FI

details (name and address) of the subcontractors for rotating parts and
casings
details (name and address) of the licensees, if applicable, who are
authorised by the licensor to produce and deliver turbochargers of a certain
type
maximum lubrication oil outlet temperature and alarm level as applicable,
see Table 9
maximum allowable vibration level (both self- and externally generated)
Operational data and limitations

C)

maximum allowable list and trim (degrees)


maximum allowable pitching and rolling (degrees/s)
C)

Drawings of the rotating parts


(shaft, turbine wheel, compressor wheel,
blades) and details of blade fixing and housing
Material specification

C)

, including mechanical and chemical properties of

rotating parts (shaft, turbine wheel, compressor wheel, blades)


casing and additionally, an evaluation of the material properties versus the
B) C)
temperature it shall be exposed for
Welding details and welding procedures for rotating parts and casing
Arrangement and flow diagram of lubrication system
Maintenance manual
Operation manual

B) C)

B) C)

C)

C)

AP = For approval; FI = For information


A) Applicable to Turbocharger group A; Turbochargers serving cylinder groups 1 000 kW
B) Applicable to Turbocharger group B; Turbochargers serving cylinder groups > 1 000 kW and 2 500 kW
C) Applicable to Turbocharger group C; Turbochargers serving cylinder groups > 2 500 kW
For general requirements to documentation, including definition of the Info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

Additional description

Although there is no requirement for type approval or the Society Product Certificate, the requirement for
containment safety in [11.1.2.2] is also valid for turbochargers of category A.
Guidance note:
Turbochargers of category A can be type approved based on the same document requirements as applicable for turbochargers of
category B.
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11.1.2 Design
11.1.2.1 Operating conditions
The turbocharger shall be designed to operate under the conditions given in Ch.1.
The turbocharger component lifetime and the alarm level for turbocharger speed shall be based on 45C air
inlet temperature, if not otherwise agreed.
11.1.2.2 Containment safety
The turbocharger shall be self-contained (no part may penetrate the casing of the turbocharger or escaping
through the air intake in case of rotor burst. This shall be verified by testing. For documentation purposes
(test/calculation), it shall be assumed that the discs disintegrate in the worst possible way. Fulfilment of
this requirement can be granted to a series of turbochargers on the basis of containment validation for
one specific unit. However it shall be documented that the containment validation is representative for the
complete series.
The turbocharger rotors need to be designed according to the criteria for natural burst speed. The burst
speed of the turbine shall be lower than the burst speed of the compressor in order to avoid an excessive
turbine overspeed after compressor burst due to loss of energy absorption in the compressor.
The minimum test speed (relative to the maximum permissible operating speed ) for validation of
containment shall be:
120 % for compressor
140 % or natural burst for turbine (whichever is lower).
If these speeds cannot be achieved due to interference between static and rotating parts, burst shall be
validated at the highest achievable speed.
The containment test shall be performed at working temperature.
Guidance note:
Containment testing of a large unit is preferred, as this is considered conservative for all smaller units of the same series.
A numerical proof of sufficient containment integrity of the casing based on calculations by means of a simulation model may be
accepted as an alternative to testing, provided that:

The numerical simulation model has been tested and its applicability/accuracy has been proven by direct comparison between
calculation results and practical containment test for a reference application (reference containment test). This proof has to be
provided once by the manufacturer who wants to apply for acceptance of numerical simulation

The corresponding numerical simulation for the containment is performed for the same speeds, as specified for the
containment test (see above)

The design of the turbocharger regarding the geometry and kinematics is similar to that of one turbocharger which has passed
the containment test. Totally new designs shall call for new containment tests

Application of the simulation model may give hints that rotor speeds lower than above specified minimum test speeds may
be more critical for the casings integrity, due to special design features and different kinematic behaviour. In such cases the
integrity properties of containment for the casing shall be proven for the worst case scenario

Material properties for high-speed deformations are to be applied in the numeric simulation. The correlation between normal
properties and the properties at the pertinent deformation speed are to be substantiated
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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

11.1.1.4 Type Approval


Turbochargers of category B and C shall be type approved either separately or as a part of the engine, see
also [1.3.3] and Table 14

11.1.2.4 Fire protection


All exposed surfaces shall be kept below the maximum permissible temperature of 220C. Surfaces that
reach higher temperatures shall be insulated with material having non oil-absorbing surface, or equivalently
protected so that flammable fluids hitting the surface cannot be ignited.
Pipe connections in lubrication oil lines for turbochargers with pressure above 1.8 bar shall be screened
or otherwise suitably protected to avoid as far as practicable oil spray or oil leakage onto potentially hot
surfaces, into machinery air intakes, or other sources of ignition. The number of joints in such piping shall be
kept at a minimum.
11.1.2.5 Bearing lubrication
Bearing lubrication shall not be impaired by exhaust gases or by adjacent hot components. Leakage oil and
oil vapours shall be evacuated in such a way that they do not come into contact with parts at temperatures
equal or above their self-ignition temperature.
Gas flow from turbocharger to adjacent components containing explosive gases, e.g. crankshaft casing shall
be prevented by an adequate ventilating system.
Guidance note:
For turbochargers which share a common lubrication system with the engine and which have got an electrical lubrication oil pump
supply, it is recommended to install an emergency lubrication oil header tank.
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11.1.2.6 Compressor characteristics


Turbochargers shall have a compressor characteristic that allows the engine, for which the turbocharger
is intended, to be operated without surging in all normal operating conditions, also after a long time in
operation. For abnormal, but within permissible operating conditions, such as misfiring and sudden load
reduction, no continuous surging shall occur.
11.1.2.7 Materials
The materials in the rotating parts shall be able to withstand the stresses, strains and temperatures to which
they shall be exposed.
This shall be analysed with regard to stresses, strains and temperatures in the rotating parts and lifetime
calculations of these parts:
a)
b)

The calculations shall be based on low cycle fatigue, high cycle fatigue and creep-rupture analyses as
applicable and they shall cover the limits of operation (see Guidance note). As an alternative, reliability
documented by operational experience may be accepted.
For a generic range of turbochargers, a calculation summary report in accordance with a) shall be
submitted for one larger turbocharger. The report shall include objectives, a brief description of method,
limits of operation, assumptions and conclusion. The calculation methodology shall be representative for
the complete series to be awarded. The type testing requirements apply to one selected size.
Guidance note:
The limits of operation are the operating conditions in which the (cyclic) stress range or strain range is maximum, i.e. which
contribute to largest accumulated damage or shortest life, based on the criteria above and combined with temperature effect.
Typical limits are alarm level speed, alarm level turbine inlet temperature, maximum permissible compressor inlet (or ambient)
temperature for steady state operation and maximum permissible rates of acceleration and deceleration during start-up and
shutdown operation. The limits of operation shall include any combination of the above which are realistic operating conditions, see
also [11.1.2]. Load profile definition should be specified and documented.
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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

11.1.2.3 Air inlet


The air inlet of the turbocharger shall be fitted with an air filter in order to minimize the entrance of dirt or
water.

11.1.2.9 Type testing


The type test for a generic range of turbochargers, may be carried out at either on an engine, for which the
turbocharger is intended, or in a test rig.
As part of the type test, the turbocharger shall be subjected to at least 500 load cycles at the limits of
operation, see guidance note to [11.1.2.7]. This test may be waived if the turbocharger together with the
engine is subjected to this kind of low cycle testing.
The rotor vibration characteristic shall be measured and recorded. The result shall be within the makers
specification.
The extent of the surveyors presence shall be decided by the Society in consultation with the maker before
the test.
The type test shall be completed by a hot running test at maximum temporary speed and maximum
temporary temperature. The duration shall be at least one hour and the hot running test shall be witnessed
by a surveyor.
After the test, the turbocharger shall be opened for examination.
The type test report, which includes the test objectives, procedures, acceptance criteria, results and
conclusions, shall be submitted for approval.
The type test requirements might be reduced upon documentation of relevant operational experience.
Manufacturers who have facilities to test the turbocharger on a diesel engine for which the turbocharger shall
be approved, may consider to substitute the hot running test by a one hour test run at overload (110 % of
the rated diesel engine power output)
11.1.3 Testing of materials and components
11.1.3.1 General
Turbochargers of category B and C shall be tested, inspected and documented with regard to:

condition of supply and heat treatment of materials


chemical composition and mechanical properties of materials
non-destructive testing (NDT) of rotating parts
dimensional inspection
pressure tests
overspeed test of compressor wheels
dynamic balancing of rotor
workshop test.

The manufacturer's quality system shall ensure that the designer's specifications are met, and that
manufacturing is in accordance with type approved drawings. The manufacturer's documentation of fulfilment
of these requirements shall normally be verified by means of periodic Society product audits.
The materials shall conform to specifications approved in connection with the type approval in each case
The requirements related to testing, inspection and certification of the turbocharger and its components are
listed in Table 15.
11.1.3.2 Material testing
All materials shall be manufactured by sufficiently proven techniques, whereby it is ensured that the required
properties are achieved. Where new technologies are applied, a preliminary proof of their suitability shall be
submitted to the Society. According to the decision of the Society, this may be done in terms of special tests
for procedures and/or by presentation of the work's own test results as well as by expertise of independent
testing bodies.

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11.1.2.8 Disc-shaft shrinkage fit


In cases where the disc is connected to the shaft with interference fit, documentation is required to
substantiate the disc's capability to transmit the required torque throughout the operation range, meaning:
maximum speed, maximum torque, maximum gradient and minimum interference fit.

11.1.3.4 Chemical composition and mechanical properties of materials


Materials and products shall satisfy the requirements relating to chemical composition and mechanical
properties specified in the Pt.2 Ch.2 or, where applicable, in the approved relevant manufacturer's
specifications.
11.1.3.5 Non-destructive testing (NDT)
Ultrasonic Testing (UT ) and crack detection shall be applied for rotating parts (turbine, compressor wheel
and shafts) including welded joints. Another equal production control may be accepted for welded joints. The
testing shall be performed by the manufacturer and the results together with details of the test method shall
be evaluated according to recognized quality criteria and documented in the product certificate (PC).
11.1.3.6 Material certificates
Material certificates shall contain at least the following information:

quantity, type of product, dimensions where applicable, types of material, supply condition and weight
name of supplier together with order and job numbers, if applicable
construction number, where known
manufacturing process
heat numbers and chemical composition
supply condition with details of heat treatment
identifying marks
results of mechanical property tests carried out on material at ambient temperature.

Depending on the produced component of turbocharger material certificates shall be issued by the Society
respectively the manufacturer. The required certificates are summarized in Table 15.
11.1.3.7 Dimensional control
Rotating parts, turbine, compressor wheels and shaft, of turbochargers are subjected for dimension control
before assembly of the turbocharger.
11.1.3.8 Pressure tests
Cooling water spaces as well as the emergency lubrication oil system for gas inlet and gas outlet casings
shall be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test of pp = 4 bar, but not less than pp = 1.5 pc (pp = test
pressure; pc = design pressure).
11.1.3.9 Overspeed test
Compressor wheels shall undergo an overspeed test with a duration of 3 minutes at 20 % above the alarm
level speed at room temperature, or 10 % above the alarm level speed at 45C when tested in the actual
housing with the maximum permissible pressure ratio.
If each forged compressor wheel is individually controlled by an approved non-destructive method, the
overspeed test may be waived. For wheels without a bore, the overspeed test may be omitted.
11.1.3.10 Dynamic balancing
Each shaft and bladed wheel, compressor and turbine, as well as the complete rotating assembly has to be
dynamically balanced individually in accordance with the approved quality control procedure. For assessment
of the balancing conditions the DIN ISO 1940 standard or comparable regulations may be referred to.

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11.1.3.3 Condition of supply and heat treatment of materials


Materials shall be supplied in the prescribed heat treated condition. Where the final heat treatment shall be
performed by the supplier, the actual condition in which the material is supplied shall be clearly stated in the
relevant material certificate. The final verification of material properties for components needs to be adapted
and coordinated according to production procedures. Deviations from the heat treatment procedures have to
be approved by the Society separately

Object

Additional description

Certificate type

Issued by

Complete rotating
assembly

Dynamic balancing, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

Shaft

M+C

Category C

MC

Society

Category B

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

M+C

Category C

MC

Society

Category B

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

M+C

Category C

MC

Society

Category B

MC

Manufacturer

UT+CD

NDT report

Manufacturer

Dimensional control, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

Overspeed test, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

Pressure testing, see [11.1.3]

PC

Manufacturer

Turbine wheel
including blades

Compressor wheel
including blades

Casing

Certification standard is the DNV GL rules.


PC or MC issued by the Society (based on the DNV GL rules) = VL certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
PC or MC issued by the Manufacturer (based on the DNV GL rules) = Works certificate (See Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5)
For general certification requirements see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.

M
M+C
NDT
UT
CD

= Mechanical properties of the material


= Material properties include chemical composition, and mechanical properties, see [11.1.3]
= Non-destructive examination, see [11.1.3]
= Ultrasonic testing
= Crack detection

11.1.4 Workshop test


Each turbocharger has to pass a test run in the presence of the surveyor.
The test run shall be carried out during 20 minutes with an overload (110 % of the rated diesel engine
power output) on the engine for which the turbocharger is intended for in workshop testing. In case of a
replacement turbocharger for testing onboard, the test shall be carried our at the maximum available engine
power .
This test run may be replaced by a separate test run of the turbocharger unit for 20 minutes at the alarm
level speed and maximum permissible working temperature.

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Table 15 Certification, Testing and inspection requirements for turbocharger and its components

11.1.5 Manufacturers of turbochargers


11.1.5.1 Turbochargers manufactured under Manufacturing Survey Arrangement
Turbochargers can be produced according to agreed Manufacturing Survey Arrangement (MSA). More
information can be found in DNV GL Class program DNVGL-CP-0337.
11.1.5.2 Turbochargers for Category A1 engines
Manufacturer of turbochargers for Category A1 engines, ref DNVGL-CP-0483, may document material
properties according to ISO 10474/EN 10204 - 3.1.

11.2 Torsional vibration dampers


11.2.1 For torsional vibration dampers the following requirements apply:
subcontracted dampers of standard design (including design concept) shall be type approved
dampers of tailor made (unique) design may be case by case approved.
dampers produced by the engine manufacturer shall be type approved either as a separate product or as
a part of the engine.
11.2.2 Certification required
Torsional vibration damper shall be delivered with a product certificate according to Table 16.
Table 16 Certification required
Object

Certificate type

Issued by

Additional description

Torsional vibration
damper

PC

Society

Applicable to case-by-case approved, spring


tuned dampers

PC

= Product Certificate

Certification standard is the DNV GL rules.


For general certification requirements see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

11.2.3 The drawings of torsional vibration dampers shall specify all details which deal with the functions and
limitations of the damper.
For spring tuned dampers the spring materials and properties shall be specified.
For rubber and silicone type dampers, and for some steel spring dampers the dynamic properties shall be
documented by means of relevant type testing (e.g. in stationary or rotating pulsators where torque and
twist are plotted).
11.2.4 Torsional vibration dampers shall be specified with regard to damping, stiffness, permissible vibration
level and heat load properties as functions of their main influence parameters. The tolerances of the damping
and stiffness and the limitations of the influence parameters shall also be specified.
11.2.5 The manufacturer shall specify inspection and service intervals as well as the permissible limits for
wear (spring tuned dampers), rubber and silicone condition, oil viscosity (viscous dampers), oil pressure (if
oil supplied), etc.

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In case of sufficient verification of the turbochargers performance during the test, a subsequent dismantling
is required only in case of abnormalities such as high vibrations or excessive noise or other deviations of
operational parameters such as temperatures, speed, pressure.

11.2.7 Spring tuned torsional vibration dampers shall be tested, inspected and documented as stated in the
approved specification.

11.3 Axial vibration dampers


11.3.1 Axial vibration dampers shall be documented by means of a sectional drawing and a system
description of the adjustment.

11.4 Explosion relief valves


11.4.1 General requirements
11.4.1.1 Relief valves shall be type approved by the Society.
11.4.1.2 Relief valves shall close after an explosion event.
11.4.1.3 The relief valves shall be provided with a flame arrester that permits pressure relief and prevents
passage of flame following an explosion.
11.4.1.4 The outlet of explosion relief devices shall discharge to a safe location from any source of ignition.
The arrangement shall minimize the risk of injury to personnel.
11.4.2 Crankcase explosion relief valves
11.4.2.1 Crankcase explosion relief valves shall be type tested and documented in accordance with IACS UR
M66.
2

11.4.2.2 The free area of each crankcase safety relief valve shall not be less than 45 cm .
11.4.2.3 Crankcase safety relief valves shall be designed and built to open quickly and be fully open at an
overpressure of not more than 0.2 bar.
11.4.2.4 Crankcase safety relief valves shall be provided with lightweight spring-loaded valve discs or other
quick-acting and self-closing devices to relieve a crankcase of pressure in the event of an internal explosion
and to prevent inrush of air thereafter.
11.4.2.5 The valve discs in crankcase safety relief valves shall be made of ductile material capable of
withstanding the shock of contact with stoppers at the full open position.
11.4.2.6 Safety devices shall be provided with suitable markings that include the following information:

name and address of manufacturer


type designation and size
relief area
month/year of manufacture
approved installation orientation.

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11.2.6 Spring tuned dampers shall be designed to avoid fretting in vital elements. For such dampers the
springs shall be designed with a safety factor against high cycle fatigue of minimum 1.8 , but higher values
apply for spring areas under tension stresses and hard contact with other parts. For designs where fretting
in vital elements cannot be excluded, these elements shall be subjected to fatigue type testing. Stress levels
and number of stress cycles shall be especially considered, leading to specific intervals for either inspection
or torsional vibration measurements. If the latter is selected, acceptance criteria shall be approved.

11.4.3.1 Explosion relief valves for inlet- and exhaust manifolds shall be approved by the Society for the
application.
11.4.3.2 For the approval of relief valves the following documentation shall be submitted:

drawings of explosion relief valve (sectional drawings, details, assembly, etc.)


specification data sheet of explosion relief valve (incl. specification of operating conditions such as max
working pressure, max. working temperature, opening pressure, effective relief area, etc.)
evidence for effectiveness of flame arrester at actual arrangement
evidence for effectiveness of pressure relief at explosion (sufficient relief velocity, sufficient relief
pressure)
test reports.
Guidance note:
Evidence can be provided by suitable tests or by theoretical analysis.
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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 1

11.4.3 Other explosion relief valves

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The requirements in this section apply to gas turbine arrangements used for the functions listed in
Ch.2 Sec.1 [1.1].
For Naval Surface Craft Pt.5 Ch.13 applies in addition to these rules.
Gas turbines shall be designed, constructed, tested, certified and installed on board in accordance with the
requirements given in this section. The requirements address manufacturers, builders and operators.
1.1.2 Gas turbines installed on ships and are not serving the functions described in [1.1.1] are not subjected
to the rules of this section. They have nevertheless to fulfil all requirements related to passive safety
(fire protection, containment, safety devices for rendering to a safe state after malfunction or failure of
components).
1.1.3 Acceptance and certification is based on test bed results for a prototype and manufacturers
documentation and successful performance test after installation in presence of the Society. Further
documentation may be requested for appraisal purposes upon agreement between the Society, manufacturer
and shipyard.
1.1.4 Gas turbines, as described in [1.1.1] including their foundation, enclosure, piping, fuel, lubrication,
cooling as well as safety, control, monitoring and alarm systems are subjected to classification.
The installation, connection and foundation of the complete manifold on the ships side are project specific.
Foundation shall be documented as required in Ch.2.
A gas turbine installation carrying a valid type approval certificate shall be supplemented by relevant
drawings for the specific installation.
1.1.5 Sub-sections [2] to [3] apply to the gas turbine. Sub-sections [4] and [5] apply to the gas turbine
arrangement. Sub-section [6] refers to both manifold and arrangement.

1.2 Definitions
1.2.1
Table 1 Definitions
Term
essential main
propulsion
non-essential
main propulsion
driving of auxiliaries

Definition
the gas turbine serves as exclusive driver for the driven propulsion units and is essential for the
safety and manoeuvrability of the ship. The gas turbine is equally classified, when serving power
production for the purposes of dynamic positioning.
other propulsion drivers, e.g. internal combustion engines or other driving units, provide the
safety and manoeuvrability of the ship and the gas turbine in question is only temporarily used as
booster to achieve maximum ahead speed.
the gas turbine is not directly involved in the propulsion of the ship, but drives essential
auxiliaries such as generators or other auxiliary units of the machinery systems.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 2

SECTION 2 GAS TURBINES

Definition

maximum
permissible power
(type related)

the maximum permissible power is the maximum power of the applied type of gas turbine in the
actual upgrade version, independent of project dedicated application. this is the base for design
calculations and type approval procedure.

maximum
continuous rating
(project related)

maximum continuous rating means 100% gas turbine power (mcr condition) for the specific
application. the gas turbine shall be limited to the specified maximum continuous rating after
performance test in the manufacturers facilities (fat) and/or onboard after installation.
an internal combustion engine, consisting of upstream rotating compressors coupled to
downstream turbines, and a combustion chamber in-between. the power turbine in multiple shaft
configurations is also included.

gas turbine

a gas turbine together with its enclosure and fixation arrangements, including systems external
to the gas turbine, such as fire detection and extinguishing system, ventilation system, carbo
blasting system, anti-icing system, compressor washing system.

gas turbine
arrangement

the period which the gas turbine is expected to run prior to removal for overhaul, assuming
normal recommended shipboard maintenance procedures have been followed, air quality
specification has been met, limiting pressures, temperatures and power ratings have not been
exceeded and lubricating (when applicable) and fuel oils specified in the type approval certificate
have been used. All essential parts that are normally not carried on board for regular on board
maintenance shall have a lifetime exceeding the TBO.

time between
overhaul (TBO)

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer.

FAT

Factory Acceptance Test, testing of the gas turbine under load conditions at the manufacturers
Facilities

1.3 Certification
1.3.1 Gas turbines as described in [1.1] and which are of a proven design with a documented service
experience shall be certified as per Table 2.
Table 2 Certification requirements
Object

Gas turbine

Certificate
type

Issued by

PC

Society

See [6.8]

TA

Society

See [6.4]

Certification standard*

Additional description

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society's rules


For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

1.3.2 Novel, or new designs may receive a preliminary (time limited) design approval so as to allow initial
operation. They may further receive a Provisional Acceptance of Gas Turbine so as to allow initial operation.
This acceptance is regarded as equivalent with the product certificate with respect to gas turbine safety.
The availability is however not yet proven. Hence the Society only accepts a Provisional Acceptance of Gas
Turbine for multi-gas turbine installations, or for installations where the related function of the gas turbine is
covered up by other means in case of failure.
Gas turbines that can document more than 2 500 hours trouble-free operation on similar applications
shall receive a product certificate directly after the certification test, see [6.8]. In the case that a new

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 2

Term

1.3.3 It is required that the manufacturer documents 2 500 hours of in-service experience of one unit,
without major faults or replacement of components before the type approval certificate shall be issued. For
gas turbines with non-essential main propulsion or for propulsion / power generation of yachts or other noncommercial vessels the in service experience required for issuing a type approval certificate may be reduced
accordingly, but shall not be less than 500 h of service. The in-service experience shall be relevant for the
application that type approval is applied for, with respect to working profile and rating. The product certificate
for each individual gas turbine is issued on the base of an existing type approval certificate or on a "case by
case" base after testing of the gas turbine under relevant load conditions in the manufacturers facilities for a
limited time, as set out under [6.7] - FAT.
1.3.4 In the described process of certification a "Manufacturing Survey Arrangement" (MSA) may be
integrated on separate application.
1.3.5 Where the rule requirements defined herein are not explicitly complied with, or documented, the
Society shall, upon request, evaluate alternative and or equivalent solutions in accordance with Pt.1 Ch.1
Sec.1 [2.5].
Guidance note:
This implies e.g. that during the design assessment credit may be given for extensive relevant operational experience, approval by
other recognised bodies such as CAA, FAA, etc.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

1.4 Documentation requirements - Manufacturer


1.4.1 The manufacturer shall provide the documentation required by Table 3 (gas turbine, multiple shafts)
or Table 4 (gas turbine single shaft). The documentation shall be reviewed by the Society as a part of the
certification contract.
Table 3 Documentation requirements for gas turbines, multiple shafts manufacturer
Object

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Gas turbine

Gas generator
casing

Info
FI

Z100 Specification

Including key parameters as given in table 5


and application constraints as given in table 6

AP

Z100 Specification

Performance, see [2.3.7]

FI

Z252 Test procedure at manufacturer

FI

Z161 Operation manual

FI

Z163 Maintenance manual

See [2.3.9]

FI

Z266 Measurement report

Vibration measurements see [5] and [6]

FI

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

Including bearing housings, guide vanes and


nozzles
For journal bearings, see [2.2.9]

AP

C040 Design analysis

See [2.2.4]

AP

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turbine, without testing or with limited scope of testing as mentioned above, has been installed on a ship in
compliance to these rules, this shall be noted in the Appendix to the classification certificate or given as a
memorandum to owners (MO).

Documentation type

Additional description

S040 Control diagram

Compressor guide vanes

FI

Compressor
wheels
Gas generator
turbine

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.1]

AP

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.1]

AP

Gas generator
shaft
arrangement

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including bearings and shaft

FI

Turbine seals

Info

AP

Compressor
guide vanes
Gas generator
seals

C030 Detailed drawing

Compressor
bleed valve

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

See [2.2.8]

FI

Rotor thrust
bearings

S040 Control diagram

See [2.2.9]

FI

Gas generator
radial bearings

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.9]

FI

Gas generator
thrust bearings

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.9]

FI

Combustor
Starting system

AP
Shaft, see [2.2.2]

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

C030 Detailed drawing

Burner, flame tube and nozzles, see [2.2.5].


See [2.3.1]

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

FI

AP
AP

Lubrication oil
system

Z100 Specification

See [2.3.2].

AP

Control and
monitoring
system

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

See [3.1] and [3.2]

AP

Fuel system

S011 Piping and instrumentation


diagram (P&ID)

See [2.3.3]

FI

AP = For approval; FI = Fir information

Table 4 Documentation requirements for gas turbine, single shaft Manufacturer


Object

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing
Gas turbine

Info
FI

Z100 Specification

Including key parameters as given in table 5


and application constraints as given in table 6.

AP

Z100 Specification

Performance, see [2.3.7]

FI

Z252 Test procedure at manufacturer

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FI

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 2

Object

Documentation type

Additional description

Z161 Operation manual

Casing

Info
FI

Z163 Maintenance manual

See [2.3.9]

FI

Z266 Measurement report

Vibration measurements see [5] and [6]

FI

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including bearing housings, guide vanes and


nozzles
For journal bearings, see [2.2.9]

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

C040 Design analysis

See [2.2.4]

AP

S040 Control diagram

Compressor guide vanes

FI

Compressor
wheels

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.1]

AP

Turbine

C030 Detailed drawing

Turbine wheel, see [2.2.1]

AP

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including bearings and shaft

FI

C030 Detailed drawing

Shaft, see [2.2.2]

AP

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Seals preventing leakage of gases and


lubrication oil internally and externally, and
preventing mixing of gases and lubrication oil.

FI

Shaft
arrangement

Seals

Compressor
bleed valve

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

See [2.2.8]

S040 Control diagram

FI
FI

Radial bearings

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.9]

FI

Thrust bearings

C030 Detailed drawing

See [2.2.9]

FI

Combustor

C030 Detailed drawing

Burner, flame tube and nozzles, see [2.2.5].

AP

Starting system

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

See [2.3.1]

AP

Lubrication oil
system

Z100 Specification

AP

S011 Piping and instrumentation


diagram (P&ID)

See [2.3.2].

AP

Fuel system

S011 Piping and instrumentation


diagram (P&ID)

See [2.3.3]

FI

Control and
monitoring
system

I200 Control and monitoring system


documentation

Including safety system


See [3.1], [3.2] and [3.3]

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information

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Object

Table 5 Key parameters


Mass (kg)
Time between overhaul (hrs / cycles or equivalent hours)
RATING
IDLE

MCR ISO

1)

2)

MCR

PEAK

3)

Maximum continuous ratings (kW)


Maximum air mass flow rate (kg/s)
Temperature at all main sections of the gas turbine, see Figure 2
(C)
Pressure at all main sections of the gas turbine, see Figure 2 (bar)
Gas generator speed(s) (rpm)
Power turbine speed (rpm)
NORMAL

PEAK

Maximum permissible rate of load increase and load decrease (kW/s)


Maximum permissible rate of acceleration and deceleration (gas
generator and power turbine) (r/min/s)
MCR at standard ISO 2314 ambient conditions, see [6.4.7]
Maximum parameter value for continuous running independent of ambient conditions
If applicable, maximum parameter value for time limited peak or emergency operation for naval surface craft
(independent of ambient conditions)

Table 6 Application constraints


Subject

Unit

Max allowable list and trim

(degrees)

Max allowable pitch and roll

(degrees/s)

Max allowable shear force on output shaft

(N)

Max allowable axial force on output shaft

(N)

Max allowable bending moment at output shaft

(Nm)

Max allowable acceleration loads, see [2.1.2]

(g)

Fuel type designation


Max allowable salt content in inlet air

(wppm)

1.5 Documentation requirements Builder


1.5.1 The builder shall provide the documentation required by Table 7. Further documents may be required
by the Society, depending on special ships related arrangement features.

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1.4.2

Object

Gas turbine
arrangement

Enclosure

Documentation type

Additional description

C040 Design analysis

Turbine and driven equipment: Lateral,


torsional and turbine vibrations, see [5].

AP

Z030 Arrangement plan

Engine room with enclosure, ventilation


system, gas turbine hook-ups and adjacent
components.

AP

Z253 Test procedure for quay and sea


trial

Info

AP

Z266 Measurement report

Turbine and system (including ancillaries and


piping) vibration levels, see [5], [6].

AP

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including doors, pumps, valves, starting


system and electric panels. Including material
specification of enclosure, see [2.4].

AP

G130 Cause and effect diagram

AP

G200 Fixed fire extinguishing system


documentation

Including specification of measures to prevent


personnel being exposed to fire extinguishing
medium constituting a health hazard.

AP

Including:
measures to prevent personnel being
exposed to fire extinguishing medium
constituting a health hazard

Fire detection
and extinguishing
system
Z030 Arrangement plan

fuel spray shields, applicable for turbines


not fitted within an enclosure
pipes, hoses, filters, valves and pumps in
relation to potential ignition sources

AP

fire insulation type, method and


arrangement
fuel trays and handling of fuel and
lubrication oil leaks
fire detectors location and types.
Ventilation
system

Z030 Arrangement plan

Including ducting, fans, blowers and fire


dampers. Including material specification of fire
dampers. Upon request, air distribution.

AP

Carbo blasting
system

Z100 Specification

[2.3.5]

AP

Anti-icing system

C020 Assembly or arrangement


drawing

AP

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Table 7 Documentation requirements builder

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

Including:
expected maximum mass flow,
temperature, and pressure of hot gas, and
location of source (when applicable)
Z100 Specification

resulting power loss to the turbine, at


maximum output to anti-icing

AP

heating system (when sources are other


than the gas turbine)
method of detecting ice formation at the
filters
instrumentation of the detection system.
Compressor wash
system

Z100 Specification

Coupling

Z100 Specification

Inlet and exhaust


ducting

AP
Alignment, see [4.1]

Z030 Arrangement plan


Z100 Specification

AP
FI

Including filtration systems, silencer systems


and expansion bellows.

AP

AP=for approval; FI=for information

2 Design and Construction


2.1 General
2.1.1 For general design principles for machinery, see Ch.1 and Ch.2. The gas turbine design shall be
suitable for reliable operation in marine applications.
2.1.2 The design and construction shall enable the gas turbine to meet the general requirements in Ch.1,
with regard to environmental conditions, functional capability and to reliability and availability.
The gas turbine shall be capable of withstanding environmentally induced acceleration loads during
operations. The manufacturer shall provide a two-dimensional design envelope, see Figure 1, made up of
what may be sustained during normal operation and what may be experienced occasionally (e.g., storm
conditions). The gas turbine shall not suffer unreasonable distortion (or stress) if these loads are applied
repeatedly. See also [5].
Guidance note:
Example of design envelope diagram:

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Object

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2.1.3 For new developed turbines, or turbines originally designed for other purposes than marine
applications, design analysis calculations shall be submitted to support drawing approval process in respect of
strength / fatigue analysis. Such design calculations are expected to be based on the maximum permissible
loads, as well as load variations, e.g. frequent idle (or start) - full load idle (or stop) sequences and
permissible rates of gas turbine load increase and decrease.
2.1.4 In the case of major modifications or upgrading of already introduced and certified gas turbines
calculations shall be submitted, but shallnot release the requirement for new or extended design approval as
far as the gas turbine:
has been thoroughly tested during the development phase or
the test program has been extended to cover uncertainties in the design analysis or
the modifications are supported by analyses, and more than 2500 hours of relevant operation without
major faults can be documented.
However, the allowable modifications in such cases are limited as follows:

20C increase of maximum turbine inlet temperature


5% increase of mass flow
5% increase of r/min
minor changes to structural integrity components
minor changes to operational profile.

The precise design assessment scope needed shall be agreed with the Society on a case by case basis.
2.1.5 Gas turbines, subjected to certification, shall have a TBO in excess of 2500 running hours. This should
be substantiated through design and operating experience.
Guidance note:
A TBOs exceeding this value may be requested in the cases that the turbines are part of a planned machinery maintenance system
for the vessel and follows this fixed time schedule for overhaul / maintenance purposes.
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2.1.6 Gas turbines shall be designed to permit fast start-up from cold conditions. Further possibilities shall
be provided enabling manual re-start despite control system constraints after acknowledgement of the cause
of tripping or start failure.

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Figure 1 Example of design envelope

2.2.1 Rotor Assembly incl. turbine and compressor bladed discs (calculations)
Design calculations shall be submitted to support drawing approval process. Such calculations shall be
based on FEM methods and include low (static) as well as high (dynamic) cycle fatigue criteria unless other
equivalent calculation methods following the manufacturers practice have been agreed to. The calculations
shall support the evaluation of forces and thermal load distribution, in a way as to be capable of being
verified by inspection during type approval test process.
In cases where the disc is connected to the shaft with interference fit, documentation is required to
substantiate the disc's capability to transmit the required torque. This documentation shall include the effect
of centrifugal forces, thermal loads, thermal expansion at the interfaces and interference tolerances.
The disc burst speed shall be documented, and shall be higher than that achievable while the unit is
governed by the control system.
Upon request, proof shall be provided for the correlation of the first three harmonics of the rotational speed
as well as nozzle passing frequency to the main vibration modes over the whole operating speed range
(Campbell diagram or similar).
2.2.2 Rotor Assembly incl. turbine and compressor bladed discs (balancing)
Each shaft as well as the complete rotating assembly of compressor and turbine shall be individually
dynamically balanced in accordance with the approved quality control procedure.
The balancing specification and the results of the balancing procedure shall be documented in accordance
with [6.7]. The requirements as set out in DIN ISO 1940 apply, specifically class G2.5 or equivalent
standards.
2.2.3 Blades
A blade strength calculation for the maximum permissible output/speed shall be submitted by means of finite
element analysis (FEM) or other sound engineering methods for review on request. Centrifugal, gas and
thermal forces shall also be considered.
The calculations shall contain the design equivalent full load operation hours or if applicable the assumed load
profile. Cleaning equipment shall be provided during gas turbine operation for removal of blade deposits from
compressor and turbine.
2.2.4 Casing
The casing shall fulfil the containment requirements, e.g. typically 1/3 bladed disk loss for impellers and
one blade loss for axial units which shall not result in casing penetration / disintegration. This theoretical or
experimental proof shall consider initial speeds as recognized as most critical by the maker dedicated to the
special design.
The casing shall have sufficient inspection openings to enable Borescope inspection of the combustor as well
as for the compressors and turbines individual stages.
2.2.5 Combustion Unit and Burners
The combustor shall have a dual ignition system. Igniters shall not remain in the primary combustion
zone during operation. Optical and / or thermal flame sensors shall enable monitoring of the flame during
operation.
Provisions shall be made for inspection of the combustor system such that all important sections can easily
be inspected, particularly the burner area and combustor outlet (gas collector, NGV's).
The expected life time of the combustor, usually as a result of stress calculations under pressure, external
and thermal loads, shall be documented and related to the recommended maintenance schedule of the gas
turbine.
For the burners the maximum fuel delivery temperatures and pressures, together with the compressor air
delivery temperature, the maximum mass flow rate of the fuel and the expected airflow (fuel air ratio) shall
be specified.

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2.2 Component design requirements manufacturer

2.2.6 Adjustable vanes


When the compressor air flow is controlled by means of variable guide vanes (VGV), inlet guide vanes (IGV)
and/ or variable stator vanes (VSV) the corresponding mass flow charts over the guide vane angle / travel
shall be documented in the form of a chart or table.
The actuator shall be designed in a way to be capable to operate the adjusting mechanism of the vanes
under all conditions. Corresponding charts / tables shall be available.
2.2.7 Internal air cooling system
The design shall be such as to enable an adequate air flow capacity to keep the temperature in the power
turbine safely within the design limits under full load conditions. The following parameters shall be specified:
maximum and minimum flow rate, temperature, pressure of cooling air. Depending on design, monitoring of
the cooling air supply shall be monitored according to Table 8.
2.2.8 Bleed Valves
The arrangement of bleed valves shall be documented in a drawing, indicating their position and size. The
associated (maximal) power loss of the turbine shall be specified for the maximal flow rates of the bleed
valves.
For variable bleed valves the characteristic of compressor mass flow as function of bleed valve opening shall
be documented. Any single failure in the actuating control system shall not have detrimental effect on the
compressor.
In case that bleed air is used for anti-icing purposes, this system and its associated technical parameters
such as flow rate, supply pressure, maximum air temperature and simplified heat balance, shall be submitted
for information purposes.
2.2.9 Bearings
Bearings shall be designed in accordance to the manufacturer's standards for loads resulting from the
turbine's full output operation for an adequate life time. For propulsion the bearing design shall be such as
to withstand unbalance forces due blade-loss loss in the time interval where these forces shall act, i.e. until
shutdown or load down step to idle. If relevant, the recommended maintenance / exchange intervals shall be
given in the maintenance manual. Bearings shall be equipped with adequate, replaceable sealing devices and
shall be capable to operate reliably also under normal or exceptional transient conditions, such start-stop,
shut-down due to trip, blackout, etc.
For journal and thrust bearings the clearances in new condition as well as the wearout limit for exchange
shall be documented

2.3 Systems Design requirements - package provider / builder


2.3.1 Starting system
For single propulsion gas turbines the starting system, electrically, pneumatically or hydraulically driven,
shall have redundancy in technical design and physical arrangement. This do not apply for redundant
propulsion gas turbines provided with their own starting systems and for turbines installed in plants which in
combination with other power units such as diesel engines or electric motors shall maintain the function.
The capacity of the starting system shall be designed to enable six (6) consecutive starts of gas turbines for
main propulsion, respectively three (3) consecutive starts of gas turbines for non-essential propulsion and
driving of auxiliaries. Regarding requirements for starting air capacity, see Ch.6 Sec.5 [9.3]
Prior to ignition process, automatic purging shall be arranged prior to all starts and restarts. The purge phase
shall be of sufficient duration to remove all the accumulated fuel.
The starting control system shall be fitted with ignition detection devices. In case of ignition failure (light-off)
within a pre-set time, the control system shall abort the ignition automatically, shut-off the main fuel valve
and release a purge cycle.

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Fuel nozzles shall be easily accessible and removable without disassembly of the combustor system. Burner
lifetime shall be specified together with the nominal / recommended exchange intervals.

2.3.2 Lubricating oil system


Heat balance calculations for the lubrication oil system shall be submitted. The heat balance shall be
considered at seawater cooler inlet temperature of 32C, an ambient air temperature of 45C unless
otherwise specified.
The system shall include sufficient filtering, heat exchanger capacity, magnetic chip detectors located as
necessary, and water separator arrangements.
Any shutdown of the gas turbine, either due to a normal shutdown, shutdown due to turbine trip, or due to a
blackout of the vessel, shall not result in damage to any turbine bearings.
If the lubrication oil system is common with other machinery components (e.g. gear or generator), provisions
shall be taken to prevent possibly contaminated oil to be exchanged between the equipment.
Gas turbines with anti-frictional bearings shall have a separate lubrication oil system.
The lubrication equipment of a gas turbine shall be arranged and protected such that leakage of lubricating
oil shall not reach surfaces with a temperature of above 220C nor any rotating parts.
The lubrication oil system shall be equipped with a filter device allowing exchange or purification without
restricting the oil flow to the gas turbine if a stopping a unit implies loss of function. The condition of the
filter(s) shall be monitored by indication of the pressure difference or other adequate means. Tanks shall
be equipped with oil stand indications combined with a low level alarm. Re-filling of oil shall be possible
without interrupting the operation. Means for taking of representative samples for analysis purposes shall be
provided.
When applying synthetic lubricants attention shall be given to the compatibility to the sealing material and
heat exchangers.
2.3.3 Fuel System
Guidance note:
Gas turbine fuel system is defined as gas turbine manufacturers scope of supply. The border line might be set at fuel booster
pump inlet.
Application of gaseous fuels has an impact on design of some peripheral components, such as combustion unit and burners. In
case that the specific turbine type shall be TA approved for both gaseous and fuel operation, the respective drawings, maintenance
manual and performance characteristics should be submitted for design approval as separate options. In the TA certificate the two
options should be addressed separately, followed by makers labelling.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Fuel nozzles shall be replaceable as complete units without requiring major adjustments works after
replacement.
The system shall be equipped with suitable drain facilities for the fuel manifold and fuel nozzle to safely
handle excessive fuel originating from shutdown (normal and emergency) of the gas turbine fuel system.
Guidance note:
The requirements for a separate drainage systems may be waived if the gas turbine design itself can be proven to hinder unwanted
fuel accumulation.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

The combustors shall be equipped with a separate drainage system, preventing accumulation of fuel after a
failed start.
The day tank for the fuel supply of the gas turbine shall have adequate capacity referenced to the ships
destination and the purpose of installation of a gas turbine for main propulsion. The day tank shall contain
fuel in accordance to the specifications of the gas turbine maker, adequately conditioned for immediate use.
The manufacturer shall specify the different fuel qualities that the gas turbine is designed for.
When heavy fuel is intended to be used the manufacturer shall document the turbine's ability to maintain
serviceability at full power, without significant loss of component life. If special maintenance is required to

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The start system shall have its own protective system to ensure prevention of damage due to overspeed or
failure to reach ignition speed.

2.3.4 Inlet and outlet passages


The air intake shall be arranged and located such that the risk of ingesting foreign objects is minimised.
Guidance note:
Depending on the arrangement, the Society may require that a grid be fitted on the air intake.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

The inlet ducting and components in way of inlet airflow, such as filters, silencers and anti-icing devices shall
be constructed and mounted to minimise the risk of loose parts entering the gas turbine.
Icing at air intake shall be prevented by suitable means.
When the gas turbine makers sets requirements for inlet air quality, the air intake system shall incorporate
an effective filtration system being capable of fulfilling these requirements. Pressure drop across filter shall
be monitored in accordance with Table 8.
Guidance note:
Maximum salt content entering the compressor should not to exceed 0.01 wppm
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Air intakes shall be placed such that effect of sea water spray due to ship motion and weather is kept within
acceptable limits. The air inlet ducts shall incorporate a system for drainage of water.
Air intakes and exhaust outlet shall be so located that suction of combustion gases in the air intakes is
avoided.
The flow path of the inlet air shall be as straight and clean as possible, with a minimum of obstacles, sharp
corners and duct curving. This shall minimise the creation of vortex flow, pressure drops and uneven air
distribution in the compressor inlet.
Guidance note:
Inlet airflow analyses or model tests may be required when the ducting are not according to the above.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Pressure losses in air intake and exhaust ducting shall not exceed the specifications given by the gas turbine
manufacturer.
Multi-gas turbine installations shall have separate inlets and outlets for each gas turbine unless the inlets and
outlets are arranged to ensure the following:
no induced circulation through a stopped gas turbine
simultaneous operation of gas turbines shall not harm the operation condition of any gas turbine (e.g. due
to intake underpressure, turbulence, etc.).
Any active measures fitted in the ducts shall have a fail to safe action as to the integrity of the turbine.
In case of a heat exchanger mounted in the exhaust duct, it shall be ensured that the gas turbine backpressure does not exceed the maximum value specified by the gas turbine manufacturer.
Welds in exhaust ducts shall not be located in areas with stress concentration such as corners and dimension
changes.
2.3.5 Carbo blast system
The operation of the carbo blast system shall ensure that the gas turbines hot section temperatures during
blasting do not exceed maximum allowable operation temperatures.
Guidance note:
It is recommended to consider specific risks for hot spots.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Back flow of hot gases into the carbo blast piping shall be prevented by suitable means.
Clogging of cooling passages shall be avoided.

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reduce degradation of the turbine, the methods used to clean the turbine shall be submitted to the Society
for information.

The rotors of turbines for driving auxiliaries shall at least be capable of being turned by hand.
2.3.7 Performance
Documentation of the performance shall include:
a)
b)

c)
d)
e)

Compressor characteristics including a documented surge margin for all running conditions and
transients. Avoidance of choke to be documented or tested.
Overall gas turbine performance curves. These shall be based on the overall efficiency (ht) and the
quasidimensionless mass flow group mT05/p05 as function of the pressure ratio p05/p06. This shall
be presented for various values of the quasidimensionless speed group N/T05, where 5 and 6 denote
turbine inlet and outlet conditions (see Figure 2). Equivalent performance curves are acceptable.
Performance characteristics including gas turbine power and speed dependency on ambient temperature.
The normal performance or power loss as a function of running time. The turbine in this case is assumed
to be running within design specification.
The expected recoverable performance of a used gas turbine (after a complete overhaul).
The turbine shall be designed to permit rapid start from cold conditions, without working outside the
performance envelope of the either the gas generator or power turbine.
The design shall take into consideration thermal gradients for all modes of operation including trips, and
shall permit immediate restart (within control system constraints, e.g. thermal interlock) when a function
is required to be restored.

Figure 2 Station numbering, basic cycle


2.3.8 Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA)
The FMEA shall identify critical components and systems together with failure modes and consequences. The
analysis shall, as a minimum, cover the following as applicable:

gas path components


bearings
seals
fuel system
lubricating oil system
turbine hot section cooling system (e.g. blade and disk cooling)
turbine cooling and ventilation system (shell and casing)
control system
control system power supply
instrumentation system (e.g. vibration, temperature, pressure)
mechanical control system (e.g. variable guide vanes)

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2.3.6 Turning gear


Main propulsion turbines shall be equipped with turning gear both for the gas generator as well as for the
power turbine.

anti-icing system*
heat recovery system (only that portion in the exhaust gas path)*
inlet air systems (e.g. filtration)*
heat absorption system (cooling water for the lubrication oil system).*

* To be included in FMEA if defined as part of type approved system, only.


Coupling shaft failure and its consequences shall be identified and documented.
The analysis should be presented in a format that is clear, e.g. tabulated in the form of name components
and system, type of expected failures, consequences, expected frequency of failure. See also [3.1.4].
2.3.9 Maintenance
Maintenance manuals shall cover:
illustrated list of parts,
assembly and disassembly process with tools and procedures, such as clearances, pre-tightening
procedures, torque limits etc.,
time between inspection, overhaul and change out of major components, e.g. blades, disks, nozzles,
burners etc.,
methods used to identify the remaining lifetime on the component,
acceptance and rejection criteria of major components, e.g. maximum blade crack length, for acceptance
without repair, with repair, and reject, clearances / wear of bearings, etc.
Overhaul shall be accomplished at the gas turbine manufacturer's plant or at an OEM's approved plant. It
shall include disassembly, examination, cleaning and repair of the gas turbine and accessories.
The turbine manufacturer shall provide a list of their approved overhaul depots for the respective gas turbine
types.

2.4 Enclosure, Fire Safety


2.4.1 Gas turbine enclosure
An enclosure shall be fitted when the temperature of accessible surfaces is above 220C. The enclosure shall
meet the following requirements, also applicable when an enclosure is provided for other purposes.
The enclosure shall include a system for fire detection and automatic fire extinguishing.
The enclosure ventilation or cooling air of the gas turbine shall be supplied from full redundant fans (2
times 100%) with separated electrical power supply.
The distribution of ventilation air shall ensure that an acceptable temperature profile of the gas turbine is
maintained, and that any local accumulation of combustible gas mixtures is prohibited.
In case of emergency, closing of the ventilation ducts of the plant shall be feasible in a controlled way and
within short time, avoiding further damages due to local overheating.
In case personnel are allowed to enter the enclosure when the gas turbine is in operation, at least two
exits should be arranged in the opposite ends of the enclosure, or in a manner providing easy escape
routes from all relevant positions inside the enclosure.
Interlocks on doors shall be provided to ensure that fire extinguishing medium hazardous to personnel is
not released, when personnel are inside the enclosure.
The enclosure tightness shall be such that any personnel staying in the engine room shall have sufficient
time to evacuate if a fire extinguishing medium hazardous to personnel is released inside the enclosure.
Guidance note:
Carbon dioxide in excess of three percent by volume is considered hazardous to personnel.
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A gas turbine start shall be interlocked when personnel are inside the enclosure and the enclosure doors are
open. During operation the doors shall be closed. Signboard shall be displayed on all the enclosure doors to
restrict or prohibit the entrance to the enclosure during operation.

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Fire ignition shall be prevented by use of the following means:


all surfaces that may reach a temperature of 220C shall be insulated
the insulation material shall be impervious to liquid fuel and vapour.
flammable fluids shall be prevented from leaking onto hot surfaces (e.g. through insulation openings,
joints).
If it cannot be documented (by tests) that the above conditions are fulfilled, an enclosure shall be fitted.
For gas turbines not fitted inside an enclosure, fuel oil piping joints shall be screened or otherwise suitably
protected to avoid fuel spray or leakage onto ignition sources in the machinery room.
In addition to the machinery room firefighting system, an approved automatic fire extinguishing system shall
be provided for each gas turbine enclosure.
Enclosure ventilation ducts shall be automatically closed when a confirmed fire is detected.
Inside of enclosure a sufficient number of flame detectors, at least four, shall be provided. They shall be
arranged focusing on location that are prone to ignition, e.g. detector above the front end of turbine (cold
end) looking at the fuel manifold and turbine hot section (2 detectors), one detector, viewing the turbine
from below, pointing at the fuel metering valve and fuel lines. Fire detectors shall be type approved. Type of
detector and sensitivity shall reflect the expected ambient temperature and airflow under normal operation.
Alarm from two or more detectors shall be regarded as a confirmed fire.
A confirmed fire in an enclosure of the engine room shall initiate an alarm and automatically stop the fuel
oil pumps (that are not gas turbine driven) and quick closing valves as required in the Ch.6 Sec.5 [4.5].
Ventilation fans shall stop automatically upon confirmed fire. Where extinguishing gas systems is used
provided as the fire extinguishing system, additional amount shall be provided to compensate for gas lost
until ventilation is stopped.
Dampers in any gas turbine enclosure shall be automatically closed upon confirmed fire. Dampers shall close
in less than 15 s.
Supply and exhaust ducts for gas turbines may be accepted without dampers, provided their integrity is
maintained throughout the spaces they penetrate. Supply ducts need not be fire insulated outside the
machinery spaces, provided their integrity is maintained inside the machinery spaces.
An automatic fire extinguishing system shall be provided for any gas turbine enclosure. The system shall be
designed based on a recognised standard e.g. Rules for CO2 systems, MSC/Circ. 848 (gas systems), IMO
MSC/Circ.913 (water based systems) or MSC/Circ.668/728 (water based systems).
The system shall operate automatically upon a confirmed fire in the gas turbine enclosure and is additional
to the main fire-fighting system. Manual release shall be provided from a safe position outside the structural
boundaries of the machinery room or a fire protected enclosure.
The local fire extinguishing system for the enclosure is required in addition to the machinery space fire
extinguishing system, which also shall be designed to protect the enclosed space.
Guidance note:
Other system designs that provide a backup for fire extinguishing inside the enclosure may be agreed to.
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Portable fire extinguishers, one 12 kg powder extinguisher or equivalent shall be positioned outside each
entrance to the gas turbine enclosure.
Maximum two gas turbines are allowed to be fitted within a common enclosure. The following conditions
prevail for a common enclosure:
each gas turbine shall have a rating below 10 MW
means shall be provided to prevent fuel spray from one gas turbine to hit the other
in case of an emergency shutdown due to fire detection inside a common enclosure, redundant drivers
shall maintain propulsion.

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2.4.2 Fire safety


These requirements are additional to the Ch.11.

3.1 Gas Turbine Control


3.1.1 Gas turbines shall be delivered with a type approved control and monitoring system, see Ch.9.
3.1.2 Control systems for gas turbines shall be certified in accordance with Ch.9 before being installed on
board or being hooked up to the turbine.
3.1.3 FMEA Control System
A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis is required for the verification of the logical interconnections within the
control system of gas turbines for essential main propulsion. Single failure of any system or control during
operation at any mode shall not lead to loss of control of safety related properties of the ship, e.g. loss of
control of propulsion, manoeuvrability for propulsion units, loss of electrical supply for auxiliary turbines,
etc. Safe operation of the ship shall be demonstrated within the FMEA after partly or complete failure or
malfunction of a gas turbine unit, subjected to these rules.
3.1.4 Minimum monitoring requirements
Ref. to Table 8. Note that the table covers both the gas turbineand the gas turbine package with auxiliaries.
Subject to consideration by the Society the parameter list may be adjusted to accommodate gas turbine
design issues.
Table 8 Monitoring requirements
Control parameter

Parameter value

Clogged air intake filter, differential pressure

High

Anti-icing system failure, pressure

Action

1)

Alarm
Alarm

Low
Low-Low

Alarm
Step to idle

Low
Low-Low

Alarm
shutdown

High

Alarm

High
High-High

Alarm
Step to idle

Lubricating oil level

Low

Alarm

Clogged lubricating oil filter, differential pressure

High

Alarm

Cooling Water Pressure

Low

Alarm

Fuel service tank level

Lubricating oil, pressure

Lubricating oil, temperature

Fuel metering valve position out of synchronisation with command value.


Displacement sensor

Deviation

Alarm

2)

Power turbine rotor overspeed

High
High-High

Alarm
Shutdown

Gas Generator rotor overspeed

High
High-High

Alarm
Shutdown

High

Alarm

High-High

Step to idle

Gas generator overspeed

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3 Control and Monitoring

Parameter value

Anti-surge system, if applicable

Indicated surge

Alarm

Flame out detection

Flame out

Shutdown

Vibration

High
HighHigh

Alarm
Shutdown
Alarm if anti
surge system,
otherwise step to idle

Inlet guide vanes, bleed valves, variable stator vanes actual position not
in synchronisation with command value, as applicable
High
High-High

Alarm
Step to idle

High
High-High

Alarm
See 3)

Bearing temperature (material or oil outlet)

High
High-High

Alarm
Step to idle

Thrust bearings temperature (material or oil outlet)

High
High-High

Alarm
Step to idle

Power turbine inlet temperature


Power turbine inlet temperature spread out of specification

3)

Power loss of control and monitoring system


Loss of cooling air supply.

Shutdown

4)

Low

Alarm

Failure to ignite

Shutdown

Failure to reach idle speed

Shutdown

Compressor inlet pressure

Low

Fire Detection (inside enclosure)

Step to idle
Shutdown

1)

All Step to Idle to result in a Shutdown if the fault is still critical after a defined operation time at Idle. Provided it
can be documented that safety is maintained Step to Idle might be replaced with unloading to a safe power level
or direct shutdown for auxiliary gas turbines or multi gas turbine propulsion application

2)

Alarm might be replaced with shutdown for auxiliary gas turbines or multi-gas turbine propulsion applications

3)

There shall be at least one temperature sensor per combustor and no less than six temperature sensors per gas
turbine. Action at Hi-Hi to be decided for the each gas turbine type; either alarm or step to idle. Direct shutdown if
the system can detect partial flameout.

4)

So far applicable.
Note:For requirement to monitoring of axial displacement and vibration, see [5]. Proximity probes may be required
to be fitted in gas turbine power turbine module or other locations along the driven high speed string.

3.1.5 Power supply


The control system shall be equipped with an uninterruptible power supply designed to function even under
black-out conditions. Total loss of control system power shall lead to a controlled turbine shutdown.
3.1.6 Independency
Control systems shall be arranged so as to allow local control and operation of the gas turbine, irrespective of
the state of the overall (e.g. vessel) control system.
3.1.7 Fail to start
Start sequence shall be interrupted and main fuel valve closed within a pre-determined time, when ignition
has failed.

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Action

1)

Control parameter

3.1.9 Start and load


Gas turbines which main purpose is standby, shall permit rapid starting and loading.
3.1.10 Speed Control
Gas turbines within the scope of these rules shall be fitted with a speed governor which, in the event of a
sudden load drop, prevents the revolutions from increasing to the trip speed.
3.1.11 Overspeed
Gas turbine control systems shall be provided with hardwired (or equivalently fast) overspeed protection
preventing the turbine speed from exceeding the maximum permissible speed as defined by the
manufacturer. The speed increase of gas turbines driving electric generators subsequent to a load drop
from 100% to idling shall not exceed 10% of the nominal speed and shall return to the steady state with a
maximal deviation of 5% of the nominal value within 2 s. The transient increase shall in any case remain
safely within the overspeed margin.
3.1.12 Fuel Cut Off
The fuel control system shall include shutoff valve, separate from the fuel control valve, that blocks all fuel
flow to the turbine on any shutdown condition. The valve shall have means for local and remote activation.
3.1.13 Driving main or emergency electric generators
For gas turbines driving main or emergency electric generators, see Sec.1 [5.2].

3.2 Monitoring and instrumentation system


3.2.1 For instrumentation and automation, including computer-based control and monitoring, reference is
made to Ch.9.
3.2.2 FMEA Safety System
Details of the manufacturers specified automatic safety devices, intended to safeguard against hazardous
conditions arising in the event of malfunctions in the gas turbine installation, shall be submitted for approval
together with the systems failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), see [2.3.8] and [[3.1.4].
3.2.3 Independency
The safety system shall be independent from the gas turbine control system. In the case of activation of a
safety device, the gas turbine shall be blocked against a new start, before manual acknowledgement. The
devices for de-blocking shall be arranged such that a quick re-start attempt of the gas turbine is possible.
3.2.4 Overspeed
Gas turbine safety system shall provide overspeed protection, preventing the turbine speed from exceeding
115% of the maximum continuous speed (project related speed).

3.3 Auxiliary system controls


3.3.1 The following turbine feeding systems shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls so as to
maintain steady state conditions throughout the normal operating range of the main gas turbine:
lubricating oil supply
fuel oil supply (alternatively automatic control of oil fuel viscosity)

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3.1.8 Purge after star failure


All gas turbine control systems shall implement purging as part of normal start up and start failure. The
extent of purging required shall be of a duration sufficient to displace the exhaust system volume three times
before attempting re-start.

3.4.1 The operation of the gas turbine, including start and stop, shall be possible by remote control from the
machinery control centre (MCC). The wiring for control purposes shall be independent and shall have means
for electrical disconnection from other systems.
3.4.2 An additional manual control shall be provided directly at the gas turbines enclosure and shall include
a shut-down release. This shall interrupt the fuel supply instantaneously.
3.4.3 For propulsion gas turbines, additional navigating bridge and bridge wings control shall be arranged.
3.4.4 Any additional control station shall be equipped with adequate instrumentation to enable control of gas
turbines load, revolutions and emergency stop.

4 Arrangement
4.1 Alignment and reaction forces
4.1.1 For coupling alignment requirements, see Ch.4 Sec.4.
Coupling alignment specification shall be submitted for approval. Thermal expansion and elastic deflections
between gearbox and gas turbine shall be considered.
In case that the power turbine is fitted with a clearance adjustment by moving the power turbine axially, it
shall be documented that the movements are within tolerances for any couplings.
4.1.2 Gas turbines shall be aligned so that the shear force, axial force and bending moment at the gas
turbine output shaft are within the specification for the gas turbine.
4.1.3 For gas turbine drive train, the alignment shall be within the permissible values under all relevant
operational conditions, see Table 9. It is assumed that there is always a flexible coupling between the gas
turbine and any driven unit.
For applications that may experience thrust load directional variations, an axial proximity probe for
monitoring of vibration and position shall be fitted in the high speed driven string.
Operational and extreme loads as defined in Table 9 shall not cause the gas turbine to move permanently on
its foundation.

4.2 Mounting in general


4.2.1 The loads given in Table 9 shall be considered in the design of the foundation system. Foundation shall
be in compliance with Ch.2 Sec.1 [6] with additional requirements as given in [4.2]
4.2.2 Preferably, the gas turbine casing shall not absorb deflections in vessel structure. This might however
be accepted if it can be shown by calculations that casing deflections are within acceptable limits as specified
by the gas turbine manufacturer.
4.2.3 The foundation system shall be designed with a minimum separation margin of 20% to dominant
frequencies of the gas turbine and adjacent equipment. Calculations shall be submitted.

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3.4 Control stations

Operational loads

Extreme loads

a)

Mass. Maximum environmental conditions such as


list and trim shall be considered for determination of
mass reaction forces. (See Ch.1).

b)

Maximum operational acceleration loads.

c)

Reaction forces due to gas turbine torque (including


short circuit torque in case of electrical generators).

a)

d)

Forces transferred to foundation members due to


deflection of ship structure.

Forces derived from blade loss or, in the case of a


centrifugal impeller, parts from one blade root failure.

b)

e)

Forces derived from thermal expansion of gas turbine


or interfacing components.

Any other extreme loads that may be relevant for the


individual application, e.g. for Naval Surface Craft

f)

Any other operational loads that may be significant


for the individual application, e.g. for Naval Surface
Craft.

A combination of the above loads shall be considered


The following prevails for the worst expected operational loads (left column):
Gas turbine supports (struts) shall have documented a safety factor of minimum 2.5 against buckling.
Stresses on foundation members shall be well below the fatigue curve for the material, and maximum deflections shall be
within limitations set by the gas turbine and adjacent components (e.g. flexible coupling).
In case of extreme loads (right column), the foundation integrity shall be maintained.
Guidance note:
The foundation should be designed to take advantage of supports in the ship structure such as bulkheads and stiffeners.
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4.3 Rigid mounting


4.3.1 For mounting on epoxy resin, the surface pressure due to mass and bolt tension shall be within
approved values for the applicable epoxy resin. Calculation of surface pressure due to peak loads shall be
submitted upon request. The thickness of the epoxy resin shall be within the approved limitations. The epoxy
resin shall be type approved.
4.3.2 The pre-tension of the holding down bolts shall be specified with regard to tightening torque as well as
the tightening sequence. The friction forces shall be able to prevent dynamic movements in the base plate
connection.
4.3.3 Side and end stoppers shall be arranged as safety devices to prevent movement between gas turbine
and foundation caused by loosened bolts or excessive loads due to gas turbine breakdown. End stoppers may
be waived if fitted bolts or equivalent solutions are used.

4.4 Resilient mounting


4.4.1 For dynamic analyses see [5].
4.4.2 Resilient mounts shall be type approved.

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Table 9 Operational and extreme loads

4.4.4 The resilient mounts shall be able to support the worst expected operational loads, see Table 9, without
exceeding the approved specification.
4.4.5 The static positions of the gas turbine on the elastic mounts shall be calculated under consideration of
the static loads listed in Table 9.
4.4.6 Excessive movements due to extreme loads, see Table 9, shall be prevented by either dual
characteristic mounts or by stoppers. The stoppers shall not be reached as a consequence of operational
loads.
Guidance note:
For dual characteristic mounts the second level may be utilised provided that this is foreseen in the dynamic analysis.
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5 System vibration
5.1 General
5.1.1 Vibration behaviour for gas turbines shall be evaluated on the following design levels;
component, see [2.2]
gas turbine, see [2.3] and [4]
system behaviour, see [4].
The evaluation shall consist of a combination of analytical calculations and test measurements.

5.2 Documentation of vibration analysis


5.2.1 In vibration calculations the source of all essential data shall be listed. For data that cannot be given as
constant parameters, the assumed parameter dependency and tolerance range shall be specified.
5.2.2 Lateral vibration calculations
The natural frequencies of the rotor-bearing-support system shall not exist inside the normal speed range
of the turbine from idle to trip speed, with a separation margin of 15%. If this occurs, calculations showing
that the response of the rotor shall not exceed the manufacturer have specified limits shall be submitted for
approval.
The calculation report shall contain a summary of the total analysis. As a minimum the analysis shall include
plots of mode shapes for all natural modes of vibration which can be excited.
5.2.3 In case forced vibrations are required, the following applies:
Appropriate unbalance shall be used in the analysis (commonly, maximum permissible residual unbalance).
The unbalance shall be located at shaft positions where the residual unbalance can occur (heavy disks).
Response plots indicating displacement shall also show the locations of the couplings, bearings, and seals.
The minimum seal clearances should be noted on the plots.
Critical speeds shall preferably be calculated by damped harmonic method or other methods to reveal the
stability margins and be verified by damped unbalance response analysis of the rotor. The response of critical
speeds inside the operation range shall be confirmed by measurements. The excitation sources shall be
investigated by analytical methods and shall as a minimum be:

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4.4.3 All connections to the gas turbine such as couplings, intake and exhaust ducts, fuel pipes lubricating oil
pipes and electrical wires shall be designed for the maximum possible gas turbine movements as limited by
the elastic mounts.

In addition the response to 2nd harmonic of the speeds over the available, operational speed range shall be
evaluated.
5.2.4 Torsional vibration
Torsional resonance frequencies for the complete power turbine rotor train shall have a separation margin
of 10% of any possible excitation frequency within the normal running range of the plant. If this separation
margin is not obtained, forced response calculations in conjunction with stress calculations are required to
prove that failure of the shafting shall not occur as a result of high cycle fatigue.
The excitation sources shall be investigated by analytical methods and shall as a minimum be (if applicable):
synchronous (1. order) running frequencies for all applications
st
nd
propeller pulses with respect to 1 and 2 harmonics (blade frequency)
st
waterjet pulses with respect to 1 harmonic (rotational speed and blade frequency)
Further, transient torsional vibration calculations, such as:
clutching-in impacts.
load shed due to waterjet aeration.
short circuiting in generators .
required for evaluation purposes upon request.

5.3 gas turbine vibration


5.3.1 Extent and method of calculation of resiliently mounted gas turbines, see also [4.4].
Resiliently mounted gas turbines shall be calculated with respect to natural frequencies for all six degrees of
freedom. The influence of the shaft connections (elastic couplings) and piping shall be accounted for.
Calculation of forced responses are required if excitation frequencies (whole operating speed range) and
natural frequencies are closer than 20% for ships and 30% for HSLC.
For HS, LC and NSC the response due to peak amplitude acceleration shall be calculated. All machinery shall
be designed to operate under relevant acceleration due to heavy sea in vertical, transverse and longitudinal
directions. The admissible limits for the core unit, as specified by the maker, shall be compared to the
response in the ship, taking into account the specification of maximal amplitudes for the vessel itself.
Guidance note:
The specified acceleration data for the vessel will vary widely following the vessels purpose. For Navy Vessels additional shock
requirements may apply, see also Naval Surface Craft. See Pt.5 Ch.13.
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5.3.2 Acceptance criteria


The acceptance criteria for resilient mount deflections considering the combined static and dynamic
responses are given in [4.4].
The acceptance criteria for gas turbine connections such as couplings and piping are given in [4.4.2]. If the
gearbox also is resiliently mounted, the combined (relative) movements of gas turbine and gearbox shall be
considered for the coupling misalignment.

6 Tests and trials


6.1 Tests, General
6.1.1 For testing and certification purposes the following tests apply:

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unbalance in the rotor system


oil film instabilities by input of bearing cross-coupling effects.

Component test, carried out in manufacturers work shop. The test aims to prove that the component shall
safely fulfil some functional properties, such as tightness, spinning, balancing, pressure test etc., see [6.3]
Type approval test, is referring to one specific type of gas turbine (new or upgraded design) and does not
cover a range of substantial design variations. Type approval test, see [6.4], is the operational / testing part
of an integral type approval process.
Type approval test is carried out for the first gas turbine of a series. It comprises an extended process of
trials under stationary and dynamic conditions, as well as overload, in the manufacturers work shop. It is
followed by an internal inspection of the prototype gas turbine and shall be documented in a type test report
by the manufacturer.
The process is terminated with issuance of a type approval certificate. The control and safety system for this
test may be not the same as for the intended marine application. Therefore control and safety systems shall
be type approved and certified independently.
The required procedure is described under [6.4]
Certification Test (Factory Acceptance test), is referring to survey and test of every individual gas turbine.
Basis for this test at the makers facilities is the type approval test of the same version of unit. The process
for FAT is described under [6.5], the testing program depends on the individual application.
Quay Test and Sea trial Tests aims to prove the operational ability of the gas turbine in combination with the
ships systems in installed condition and when driving the dedicated driven units. The required extent of sea
trial test depends on the kind and purpose of the gas turbine. The process is described in [6.10]. Some quay
tests test may be accepted as sea trial tests so far the conditions at quay are regarded as representative.
Typically the following parameters shall be registered as a minimum during the mentioned test procedures:
Table 10 Gas turbine and system data acquisition
Parameter
Power (thermodynamic)

Type test
1)

Gas generator, and power turbine speed

2)

Shaft torque at drive end (power turbine output)

Certification test

Electrical power at drive end (generator set only)


Compressor inlet pressure and temperature

4),3)

Quay trial
X

5)

Sea trial
X

5)

Fuel temperature and pressure, at the fuel inlet

Hydraulic fluid pressure

Compressor discharge pressure and temperature


Turbine inlet temperature

4), 3)

1),6)

Gas generator exit pressure and temperature

4),3)

Gas generator exit gas temperature spread


Power turbine exhaust pressure and temperature
Lubrication oil temperature and pressure

Coolant temperature and pressure

4),3)

4)

4)

Temperature of external surfaces of the gas turbine


Bearing metal temperatures

7)

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X

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Material tests (destructive and non-destructive test on relevant components to check material quality and
properties, before or after machining and exposure to thermal processes), see [6.2]

Type test

Certification test

Quay trial

Sea trial

Intake pressure loss

Exhaust pressure loss

Vibration levels

Position of variable stator vanes, or bleed valve opening, as


applicable

X
X

1)

To be corrected to standard reference conditions (ISO 2314). Note that both raw and corrected parameters shall be
recorded.

2)

If more spools are involved, their respective speed shall be recorded.

3)

These values may be derived values from other measured points.

4)

At locations specified by the manufacturer.

5)

May be substituted by torque measurement at power turbine output.

6)

Measurement not required, calculation acceptable.

7)

Lubricating oil temperature measurement after bearing is also acceptable.

6.2 Testing of material and components


6.2.1 Material certificates for the components listed in Table 11 shall be provided. Agreements related to the
manufacturing procedures and suppliers shall be agreed on in each case. The extent of tests shall at least
comply with the approved quality scheme of the manufacturer.
6.2.2 Non-destructive examination
Non-destructive examination shall be applied to the rotors, blades, disks and welded joints of rotating parts
unless another production control process has been agreed or welded joints. The examination shall be
performed by the manufacturer and the results together with details of the test method shall be evaluated
according to recognised criteria of acceptability and documented in the test report.
Table 11 Certification requirements for gas turbines and its components
Object

Certificate
type

Issued
by

Blades

MC

Society

Impellers

MC

Society

Shafts

MC

Society

Disks

MC

Society

Tie Bolts

MC

Society

Combustors

MC

Society

Fuel Nozzles

MC

Society

Casing (Gas Generator)

MC

Society

Casing (Power Turbine)

MC

Society

Labyrinth Seals

MC

Manufacturer

Anti-frictional Bearings

MC

Manufacturer

Certification
Standard*

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Parameter

Issued
by

Certification
Standard*

Alarm and monitoring system

PC

Society

See Ch.9

Safety system

PC

Society

See Ch.9

Speed control / governor

PC

Society

See Ch.9

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 2

Certificate
type

Object

Additional description

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.

6.2.3 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


6.2.4 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

6.3 Tests on components (manufacturers works)


6.3.1 The following component tests shall be performed for every gas turbine:
Pressure and tightness test
Turbine casings shall be tested with 1.5 times the design pressure. Design pressure is the highest expected
pressure within the casing under nominal operating conditions (at least 1.25 times maximum allowable
working pressure under nominal conditions).
The tightness test of the turbine casing may be replaced by other alternative means with the agreement of
the Society.
Further pressure equipment, such as coolers, heat exchangers, etc. shall undergo a pressure test with 1.5
times of their design pressure.
Rotor balancing
Before final installation all completed rotors including mounted discs shall be dynamically balanced. The
balance procedure as well as the results before and after balancing shall be documented. For assessment DIN
ISO 1940 or comparable regulations may be used.
Cold overspeed test
Turbine and compressor wheels shall be tested at a speed at least 15% above the rated speed for not less
than three minutes.
The Society may accept mathematical proof of the stresses in the rotating parts at overspeed as a substitute
for the overspeed test itself provided that the design is such that reliable calculations are possible and the
rotating parts have been subjected to thorough non-destructive testing to ascertain their freedom from
defects.

6.4 Type approval test (manufacturers works)


6.4.1 Type approval test procedure
Type testing serves the primary purpose of substantiating the gas turbines design documentation. It is
furthermore intended to validate that the gas turbine shall provide acceptable performance under the worstcase operational conditions of its intended service.
6.4.2 The complete type testing program is subject to approval. The tests shall be witnessed by the Society,
however, the precise extent shall be agreed in each case. In case of proven and already introduced gas
turbines, a report of the type test may be accepted by the Society as substitute of new type test, so far the
scope of type test is complete and in accordance to these rules, the test has been verified by another third
party and the complete documentation is handed over to the Society for appraisal and reference purposes.

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6.4.4 Type testing shall preferably be made with the type of fuel oil for which the gas turbine is intended, or
equivalent. If this is not possible then there shall be prior agreement with Society as to the fuel used for the
test, and its consequences to the results of the test. For gas turbines intended for running on heavy fuel oil,
the test verification of the gas turbines suitability for this may be postponed to the sea trial.
6.4.5 If no special turbine application considerations apply (such as e.g. fitness for purpose testing,
significant application limitations, or extensive relevant operational experience), the type test program shall
be arranged as outlined in [6.5]. If special considerations apply, the test program shall be agreed between
the Society and the manufacturer on a case by case basis, but shall be based on the elements in [6.5].
6.4.6 If a type tested gas turbine that has proven reliability in service, is design approved for an increase of
power by less than 5%, and does not require internal (manufacturer) design review, a new type test is not
necessary. The percentage refers to increases since the last type testing, not to the last approved level. It
is assumed that the original design calculation of the gas turbine has taken into consideration the intended
increase in power.
6.4.7 All test results shall be corrected to standard reference conditions as defined by ISO 2314. The type
test shall be performed as close to standard reference conditions as possible in order to minimise correction
errors.
The method for correction of parameters could be as described by ISO2314, or an accepted manufacturer
developed alternative
The standard reference conditions are (ISO 2314):

Temperature
Humidity
Barometric pressure

= 15C
= 60% relative
= 1.013 bar (760 mmHg).

6.4.8 Control settings of the gas turbine, such as alarm and shutdown shall be agreed upon with the Society.
Set points that shall be used in the test that are inappropriate in relation to those used in normal running
require written agreement.
6.4.9 Variation in control parameters (compressor discharge temperature, turbine inlet temperature, etc.)
during data acquisition shall not exceed 1% (or the manufacturers specification.). Shaft power shall not
vary more than 3% (or that agreed upon in the contract specification).
6.4.10 If during the test, the observed data is obviously inconsistent with expected data or outside of
specifications from the manufacturer, all possible effort shall be made to rectify the inconsistency during the
testing. This shall be done in a mutually agreed upon manner between the manufacturer and the Society.
Failure to reach an agreement shall require a retest.
Even if the inconsistency is rectified during the test, a re-test or test extension shall be required by the
Society.
6.4.11 When measured test parameters do not conform with design specification (e.g. high temperature
spread), then formal changes in the design specification shall be documented before acceptance shall be
given for the test. If not, the test shall be considered as failed.
6.4.12 Test data shall be recorded only after steady state conditions have been reached by the gas turbine,
for the specific test point. Steady state is achieved when all key control parameters of the gas turbine have

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6.4.3 Type testing is valid for only one specific type of gas turbine, and does not cover a range of design
variations. The maximum speeds of the spools, firing temperature, turbine inlet temperature, exhaust
temperatures, mass flow rate, etc. are fixed for a given type of turbine, and shall be specified on the type
approval certificate.

6.4.13 For gas turbines driving electric generators, the requirements in Sec.1 [5.4] shall be verified by
testing.

6.5 Type testing program


6.5.1 It is assumed that:
1)
2)

The investigations and measurements required for reliable gas turbine operation have been carried out
during internal tests, according to the manufacturer established and documented procedures.
As a final validation of a new gas turbine design, the gas turbine shall be tested at the limit of the
intended operation, see the guidance note.
The length of the validation testing shall in each case be determined based on the extent of design
changes from parent gas turbine, but 100 hours shallbe considered as minimum. No major faults shall
occur during this test.
After the completion of the test, the gas turbine shall be dismantled for inspection. Test procedure and
report shall be submitted to the Society for approval.
Guidance note:
Thermal stress cycles obtained by idle (or start) full load idle (or stop) sequences are a decisive design criterion and
may be limiting for the total lifetime of the unit. Since this start-stop sequence is determining the amplitude of the thermal
stresses, the type test should include several procedures for checking purposes. The number of start-full load-stop cycles
should be demonstrated during type test and agreed upon with the Society within the approval procedure of the type test
program. The purpose of this test should validate the design concept.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

3)

Design assessment acceptance by the Society has been obtained for the gas turbine in question based
on documentation requested, and the Society has been informed about the nature and extent of
investigations carried out during the pre-production stages.

6.5.2 Type approval of gas turbines involves the following type tests: start test, mechanical running test,
and performance test. These tests shall be carried out in the presence of the Society. They may be conducted
separately, or be integrated so as to combine items from the three tests into one.
The recorded test results shall be endorsed by the attending surveyor upon completion of the type test.
6.5.3 Before and after the test, the lubricating oil shall be sampled for testing of contamination of metallic
wear particles. The result shall be in accordance with the specification of the manufacturer.
6.5.4 Functional tests and collection of operating values including test hours shall be documented in the test
report. The relevant results shall be presented to attending surveyor during the type test.
6.5.5 Component inspections after completion of the test program shall be conducted or witnessed by the
Society, see [6.4.3].
6.5.6 The gas turbine designer shall compile results in a type test report, which shall be submitted for
approval. If deviation from design specifications exists, this shall be agreed upon between the gas turbine
designer and the Society.
For emergency operating situation, the following tests shall be performed:
quick start
override functions
test run at emergency (or peak) rating (10 minutes).

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reached a steady state for that specific test condition. Steady conditions shall be defined for the specific test
arrangement; load fluctuations shall not exceed 3% of the nominal values, registering of data shall reflect
mean values over a period of at least 2 min after reaching stationary conditions.

6.5.8 Starts done during the type tests can be incorporated in the start test to reach the sum of seven,
provided that time interval between consecutive restarts are according [6.5.6].
6.5.9 Gas turbine emergency shutdown
The following emergency shut-downs shall be tested:
a)
b)
c)

Hot shutdown, at full load (as soon as permitted by the manufacturer's instructions). Restart shall be
achieved before lockout and within 30 minutes.
Failure to ignite, resulting in aborted start sequence.
Flame out.

6.5.10 Testing of abnormal operation


Testing of operation at the limits of the protection system (set points for step to idle and shutdown) shall be
performed including testing the power turbine overspeed limit.
6.5.11 Lubricating oil pressure and temperature shall be monitored and recorded during the test. The
parameters shall be within the manufacturer's recommended values. The recommended values shall be
stated in the operating instructions.
6.5.12 The lubricating oil filtration shall be as specified by the manufacturer.
6.5.13 The control and monitoring system used in the test shall be representative of the type approved
control and monitoring system, to the extent related to the gas turbine (see [5.1]). Deviations from the type
approved control and monitoring system, and the reasons for the changes shall be presented to the Society
in due time before testing.
6.5.14 The test shall document the lateral vibration behaviour in the range 0% to 100% of rated speed for
all gas generator shafts. Vibration levels shall be recorded from 0% to 100% of rated shaft speed, down to
idle, and finally through coast down and stop.
If 100% speed cannot be obtained due to ambient conditions, documented results from previous tests can
substantiate the verification of upper speed range vibrations.
The measurements shall provide a reasonable match with analyses.
The Society may require additional measurements at certain specific speeds. In such cases, the readings
shall be taken at steady state conditions.
6.5.15 The manufacturer shall provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that shall be used
during the test.
6.5.16 Broadband vibration measurements with frequency analyses presented by cascade plots shall be
performed in addition to order tracking measurements.
6.5.17 The mechanical running test shall be considered complete if no damage occurs to the turbine, and
tested functions and operating parameters are within specified limits and the vibration requirements are
met. If, after the test, modifications to the design are considered necessary, a complete new test shall be
performed.
6.5.18 Performance test: See [2.3.7].

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6.5.7 Start test


Seven starts shall be carried out, of which one start shall be preceded by at least a two-hour gas turbine
shutdown. There shall be at least one false gas turbine start, pausing for the manufacturer's specified
minimum fuel drainage time, before attempting a normal start. There shall be at least three normal restarts
with not longer than 15 minutes (unless otherwise stated) since gas turbine emergency shutdown. All
variations of pre-programmed start sequences shall be tested (e.g. quick start if applicable).

A leak check shall be performed prior to all runs.


The gas turbine shall be operated according to an estimated power/speed curve for the intended application
(e.g. a waterjet curve for mechanical propulsion drive).
The data to be measured and recorded when testing the gas turbine at the various load points, and shall
include all major parameters for the gas turbine operation (see also [6]). The operating time per load point
depends on the gas turbine size (achievement of steady state condition) and on the time for collection of the
operating values.
At least 4 load points shall be tested with approximately equal intervals (between 50% and 100% load).
The gas turbine shall be tested for at least 4 hours at maximum load as limited by the control system. The
load shall not be limited by factors external to the gas turbine (e.g. test cell capacity).
For high speed, light craft and naval surface craft application, further testing may be required under certain
circumstances, and shall be mutually agreed upon between the Society and the manufacturer.
gas turbine and control system shall demonstrate trouble free running without load for a minimum of 20
minutes, before testing at load conditions.
6.5.19 The acceleration and deceleration test of the gas turbine according to the manufacturer internal
procedure shall be witnessed by the Society. The parameters of the control system governing these
sequences shall be in compliance with the approved sequences and time constants.
6.5.20 For dual fuel installations, the performance test shall be carried out using the least favourable
fuel. Gas turbines intended for dual fuel service shall demonstrate the capability to change from one
fuel to the other, e.g. liquid to gas, and vice versa, while at load specified in operating manual, without
detrimental change in operational parameters. For the purposes of type approval representative tests shall be
demonstrated for both kinds of fuel. The certification test (see [6.5]) may be applied as operational test for
the second kind of fuel.
6.5.21 Any deviations to the gas turbine internals, e.g. blades, disks, combustors, bearings, etc. from that
submitted to the Society during the design review, shall be presented to the Society in due time before the
actual test. The deviations shall be recorded in the test report. Additional testing and measurements may
be required by the Society should there be significant changes to critical components e.g. blades, disks,
combustors, bearings, etc.

6.6 Inspection of condition of parts (Borescope / tear down)


6.6.1 Borescope inspection shall be conducted following both type and certification test (FAT).
Borescope inspection may be required by the Society after sea trial.
6.6.2 No cracks or major wear shall be seen in rotating parts after testing of a new gas turbine. Minor
cracks, indents or tear in uncritical stationary parts may be accepted based on documented acceptance
criteria.
Borescope inspection of the following parts shall be conducted to the extent allowed by gas turbine design
(e.g. Borescope ports placement):

compressor (blades and nozzles)


combustor
fuel burners
gas generator turbines (blades and nozzles)
power turbine (blades and nozzles).

Proper instruments and necessary personnel shall be on site during the inspection.

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The performance test shall be carried out in a manner equivalent to standards recognised by the Society, e.g.
ISO 2314 Gas turbines acceptance tests or ANSI and ASME PTC 22 Gas turbine power plant, performance
test codes. In the case of conflict between the standards and these rules, the rules prevail.

6.6.4 Further inspection up to and including tear-down of the turbine may be required by the attending
surveyor, should there be cause to do so, such as damaged blades or nozzles, or any other parts mentioned
in the Borescope inspection. Tear-down may also be required, should the turbine fail its test due to not
meeting performance requirements, not meeting manufacturers specification, or if required by the surveyor.
After type test run sensitive parts of the gas turbine shall be visually inspected after dismantling. The extent
of dismantling shall be agreed upon between Manufacturer and Society individually. But the dismantling
should be at least such, that a visual inspection of blading, bearings and internal part of casing is feasible.
6.6.5 A report summarising findings from inspection and tear-down shall be submitted for information, part
of the report is also the documentation of the Borescope taping.

6.7 Certification testing (FAT, manufacturers works)


6.7.1 Certification testing procedure
Each gas turbine to be certified shall be tested in the factory. The purpose of the factory testing shall verify
the design premises such as performance, safety (against fire), adherence to maximum temperatures,
speeds, pressures, functionality and product quality.
6.7.2 The test bed shall be equipped in a way to provide adequate measuring data for documentation and
reporting purposes (see Table 8).
6.7.3 The gas turbine manufacturer shall prior to testing document that all instrumentation is calibrated. The
gas turbine manufacturer shall compile all results in a test protocol that shall be endorsed by the attending
surveyor and submitted to the Society for later reference.
6.7.4 The certification test shall include vibration measurements. Steady state vibration levels shall be
recorded for different speeds and outputs, in accordance to the manufacturers specification.
The manufacturer shall provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that shall be used during
the test.
6.7.5 The control and monitoring systems used in the test shall be representative of the type approved
control and monitoring system, to the extent related to the gas turbine. Deviations from the type approved
control and monitoring system, and the reasons for the changes shall be presented to the Society in due time
before testing.
6.7.6 For case by case approved gas turbines the workshop testing may be extended up to the full type
testing if found necessary by the Society.
6.7.7 Certification testing shall be performed on the complete gas turbine. In the case that the gas generator
and the power turbine have been tested separately, the Society accepts that the certification testing of the
complete gas turbine is performed on board (see [6.10]).
6.7.8 The complete intended test procedure (performance), including description of measuring capabilities
of test bed, description of safety and control system of test bed and extent of reporting (tables) shall be
submitted to the Society in advance for approval.
6.7.9 Any deviation to the gas turbine design and gas turbine dressing from that of the type test shall be
stated in the test report, together with the reason for the changes.

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6.6.3 The Borescope inspection shall be taped or photographed, as documentation during the inspection.
Documentation shall be retained at the manufacturers, and made available to the Society upon request. The
taped final Borescope inspection is part of the final report to the type test. It may be also requested for the
certification test (FAT) and after endurance test during sea trials.

6.8.1 The certification test shall include testing found necessary by the Society to demonstrate:
starting, idling, acceleration, deceleration, stopping
safe operating characteristics throughout its specified operating envelop.
The certification test shall simulate the conditions in which the gas turbine is expected to operate in service,
including typical start-stop cycles and load points.
The gas turbine shall be run for at least 90 minutes at the maximum continuous power in service.
6.8.2 Prior to the start of the certification test, the gas turbine and the control and monitoring system shall
demonstrate trouble free running at no load for 20 minutes.
6.8.3 Before and after test, lube oil shall be sampled for testing of contamination of metallic wear particles.
The result shall be in accordance with the specification of the manufacturer.
6.8.4 Test profile for propulsion gas turbine
The gas turbine shall be tested at power levels to be agreed upon with the Society. The number of steady
points of operation shall be sufficient to establish gas turbines characteristic operational values in accordance
to the intended application (see below). Prolonged operation at the 100% point is required for certification
purposes. The operating time per load point depends on the gas turbine size (achievement of steady state
condition) and on the time for collection of the operating values. To be agreed prior to testing.
Guidance note:
The steady state points are typically 100%, 90%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 10% of gas turbines output (load). Additionally prove of
overload operation (110%) is required. The set speed for the power turbine should follow the application.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

The propeller curve based on the propeller law (variable revolutions)


This applies if driving a fixed pitch propeller, water jet or controllable pitch propeller with variable r/min and
pitch limited to nominal value, or other combinatory curve.
a)

b)

At constant speed
This applies if driving a controllable pitch propeller with constant speed or an electric generator for
propulsion.
For gas turbines driving generators an additional test of dropping load from 100% to 0% is required. This
test aims to prove that the gas turbine shall not trip due to overspeed in the case of sudden load drop. It
is recommended to apply same test for gas turbines driving water jets. It shall not trigger the overspeed
protection function (no trip).
Guidance note:
The precise test details should take test facility capabilities into account. If the facilities are incapable of providing the load shed,
alternative solutions may be agreed with the Society.
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6.8.5 Test profile for gas turbine driving electrical generator


In addition to the tests described above [6.8], the requirements in Sec.1 [5.2.2] shall be verified by testing
incorporating the intended type of generator. If this cannot be done in the workshop, the test shall be
postponed to shipboard testing.
In case the tests were carried out in the type testing (see [6.5]) with the intended type of generator, the test
can be waived.

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6.8 Certification test program

6.9.1 For type approved gas turbine, after conducting of FAT in accordance to [6.8], Borescope inspection is
required. The scope of the inspection may be reduced, compared to the type approval procedure, see [6.6],
in agreement with the attending surveyor.
6.9.2 A taped report for the Borescope inspection shall not be required. The attending surveyor shall confirm
carrying out of Borescope inspection. Tear out for visual check of parts shall not be required by the Society
for type approved gas turbines, and so far Borescope inspection is carried out to the satisfaction of the
surveyor.

6.10 Shipboard trials


6.10.1 Gas turbines, subject to certification, shall be tested after installation when connected to the ships
systems and driven units. Additionally the control, monitoring and safety system of the installation shall only
in exceptional cases be the same as the manufacturers test bed equipment. Aim of the shipboard trials shall
prove safe and reliable operation in the dedicated marine environment but also to enable testing under all
possible operating conditions.
6.10.2 Although all required tests for final certification could be checked during sea trials, it may be agreed
upon with the Society to verify the correct functioning under low load, idling or even standstill conditions of
the propulsion plant.
Guidance note:
For logistic but also to reduce risks during sea trials, many tests are carried out at the quay. Typically, operational tests for turbine
driven generators may be carried out at the quay, while for direct propulsion units, sea trial remain the only alternative for high
load or dynamic condition testing. For the purposes of approval by the Society only the sea trial schedule shall be submitted for
approval. Quay tests may be accepted as final trials, as far as operation of the ship on sea is irrelevant for the applied criteria. This
can be agreed upon with attending surveyor, separate submission of a Quay Trial program for approval purposes is not required,
but should be reviewed on application.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

6.10.3 Quay testing after or during installation shall focus on typical installation items, which cannot easily
be traced back in case of occurrence of malfunctions during sea trials. Such are alarms, safety and control
functions, cleanliness and availability of lubricants etc. Additionally, low load or idling operation of the gas
turbine, so far applicable, may give the opportunity for first operational tests, correct supply lines, checking
of sensors. For Generator turbines further load sharing matters and speed control behaviour may be checked.
6.10.4 Sea trial procedure
The sea trial procedure shall be approved by the Society prior to testing.
The sea trial shall include testing found necessary by the Society to demonstrate:
starting, idling, acceleration, deceleration, stopping
safe operating characteristics throughout its specified operating envelope.
The sea trial shall simulate the conditions in which the gas turbine is expected to operate in service, including
typical start-stop cycles.
As a minimum, the gas turbine shall be run for 4 hours at the maximum continuous power in service.
For gas turbine installations incorporating back-up or emergency fuel supply and lubrication oil supply, the
changeover of supplies shall be tested. Changeover of fuel supply shall be performed at full load.
There shall be at least one false gas turbine start, pausing for the manufacturer's specified minimum fuel
drainage time, before attempting a normal start. Minimum time required for restart of gas turbine shall be
checked in order to verify that start can be achieved before thermal interlock occurs.

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6.9 Inspection of condition of parts (Borescope)

During sea trials vibration measurements shall be performed for the gas turbine. The measurements shall be
carried out according to the manufacturers specification and aim to prove normal operation in comparison to
the limits given by the maker and the results of the measurements of the type test and FAT.
In case of doubts or observation of abnormally high vibrations, especially of fast rotating shafts and their
supports, the attending surveyor may require more sophisticated measurements, including frequency
analysis and other techniques in order to detect and eliminate the causes.
Guidance note:
Especially for fast turning parts unbalances and incorrect alignment may be a main cause for vibrations, highly amplified, in cases
of vicinity of a bending resonance. These effects may be traced back also under low load conditions, since mainly dependable on
the revolutions. For this reason checking of the plant at the quay for such vibrations, before sea trials, is highly recommended, so
far the gas turbine can be run at variable speed without load.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

In special cases where the installation is of such character that the dynamic characteristic can be considered
identical with the certification test set-up, only order tracking measurements shall be required.
The manufacturer shall provide the Society with the vibration acceptance criteria that shall be used during
the test (see also [5]).
6.10.6 The acceleration and deceleration of the gas turbine shall be witnessed by the Society. The
parameters of the control system governing these sequences shall be that of the sequences and time
constants covered by the type approval.
6.10.7 The temperature of hot surfaces shall be checked during full load testing, except when the gas
turbine is fitted in an enclosure, see [2.4]. Where surface temperatures exceed 220C, remedial actions as
described in [2.4] are required. It is advised to use thermographic analyses for documentation.
6.10.8 Sea trial of mechanical drive propulsion gas turbines
In addition to the test profile defined in [6.8] the gas turbine shall be tested at power levels agreed with
the Society prior to the sea trial. The number of points shall be sufficient to establish the speed power
relationship.
Crash-stop conditions shall be tested from full speed ahead, this shall be performed in the fastest time
permitted by the controls of the gas turbine .
6.10.9 Sea trial of gas turbines for generating sets
Tests as necessary to verify requirements in Ch.2 Sec.4 shall be carried out if not performed during
certification test or type test together with the actual generator. Such trials may be also carried out as quay
tests, with full installed power sharing, control and safety equipment. However, if the generator sets are
serving propulsion motors, an additional final test under sea trials conditions is required (esp. load sharing,
drop of load).
6.10.10 Sea trials of gas turbines for high speed, light craft and naval surface craft
For high speed, light craft and naval surface craft, the test shall include full speed turn (shortest radius) in
both port and starboard directions. Vibration levels shall not increase significantly.
6.10.11 Inspection after sea trials
A Borescope inspection may be required by the Society. In such case, and if the behaviour of the gas
turbine does not call for further inspections, it is recommended to focus the Borescope inspection on already
registered files of the FAT for the same unit (see also [6.9]).

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6.10.5 Vibration measurements


The sea trial shall include vibration measurements.

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The requirements in this section apply to steam turbines used for the functions listed in Ch.2 Sec.1
[1.1]. The steam turbines are subject to certification, installation survey and shipboard testing.
1.1.2 The rules in [2] to [5] apply to the turbine, its components and its internal systems. The rules in [6] to
[9] apply to the installation and the shipboard testing.

1.2 Certification requirements


1.2.1 Products shall be certified as required by Table 1
Table 1 Certification requirements
Object

Certificate type

Issued by

Steam
turbine

PC

Society

Certification standard*

Additional description

Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is DNV GL Rules

1.2.2 For general certification requirements see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


1.2.3 For a definition of the certificate types see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

1.3 Documentation requirements - Manufacturer


1.3.1 The manufacturer shall submit the documentation required by Table 2. The documentation shall be
reviewed by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 2 Documentation requirements for the manufacturer
Object

Document type

Additional description

C020-Assembly or arrangement
drawing

General arrangement including internal


arrangement

FI, TA

C020-Assembly or arrangement
drawing

Longitudinal cross-section showing rotor(s),


bearings, seals, casings

FI, TA

C030 Detailed drawing

Giving all details for calculation of critical speed


(propulsion turbine only)

AP, TA

C040 Design analysis

Calculation of critical speeds (propulsion turbine


only)

AP, TA

Blade

C020 Detailed drawing

Including fastening device (propulsion turbine


only)

FI, TA

Casing

C030 Detailed drawing

Steam turbine

Rotor

Info

FI, TA

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SECTION 3 STEAM TURBINES

Document type

Additional description

Info

Seating

C030 Detailed drawing

See Ch.2.

FI, TA

Steam flow

S010 Piping diagram

Including supply and exhaust points

FI, TA

Lubrication oil
system

S010 Piping diagram

AP, TA

AP=For approval; FI=For information; TA=Covered by type approval

1.3.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.3.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.3.4 For details about NDT specification, see Ch.2 Sec.1 [3.1.2].

1.4 Documentation requirements - Builder


1.4.1 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 3. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the certification contract.
Table 3 - Documentation requirements - Builder
Object

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

Propulsion
arrangement

C040 - Design analysis

Torsional vibration calculation.


See Sec.1 [1] and [7]

AP

AP=For approval

1.4.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.4.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 For general design principles concerning machinery, see Ch.2 Sec.3. Special attention should be paid to
Ch.2 Sec.3 [1.1.2]. For general design requirements regarding piping and ancillary equipment, such as pipes,
filters, coolers etc., see Ch.6 and Ch.7, as found applicable.
2.1.2 Means for going astern
The main propulsion machinery shall possess sufficient power for running astern. The astern power is
considered to be sufficient if, given free running astern, it is able to attain astern revolutions equivalent to at
least 70% of the rated ahead revolutions for a period of at least 30 minutes.
For main propulsion machinery with reverse gearing, controllable pitch propellers or an electrical transmission
system, astern running shall not cause any overloading of the propulsion machinery

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

Object

2.2.1 Rotors shall have a separation margin of at least 25% (of rated speed) between critical speed and
operating speed range.
2.2.2 Turbines shall be able to withstand the temperature variations that can arise when starting, stopping
and manoeuvring.
2.2.3 The pipes of the gland-sealing system shall be self-draining, and precaution shall be taken against the
possibility of condensed steam entering the glands and turbines. The steam supply to the gland sealing shall
be fitted with an effective drain trap. In the air ejector re-circulating water system, the connection to the
condenser shall be so located that water cannot impinge on the low pressure rotor or casing.
2.2.4 The casings shall be designed so as to provide containment in case of a blade loss. See Ch.2 Sec.1
[2.1.5] This requirement does not exempt the blade fastening from being designed so as to sustain any
permissible over-speed.
2.2.5 All blades and other relevant moving parts shall have sufficiently large axial and radial clearances, so
that no harmful interference with static members can occur under any operating condition.
2.2.6 Condensers
The condenser shall be so designed that the inlet steam speed does not result in prohibitive stressing of the
condenser tubes. Excessive sagging of the tubes and vibration shall be avoided, e.g. by the incorporation of
tube supporting plates.
The water chambers and steam space shall be provided with openings for inspection and cleaning. Anticorrosion protection shall be provided on the water side. In the case of single-plane turbine installations,
suitable measures shall be taken to prevent condensate from flowing back into the low pressure turbine.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 General
3.1.1 Products shall be certified as required by Table 4.
Table 4 Certification required
Certificate
type

Issued by

Steam Turbine

PC

Society

Rotor

MC

Society

Manufacturer if auxiliary service

Individual discs

MC

Society

Manufacturer if auxiliary service

Couplings

MC

Society

Manufacturer if auxiliary service

Casing

MC

Manufacturer

Blades

MC

Manufacturer

Diaphragms

MC

Manufacturer

Steam Valve Casings

MC

Manufacturer

Object

Certification standard

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Additional description

Page 109

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

2.2 Component design requirements

Issued by

Coupling bolts

TR

Manufacturer

Alarm and monitoring system

PC

Society

See, Ch.9

Safety system

PC

Society

See, Ch.9

Speed control / governor

PC

Society

See, Ch.9

Certification standard

Additional description

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules

3.1.2 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


3.1.3 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
3.1.4 The manufacturer shall have a quality control system that is suitable for the type of turbine. This shall
also cover subcontractors.
The extent of quality control that shall be documented to the Society by work (W) certificates, or to be
inspected and certified by the Society is given in the following.
If found necessary, due to service experience, an extended scope of testing and inspection may be required.
3.1.5 Results from the testing and inspection shall be evaluated against the acceptance criteria in the
applicable NDT specifications included in the documents listed in Table 1.
3.1.6 Hydraulic testing applies for both propulsion and auxiliary turbines as given in Table 5.
3.1.7 Devices for the attachment of heat insulation (bolts, hooks, etc.) shall be welded on to the turbine
casing before the final heat treatment of the casing.
3.1.8 All rotors shall be dynamically balanced in minimum two planes.
Table 5 Hydraulic testing
Component

Test pressure
1.5 p

Main flow valves

1)

2p

1)

HP/LP crossover pipe


Turbine casings

Comments

See Ch.6
x

May be suitably subdivided. Not less than 2 bar

1) p = working pressure

4 Workshop testing
4.1 General turbine tests
4.1.1 The turbine shall be tested in the workshop and a complete test report shall be given to the surveyor.
4.1.2 Turbines shall undergo running tests that cover the whole speed range up to 110% of rated speed. For
propulsion turbines this applies to both ahead and astern operation.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

Certificate
type

Object

4.1.4 The control and monitoring systems shall be tested according to Ch.9 Sec.1 as far as it has been
arranged during the workshop testing.
4.1.5 Both before and after the test a lubricating oil sample shall be tested for traces of metallic particles
4.1.6 A visual inspection of internal parts shall be carried out to the extent as requested by the surveyor.
4.1.7 For main propulsion turbines, the following inspection procedures apply after testing:
Axial clearances in thrust bearing and clearances between blades and stationary parts shall be checked
by sample testing after the test run. The measured clearances shall be compared with equivalent
measurements made during assembly, and approved plans.
The rotors shall be lifted. Bearings, blades, wires and shroud rings shall be examined, and it shall be
verified that no damaging contact has taken place between rotating and stationary parts.
Scope of inspection of turbines for purposes other than main propulsion shall be subject to special
consideration. Opening up shall be required when any abnormalities are discovered during testing.

5 Control and monitoring


5.1 General
5.1.1 The requirements in [5] are additional to those given in Ch.9.

5.2 Speed governing


5.2.1 Turbines shall be equipped with speed governors. For propulsion turbines which incorporate a reversing
gear, electric transmission, controllable pitch propeller or other free-coupling arrangement, the governor(s)
shall be able to control the speed of any turbine that can become unloaded.
For auxiliary turbines driving generators, see Sec.1 [5.2].
The speed governors shall be able to control the turbine speed so as to avoid any relevant load shed to
activate the separate overspeed protective device.
5.2.2 In addition to the speed governor, a separate over-speed protection device shall be provided and shall
be adjusted so as to avoid transient speed beyond 115% of rated speed or beyond the permissible transient
speed, whichever is less.
Where two or more propulsion turbines are coupled to the same reduction gear, and without any free
coupling device, only one over-speed protection device is required.
5.2.3 For propulsion turbines
Automatic or semiautomatic control systems shall provide controlled load changes to avoid thermal shocks
and other unacceptable transients.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

4.1.3 Vibration levels shall be recorded in the whole speed range (up to 110%) at several speed settings.

5.3.1 Arrangement shall be provided for shutting off the steam to the propulsion turbines by suitable hand
trip gear situated at the manoeuvring stand and at the turbine itself. Hand tripping for auxiliary turbines shall
be arranged in the vicinity of the turbine over-speed protective device.
Guidance note:
The hand trip gear is understood to be any device which is operated manually irrespective of the way the action is performed, i.e.
mechanically or by means of external power.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

5.3.2 Where exhaust steam from auxiliary systems is led to the propulsion turbine, the steam supply shall be
cut off at activation of the over-speed protective device.
5.3.3 A sentinel valve or equivalent shall be provided at the exhaust end of all turbines to provide warning
to personnel in the vicinity of the exhaust end of steam turbines of excessive pressure. The valve discharge
outlets shall be visible and suitably guarded if necessary. When, for auxiliary turbines, the inlet steam
pressure exceeds the pressure for which the exhaust casing and associated piping up to exhaust valve are
designed, means to relieve the excess pressure shall be provided.
5.3.4 Starting interlock shall be provided when turning gear is engaged.

5.4 Monitoring
5.4.1 For monitoring of propulsion steam turbines, see Table 6.
Table 6 Control and monitoring of propulsion turbines

System

Item

Inlet pressure (after filter)


1.0 Lubricating oil

2.0 Bearings

3.0 Turbine speed

load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic start
of stand-by
pump with alarm

IR, IL, LA

AS

alarm

Inlet temperature

IR, HA

Filter differential pressure

IR, HA

Level in system tank

LA

Bearing temperature

IR, HA

Overspeed

Vacuum
4.0 Condenser
system

Gr 1
Indication

SH

Comment

1)

(LR)

SH

IR, LA

SH

Vacuum pump stopped


Level

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

LR or SH, if
applicable, to be
activated
automatically,
see [5.2]

AS
IR, HA

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AS

SH

Page 112

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

5.3 Safety functions and devices

Item

alarm
load reduction

Level
Salinity
5.0 Cooling water
(main condenser)

Inlet/outlet differential
pressure

6.0 Slow turning


arrangement

Overspeed

7.0 Gland steam

Inlet pressure to turbine


Exhaust fan stopped

8.0 Hydraulic
system

Pressure

9.0 Vibration

Level

10.0 Rotor

Axial displacement

Gr 1 =

Gr 2
Automatic start
of stand-by
pump with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

If non-cavitating
condensate pump

IR, LA
HA
IR, LA

AS
SH

IR, LA, HA
A
IR, LA

AS

HA

SH

IR, HA

SH

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shut down
= Local indication (presentation of values) in vicinity of the monitored component
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values) in engine control room or another centralized control station
such as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm
Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

The shut down shall be so arranged as not to prevent admission of steam to the astern turbine for braking.

5.4.2 For monitoring of auxiliary steam turbines, see Table 7.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

System

Gr 1
Indication

System

Item

Gr 1
Indication
alarm
load reduction

Inlet pressure (after filter)


1.0 Lubricating oil

Inlet temperature
Level in system tank

2.0 Turbine speed

Overspeed

3.0 Condenser
system

Pressure

4.0 Steam inlet

Pressure

5.0 Rotor

Axial displacement

Gr 1 =

Gr 2
Automatic start
of stand-by
pump with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

IR or IL, LA

Comment

SH

IR or HA
LA

SH

IL or IR, HA

SH, if applicable,
to be activated
automatically,
see [5.2]

SH

1)

IL or IR, LA

IL or IR, HA

SH

When driving
electric generator

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shut down
= Local indication (presentation of values) in vicinity of the monitored component
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values) in engine control room or another centralized control station
such as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm
Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

Only for turbines driving generators, may be omitted if LA for boiler steam pressure is provided.

6 Arrangement
6.1 General arrangement
6.1.1 The turbine exterior and the immediate environment shall be such as to prevent conceivable hazardous
situations from occurring.
All exterior surface temperature shall be less than 220C.

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

Table 7 Control and monitoring of auxiliary turbines

6.1.3 The fastening of the turbine shall be designed so as to cope with all forces due to thermal expansion,
including inlet and outlet piping. Foundation shall be in compliance with Ch.2 Sec.1 [6]

6.2 Arrangement of propulsion machinery


6.2.1 The turbine installation shall allow for efficient changeover between ahead and astern running. The
manoeuvring system shall not cause any harmful effects.
6.2.2 Any probable single failure in any of the turbines shall for an extended period of time not result in loss
of manoeuvrability, see [6.2.6].
6.2.3 Provision for turning continuously shall be arranged.
6.2.4 Efficient steam strainers shall be provided close to the inlets to ahead and astern high pressure
turbines or alternatively at the inlets to manoeuvring valves.
6.2.5 Propulsion turbines shall be provided with a satisfactory emergency supply of lubricating oil that
shall come into use automatically when the pressure drops below a predetermined value. The emergency
supply may be obtained from a gravity tank containing sufficient oil to maintain adequate lubrication until
the turbine is brought to rest or by equivalent means. If emergency pumps are used these shall be arranged
so that their operation is not affected by failure of the power supply. Suitable arrangement for cooling the
bearings after stopping may also be required.
6.2.6 In single screw ships fitted with cross compound steam turbines, the arrangement shall be such as to
enable safe navigation (minimum 40% of full speed along the theoretical propeller curve) when the steam
supply to any one of the turbines is required to be isolated. For this emergency purpose the steam may
be led directly to the L.P. turbine, and either the H.P. or M.P. turbine can exhaust directly to the condenser.
Adequate arrangements and controls shall be provided for these operating conditions so that the pressure
and temperature of the steam shall not exceed those that the turbine and condenser can withstand safely.
Necessary pipes and valves for these arrangements shall be readily available and properly marked.
A fit up test is required, see [8.1.2].
Guidance note:
With reference to Ch.2 Sec.1 [2.1.5] these possible operation modes need not be tested during sea trial.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

The permissible power/speeds when operating without one of the turbines (all combinations) shall be
specified and information provided on board.
The operation of the turbines under emergency conditions shall be assessed for the potential influence on
shaft alignment and gear teeth loading conditions.

7 Vibrations
7.1 Torsional vibrations
7.1.1 For propulsion plants torsional vibrations calculations comprising the whole plant shall be submitted for
approval.
The calculations shall contain determination of natural frequencies and corresponding critical speeds.
Regarding assumptions on propeller excitation, see Ch.2 Sec.2 [2.5.9].

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Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

6.1.2 Non-return valves, or other approved means that shall prevent steam and water returning to the
turbines, shall be fitted in bled steam connections.

8 Installation inspections
8.1 General
8.1.1 Alignment between turbine and gearbox shall be checked in the presence of the surveyor.
8.1.2 Proper functioning of safety functions and devices (see [5.3] and [6.2]) shall as far as practicable be
checked prior to the sea trial. A fit up test of all combinations of pipes and valves as required in [6.2.6] shall
be performed prior to the first sea trials.

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 General
9.1.1 The turbines shall be tested according to an agreed programme. Upon completion of the sea trial, the
complete test report shall be given to the surveyor.
9.1.2 The control, safety and monitoring systems shall be tested according to [5] and Ch.9 Sec.1.
9.1.3 Turbine vibration levels shall be measured at the same positions as in [4.1.3]. The results shall
be compared, and in case of acceptance dispute, frequency analysed in order to eliminate turbine alien
frequencies shall be carried out.
9.1.4 Oil filters shall be examined for metal particles after the sea trial.
9.1.5 The temperature of hot surfaces shall be checked during full load testing. Where surface temperatures
exceed 220C insulation of non-absorbent material covered by sheet metal shall be fitted. It is advised to use
thermographic analyses for documentation.

9.2 Auxiliary turbines


9.2.1 Turbine generator sets shall be tested to verify that requirements in Ch.2 Sec.4 are met.

9.3 Propulsion turbines


9.3.1 The minimum full load test duration is 4 hours ahead and 20 minutes astern.
9.3.2 Gears shall be checked for possible gear hammering. See Ch.4 Sec.2 [9.2].

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Page 116

Part 4 Chapter 3 Section 3

Speed ranges where gear hammer may occur, shall be barred for continuous operation. See Ch.2 Sec.2 Table
5.

Part 4 Chapter 3 Changes historic

CHANGES HISTORIC
January 2016 edition
This document supersedes the October 2015 edition.

Main changes January 2016, entering into force 1 July 2016


Sec.1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines

The section has been updated to align with the following revised and new IACS URs:

M44
M51
M71
M72
M73

Documents for the approval of diesel engines


Factory Acceptance Test and Shipboard Trials of I.C. Engines
Type Testing of I.C. Engines
Certification of Engine Components
Turbochargers

October 2015 edition


This is a new document.
The rules enter into force 1 January 2016.

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Page 117

DNV GL
Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables
organizations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification and
technical assurance along with software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime,
oil and gas, and energy industries. We also provide certification services to customers across a wide
range of industries. Operating in more than 100 countries, our 16 000 professionals are dedicated to
helping our customers make the world safer, smarter and greener.

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION


Ships
Edition July 2016

Part 4 Systems and components


Chapter 4 Rotating machinery power
transmission

The content of this service document is the subject of intellectual property rights reserved by DNV GL AS ("DNV GL"). The user
accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification
and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the
basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent.
DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge


from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

DNV GL AS

FOREWORD
DNV GL rules for classification contain procedural and technical requirements related to obtaining
and retaining a class certificate. The rules represent all requirements adopted by the Society as
basis for classification.

DNV GL AS July 2016

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com


If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shall
pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten
times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.
In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,
employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

This document supersedes the October 2015 edition.


Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter,
section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

Main changes July 2016, entering into force 1 January 2017


Sec.1 Shafting
Sec.1 [6.1.2]: Sealing is not required for shafting with approved corrosion protection.

Sec.2 Gear transmissions


Sec.2 [1.1]: Rule applications corrected in order to be in line with IACS UR M56.1.2.
Sec.2 [2.1]: Reformulated, and accept ISO calculation method also for propulsion thrusters with gear
module up to 9
Sec.2 [1.1.1]: Guidance note added.

Sec.3 Clutches
Sec.3 Table 2: Requirement for product certification (PC) is not applicable for auxiliary machinery
installation with power ratings up to 500 kW and rated torque less than 5 kNm.
Sec.3 [2.1.2]:The requirement for torque capacity to be increased according to ice class application factor
KAice has been removed, as the ice class rules have been changed.

Sec.4 Bending compliant couplings


Sec.4 Table 2: Requirement for product certification (PC) is not applicable for auxiliary machinery
installation with power ratings up to 500 kW and rated torque less than 5 kNm.

Sec.5 Torsionally elastic couplings


Sec.5 Table 2: Requirement for product certification (PC) is not applicable for auxiliary machinery
installation with power ratings up to 500 kW and rated torque less than 5 kNm.

Editorial corrections
In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

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Page 3

Part 4 Chapter 4 Changes - current

CHANGES CURRENT

Changes current.................................................................................................. 3
Section 1 Shafting................................................................................................... 8
1 General................................................................................................ 8
1.1 Scope..............................................................................................8
1.2 Application....................................................................................... 8
1.3 Documentation of shafts and couplings............................................... 8
1.4 Documentation of shafting system and dynamics................................ 12
2 Design................................................................................................12
2.1 General..........................................................................................12
2.2 Criteria for shaft dimensions............................................................ 12
2.3 Flange connections..........................................................................20
2.4 Shrink fit connections......................................................................24
2.5 Keyed connections.......................................................................... 31
2.6 Clamp couplings............................................................................. 33
2.7 Spline connections.......................................................................... 33
2.8 Propeller shaft liners....................................................................... 34
2.9 Shaft bearings, dimensions.............................................................. 34
2.10 Bearing design details................................................................... 35
2.11 Shaft oil seals...............................................................................36
2.12 Lubrication systems.......................................................................36
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................36
3.1 Certification....................................................................................36
3.2 Assembling in workshop.................................................................. 37
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................38
4.1 General..........................................................................................38
5 Control and monitoring......................................................................38
5.1 General..........................................................................................38
5.2 Indications and alarms.................................................................... 38
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 39
6.1 Sealing and protection.....................................................................39
6.2 Shafting arrangement......................................................................40
6.3 Shaft bending moments...................................................................40
7 Installation inspection....................................................................... 41
7.1 Application..................................................................................... 41
7.2 Assembly....................................................................................... 41

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Contents

CONTENTS

8.1 Bearings........................................................................................ 42
8.2 Measurements of vibration............................................................... 42
Section 2 Gear transmissions................................................................................44
1 General.............................................................................................. 44
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 44
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 44
2 Design................................................................................................48
2.1 General..........................................................................................48
2.2 Gearing..........................................................................................51
2.3 Welded gear designs....................................................................... 51
2.4 Shrink fitted pinions and wheels....................................................... 52
2.5 Bolted wheel bodies........................................................................ 54
2.6 Shafts............................................................................................55
2.7 Bearings........................................................................................ 55
2.8 Casing........................................................................................... 55
2.9 Lubrication system.......................................................................... 56
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................56
3.1 Certification of parts....................................................................... 56
3.2 Welded gear designs....................................................................... 61
3.3 Assembling.....................................................................................62
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................63
4.1 Gear mesh checking........................................................................63
4.2 Clutch operation............................................................................. 64
4.3 Ancillary systems............................................................................ 64
5 Control and monitoring......................................................................64
5.1 Summary....................................................................................... 64
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 66
6.1 Installation and fastening................................................................ 66
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 66
7.1 General..........................................................................................66
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 66
8.1 Application..................................................................................... 66
8.2 Inspections.....................................................................................66
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 67
9.1 Gear teeth inspections.....................................................................67
9.2 Gear noise detection....................................................................... 67
9.3 Bearings and lubrication.................................................................. 67

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Contents

8 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 42

1 General.............................................................................................. 68
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 68
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 68
2 Design................................................................................................69
2.1 Torque capacities............................................................................ 69
2.2 Strength and wear resistance...........................................................69
2.3 Emergency operation.......................................................................69
2.4 Type testing................................................................................... 70
2.5 Hydraulic/pneumatic system.............................................................70
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................70
3.1 Certification....................................................................................70
3.2 Ancillaries...................................................................................... 70
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................70
4.1 Function testing.............................................................................. 70
5 Control, alarm and safety functions and indication............................ 71
5.1 Summary....................................................................................... 71
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 72
6.1 Clutch arrangement.........................................................................72
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 72
7.1 Engaging operation......................................................................... 72
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 72
8.1 Alignment...................................................................................... 72
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 72
9.1 Operating of clutches...................................................................... 72
Section 4 Bending compliant couplings.................................................................73
1 General.............................................................................................. 73
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 73
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 73
2 Design................................................................................................74
2.1 General..........................................................................................74
2.2 Criteria for dimensioning..................................................................74
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................75
3.1 Certification....................................................................................75
3.2 Inspection and testing of parts......................................................... 75
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................75
4.1 Balancing....................................................................................... 75

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Contents

Section 3 Clutches.................................................................................................68

5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication..................................76


5.1 General..........................................................................................76
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 76
6.1 Coupling arrangement..................................................................... 76
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 76
7.1 General..........................................................................................76
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 76
8.1 Alignment...................................................................................... 76
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 76
9.1 General..........................................................................................76
Section 5 Torsionally elastic couplings................................................................. 77
1 General.............................................................................................. 77
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 77
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 77
2 Design................................................................................................81
2.1 General..........................................................................................81
2.2 Criteria for dimensioning..................................................................81
2.3 Type testing................................................................................... 83
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................85
3.1 Certification....................................................................................85
3.2 Inspection and testing of parts......................................................... 85
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................85
4.1 Stiffness verification........................................................................ 85
4.2 Bonding tests................................................................................. 86
4.3 Balancing....................................................................................... 86
5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication..................................86
5.1 General..........................................................................................86
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 88
6.1 Coupling arrangement..................................................................... 88
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 88
7.1 General..........................................................................................88
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 88
8.1 Alignment...................................................................................... 88
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 89
9.1 Elastic elements..............................................................................89
Changes historic................................................................................................ 90

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Contents

4.2 Stiffness verification........................................................................ 76

1 General
1.1 Scope
1.1.1 Calculation methods
The Society has several alternative advanced shaft design requirements in addition to the acceptance criteria
based on IACS UR M68.
This section of the rules contains three calculation setups
Simplified diameter formulae for plants with low torsional vibration such as geared plants or direct driven
plants with elastic coupling
Simplified diameter formulae for stainless steel shafts subjected to sea water and with low torsional
vibration
Simplified calculation method for shafts in direct coupled plants.

1.2 Application
1.2.1 Shafting is defined as the following elements:
shafts
rigid couplings as flange couplings, shrink-fit couplings, keyed connections, clamp couplings, splines, etc.
(compliant elements as tooth couplings, universal shafts, rubber couplings, etc. are dealt with in their
respective sections)
shaft bearings
shaft seals.
Shafts or couplings made of composite materials are subject to special consideration.
This section also deals with the fitting of the propeller (and impeller for water jet).
1.2.2 The rules in this section apply to shafting subject to certification for the purposes in Ch.2 Sec.1. Not
applicable for generator shafts, except for single bearing type generators. Only applicable to shafts made of
forged or hot rolled steel. Shafts made of other materials will be considered on the basis of equivalence with
these rules.
1.2.3 Ch.2 describes all general requirements for rotating machinery, and forms the basis for all sections in
Ch.3, Ch.4 and Ch.5
1.2.4 Stern tube oil seals of standard design shall be type approved. Standard design is components which a
manufacturer has in their standard product description and manufactured continuously or in batches in order
to deliver for general marked supply.

1.3 Documentation of shafts and couplings


1.3.1 The Builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

SECTION 1 SHAFTING

Object

Documentation type

Shafting

Z030 - Arrangement
plan

Additional description

Info

Drawings of the complete shafting arrangement shall be submitted.


Type designation of:
prime mover,
gear,
elastic couplings,
driven unit,

AP

Shaft seals.
The drawings shall show all main dimensions as diameters and bearing spans,
bearing supports and any supported elements as e.g. oil distribution boxes.
Position and way of electrical grounding shall be indicated.
C030 - Detailed
drawing

Drawings of the shafts, liners and rigid couplings.


The drawings shall show clearly all details, such as:
fillets,
keyways,
radial holes,
slots,
surface roughness,

AP

shrinkage amounts,
contact between tapered parts,
pull up on taper,
bolt pretension,
protection against corrosion,
C040 - Design
analysis

Applicable load data shall be given. The load data or the load limitations shall
be sufficient to carry out design calculations as described in [2], see also Ch.2
Sec.1 [2.1.1]. This means as a minimum:
= maximum continuous power (kW)
P

T0
n0

= maximum continuos torque (Nm)


= r. p. m. at maximum continuous power

For plants with gear transmissions the relevant application factors shall be
given, otherwise upper limitations (see Ch.2 Sec.2 [2] for diesel engine drives)
shall be used:

KA

= application factor for continuous raster however, not to be taken


less than 1.1, in order to cover for load fluctuations

KAP

= application factor for non-frequent peak loads (e.g. clutching-in


shock loads or electric motors raster

AP

KAice = application factor due to ice shock loads (applicable for ice classed
vessels), see Pt.6 Ch.6 of the Rules for Classification of Ships

KA

= Application factor, torque range (applicable to reversing plants)


raster

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Table 1 Documentation requirements

Bearing

Shaft
sealing

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

M010 - Material
specification, metals

Material types, mechanical properties, cleanliness (if required, see [2.2.3]).


For shafts with a maximum diameter >250 mm (flanges not considered)
that shall be quenched and tempered, a drawing of the forging, in its heat
treatment shape, shall be submitted upon request.

M060 - Welding
procedures (WPS)

Welding connections details including procedures if relevant

C050 - Nondestructive testing


(NDT) plan

Type extent and acceptance criteria for NDT

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Drawings of separate thrust bearings, shaft bearings shall be submitted. The


drawings shall show all details as dimensions with tolerances, material types,
and (for bearings) the lubrication system. (Drawings of ball and roller bearings
need not to be submitted.) For separate main thrust bearings the mechanical
properties of the bearing housing and foundation bolts.

AP

C040 - Design
analysis

For separate thrust bearings, calculation of hydrodynamic lubrication


properties.

AP

S020 - Piping and


instrumentation
diagram (P & ID)

Control and monitoring system, including set-points and delays.

Q040 - Quality
survey plan (QSP)

Documentation of the manufacturer's quality control with regard to inspection


and testing of materials and parts.

FI, R

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Drawings oil seals shall be submitted. The drawings shall show all details as
dimensions with tolerances, material types. The maximum permissible lateral
movements for shaft oil seals shall be specified.

AP,
TA

Q040 - Quality
survey plan (QSP)

Documentation of the manufacturer's quality control with regard to inspection


and testing of materials and parts.

FI, R

AP

FI

FI

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information


ACO = As carried out; L = Local handling; R = On request; TA = Covered by type approval; VS = Vessel specific

1.3.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.3.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.3.4 Applicable load data shall be given. The load data or the load limitations shall be sufficient to carry out
design calculations as described in [2], see also Ch.2 Sec.3 [2.1.1]. This means as a minimum:

= maximum continuous power (kW)

n0

= r/min at maximum continuous power.

or T0 = maximum continuous torque (Nm)

For plants with gear transmissions the relevant application factors shall be given, otherwise upper limitations
(see Ch.2 Sec.2 for diesel engine drives) shall be used:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Object

application factor for continuous operation

however, not to be taken less than 1.1, in order to cover for load fluctuations
KAP

application factor for non-frequent peak loads (e.g. clutching-in shock loads or
electric motors with star delta switch)

KAice

application factor due to ice shock loads (applicable for ice classed vessels), see: Pt.6
Ch.6 of the Rules for Classification of Ships

Application factor, torque range (applicable to reversing plants)

As a safe simplification it may be assumed that

whichever is the highest.


Where:
Tv

vibratory torque for continuous operation in the full speed range (~ 90 100% of
n0)

nominal vibratory torsional stress for continuous operation in the full speed range

nominal mean torsional stress at maximum continuous power

max reversed

maximum reversed torsional stress, which is the maximum value of ( +


entire speed range (for astern running), or
the highest.

v) in the

ice rev (for astern running) whichever is

For direct coupled plants (i.e. plants with no elastic coupling or gearbox) the following data shall be given:

= nominal vibratory torsional stress for continuous operation in the entire speed range. See torsional
vibration in Ch.2 Sec.2

vT

= nominal vibratory torsional stress for transient operation (e.g. passing through a barred speed
range) and the corresponding relevant number of cycles NC. See torsional vibration in Ch.2 Sec.2.

Reversing torque if limited to a value less than T0.


For all kinds of plants the necessary parameters for calculation of relevant bending stresses shall be
submitted.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

KA

1.4.1 Torsional vibration see Ch.2 Sec.2.


Lateral (whirling) and axial vibration see Ch.2 Sec.3.
Shaft alignment see Ch.2 Sec.4.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 The shafting shall be designed for all relevant load conditions such as rated power, reversing loads,
foreseen overloads, transient conditions, etc. including all driving conditions under which the plant may be
operated. For further design principles see Ch.2 Sec.1 [2.1.1].
2.1.2 Determination of loads under the driving conditions specified in [2.1.1] is described in [6] and [7] as
well as in Ch.2 Sec.2, Ch.2 Sec.3 and Ch.2 Sec.4.

2.2 Criteria for shaft dimensions


2.2.1 Shafts shall be designed to prevent fatigue failure and local deformation. Simplified criteria for the
most common shaft applications are given in [2.2.6], [2.2.7] and [2.2.8].
Guidance note:
Class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 offers detailed methods on how to assess the safety factor criteria mentioned in Table 2.
Alternative methods may also be considered on the basis of equivalence.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

It is sufficient that either the detailed criteria in class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 or the simplified criteria
are fulfilled. In addition, the shafts shall be designed to prevent rust or detrimental fretting that may cause
fatigue failures, see also [2.4.2].
2.2.2 The major load conditions to be considered are:
3

low cycle fatigue (10 to 10 cycles) due to load variations from zero to full load, clutching-in shock loads,
5
reversing torques, etc. In special cases, such as short range ferries higher number of cycles (~10 cycles)
may apply
6
high cycle fatigue (>>310 cycles) due to rotating bending and torsional vibration
6
7
ice shock loads (10 to 10 cycles), applicable to vessels with ice class notations and ice breakers
4
6
transient vibration when passing through a barred speed range (10 to 310 cycles).
2.2.3 For applications where it may be necessary to take the advantage of tensile strength above 800 MPa
and yield strength above 600 MPa, material cleanliness has an increasing importance. Higher cleanliness
than specified by material standards shall be required (preferably to be specified according to ISO 4947).
Furthermore, special protection against corrosion is required. Method of protection shall be approved.
Table 2 Shaft safety factors
Criteria

Safety factor, S

Low cycle (NC < 10 stress cycles)

1.25

High cycle (NC >> 310 stress cycles)

1.6

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

1.4 Documentation of shafting system and dynamics

Safety factor, S

Transient vibration when passing through a barred speed range:


4
6
(10 < NC < 310 stress cycles)

Linear interpolation (log-logN diagram) between the


low cycle, peak stresses criterion with S = 1.25 and
the high cycle criterion with S = 1.5. For propeller
shafts in way of and aft of the aft stern tube bearing,
the bending influence is covered by an increase of S
by 0.05.

2.2.4 Stainless steel shafts shall be designed to avoid cavities (pockets) where the sea water may remain
un-circulated (e.g. in keyways). For other materials than stainless steel I, II and III as defined in Table 4,
fatigue values and pitting corrosion resistance shall be specified and specially approved.
2.2.5 The shaft safety factors for the different applications and criteria detailed in class guideline DNVGL CG
0038 shall be, at least, in accordance with Table 2. See also guidance note in [2.2.1].
2.2.6 Simplified diameter formulae is valid for plants with low torsional vibration (IACS M 68.4), such as
geared plants or direct driven plants with elastic coupling.
The simplified method for direct evaluation of the minimum diameters d for various design features are based
on the following assumptions:

y limited to 0.7 B (for calculation purpose only)


application factors KAice (see Pt.6 Ch.6) and KAP 1.4
vibratory torque Tv 0.35 T0 in all driving conditions
application factor, torque range KA 2.7
inner diameters di 0.5 d0 except for the oil distribution shaft with longitudinal slot where di 0.77 d0
protection against corrosion (through oil, oil based coating, material selection or dry atmosphere).

If any of these assumptions are not fulfilled, the detailed method in class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 may be
used, see guidance note in [2.2.1].
The simplified method results in larger diameters than the detailed method. It distinguishes between:
low strength steels with B 600 MPa which have a low notch sensitivity, and
high strength steels with B > 600 MPa such as alloyed quenched and tempered steels and carbon steels
with a high carbon content that all are assumed to have a high notch sensitivity.
a)

Low cycle criterion:

k1
y
b)

= Factor for different design features, see Table 3.


= Yield strength or 0.2% proof stress limited to 600 MPa for calculation purposes only

High cycle criterion:

Mb

k2, k3

= Bending moment (Nm), due to hydrodynamic forces on propeller, propeller weight or


other relevant sources from the list in [6.2.2]
For bending moments due to reactions from T0 as for gear shafts, Mb shall include the
KA factor of 1.35
= Factors for different design features, see Table 3

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Criteria

Table 3 Factors k1, k2 and k3


Design feature

Torsion only

Combined torsion
and bending

Specified tensile strength B (Mpa)

600
k1

>600
k1

600
k2

>600
k2

k3

Plain shaft or flange fillet with multi-radii design, see B208, Ra 6.4

1.00

1.00

1.09

1.13

13

Keyway (semicircular), bottom radius r 0.015 d, Ra 1.6

1.16

1.27

1.43

1.46

Keyway (semicircular), bottom radius r 0.005 d, Ra 1.6

1.28

1.44

1.63

1.66

11

Flange fillet r/d 0.05, t/d 0.20, Ra 3.2

1.05

1.10

1.23

1.26

19

Flange fillet r/d 0.08 t/d 0.20, Ra 3.2

1.04

1.09

1.21

1.24

18

Flange fillet r/d 0.16 t/d 0.20, Ra 3.2

1.00

1.04

1.16

1.18

16

Flange fillet r/d 0.24 t/d 0.20, Ra 3.2

1.00

1.03

1.14

1.17

15

Flange for propeller r/d 0.10, t/d 0.25, Ra 3.2

1.02

1.06

1.17

1.20

17

Radial hole, dh 0.2 d, Ra 0.8

1.10

1.19

1.36

1.38

18

Shrink fit edge, with one keyway

1.00

1.05

1.15

1.22

34

Shrink fit edge, keyless

1.00

1.05

1.13

1.22

28

1.00

1.00

1.05

1.10

15

Shoulder fillet r/d 0.02, D/d 1.1, Ra 3.2

1.05

1.10

1.21

1.25

22

Shoulder fillet r/d 0.1, D/d 1.1, Ra 3.2

1.00

1.03

1.14

1.17

16

Shoulder fillet r/d 0.2, D/d 1.1, Ra 3.2

1.0

1.01

1.12

1.15

13

1.00

1.04

1.15

1.17

16

1.17

1.28

1.38

1.40

27

1.49

1.69

Splines (involute type)

1)

1)

Relief groove , D/d = 1.1, D-d 2 r, Ra 1.6


Groove

1)

for circlip, D-d 2 b, D-d 7.5 r, Ra 1.6


2)

Longitudinal slot
in oil distribution shaft, di 0.77 d, 0.05 d e 0.2
d,
(1 e) 0.5 d, Ra 1.6
1)

applicable to root diameter of notch

2)

applicable for slots with outlets each 180 and for outlets each 120

2.2.7 Simplified diameter formulae for stainless steel shafts subjected to sea water and with low torsional
vibration.
This simplified method for direct evaluation of minimum diameters dmin for various design features are
based on the same conditions as in [2.2.6] except that the protection against corrosion now is protection
against crevice corrosion. This means that e.g. keyways shall be sealed in both ends and thus the calculation
in [2.2.6] applies for such design features. However, for craft where the shaft is stationary for some
considerable time, measures should be taken to avoid crevice corrosion in way of the bearings e.g.
periodically rotation of shaft or flushing. It is distinguished between 3 material types, see Table 4. The
9
10
simplified method is only valid for shafts accumulating 10 to 10 cycles.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

The higher value for dmin from A and B applies. However, for shafts loaded in torsion
only, it is sufficient to calculate dmin according to A.

Material type

Main structure

Main alloy elements

Mechanical properties

% Cr

% Ni

% Mo

y = 0.2

Stainless steel I

Austenitic

1618

1014

500600

0.45 B

Stainless steel II

Martensitic

1517

46

8501000

0.75 B

Stainless steel III

Ferritic-austenitic (duplex)

2527

47

1-2

600750

0.65 B

a)

The low cycle criterion:

k1

= Factor for different design features, see Table 5.

For shafts with significant bending moments the formula shall be multiplied with:

b)

The high cycle criterion:

Mb

= Bending moment (Nm), e.g. due to propeller or impeller weight or other relevant sources
mentioned in [6.2.2]. However, the stochastic extreme moment in [6.3.1] item 2) shall not be
used for either low or high cycle criteria

k3

= Factor for different design features, see Table 5.

The highest value for dmin from a) and b) applies.


Table 5 Factors k1 and k3
A. Low cycle

B. High cycle

Stainless Steel
Design feature

2)

Plain shaft

1)

II and III

I, II and III

k1

k1

k3

1.00

1.00

14

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Table 4 Stainless steel types

Shrink fit edge, keyless

1.04

1.08

19

The area under the edge is not subject to sea water, thus calculated
according to [2.2.6]

1)

According to Table 4

2)

Surface roughness Ra < 1.6 applies for all design features

2.2.8 Simplified calculation method for shafts in direct coupled plants. IACS UR M68
1)

2)

This method may also be used for other intermediate and propeller shafts that are mainly subjected to
torsion. Shafts subjected to considerable bending, such as in gearboxes, thrusters, etc. as well as shafts
in prime movers are not included.
Further, additional strengthening for ships classed for navigation in ice is not covered by this method.
The method has following material limitations IACS M68.3:
Where shafts may experience vibratory stresses close to the permissible stresses for transient operation,
the materials shall have a specified minimum ultimate tensile strength (B) of 500 MPa. Otherwise
materials having a specified minimum ultimate tensile strength (B) of 400 MPa may be used.
Close to the permissible stresses for transient operation means more than 70% of permissible value.
For use in the formulae in this method, B is limited as follows:
For C and C-Mn steels up to 600 MPa for use in item 4, and up to 760 MPa for use in item 3.
For alloy steels up to 800 MPa.
For propeller shafts up to 600 MPa (for all steel types).
Where materials with greater specified or actual tensile strengths than the limitations given above are
used, reduced shaft dimensions or higher permissible stresses are not acceptable when derived from the
formulae in this method.

3)

Shaft diameter IACS UR M68.4 (Rule diameter):


Shaft diameter shall result in acceptable torsional vibration stresses, see item 4) or in any case not to be
less than determined from the following formula:

where

dmin

= minimum required diameter unless larger diameter is required due to torsional vibration
stresses, see item 4)

di
d0

= actual diameter of shaft bore (mm)


= actual outside diameter of shaft (mm).
4

If the shaft bore is 0.40 d0, the expression 1 di /d0 may be taken as 1.0

= factor for type of propulsion installation


= 95 for intermediate shaft in turbine installation, diesel installation with hydraulic (slip type)
couplings, electric propulsion installation
= 100 for all other diesel installations and propeller shafts

= factor for particular shaft design features, see item 5

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Propeller flange r/d 0.10


t/d 0.25

= shaft speed (rpm) at rated power


= rated power (kW) transmitted through the shaft (losses in bearings shall be disregarded)
= specified minimum tensile strength (MPa) of shaft material, see item 2.

The diameter of the propeller shaft located forward of the inboard stern tube seal may be gradually
reduced to the corresponding diameter for the intermediate shaft using the minimum specified tensile
strength of the propeller shaft in the formula and recognising any limitation given in item 2).
4)

Permissible torsional vibration stresses IACS UR M68.5:


The alternating torsional stress amplitude shall be understood as (max
a relevant condition over a repetitive cycle.

min)/2 measured on a shaft in

Torsional vibration calculations shall include normal operation and operation with any one cylinder
misfiring (i.e. no injection but with compression) giving rise to the highest torsional vibration stresses in
the shafting.
For continuous operation the permissible stresses due to alternating torsional vibration shall not exceed
the values given by the following formulae:
for

< 0.9

for 0.9

< 1.05

where:

C
B
cK
cD
d0

n
n0

= stress amplitude (MPa) due to torsional vibration for continuous operation


= specified minimum tensile strength (MPa) of shaft material, see item 2)
= factor for particular shaft design, see item 5)
-0.2

= size factor, = 0.35 + 0.93 do

= actual shaft outside diameter (mm)


= speed ratio = n/n0
= speed (rpm) under consideration
= speed (rpm) of shaft at rated power.

Where the stress amplitudes exceed the limiting value of C for continuous operation, including one
cylinder misfiring conditions if intended to be continuously operated under such conditions, restricted
speed ranges shall be imposed, which shall be passed through rapidly.
In this context, rapidly means within just a few seconds, 4-5 seconds, both upwards and downwards.
Exceeding this time may require extended documentation of fatigue capacity. Detailed requirements for
barred speed range are found in Ch.2 Sec.2 [2.5] and verification in Ch.2 Sec.2 [3.1].
Guidance note:
In order to increase fatigue capacity of flanged shafts (except propeller flange) stress concentration factor should be less
than 1.05. This may be obtained by means of a multi-radii design such as e.g. starting with r1 = 2.5 d tangentially to the
shaft over a sector of 5, followed by r2 = 0.65 d over the next 20 and finally r3 = 0.09 d over the next 65 (d = actual
shaft outside diameter). A calculation method which is taking into account the accumulated number of load cycles and their
magnitude during passage of the barred speed range, may be used, see Guidance note to [2.2.1].
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

n0
P
B

The limits of the barred speed range shall be determined as follows:


the barred speed range shall cover all speeds where C is exceeded. For controllable pitch propellers
with the possibility of individual pitch and speed control, both full and zero pitch conditions have to be
considered
the tachometer tolerance (usually 0.01n0) has to be added in both ends
at each end of the barred speed range the engine shall be stable in operation.
For the passing of the barred speed range the torsional vibrations for steady state condition shall not
exceed the value given by the formula:

where:
2

T
5)

= permissible stress amplitude in N/mm due to steady state torsional vibration in a barred
speed range.

Table 6 shows k and cK factors for different design features. IACS UR M68.6
Transitions of diameters shall be designed with either a smooth taper or a blending radius.
Guidance note:
For guidance, a blending radius equal to the change in diameter is recommended.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

Figure 1 Intersection between a radial and an eccentric axial bore


6)

Notes:
A. Shafts complying with this method IACS UR M68.7 satisfy the load conditions in [2.2.2].
a)

Low cycle fatigue criterion (typically < 10 ), i.e. the primary cycles represented by zero to full load
and back to zero, including reversing torque if applicable. This is addressed by the formula in item
3).

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Restricted speed ranges in normal operating conditions are not acceptable above = 0.8. Restricted
speed ranges in one-cylinder misfiring conditions of single propulsion engine ships shall enable safe
navigation.

c)

High cycle fatigue criterion (typically >>10 ), i.e. torsional vibration stresses permitted for
continuous operation as well as reverse bending stresses. For limits for torsional vibration stresses
see item 4).
The influence of reverse bending stresses is addressed by the safety margins inherent in the formula
in item 3.
The accumulated fatigue due to torsional vibration when passing through a barred speed range
or any other transient condition with associated stresses beyond those permitted for continuous
operation is addressed by the criterion for transient stresses, item 4).

B. Explanation of k and cK.


The factors k (for low cycle fatigue) and cK (for high cycle fatigue) take into account the influence of:
The stress concentration factors (scf) relative to the stress concentration for a flange with fillet radius
of 0.08 d0 (geometric stress concentration of approximately 1.45).

where the exponent x considers low cycle notch sensitivity.


The notch sensitivity. The chosen values are mainly representative for soft steels (B < 600),
while the influence of steep stress gradients in combination with high strength steels may be
underestimated.
The size factor cD being a function of diameter only does not purely represent a statistical size
influence, but rather a combination of this statistical influence and the notch sensitivity.
The actual values for k and cK are rounded off.
C. Stress concentration factor of slots
The stress concentration factor (scf) at the end of slots can be determined by means of the following
empirical formulae using the symbols in Footnote 6) in Table 6:

This formula applies to:


slots at 120, 180 or 360 apart
slots with semi-circular ends. A multi-radii slot end can reduce the local stresses, but this is not
included in this empirical formula.
slots with no edge rounding (except chamfering), as any edge rounding increases the scf slightly.

t(hole) represents the stress concentration of radial holes (in this context e = hole diameter), and can be
determined from:
or simplified to:

t(hole) = 2.3.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

b)

Thrust shafts
external to

Intermediate shafts with

Propeller shafts

engines

k = 1.0
cK = 1.0

1.0
1.0

1.10
0.60

1.10
0.45

6)

On
both
sides
of
thrust
collar

Longitudinal slot

Keyway, cylindrical
3)4)
connection

2)

Radial
5)
hole

3)4)

Shrink fit
coupling

Keyway, tapered connection

Integral
coupling
flange
1)
and
straight
sections

1.10
0.50

1)

Flange
mounted
1)
or
keyless
taper
fitted
propellers

Key fitted
propellers

Between
forward
end of
aft most
bearing
and
forward
stern
tube seal

8)

8)

1.20
0.30

In way of
bearing
when
a roller
bearing
is used

7)

1.10

1.10

1.22

1.26

1.15

0.85

0.85

0.55

0.55

0.80

Footnotes
1)

Fillet radius shall not be less than 0.08 d0.

2)

k and cK refer to the plain shaft section only. Where shafts may experience vibratory stresses close to the
permissible stresses for continuous operation, an increase in diameter to the shrink fit diameter shall be provided,
e.g. a diameter increase of 1 to 2% and a blending radius.

3)

At a distance of not less than 0.2 d0 from the end of the keyway the shaft diameter may be reduced to the diameter
calculated with k = 1.0.

4)

Keyways are not to be used in installations with a barred speed range.

5)

Diameter of radial bore not to exceed 0.3 d0.


The intersection between a radial and an eccentric axial bore (see Figure 1) is not covered by this method.

6)

Subject to limitations as slot length (l)/outside diameter < 0.8, and inner diameter (di)/outside diameter < 0.7 and
slot width (e)/outside diameter > 0.15. The end rounding of the slot shall not be less than e/2. An edge rounding
should preferably be avoided as this increases the stress concentration slightly. The k and cK values are valid for 1, 2
and 3 slots, i.e. with slots at 360, respectively 180 and 120 apart.

7)

cK = 0.3 is an safe approximation within the limitations in 6). More accurate estimate of the stress concentration
factor (scf) may be determined from the formulae in item 6 or by direct application of FE calculation. In which case:
cK = 1.45/scf.
Note that the scf is defined as the ratio between the maximum local principal stress and

times the nominal

torsional stress (determined for the bored shaft without slots).


8)

Applicable to the portion of the propeller shaft between the forward edge of the aftermost shaft bearing and the
forward face of the propeller hub (or shaft flange), but not less than 2.5 times the required diameter.

2.3 Flange connections


2.3.1 In [2.3] some relevant kinds of flange connections for shafts are described with regard to design
criteria. Note that KA in this context means the highest value of the normal- or misfiring KA and KAP and KAice.
In [2.3.2] and [2.3.3] the parameter d is referred to as the required shaft diameter for a plain shaft without
inner bore. This means the necessary diameter for fulfilling whichever shaft dimensioning criteria are used,
see [2.2.1]. For certain stress based criteria the necessary diameter is not directly readable. In those cases

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Table 6 k and cK factors for different design features

2.3.2 Flanges (except those with significant bending such as pinion and wheel shafts and propeller- and
impeller fitting) shall have a thickness, t at the outside of the transition to the (constant) fillet radius, r, which
is not less than:

d
r

= the required plain, solid shaft diameter, see [2.3.1]


= flange fillet radius.

For multi-radii fillets the flange thickness shall not be less than 0.2 d.
In addition, the following applies:
recesses for bolt holes shall not interfere with the flange fillet, except where the flanges are reinforced
correspondingly
for flanges with shear bolts or shear pins:

db
y,bolt
y,flange

= diameter of shear bolt or pin


= yield strength of shear bolt or pin
= yield strength of flange.

2.3.3 Flanges with significant bending as pinion and wheel shafts, and propeller and impeller fittings shall
have a minimum thickness of:

d
r

= the required plain, solid shaft diameter, see [2.3.1]


= flange fillet radius.

For multi-radii fillets the flange thickness shall not be less than 0.25 d. In addition, the following applies:
recesses for bolt holes shall not interfere with the flange fillet, except where the flanges are reinforced
correspondingly
for flanges with shear bolts or shear pins:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

the necessary diameter can be found by iteration, but in practice it is better to apply the parameter d as the
actual diameter.

= diameter of shear bolt or pin


= yield strength of shear bolt or pin
= yield strength of flange.

2.3.4 Torque transmission based on combinations of shear or guide pins or expansion devices and prestressed friction bolts shall fulfil:
a)
b)

The friction torque TF shall be at least twice the repetitive vibratory torque Tv, i.e.:

c)

Twice the peak torque Tpeak minus the friction torque (see a) above) shall not result in shear stresses
beyond the shear yield strength (
) of the n ream fitted pins or expansion devices, i.e.:

Tpeak

= Higher value of (Nm):


- KAP T0 or
- KAice T0 or
- T + Tv in the entire speed range considering also normal and misfiring transient
conditions

D
db

= Bolt pitch circle diameter (PCD) (mm)


= Bolt shear diameter (mm).

Guidance note:
Tv in normal transient conditions means with prescribed or programmed way of passing through a barred speed range.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.3.5 Torque transmission based on n flange coupling bolts mounted with a slight clearance (e.g.< 0.1 mm)
and tightened to a specified pre-stress pre shall fulfil the following requirements:
the friction torque shall be at least twice the repetitive vibratory torque (including normal transient
conditions), see [2.3.4]a).
bolt pre-stress limited as in [2.3.8]
the shear stress due to twice the peak torque minus the friction torque combined with the pre-stress
pre shall not exceed the yield strength y, i.e.:

= Shear stress in bolt, calculated as

pre

= Specified bolt pre-stress, calculated as

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

db
y,bolt
y,flange

2.3.6 Torque transmission based on ream fitted bolts only, shall fulfil the following requirements:
the bolts shall have a light press fit
the bolt shear stress due to two times the peak torque Tpeak, (see [2.3.4] b) minus the friction torque TF,
shall not exceed 0.58 y
the bolt shear stress due to the vibratory torque TV, for continuous operation shall not exceed y/8.
This means that the diameter of the n fitted bolts shall fulfil the following criteria:

and

Ream fitted bolts may be replaced by expansion devices provided that the bolt holes in the flanges align
properly.
Guidance note:
Ream fitted bolts with a light press fit means that the bolts when having a temperature equal to the flange, cannot be mounted by
hand. A light pressing force or cooling should be necessary.
In order to facilitate later removal of the bolts it is important that the interference between the bolts and corresponding holes are
not excessive. It should only be a few 1/100 mm, i.e. just more than the contraction of the diameter due to the pre-tightening.
Therefore, direct contact with liquid nitrogen for cooling the bolts is unnecessary and could lead to cracks in the bolts. It is also
beneficial to use bolts which are made from somewhat harder material than the shaft flange is made of (> 50HB).
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.3.7 Torque transmission based on only friction between mating flange surfaces shall fulfil a minimum
friction torque of 2Tpeak. The coefficient of friction, shall be 0.15 for steel against steel and steel against
bronze, and 0.12 for steel against nodular cast iron. Other values may be considered for especially treated
mating surfaces. The bolt pre-stress is limited as given in [2.3.8].

D
Fbolts
Tpeak

= Bolt pitch diameter (mm)


= The total bolt pre-stress force of all n bolts
= Peak torque, see [2.3.4] b).

2.3.8 Bolts may have a pre-stress up to 70% of the yield strength in the smallest section. However, when
using 10.9 or 12.9 bolts the thread lubrication procedure has to be especially evaluated, and only tightening

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Tpeak = Peak torque, see [2.3.4]b).

In corrosive environment the upper acceptable material tensile strength is 1350 MPa.
In order to maintain the designed bolt pre-stress under all conditions, these percentages are given on the
condition that the peak service stresses combined with the pre-stress do not exceed the yield strength. The
bolts shall be designed under consideration of the full thrust and bending moments including reversing. For
bending moments on water jet impeller flanges, see [6.3.1] item 2).
The length of the female threads shall be at least
0.8 d ybolt/yfemale
where d is the outside thread diameter and the ratio compensates for the difference in yield strength
between the bolt and the female threads.
This requirement is valid when the above mentioned pre-stress is utilised, otherwise a proportional reduction
in required thread length may be applied.

2.4 Shrink fit connections


2.4.1 General requirements for all torque transmitting shrink fit connections, including propeller fitting.
1)

The shrink fit connections shall be able to transmit torque and axial forces with safety margins as given
in [2.4.2] and [2.4.3]. This shall be obtained by a certain minimum shrinkage amount.
If the shrunk-on part is subjected to high speeds (e.g. tip speed >50 m/s), the influence of centrifugal
expansion shall be considered.
The following load conditions shall be considered:
A. In the full speed range (>90%):
the rated torque T0 including any permitted intermittent overload
when combined with the vibratory torque in misfiring condition the rated torque may be reduced
proportional with the ratio remaining cylinders/number of cylinders
the highest temporary vibratory torque TV0T in the full speed range. This shall consider the worst
relevant operating conditions, e.g. such as sudden misfiring (one cylinder with no injection) and
cylinder unbalance (see Ch.2 Sec.2). For determination of the vibratory torque in the misfiring
condition it is necessary to consider the steady state vibrations in the full speed range regardless
of whether the speed range is barred for continuous operation due to torsional vibrations or other
operational conditions
for any ice class notation the impact load shall be considered as a temporary vibratory torque:
(KAice1)T0
the axial forces such as propeller thrust Th and/or gear forces. The nut force shall be disregarded.
For ice class notation the highest axial force (Thice) in the applicable ice rules.
The axial force due to shrinkage pressure at a taper.
B. At a main resonance (applicable to direct coupled diesel engines):
The mean torque T at that resonance.
The steady state vibratory torque TVres regardless if there is a barred speed range.
By convention the propeller thrust, any thrust due to ice impact, the nut force, and the axial force due
to shrinkage pressure at the taper shall be disregarded.
Guidance note:
The peak torques when reversing at main resonance are not used in this context and that condition is assumed covered by
the required partial safety factors.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2)

The minimum and maximum shrinkage amounts shall be correlated to the measurement that shall be
applied for verification. For elements with constant external diameter, diametrical expansion is preferred.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

by twist angle or better is accepted (e.g. by elongation measurement). If rolled threads, the pre-stress in the
threads may be increased up to 90% of the yield strength.

3)

The taper shall not be steeper than 1:20. However, taper of cone as steep as 1:15 is acceptable,
provided that a more refined mounting procedure and or a higher safety factor than given in the rules is
applied.

4)

For tapered connections steeper than 1:30 and all propeller cone mountings where a slippage may cause
a relative axial movement between the two members, the axial movement shall be restricted by a nut
secured to the shaft with locking arrangement. Alternatively a split fitted ring with locking arrangement
may be used.

5)

Tapered connections shall be made with accuracy suitable to obtain the required contact between both
members. Normally the minimum contact on the taper is 70% when a toolmakers blue test is specified.
Non-contact bands (except oil grooves) extending circumferentially around the hub or over the full
length of the hub are not acceptable. At the big end there shall be a full contact band of at least 20% of
the taper length.

6)

The coefficient of friction shall be taken from Table 7, unless other values are documented by tests.

Table 7 Static coefficients of friction,


Hub material
(shaft material = steel)

Application
Steel

Cast iron or
nodular cast iron

Bronze

0.14

0.12

0.13

0.15

0.15

0.18

0.16

0.17

Heated in oil

0.13

0.10

Dry heated/cooled (parts not degreased or protected vs. oil


penetration; nor high shrinkage pressure applied)

0.15

0.12

Dry heated/cooled (parts degreased and protected vs. oil


penetration; or high shrinkage pressure applied)

0.20

0.16

Oil injection
Dry fit on taper
Glycerine injection (parts carefully degreased)

1)

Special friction coating


1)

To be specially approved

Marking on coupling/ propeller that glycerine shall be used

2.4.2 Connections other than propeller.


The following is additional to requirements in [2.4.1]:
1)

The friction capacity shall fulfil:


A. In the full speed range:
Required torque capacity (kNm)
TC1 = 1.8 T0 + 1.6 TV0T
(If TV0T < (KAice1)T0, replace TV0T by (KAice1)T0)
The minimum value for TC1 is 2.5T0.
Tangential force (kN) FT = 2 TC1/DS

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Otherwise the pull up length (wet mounting) or the push up force (dry mounting) shall be specified. The
clearance of an intermediate sleeve is also to be considered.

Axial force (kN):


3

FA = pDSL10 Th
(replace Th with Thice if this results in a higher FA)
(in gearboxes, replace Th with the higher value of
KAPFAgear and KAiceFAgear)
Sign convention:

for axial forces pulling off the cone such as propellers with pulling action including thrusters and pods
with dual direction of rotation and controllable pitch propeller.

p
L

for axial forces pushing up the cone such as propellers with pushing action.

= half taper, e.g. taper =1/30, = 1/60).

= surface pressure (MPa)


= effective length (m) of taper in contact in axial direction disregarding (i.e. not subtracting) oil
grooves and any part of the hub having a relief groove

With friction force (kN): FFR = pDSL10

the necessary surface pressure p (MPa) can be determined by:

Sign convention as above.


B. At a main resonance:
Torque capacity (kNm): TC2 = 1.6(T + TVres)
The necessary surface pressure p (MPa) can be determined by:

The highest value determined by A and B applies.


2)

Coefficient of friction according to Table 7.


Fretting under the ends of shrink fit connections has to be avoided. However, very light fretting is
accounted for by notch factors see class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 Sec.6 [5].

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

(DS is shrinkage diameter (m), mid-length if tapered.)

Guidance note:
If the surface pressure at the torque end times coefficient of friction is higher than the principal stress variation at the
surface, < p (see Sec.2 Figure 2), fretting is not expected. Other surface pressure criteria may also be considered. If
such surface pressure or friction cannot be achieved, it may be necessary to use a relief or a groove.
The groove may be designed as indicated below:

A good choice is D = 1.1 d and r = 2 (D d) and an axial overshoot at near zero but not less than zero.
Other ways of preventing fretting under the edge of the hub are a relief groove in the hub or a tapered hub outer diameter.
However, these alternatives need to be documented by means of detailed analysis as e.g. finite element method calculations.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

3)

4)

The permissible stress due to shrinking for the outer member (index o) depends on the nature of the
applied load, coupling design and material. For ductile steels the equivalent stress (von Mises) may be in
the range 70% to 80% of the yield strength yo for de-mountable connections and 100% and even some
plastic deformation for permanently fitted connections (see below).
The permissible stress due to shrinking at the outer diameter or at any other critical section (e.g. axial
and radial bore intersection) of the inner member (i.e. the shaft, index i) shall not exceed 50% of the
yield strength yi.
The shrinkage amounts shall be calculated under consideration of the surface roughness as follows:

Dmin

= minimum shrinkage amount due to tolerances or pull-up distance, minus

Dmax

= maximum shrinkage amount due to tolerances or pull-up distance, minus

0.8 (Rzi + Rzo) 5 (Rai + Rao) (mm)


0.8 (Rzi + Rzo) 5 (Rai + Rao) (mm).

Rz ten point height surface roughness (mm) as defined in ISO4287/1 for shaft and hub, respectively.
Ra arithmetical mean surface roughness (mm) as defined in ISO4287/1 for shaft and hub, respectively.
The lower value shall be used for calculation of the required friction torque. The upper value shall be
used for calculation of stresses in the inner and outer members. For tapered connections the shrinkage
amounts shall be converted to pull up lengths
5)

(Pull-up distance = D/2, where 2 is the taper of cone).


The following applies for shrinking within the elastic range and both inner and outer member made of
steel. The minimum and maximum shrinkage pressures (MPa) are:
-3

pmin = (Dmin/DS) (E/K) 10

pmax = (Dmax/DS) (E/K) 10

-3

The pull-up lengths (mm) are:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

In particular for a shrinkage connection with a high length to diameter ratio (>1.5) or if it is subjected
to a bending moment, special requirements may apply in order to prevent fretting of the shaft under the
edge of the outer member. This may be a relief groove or fillet, higher surface pressure, etc.

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

The corresponding pull-up force Fpull can be estimated as


Fpull = p Ds L ( + pull) 10 (kN)
3

pull

= Coefficient of friction during pull-up.

The diametrical expansions are (mm):

E
K
Qi
Qo

= 2.05 10 MPa
= (1 +

2
Qi )/(1

Qi ) + (1 + Qo )/(1 Qo )

= inner diameter of inner member/DS


= DS/outer diameter of outer member.

The minimum shrinkage pressure shall not be less than the necessary pressure p as determined in item
1).
The equivalent (von Mises) stress in the outer member is (MPa):

and shall not exceed the permissible stress as given in item 3 above.
The stress calculation of the inner sleeve shall take any expansion sleeve or compression liner influence
into account.

6)

In the case of several members shrunk on together, and all being within the elastic range, the
superposition principle shall be used.
The following applies to shrinking with a certain amount of plastic deformation in the outer member
applicable to parts that are not intended to be disassembled. The simplified approach given here is valid

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As specified in item 3 above, the stresses in the inner member (shaft) due to shrinking shall not exceed
50% of the yield strength yi. Thus the shrinkage pressure is limited to:
pi lim = yi /3
In order to keep a safety factor of 1.25 versus full plastic deformation of the outer member the
shrinkage pressure is limited to:
po lim = 1.6 yo /3 for Qo < 0.368
po lim = 1.6 ln(Qo) yo /3 for Qo > 0.368
The extent of permissible plastic deformation p (i.e. the ratio between the outer diameter of the
plastically deformed zone and DS) is limited by 2 criteria:
2

1)

2 ln(p) (Qo p) + 1 = 3 pp/yo

2)

where pp is the permissible shrinkage pressure and is the smaller value of po lim and pi lim.
2
1/2
p = (0.7 Qo + 0.3)
/ Qo in order to limit the plastically deformed cross section area to 30% of
the full cross section.
The actual minimum and maximum extents of plastic deformation are calculated as:
1/2

min, max = 0.931 (E/yo)

1/2

(DDmin, max/DS)

min is used to calculate the minimum shrinkage pressure as:


2

pmin = yo (1 + 2 ln(min) (Qo min) )/3


max shall not exceed the permissible value p.
2.4.3 Propeller to shaft connections
The following is additional to [2.4.1]:
1)

The friction capacity shall fulfil the following at a temperature of 35C:


A. In the full speed range:
Required torque capacity (kNm)
TC1 = 2.0 T0 + 1.8 TV0T
(If TV0T < (KAice1)T0, replace TV0T by (KAice1)T0)
The minimum value for TC1 is 2.8T0.
See [2.4.1]
B. At a main resonance:
Torque capacity (kNm) TC2 = 1.8(T + TVres)
The necessary surface pressure p (MPa) can be determined by:

The higher value from A and B shall be used.


2)

Coefficient of friction according to Table 7.


For propeller without intermediate sleeve, corresponding required pull-up length (mm) at 35C is:

where

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

for both members being made of steel and solid inner member, and based on modified Tresca criterion. If
these conditions are not fulfilled, a more detailed analysis applies.

= the modulus of elasticity of the propeller hub

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Eh
ES

= the modulus of elasticity of shaft.

Modulus of elasticity to be used:


5

For Cu1 (Mn-bronze) and Cu2 (Mn-Ni-bronze): 1.0510 MPa


5

For Cu3 (Ni-Al-bronze) and Cu4 (Mn-Al-bronze): 1.1510 MPa


5

For steel: 2.0510 MPa

h
S

= the Poissons ratio for hub


= the Poissons ratio for shaft.

Poissons ratios to be used:


For bronze: 0.33
For steel: 0.29

Qo
Qi

= the ratio between DS and the mean outer diameter of propeller hub at the axial position
corresponding to DS
= the ratio between the inner diameter of the shaft and DS.

The minimum pull-up length (mm) at temperature t, (t < 35C):

where

3)

is the coefficient of linear expansion

For steel:

S = 12.010-6

1/C

For all copper-based alloys:

b = 17.510-6

1/C

For propeller without intermediate sleeve, the maximum equivalent uniaxial stress in the hub (calculated
at the big end) at 0C based on the von Mises criterion shall not exceed 70% of the yield point or 0.2%
proof stress (0.2% offset yield strength) for the propeller material based on the specified value for the
test piece.
Maximum permissible surface pressure (MPa) at 0C:

Corresponding maximum permissible pull-up length (mm) at 0C:

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QOB

= ratio between shaft diameter and outer diameter of the propeller hub at thebig end of the
cone.

Note that if the hub has a relief groove at the big end, this criterion applies to the nearest section that is
not relieved.

2.5 Keyed connections


2.5.1 Keyed connections are only suitable for unidirectional torque drives with low torque amplitudes and
insignificant bending stresses. Conditionally, keyed connections may be used also for dual directional torque
drives (see [2.5.3]).
The following items shall be checked:

shrinkage pressure to avoid detrimental fretting, see [2.5.2]


shear stress in the key, see [2.5.3]
surface pressure at shaft keyway side, hub keyway side and key side, see [2.5.3]
fatigue strength of the shaft, see [2.2]
strength of hub, see [2.5.4]
intersection with other notches, see [2.5.5].

Tapered connections shall not be steeper than 1:12. However, taper of cone as steep as 1:10 is acceptable,
provided that a more refined mounting procedure and/or a higher safety factor than given in the rules are
applied.
Tapered connections steeper than 1:30 as well as any keyed connection with axial forces shall be secured
against axial movement.
2.5.2 In order to avoid detrimental fretting on the shaft under the edge of the hub, there shall be a certain
minimum interference fit between shaft and hub. For key connections subjected to bending moments a tight
fit is required. The criteria, which also apply to propeller connections, are given in [2.4.2] item 2 and class
guideline DNVGL CG 0038 Sec.6 [5].
For key connections transmitting torque only, there shall be a minimum interference fit (friction torque)
that corresponds to the applicable vibratory torque for continuous operation with a safety factor of 2.0. This
means a friction torque (Nm):
TF 2.0 TV
that may be approximated as the highest value of:
2 (KA 1) T0 for geared plants
2 (KAice 1) T0 for plants with ice class
2 Tv for direct coupled plants.
When calculating shrink fit pressures between cylindrical members with one or two keyways, the real
pressure is less than the calculated due to relief caused by the keyways. This influence may be approximated

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Corresponding maximum permissible pull-up length (mm) at temperature t:

d = TF/(128 d L (1 (d/D) ))

= shrinkage amount (mm) estimated as minimum amount due to specified tolerances or pull-up
distance, minus 0.8 (Rz-shaft+ Rz-hub) 5 (Ra-shaft + Ra-hub)

=
d
=
D
=
L
=

Ra, Rz =

shaft diameter (mm)


outer diameter of hub (mm)
hub length (mm)
coefficient of friction (0.15 may be used)
surface roughness (mm) for shaft and hub, respectively, see [2.4.2] 4).

However, smaller interference is acceptable when the shaft is dimensioned to sustain some fretting.
For tapered connections the minimum friction torque shall be provided by means of either a specified push
up force or a specified pull up length. The latter shall be consistent with Dd above. However, if test pull-up is
carried out, the subtraction of the surface roughness term may be omitted.
2.5.3 The key shear stress and the surface pressures in the shaft and hub keyways, respectively are
calculated on the basis of the applied repetitive peak torque Tpeak (see [2.3.4] B) minus the actual friction
torque TF according to [2.5.2]. Furthermore, the uneven distribution of the load along a key with a length
beyond Leff/d = 0.5 is considered empirically. If Leff/d < 0.5 then Leff/d = 0.5 shall be used in the formulae
below.
Shear stress in key (MPa):

= (Tpeak TF/S) 2 000 (1 + 0.25 (Leff/d 0.5))/(d Leff b i)

Side pressure (for contact with shaft and hub):

Leff
b
i
heff

= (TpeakTF/S) 2 000 (1 + 0.25 (Leff/d 0.5))/(d Leff heff i)

S
Permissible shear stress
in key
Permissible side
pressures
fd
For unidirectional
torque fd
For dual directional
torque with 103 to 104
reversals fd
For 106 or more
reversals fd
fS

= 2

= effective bearing length of the key (mm)


= width of key (mm)
= number of keys, if 2 keys use i = 1.5
= effective height of key contact with shaft and hub, respectively i.e. key chamfer
and keyway edge rounding considered.
= 0.3 fd times the yield strength of the key material.
= 1 fS fd times the respective yield strengths.
= torque direction factor.
= 1.
= 2/3.

= 1/3.
= support factor

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

by a reduction factor of 0.8. With these assumptions and solid shaft with steel hub the necessary amount of
shrinkage d (mm) is:

= 1.2 for the shaft


= 1.5 for the hub.
For plants with torque reversals the key shall have a tight sideways fit in both shaft and hub.
2.5.4 The tangential stresses in the hub when calculated as an ideal cylindrical member with the maximum
amount of shrinkage due to tolerances shall not exceed 35% of the yield strength for steel. For bronze or
austenitic steel 45% are permitted.
For tapered connections the dimensions at the upper end shall be used.
2.5.5 If a keyway intersects with another notch such as a diameter step, the semi-circular part of the end
should be placed fully into the shaft part with the larger diameter. If the semi-circular end coincides with the
fillet in the diameter step, a combination of stress concentrations shall be considered.
2.5.6 For propeller fitting the contact between hub and shaft shall be at least 70% with a full contact band at
the upper end, when using toolmakers blue. This full contact band shall be at least 0.2 d wide (excluding the
trace of any hub keyway). This means that there has to be a certain distance between the top of cone and
the shaft keyway, minimum 0.2 d.
For tapered couplings at least a full contact band at the upper end is required.

2.6 Clamp couplings


2.6.1 Clamp couplings shall be fitted with a key that fulfils the requirements in [2.5]. For couplings
transmitting thrust, an axial locking device shall be provided.
2.6.2 The clamp coupling bolts shall be tightened so that the coupling friction torque TF as specified in
[2.5.2] is obtained.
2.6.3 The maximum bolt stress when the peak torque (see [2.3.4]) is applied shall not exceed 2/3 of the
bolt yield strength.
2.6.4 The hub stress determined in a simplified way as the bolt pre-stress divided by the hub length times
minimum hub thickness at the keyway, shall not exceed 40% of the yield strength of the hub material.

2.7 Spline connections


2.7.1 Spline connections shall be designed with regard to flank surface duration, shear strength and to avoid
fretting (unless life time requirements allow for some). Items [2.7.2] and [2.7.3] only concern the splines;
the shaft strength is dealt with in [2.2].
2.7.2 Spline connections shall be fixed, i.e. having no axial movements in service. Working splines (which
move axially in service) shall be especially considered. Splines for normal applications shall be flank-centred
and without backlash (light press fit). Tip centring and backlash is only acceptable for connections which
have no reversed torques in any operation mode.
2.7.3 The following calculation procedure may be used for spline connections provided:
Involute half depth splines with 30 pressure angle. (half depth means common tooth height equal
one module).
Mainly torque transmission, i.e. no significant additional support force. In the case of e.g. an external gear
mesh force the outer member shall be supported at each end of the splines and the support shall be a
tight fit. Otherwise special considerations shall be taken.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

= 1 for the key

Flank pressure criterion:

l d2 > 6 000 KA T0 / HV
Shear stress criterion:

l d2 > 104 KA T0 / y
l
d
HV
y

= the spline length (mm)


= the pitch diameter (mm)
= the flank hardness of the softer member
= the yield strength of the core material (minimum of the two members).

2.8 Propeller shaft liners


2.8.1 Bronze liners shall be free from porosities and other defects and shall be designed and produced to
withstand a hydraulic pressure of 2 bar without showing cracks or leakage.
2.8.2 The liner thickness in way of bearings shall not be less than:
t = (d + 230)/32 mm
Between bearings the thickness of a continuous liner shall not be less than 0.75 t.
2.8.3 If a continuous liner is made of several lengths, the joining of the pieces shall be made by fusion
through the whole thickness of the liner before shrinking. Such liners shall not contain lead.
2.8.4 If a liner does not fit the shaft tightly between the bearing portions, the space between the shaft and
the liner shall be filled with a plastic insoluble non-corrosive compound.
2.8.5 Liners shall be shrunk upon the shaft by heating or hydraulic pressure, and they shall not be secured
by pins.
2.8.6 Liners shall be designed to avoid water gaining access to the shaft, between the end of the liner and
the propeller hub.

2.9 Shaft bearings, dimensions


2.9.1 General
Radial fluid bearings shall be designed with bearing pressures and hydrodynamic lubrication thickness
suitable for the bearing materials and within manufacturers specified limitations.
For shaft bearings with significant pressure in plants operating at very low speeds (e.g. electric drives, steam
plants or long term running on turning gear), hydrostatic bearings may be required.
The length of the aft most propeller shaft bearing shall be chosen to provide suitable damping of possible
whirling vibration.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

The length to diameter ratio of the splines shall be so that torsional deflections or bending (due to
external forces) deflections corresponding to a misalignment beyond 1 micron per mm spline length are
avoided.
Flank alignment tolerance shall be 0.5 micron per mm spline length for each of the male and female
members.

For other oil lubricated white metal bearings, higher pressures can be accepted within the limits specified
by the manufacturer. Compliance with geometrical tolerances and precision of alignment assumed in
manufacturer's specification shall be verified in cases that the nominal pressure exceeds 12 bar in static
condition.
The minimum length of the aft most propeller shaft bearing shall not be less than 1.5 times the actual journal
diameter.
Minimum permissible diametrical bearing clearance for the aft most propeller shaft bearing:
C 0.001 d + 0.2

C
d

= diametrical bearing clearance [mm]


= shaft outer diameter [mm].

2.9.3 Oil lubricated synthetic bearings


The permissible surface pressures shall be especially considered, but not to exceed those for white metal.
For the aft most propeller shaft bearing the nominal surface pressure (projected area) shall be below 6 bar
for all static conditions.
The minimum length of the aft most propeller shaft bearing shall not be less than 1.5 times the actual journal
diameter.
2.9.4 Water lubricated synthetic bearings
The permissible surface pressures shall be especially considered, but not to exceed those for white metal.
For the aft most propeller shaft bearing the nominal surface pressure (projected area) shall be below 6 bar
for all static conditions.
The minimum length of the aft most propeller shaft bearing shall not be less than 2.0 times the actual journal
diameter.
2.9.5 Separate thrust bearings
For separate thrust bearings the smallest hydrodynamic oil film thickness, taking into consideration the
uneven load distribution between the pads, shall be larger than the sum of the average surface roughness of
the thrust collar and pad (Ra_collar + Ra_pad).
2.9.6 Ball and roller bearings
Ball and roller bearings shall have a minimum L10a (ISO 281) life time that is suitable with regard to the
specified overhaul intervals. The influence of the lubrication oil film may be taken into account for L10a,
provided that the necessary conditions, in particular cleanliness, are fulfilled.

2.10 Bearing design details


2.10.1 Stern tube bearings shall be provided with grooves for oil, air and possible accumulation of dirt. Pipes
and cocks for supply and draining of oil and air shall be fitted.
2.10.2 Water lubricated bearings shall be provided with longitudinal grooves for water access.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

2.9.2 Oil lubricated bearings of white metal


For the aft most propeller shaft bearing, the nominal bearing pressure (projected area) shall be below 8 bar
for all static conditions.

2.11.1 Shaft oil seals are considered on the basis of field experience or alternatively, extrapolation of
laboratory tests or previous design.

2.12 Lubrication systems


2.12.1 These rules are valid for oil lubrication as well as for water lubricated stern tube bearings.
2.12.2 The lubrication system shall secure that the stern tube and its bearings are kept at an acceptable
temperature, that the bearings are lubricated with a lubricant of adequate quality, and that corrosion is
avoided in the stern tube and bearing area
2.12.3 For sea water lubricated system, the issue of galvanic corrosion shall be specially considered, in light
of the materials used and the design water temperatures.
Guidance note:
Proper protection against galvanic corrosion is required but in cases where material combinations give a risk for galvanic corrosion,
the anodic material should be that where corrosion damage has the lowest detrimental effect.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.12.4 Lubricant pre-treatment arrangement. In systems where the lubricant circulates under pressure,
efficient filtering shall be arranged.
2.12.5 Means shall be provided to facilitate taking representative samples of the lubricant for verification of
lubrication condition.
2.12.6 Monitoring of lubricant. are specified in Table 10. Acceptable intervals for the parameters shall be
defined.
2.12.7 For multi shaft propulsion lines where wind milling may be detrimental and considered as a normal
working condition, there shall be either:
a shaft brake designed to hold (statically) twice the highest expected wind milling torque, or
arrangement to ensure sufficient lubrication of bearings at all times.
The chosen version shall be automatically activated within 30 s after shut down.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 Certification
3.1.1 All shafts, coupling hubs, bolts, keys and liners shall be tested and documented as specified in Table 8
and Table 9 if not otherwise agreed in a MSA.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

2.11 Shaft oil seals

Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Shafts for propulsion


when torque > 100 kNm

PC

Society

MC

Society

NDT report

Society

PC

Society

MC

Manufacturer

NDT report

Manufacturer

PC

Society

MC

Society

NDT report

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

NDT report

Manufacturer

Keys, bolts and shear


pins

TR

Manufacturer

Can be omitted in reduction gears and


thrusters

Propeller shaft liners

MC

Manufacturer

Only chemical composition

NDT report

Manufacturer

Other shafts for


propulsion

Rigid couplings for


propulsion when torque
> 100 kNm

Other rigid couplings


and rigid couplings
in thruster and gear
transmission

Certification
standard*

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Table 8 Certification requirements Shafts


Additional description

According to NDT specification

* Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules


For general certification requirements, seePt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4
For a definition of the certification types, seePt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5

Table 9 Testing requirements Shafting


Testing requirements

Ultrasonic testing and Crack detection

Hydraulic testing

Shafts for propulsion including Any welds shall be NDT checked (ultrasonic testing
shaft for electric propulsion
and surface crack detection) in the presence of the
motor
surveyor and shall be documented accordingly.

Rigid couplings for propulsion


thrusters and gear
transmissions

By the Manufacturer and reported to the Society

Propeller shaft liners

Test pressure 2 bar


By the Manufacturer and reported
to the Society

3.2 Assembling in workshop


3.2.1 For shafts, hubs and liners that are assembled at the manufacturers premises, the following shall be
verified in the presence of a surveyor:

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b)
c)
d)

liners mounted on the shaft with regard to tightness (hammer test) and that any specified space
between shaft and liner is filled with a plastic insoluble non-corrosive compound
shrink fit couplings mounted on the shaft with regard to the approved shrinkage amount (diametrical
expansion, pull up length, etc.). For tapered connections the contact between the male and the female
part shall be verified as specified and approved
bolted connections with regard to bolt pretension
Keyed connections with regard to key fit in shaft and hub.

3.2.2 Shafts for gas turbine applications, high speed side, shall be dynamically balanced.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 General
4.1.1 Not required.

5 Control and monitoring


5.1 General
5.1.1 The requirements in [5] are a summary, applicable to shafting. For further details, see Ch.9.
5.1.2 Starting interlock shall be provided, whenever shaft brake, if any, is engaged.

5.2 Indications and alarms


5.2.1 The shafting shall be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according to Table 10.
Table 10 Monitoring of shafting

Gr 1
Indication
Alarm Load
reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby
pump with
alarm

Gr 3 Shut
down with
alarm

Comments

1.0 Shafting
Separate thrust bearings,
temperature

IL or IR, HA

To be provided for shaft power > 5 000 kW.


Sensor to be placed in the bearing metal
or for pads, in the oil outlet. Maximum
permissible temperature to be marked on
the indicators.

Oil lubricated fluid film


bearings, temperature

IL or IR, HA

To be provided for shaft power > 5 000


kW. Sensors to be located near the bearing
surface at the area of highest load.
Maximum permissible temperature to be
marked on the indicators.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

a)

LA

When applicable.

Stern tube lubricant ,


pressure or flow

LA

Applicable to forced lubrication.

Gr 1 Common sensor for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)
Gr 2 Sensor for automatic start of standby pump
Gr 3 Sensor for shut down

IL
IR

= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r.p.m. reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.

6 Arrangement
6.1 Sealing and protection
6.1.1 A shaft sealing shall be provided in order to prevent water from gaining access to the internal spaces
of the vessel.
6.1.2 A sealing shall be provided to prevent water from gaining access to steel shafts, unless approved
corrosion resistant material or approved corrosion protection of the shaft is used.
6.1.3 Inboard shafts (inside the inner stern tube seal) shall be protected against corrosion. Depending on the
ambient conditions, this may be provided by oil based coating, paint, or similar.
6.1.4 The propeller shaft shall be electrical grounded.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

Stern tube lubricant tank,


level

6.2.1 The machinery and shafting shall be arranged so that neither external nor internal (self generated)
forces can cause harmful effects to the performance of the machinery and shafting.
If shaft brake is fitted, it shall be arranged so that in case of failure in the actuating system, the brake shall
not be engaged.
6.2.2 The shafting system shall be evaluated for the influence of:

thermal expansion
shaft alignment forces
universal joint forces
tooth coupling reaction forces
elastic coupling reaction forces (with particular attention to unbalanced forces from segmented elements)
hydrodynamic forces on propellers
ice forces on propellers, see Pt.6 Ch.6 of the Rules for Classification of Ships
hydrodynamic forces on rotating shafts:
i)
ii)

outboard inclined propeller shafts or unshielded impeller shafts, see [6.3.1] 1)


mean thrust eccentricity caused by inclined water flow to the propeller, see [6.3.1] 1)
(Applicable to HS, LC and NSC)

thrust eccentricity in water jet impellers when partially air filled or during cavitation, see [6.3.1] 2)
forces due to movements of resiliently mounted machinery (maximum possible movements to be
considered)
forces due to distortion or sink-in of flexible pads.

6.3 Shaft bending moments


6.3.1 The shaft bending moments due to forces from sources as listed in [6.2.2] are either determined by
shaft alignment calculations, whirling vibration calculations, or by simple evaluations. However, two of the
sources in [6.2.2] need further explanations:
1)

The hydrodynamic force F on an outboard shaft rotating in a general inclined water flow may be
determined as

v n d2 sin (N/m shaft length)

-4

F = 0.87 10

d
n
v

= shaft diameter (mm)

= efficiency of the circulation around the shaft. Unless substantiated by experience, it shall not
be taken less than 0.6.

= r/min of the shaft


= speed of vessel (knots)
= angle (degrees) between shaft and general water flow direction (to be taken as parallel to the
bottom of the vessel)

In order to determine the bending moments along the shaft line of an outboard shaft (as well as at the
front of the hub), the bending moment due to propeller thrust eccentricity shall be determined e.g. as:
Mb = 0.074

D T/H (Nm)

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

6.2 Shafting arrangement

2)

= propeller diameter (m)


= torque (Nm), which may be taken as the rated torque if low torsional vibration level
= propeller pitch (m) at 0.7 radius.

The bending moment due to the (horizontal) eccentric thrust should be directed to add to the bending
moment due to the hydrodynamic force F in the first bearing span.
The stochastic bending moment due to thrust eccentricity in a water jet impeller during air suction or
cavitation is based on the worst possible scenario:
50% of the normal impeller thrust (FTH in N) applied at the lower half of the impeller, resulting in a
bending moment as:
Mb = 0.1 FTH D (Nm)

= the impeller diameter (m).

7 Installation inspection
7.1 Application
7.1.1 The requirements in [8] apply to installation of shafts, couplings and bearings in propulsion plants.
Regarding compliant couplings, see Sec.4 and Sec.5. Unless otherwise stated, a surveyor shall attend the
testing given in [8].

7.2 Assembly
7.2.1 Flange connections shall be checked with regard to:
ream fitted bolts, light press fit
friction bolts, pre-stress by bolt elongation.
7.2.2 Clamp couplings shall be checked with regard to tightening of the bolts. Unless otherwise approved,
this shall be made by measuring elongation (applicable for through bolts).
7.2.3 Keyed connections shall be checked with regard to:

shrinkage amount between hub and shaft (applicable to cylindrical connections)


contact between male and female tapered members, (full contact band at upper end required)
push up force or pull up length of tapered connections
key tight fit in shaft and hub (applicable to reversing plants).

7.2.4 For liners mounted at the yard, see [3.2.1].


7.2.5 Keyless shrink fit connections shall be checked with regard to:
circumferential orientation (marking) between the parts (not applicable to sleeve couplings)
1)
contact between male and female tapered members (not applicable for couplings certified as hub and
sleeve together and contact checked at the manufacturer). As a minimum there shall be a full contact
band at the big end
shrinkage amount, verified by diametrical expansion or pull up length, whichever is approved
draining and venting (by air).

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

D
T
H

For wet mounting, the contact may be improved by light grinding with a soft disc and emery paper in the
hub (not the shaft). A test pull up may also be used to improve the contact.
7.2.6 Bearing clearances (for fluid film bearings) shall be recorded.
7.2.7 The protection against corrosion of inboard shafts shall be checked, see [6.1.3].
7.2.8 Propeller fitting
a)
b)

For flange mounted propellers, the bolt tightening shall be verified.


For cone mounted propellers with key, the following shall be verified:
contact between propeller and shaft (e.g. by means of toolmakers blue) to be at least 70% and with
1)
full contact band at the upper end, see also [7.2.5], footnote
push up force or pull up length, whichever is specified in the approval
after final pull-up, the propeller shall be secured by a nut on the propeller shaft. The nut shall be
secured to the shaft with the approved locking arrangement. Alternatively, if approved, a split fitted
ring with locking arrangement may be used. The ring shall have a tight fit
key fit in both shaft and hub.

c)

For keyless cone mounted propellers, the following shall be verified:


1)

prior to final pull-up, the contact area between the mating surfaces shall be not less than
70% of the theoretical contact area (100%). Non-contact bands (except oil grooves) extending
circumferentially around the hub or over the full length of the hub are not acceptable. At the big end
there shall be a full contact band of at least 20% of the taper length
after final pull-up, the propeller shall be secured by a nut on the propeller shaft. The nut shall be
secured to the shaft with the approved locking arrangement. Alternatively, if approved, a split fitted
ring with locking arrangement may be used. The ring shall have a tight fit.
1)

The contact may be improved by light grinding with a soft disc and emery paper in the hub (not the
shaft). A test pull up may also be used to improve the contact.

8 Shipboard testing
8.1 Bearings
8.1.1 During the sea trial, the temperatures in all fluid film bearings (that are equipped with thermometers)
shall be checked. In case of high temperature alarm the root cause shall be identified.
Guidance note:
The bearing may have permanent damages after high temperature alarm even though the temperature does not rise on later tests.
It may be necessary to remove the shaft unless an overall evaluation of the occurrence, in agreement with the bearing
manufacturer, positively demonstrates that permanent damage has not occurred.
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8.2 Measurements of vibration


8.2.1 Measurements of vibration on power take off generators driven from the engine driven reduction gear
shall be carried out at 90%, 100% and (at least) 105% of rated (generator) speed with unloaded generator
and ship service speed under steady state operation. The measurements shall be made near both bearings in
the vertical, horizontal and axial directions. Frequency analyses shall be made in the range of 2 to 100 Hz.
Unless otherwise specified by the generator designer and approved by the Society, the vibration velocities
shall not exceed the following:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

1)

4.5 mm/s rms per frequency component for vibration caused by internal sources.
7.1 mm/s rms per frequency component for vibration caused by external sources.
For operation in a limited time period, i.e. 105% generator speed:
7.1 mm/s rms per frequency component for vibration caused by internal or external sources.
For definitions, see ISO 10816-3.
Vibration caused by internal sources is defined as those caused by the generator rotor and the shaft
couplings between the generator and gearbox. This means the 1st and 2nd order of the generator speed as
well as any coupling resonance to torsional and axial vibration.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 1

For long-term continuous operation, i.e. 90% and 100% generator speed:

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The rules in this section apply to gear transmissions that are subject to certification for the purposes
listed in [4.2.1]. The applicability is limited to gears with rating equal to or greater than 220 kW for main
propulsion, 110 kW for auxiliaries for parallel axis gears and 300 kW for bevel gears. The rules apply to the
gear transmission, its integrated components, such as coolers and pumps, and the lubrication or hydraulic
piping system.
Guidance note:
The limitation of 220 / 110 kW refers to IACS UR M56.
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1.1.2 The complete gear transmission shall be delivered with a product certificate (PC) issued by the Society
[4].

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The Manufacturer shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be
reviewed by the Society as a part of the certification contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirement
Object
Gear

Documentation type
C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Additional description
Arrangement including part list:

Info
AP

longitudinal section of the unit


Transverse section (applicable to gears with more than 2
shafts).

C030 - Detailed drawing

pinion(s)

AP

wheel(s) 3)
shafts
hub(s)
clutch(es) and coupling(s)
other power transmitting parts
Gear casing (unless the wall thickness and bearing
supports, including main thrust bearing support, are
indicated on the longitudinal section)
The plans shall show clearly all details as fillets, keyways and
other stress raisers, shrinkage amounts (also for bearings),
pull up on taper, surface roughness, bolt pre-tightening.
C040 - Design analysis

Data according to Table 2 for each gear stage. The various


data are explained in class guideline DNVGL CG 0036 and
a special sheet, Data Sheet for Gear Calculations, Form No.
71.10a, has been prepared for this.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

SECTION 2 GEAR TRANSMISSIONS

Documentation type

Additional description
For welded gears of thin rim design calculations of cyclic
stresses in the weld shall be submitted, see [2.3.2].

Info
FI, R

For gear stages where the approval is dependent upon


obtaining a certain faceload distribution, tooth contact
pattern specifications at some selected part loads shall
be requested (for approval) together with an explanation
on how this leads to the specified faceload distribution at
rated load.
Balancing specifications for high speed gears (e.g.
turbine driven) and for certain medium speed gears with
non-machined surfaces of rotating parts.
Calculation of thermal rating for gas turbine driven gears

Bearing

S020 - Piping and


instrumentation diagram (P
& ID)

Schematic lubrication oil system diagram including all


instruments and control devices.

AP

M010 - Material
specification, metals

Types of material and mechanical properties, cleanliness


(if required, see B207) "All details" means data that are
necessary for evaluation according to the relevant criteria in
B.

AP

M060 - Welding procedures


(WPS)

For power transmitting components of welded construction


full details of the joints, welding procedure, filler metal
particulars and heat treatment after welding shall be
specified.

FI

C050 - Non-destructive
testing (NDT) plan

Method, extent and acceptance criteria

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

The bearings shall be documented with:

AP

The control and monitoring system, including set-points


and delays

type of material, nominal surface pressure and clearance


tolerances for fluid film bearings.
C040 - Design analysis

The bearings shall be documented with:

AP

calculated life time of rolling bearings (L10a according to


ISO 281)
Shaft

C040 - Design analysis

For propulsion gears, acceptance criteria for shaft alignment


where shaft alignment calculations are required according to
Ch.2 Sec.4.

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information


ACO = As carried out; L = Local handling; R = On request; TA = Covered by type approval; VS = Vessel specific

1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.2.4 Particulars to be submitted for approval:
a)

Data according to Table 2 for each gear stage. The various data are explained in class guideline DNVGL
CG 0036 and a special sheet, Data Sheet for Gear Calculations, Form No. 71.10a, has been prepared for
this.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

Object

Item

Particulars

1)

Loads

Faceload
distribution
Dimensions

4)

Symbol

Comments

Maximum power (kW) on pinion

r/min of pinion

n0

Rated pinion torque corresponding to


maximum power and r/min

T0

Alternatively, a load-time spectrum may be


used. This is typical for gears designed for
relatively short life time (less than for example
a million cycles). See also Ch.2 Sec.3 [1.1.1].

Application factors

KA

Both for normal operation and permissible


diesel engine misfiring condition

Application factor for non-frequent peak


loads

KAP

For example start-up of electric motor with


star-delta shift or clutching-in shock

Application factor for ice condition

KAice

For vessels with ice class (see Pt.6 Ch.6 of the


Rules for Classification of Ships)

Maximum permissible faceload


distribution factor at rated load

KH

For bevel gears with ordinary length crowning


it is sufficient to specify the minimum
permissible face width contact in %.

2) 3)

Number of teeth

Centre distance

Common face width at operating pitch


diameter

Face widths at tooth roots

b1,2

Total face width including gap

Tip diameters

da

Addenda

ha

Minimum and maximum backlash

For double helical gears only

Angle between shafts


Tool and gear
4)
geometry

For gears with parallel axis only

For bevel gears only

Normal module

mn

In mid section for bevel gears (mnm)

Module of tool

m0

For bevel gears only

Transversal module at outer end

mt

For bevel gears only

Pressure angle in normal section at


reference cylinder
Helix angle at reference cylinder

Helix angle in the midsection

For bevel gears only

Addendum of tool

ha0

Referred to mn

Radius at tip of tool

a0

Referred to mn

Protuberance

pro

Referred to mn and excluding grinding amount

Addendum modification coefficient

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Referred to mnIn mid section for bevel gears


(xhm)

Page 46

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

Table 2 Gear data

Material

Particulars

Symbol

Comments

Number of teeth of cutter

zc

If pinion type cutter is used

Addendum modification coefficient of


cutter

xc

If pinion type cutter is used


Referred to mn

Angle modification

For Zyclo Palloid bevel gears only

Cutter radius

re0

For Zyclo Palloid and Gleason bevel gears only

Tooth thickness modification coefficient


(mid face)

xsm

For bevel gears only


Referred to mn

Material specification including heat


treatment method

See Ch.2 Sec.3, (e.g. EN 10084 18CrNiMo7-6,


Case hardened)

Flank surface hardness, maximum and


minimum
Mid face tooth root space hardness,
5)
minimum
Tooth core hardness, minimum

5)

Core impact energy (KV) of coupon test


5)
at 20C
Hardness depths after finishing process,
applicable to surface hardened gears
Finishing process

If applicable, see [3.1.7]


t550, t400
and t300

Finishing method of flanks


Acceptance level for root grinding
notches

Minimum radius and maximum depth

Shot peening parameters

If applicable

Surface roughness of flanks

Rz

Mean peak-to-valley roughness

Surface roughness of tooth root fillet

Ry

Maximum height of the profile

Tip and root relief

Ca/Cf

Lead modifications

Amount and extension


Heightwise crowning of tool for bevel gears
Amount and extension (end relief, crowning
and/or helix correction)

Grade of accuracy according to ISO


1328, DIN 3962 or ANSI/AGMA 2015A01
Lubrication

Given as depth to 550HV, 400HV and 300HV


as applicable, see class guideline DNVGL CG
0036

Type of cooling

Spray, dip, fully submerged, with additional


cooling spray, etc.
2

Kinematic viscosity (mm /s)

At 40C and 100C

FZG damage level (scuffing)

According to ISO 14635-1

Oil inlet temperature

At normal operation

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

Item

Particulars

Symbol

Comments

1)

For gears that are subjected to negative torques both the negative torque level as well as the frequency of these
occurrences shall be specified

2)

The negative torque level shall be given in percent of the rated (forward) torque.

3)

where the numbers refer to torque reversals.

4)

For specified faceload distribution factors that are considered as optimistic (see class guideline DNVGL CG 0036)
a contact pattern specification at 1 or 2 suitable part loads shall be submitted together with an explanation on how
this leads to the specified faceload distribution at rated load,

5)

Note that the rated load means the maximum rating with the application factor that is decisive for the scantlings.
However, if this application factor differs much from the application factor at normal operation, it may be necessary
to specify both faceload distribution factors.

6)

The data shall be given for both pinion (index 1) and wheel (index 2), and for an idler or planet gear, where
applicable.

7)

Applicable to case hardened gears only.

1.2.5 Documentation to be submitted for information:


a)
b)

For power transmitting components of welded construction, all requirements to documentation / approval
of welding procedure and welding shops in Pt.2 Ch.3 apply.
The bearings shall be documented with:
calculated life time of rolling bearings (L10a according to ISO 281)
type of material, nominal surface pressure and clearance tolerances for fluid film bearing
manufacturer's specified overhaul interval, see [2.7.2].

c)

For propulsion gears, acceptance criteria for shaft alignment where shaft alignment calculations are
required according to Ch.2 Sec.4 [1.3.2].

d)

For welded gears of thin rim design calculations of cyclic stresses in the weld shall be submitted, see
[2.3.2].

1.2.6 Documentation to be submitted upon request:


a)

b)
c)

For gear stages where the approval is dependent upon obtaining a certain optimistic faceload
distribution, tooth contact pattern specifications at some selected part loads shall be requested (for
approval) together with an explanation on how this leads to the specified faceload distribution at rated
load.
Balancing specifications for high speed gears (e.g. turbine driven) and for certain medium speed gears
with non-machined surfaces of rotating parts (for information only).
Calculation of thermal rating for gas turbine driven gears (for approval).

2 Design
2.1 General
Gears shall be approved on the basis of calculations.
The calculation method specified in DNVGL CG 0036 shall be applied for the following bevel gears:
Propulsion thrusters with gear module higher than 9
All thrusters with rated power 2 MW or more.
For all other gears the following calculation methods may be applied:
DNVGL CG 0036
ISO 6336 (cylindrical gears)

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

Item

2.1.1 All components in gear transmissions shall be designed for all relevant load conditions such as rated
power or overloads, including all driving conditions under which the plant may be operated. Regarding
dynamic loads, see Ch.3 Sec.1 [7].
2.1.2 Calculation based on ISO 6336 or ISO 10300
For cylindrical gears, calculation based on ISO 6336 is acceptable. For bevel gears with power less than 2
MW, calculation according to ISO 10300 is acceptable, provided the following safety factors are used:
Table 3 Safety factors
Application

Boundary condition

Pitting SH

Tooth root failure SF

Module mn < 16

1.3

1.8

Module mn > 16

0.916 + 0.024 mn

1.48 + 0.02 mn

In case of two mutually


independent propulsion
systems up to an input
torque of 8000 Nm

1.2

1.55

Gears in auxiliary drive


systems which are
subjected to dynamic loads

1.2

1.4

Gears in auxiliary drive


systems for DYNPOS

1.3

1.8

1.0

1.0

Gearing in ship propulsion


systems, generator drive
systems and DP systems

Gears in auxiliary drive


systems which are
subjected to static load

NL < 10 cycles

If the fatigue bending stress capacity of the root is increased by use of an approved metal improvement process (i.e.
shot peening), for case hardened toothing with module m < 10, the minimum safety margin SF may be reduced by up to
15 % after special agreement with the Society.

In these calculations, material data for quality MQ, stated in ISO 6336 5 shall be used. An excerpt of these
data, is given in Table 4.
Table 4 Endurance limits
2

Material

H lim [N/mm ]

F lim [N/mm ]

Case-hardening steel, case hardened

1500

430 - 460

Nitriding steel, gas nitrided

1250

425

Alloyed heat treatable steel, bath or gas nitrided

850 - 1000

370

Alloyed heat treatable steel, induction hardened

0.7 HV10 + 800

350

Alloyed heat treatable steel

1.3 HV10 + 350

0.4 HV10 + 200

Unalloyed heat treatable steel

0.9 HV10 + 370

0.3 HV10 +160

Structural steel

1.0 HB + 200

0.4 HB + 90

Cast steel, cast iron with nodular graphite

1.0 HB + 150

0.4 HB + 70

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

ISO 10300 (bevel gears).

70% in case of stress reversal at each rotation (e.g. reversing wheels, idlers, planetary gear wheels)
85% in case of stress reversal after numerous rotations (e.g. lateral thruster with fixed pitch propeller)
No reduction where one direction of rotation is the usual one and reverse rotation occurs rather
infrequently, with less operation hours and at reduced power (e.g. output stage of reverse gearbox for
ships main propulsion).
Regarding vibratory stresses, see Ch.2 Sec.2.
2.1.3 Calculation based on DNVGL CG 0036
Bevel gears with rated power > 2 MW, and all bevel gears for propulsion thrusters, shall be dimensioned in
compliance with class guideline DNVGL CG 0036. Bevel gears, as well as cylindrical gears dimensioned in
compliance with class guideline DNVGL CG 0036, shall be designed with the minimum safety factors as given
in Table 5.
Table 5 Minimum safety factors
Auxiliary

Propulsion

Tooth root fracture SF

1.4

2)

1.55

Pitting SH

1.15

1.20

Subsurface fatigue SHSS

1.15

1.20

1)

1.4

1.5

Scuffing SS

3)

1)

For medium and high speed gears as mentioned above, a minimum difference of 50C between scuffing temperature
and contact temperature applies in addition to the safety factor. However, if an oil inlet temperature alarm is
installed, the minimum difference of 30C between scuffing temperature and actual alarm level applies.

2)

If an auxiliary gear stage is arranged as a power take off from a propulsion gearbox, and a tooth fracture of the
auxiliary gear stage may cause a consequential damage to the propulsion system, the tooth root safety factor shall
be as for propulsion.

3)

Safety factors for auxiliary gears may be applied for vessels with class notations Barge, LC Naval, Patrol, Yacht
and Crew.

Due to the scatter of the FZG test results, the FZG level used in the calculations shall be one level lower than
the specified. Any gear utilising oils with specified FZG level above 12, the test results for the actual oil shall
be documented in a test report from a recognised laboratory, and/or oil supplier.
2.1.4 Application factors
The application factor KA takes into account the increase in rated torque caused by superimposed dynamic or
impact loads. KA may be determined from torsional vibration analyses, from dedicated figures given for the
specific application (i.e. thruster, anchor winch), or in lack of other data - taken from Table 6:
Table 6 Application factor
System type

KA

Turbines and electric drives

1.1

Diesel engine drive system with fluid clutch between engine and gears

1.1

Diesel engine systems with highly flexible coupling between engine and gears

1.3

Diesel engine system with no flexible coupling between engine and gears

1.5

Generator drives

1.5

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

For alternating stressed toothing, the values given for sigFlim shall be reduced to:

Provided non-listed standards other than those given in Pt.2 are proposed used by the manufacturer, a Gap
Analysis shall be presented by the manufacturer and submitted to the Society for evaluation.
Additional requirements for surface hardened gears are found in Ch.2
For case hardened gears designed according to ISO 6336 or ISO 10300, the hardening depth, stated as
recommendations in ISO 6336 5 shall be considered mandatory and inserted in the data sheet.
2.1.6 Type approval
When considered necessary for completion of a type approval process, type testing is required. Details on
this type testing shall be especially considered. For special gear designs a type approval may be pending
satisfactory service experience, as e.g. after 1000 to 3000 hours.
2.1.7 Ice notations
For gear transmissions used for vessels with class notation Ice the criteria throughout this section apply with
the use of the application factor KAice (see: Pt.6 Ch.6 of the Rules for Classification of Ships) replacing KA and
KAP provided that KAice is greater.
2.1.8 For design requirements for components delivered as integral parts of the lubrication, hydraulic
operation and cooling systems of the gearbox the following applies:
electric motors, see Ch.8
short lengths of flexible hoses or metallic compensators may be used when necessary to admit relative
movements between components. The hoses with couplings shall be type approved. Hard piping shall be
preferred whenever practically possible.
2.1.9 Regarding propulsion clutch arrangement for ships with the class notation DYNPOS ref. Pt.6 Ch.3
Sec.1 [7.3.6] and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2 [7.3.7].

2.2 Gearing
2.2.1 Gear designs shall take into account all relevant load conditions. If vibration or shock loads result in
reversed torques, this influence shall be considered.
2.2.2 For gears designed for the class notation Ice, calculations as specified in the relevant rules shall be
performed, in additional to normal, open sea conditions. The stricter of these criteria is decisive.
2.2.3 Gears designed according to class guideline DNVGL CG 0036, and classed to high grade shall be
made by use of approved, clean steel forgings, see Pt.2
2.2.4 Pinions and wheels may be made from separate forgings, rolled bars or blanks cut out of a forged bar.
Gears made from rolled bars shall have tooth root stresses crosswise to the fibre direction of the material.
Therefore, a 10% reduction of the bending fatigue strength compared to gears made from separate forgings
shall be assumed. Correspondingly, gears made from blanks cut out of a forged bar are assumed to have a
20% reduction of the bending fatigue strength.

2.3 Welded gear designs


8

2.3.1 If a pinion or wheel designed for high cycle (>10 ) is manufactured by welding, the permissible cyclic
stress range (principal stresses) in the welds and heat affected zones (HAZ) is limited to 2/3 of the threshold
value for crack propagation. This depends on the quality (i.e. NDT specification) of the weld with regard to
external and internal defects.
As a simplification the following may be used:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

2.1.5 Materials
Materials for gears shall be according to the rules Pt.2.

2.3.2 The calculation (usually by FEM) of the actual stress range shall take the full load cycle of the pinion or
wheel into account as well as the stress concentration in the weld and HAZ due to fillet radii and or shape of
the weld.
2.3.3 Welded pinions or wheels shall be stress relieved. If the stress relieving is not the final heat treatment
process (as e.g. when followed by a case hardening), the permissible values in [2.3.1] shall be reduced by
30%.

2.4 Shrink fitted pinions and wheels


2.4.1 Shrunk on pinions or wheels shall be designed to prevent detrimental fretting, macro slippage and
micro-movements.
2.4.2 The criteria for macro slippage and fretting are given in Sec.1 [2.4]. The influence of axial forces and
tilting moments shall be considered.
2.4.3 Shrink fitted rims of diameter ratio da /df near 1 (see figure below) shall have a minimum safety of
2.0 against micro-movements based on the specified repetitive peak torque. This means that the local shear
stress between a toothed rim and the hub shall be less than half the local friction (p + ) :
(p + ) /

> 2 = Flim/F

= nominal shrink fit pressure


= local radial stress due to the gear mesh force
= coefficient of friction.

The following method may be used:


The nominal tangential force per unit face width is:
Ft = 2 000 T / (b d1)

T
b
d1

= the pinion torque (Nm)


= the face width of the shrink fit surface (mm)
= the reference diameter of the pinion (mm).

The force per unit face width to be used in the calculation is:
F = Ft KA
if the movement in the axial tooth force direction is prevented by e.g. a shoulder, or if there is a double
helical gear rim made of one body.
F = Ft KA / cos in all other cases.
The shrinkage pressure p depends on the shrinkage amount, the equivalent rim thickness sv and the hub
flexibility.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

for full penetration welds which are smooth or machined on all surfaces and 100% tested for surface
defects (no linear indication >1.5 mm) and according to ISO 5817 level B for internal defects, the
permissible stress range is 50 MPa
as above, but not smooth or machined or ground surfaces, 30 MPa
for welds with inaccessible backside, 15 MPa.

= s + mn (0.85 1.1 mn/s)

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

sv
s

= the rim thickness from tooth root to shrinkage diameter df (mm).

(only valid for s >2 mn)

Figure 1 Shrink fitted rim


The load limit per unit face width Flim when micro-movement is expected to start is:

Flim
Fref
Fref
Fcorr

= Fref Fcorr Froll

Fcorr

= 1.586 2.86 10

f(b/bw)

= the reference load limit calculated as;


= 5.65 p s (0.7 + 2 )
= a correction factor which considers the influence of the hub flexibility (i.e. design and
modulus of elasticity Ehub). It is unity for a solid steel hub. Otherwise calculated as:
-6

Ehub + f(b/bw),

where f(b/bw) considers the flexibility of a hub with webs. bw is the total face width of the
webs.
-3

= 0.404 10

(b/bw) 0.01 (b/bw) + 0.09 b/bw 0.081

(equal zero if b = bw)


Froll takes into account the rolling (tangential twist) load of a narrow rim (face width bhelix) due to an axial
force component. The rolling moment causes a reduced surface pressure at an end of the face width. This is
of particular importance for double helical gears with two separate rims. Froll applies even if there is an axial
shoulder.
Froll is the minimum value of unity
or (bhelix/df + 0.02) 4.8/tan
or (bhelix/(s + 1.3 mn) + 0.4) 0.2887/tan
The coefficient of friction may be taken from Sec.1 Table 7.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

Figure 2 Shrink fitted body with especially high surface pressure (only applicable for shafts
protruding on each end)
The safety against micro-movements is:
S = (p + ) / = Flim/F.

2.5 Bolted wheel bodies


2.5.1 Bolted wheel bodies (and pinions, if applicable) shall be designed to avoid fatigue failure of the bolts
due to pulsating shear stresses when passing the gear mesh zone.

Figure 3 Bolted wheel body


Guidance note:
The pulsating bolt forces should be reduced if the wheel body is radially supported without radial clearance.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.5.2 For gear rims that are flexible compared to the hub, the stresses in the bolts shall be calculated upon
request (usually by means of FEM) for a mesh force corresponding to T0 KA. The shear stress range shall not
exceed 0.25 y.
2.5.3 Bolts used for flexible rims shall have a tight fit in the holes, i.e. any combination of the tolerances
shall not result in a clearance, or the bolts shall be ream fitted with a slight press fit.

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2.6.1 Shafts shall be designed in compliance with the shafting rules Sec.1.
6

When gear transmissions are designed for long life time (i.e. >>10 cycles), the shafts shall be designed to
prevent detrimental fretting that may cause fatigue failures, see also Sec.1 [2.4.2]. Unless torsional vibration
values are defined, the upper permissible values for dynamics as given in Ch.2 Sec.2 shall be used.
2.6.2 Shafts may be divided into 2 groups. These are shafts with:
significant bending stresses, e.g. pinion and wheel shafts within their bearing spans
no significant bending stresses, e.g. quill shafts and shafts outside the bearing spans of pinions and
wheels.
The major load conditions to be considered are:
6

high cycle fatigue (>>10 cycles) due to rotating bending and torsional vibration, see Sec.1 [2.2.6] B and
class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 Sec.4
3
4
low cycle fatigue (10 to 10 cycles) due to load variations from zero to full load, clutching in or starting
shock loads, reversing torques, etc., see Sec.1 [2.2.6]a) and class guideline DNVGL CG 0038 Sec.3.
Practically, shafts with significant bending stresses such as pinion and wheel shafts are dimensioned with
regard to stiffness (gear mesh considerations) and high cycle fatigue, but hardly ever for low cycle fatigue
because the two first shall prevail.

2.7 Bearings
2.7.1 Fluid film bearings shall be designed with bearing pressures that are suitable for the bearing metals.
The calculation of bearing pressures shall include the application factor KA.
2.7.2 Ball and roller bearings shall have a minimum L10a (ISO 281) life time that is suitable with regard to
the specified overhaul intervals. The influence of the lubrication oil film may be taken into account for L10a,
provided that the necessary conditions, in particular cleanliness, are fulfilled.
Guidance note:
If no overhaul intervals are specified, a bearing life time of 40 000 hours may be used for conventional ships and 10 000 hours for
yachts or ships and units that are not predominantly used at full load for longer periods.
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2.8 Casing
2.8.1 Inspection openings shall be provided in order to enable inspection of all pinions and wheels
(measurements of backlash and application of lacquer for contact pattern verification) as well as for access
to clutch emergency bolts (if applicable). For special designs (e.g. some epicyclic gears) where inspection
openings cannot be provided without severely affecting the strength of the design, holes for borescope
inspections may be accepted as a substitute to openings. Such holes shall be positioned to enable borescope
inspection of all gearing elements.
2.8.2 Easy access to all inspection openings shall be provided. This means that no piping or coolers etc. shall
be positioned to prevent access.
2.8.3 In order to prevent corrosion, the gear casing shall be provided with proper ventilation.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

2.6 Shafts

2.9.1 The lubrication system shall be designed to provide all bearings, gear meshes and other parts requiring
oil with adequate amount and adequate quality / cleanliness of oil for both lubrication and cooling purposes.
This shall be obtained under all environmental conditions as stated in Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of
Ships.
2.9.2 The lubrication system shall contain at least:
oil pumps to provide circulation
a filter system of suitable fineness for gearing, hydraulics and bearings (see [2.7.2]).
Guidance note:
Specification of a pressure filter for maintaining suitable fluid cleanliness may be 16/14/11 according to ISO 4406:1999 and 6-7 (c)
= 200 according to ISO 16889:1999.

if necessary, a cooler to keep the oil temperature within the specified maximum temperature when operating under the worst
relevant environmental conditions, see [2.9.1].
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.9.3 For gear transmissions for propulsion where windmilling may be detrimental and considered as a
normal working condition, there shall be either:
a shaft brake designed to hold (statically) twice the highest expected windmilling torque, or
one pump available in wind-milling condition. This pump shall be additional to any standby pump required
by other rules.
The chosen version shall be automatically activated within 30 s after shut down.
2.9.4 Gear transmissions for propulsion, provided with attached pump designed to operate at low speeds,
where the attached pump cannot provide sufficient oil pressure (e. g. plants with frequency controlled
electrical motor), the following alternative arrangements shall be accepted:
either an extra electric oil pump that is activated at a given pressure, or
no attached pump, but 2 electric main pumps of the same capacity, one of which is arranged as a standby
pump with immediate action. These 2 electric pumps shall be supplied from different switchboards, one of
which is the emergency switchboard.
Gear transmissions in single propulsion plants shall have a standby pump with immediate activation.
2.9.5 For propulsion gears the lubrication system shall be arranged so that the gear transmission can endure
a run out of 5 minutes after a black out without jeopardising any bearings or gear teeth.
This may be provided by e.g.:
an attached pump with an additional gravity tank (if necessary)
electric pumps with a gravity tank with sufficient volume and height for 5 minutes supply.
2.9.6 For gear transmissions in single propulsion plants the filtering system shall be arranged to make it
possible to clean the filters without interrupting the supply of filtered oil.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 Certification of parts
3.1.1 The parts in a gear transmission shall be tested and documented according to Table 7

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

2.9 Lubrication system

3.1.3 The requirements in [3.2] apply to the toothed parts of pinions and wheels. A flow chart and a
summary of these requirements are presented in Figure 4 and Table 7, respectively.
Table 7 Certification requirements gear transmissions
Object
Gear Transmissions

Certificate
type

Issued by

PC

Society

Certification
standard

Additional description
Certificate shall be based on:
Design approval
Component certification
Workshop testing

Pinion and wheel

PC

Society

Pinion and wheel

PC

Manufacturer

MC

Manufacturer

NDT

Manufacturer

Built in clutches, bending


compliant and elastic
couplings

PC

Society

Shafts, rigid couplings and


hubs

PC

Manufacturer

Welded gears and casings

MC

Manufacturer

Including heat treatment

NDT

Manufacturer

X-ray, UT, Crack detection


As specified. To be carried out after
final heat treatment.

TR

Manufacturer

Bolts and keys

If subcontracted
ISO 1328

Dimensions / tolerances

If subcontracted

As detailed
in Sec.1

* Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.


For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

3.1.2 Further details regarding the testing of pinion and wheel (toothed parts) in the different heat treatment
conditions are stated in [3.2] through [3.3]. An overview of these requirements are given in Figure 4.

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2


Figure 4 Flow chart showing the applicable certification rules
3.1.4 The incoming material shall be documented with a Work certificate (W) to be within the approved
specification and the material rules Pt.2 Ch.2.
For gears classed to high grade, clean steel forgings, see Pt.2 Ch.2, and in addition grain size shall be
documented.
3.1.5 For case hardening the gear manufacturer or the heat treatment subcontractor shall have a quality
1)
control system acceptable to the Society. This quality control system shall provide that:
suitable heat treatment is made prior to machining in order to avoid excessive distortions during
quenching
carburising is made in a controlled furnace atmosphere. The furnace shall be equipped with temperature
and carbon potential controls and continuously recorded
2)
the entire case hardening process is checked by means of coupons at regular and agreed intervals with
regard to surface micro-structure and core micro-structure. For details see [3.1.6]
the gears are shot cleaned after the heat treatment.

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2)

If this requirement is not fulfilled or only partly fulfilled, the non-fulfilled elements in this paragraph as
well as in [3.1.6] and [3.1.7] shall be inspected in the presence of a surveyor.
The coupon shall be representative for the quenching rate of the typical gear sizes. The hardness
and micro-structure at the centre of the coupon shall then be representative for the core of a typical
gear. The coupon shall be of the same type of material as the typical gears. The approximate size is
minimum diameter 6 modules and length 12 modules. This module shall be either the module of the
actual gear to be certified or from the upper range of the production with that material. The coupon
shall follow the entire heat treatment and shot cleaning processes and be quenched together with the
pinions and wheels in such a way that its quenching rate is as representative as possible.

3.1.6 With reference to [3.1.5] the requirements for the surface (i.e. polished depth of less than 0.03 mm)
micro-structure are:
a)
b)
c)
d)

Reduction of surface hardness in the outer 0.1 mm of the case shall not be more than 2 HRC.
Carbide precipitation at surface and at 0.2 mm depth checked at approximately 400 times magnification.
Only fine dispersed carbides are permitted, see ISO 6336-5.
Retained austenite at surface and at 0.2 mm depth not to exceed 25%. To be checked by comparison
with reference pictures or by a calibrated magneto-elastic method.
Depth of intergranular oxidation (IGO) from unpolished surface shall not exceed 10 + 6 t550 (m). t550
shall be given in mm.
Requirement for the core in the middle of the coupon:
to be martensitic or bainitic with no blocky ferrite
hardness according to approved specification.
If these requirements are not fulfilled, the permissible values for tooth root stresses and contact stresses
and contact temperatures (for scuffing) shall be reduced according to special consideration.

3.1.7 For case hardening the following applies in addition to the requirements in [3.1.5] and [3.1.6].
Each hardening batch and each material type shall be documented regarding:
a)

1)

Hardness profile (W) with emphasis on depth to 550 HV and 400 HV. For core hardness below 300 HV
the depth to 300 HV shall be checked.
1)

The case depths shall be checked on a coupon that follows the entire heat treatment process. The
coupons shall be of the same type of material as the actual gears to be certified and may be of a
standard size. The correlation between these small coupons and the representative coupons mentioned
in [3.1.5] shall be documented by means of comparison measurements and included in a MSA.
If small coupons are used, e.g. standard size of 30-35 mm, and no approved correlation to the actual
gear size exists, the following correlation shall be used (applicable for the hardness profile of the flanks
with material ISO 683-11 - 18CrNiMo7 and EN 10084 - 18CrNiMo7-6):
For gears with mn > 5 (mm):
i)

t550

(1- (mn- 5)/85) measured depth to 550 HV (mm)

ii)

t400

t550 (1.6 - (mn-5)/100) (mm)

iii)

Core hardness = 0.8 measured core hardness of coupon (HV)

iv)

If corrected core hardness < 300 HV then t300 = 1.35 t400 (mm)

The grinding amount shall be subtracted from the depths in i), ii) and iv).
For gears with mn 5 (mm):
The grinding amount shall be subtracted from the measured hardness depths.
b)

The measured hardness depth shall be in compliance with statements in the approved gear data sheet.
2)
Core impact energy (KV) (W).

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1)

The core impact energy has the objective of detecting unacceptable grain growth and shall be verified
by means of at least 2 test pieces taken from the centre of a coupon that has followed the entire heat
treatment process. The coupon shall have a diameter of at least 2 modules. The coupon may be taken
from any of the positions in Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 Figure 5 to Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.6 Figure 8.
The impact energy shall be at least 30 J, unless otherwise approved. If the coupon is taken longitudinally
in a body with longitudinal grain flow, the minimum value is 40 J.
The core impact energy testing may be waived if all of the following conditions are fulfilled:

c)

carburising temperature below 940C


maximum specified case depth to 550 HV below 3.0 mm
chemical composition contains grain growth preventing elements (e.g. Al)
implemented manufacturing survey arrangement for heat treatment.
3)

Tooth root hardness


3)

(VL) at mid face of each pinion and wheel.

For modules 10 mm and above the surface hardness in the tooth root space in the middle of the
face width shall be checked. A small spot shall be polished (No grinding. Polishing depth less than
0.03 mm) and the hardness measured by means of a low force tester. Unless otherwise approved, the
minimum hardness shall be 58 HRC. The manufacturer may carry out approved procedure tests in order
to establish limit sizes for various material types. Below these limit sizes the hardness shall with a high
probability turn out to 58 HRC or more, and no such hardness testing is required for the individual gears.
The procedure tests shall include various designs and quenching baths.
3.1.8 Nitride gears shall be documented with Work certificates (W) for each heat treatment batch by means
of a coupon following the entire Nitriding process with regard to:
case depth (to 400 HV)
white layer thickness (to be < 0.025 mm).
The coupon shall be of the same material type as the gears.
3.1.9 Induction or flame hardened gears shall be documented with a VL certificate with regard to:

hardness contour
hardness depth at pitch diameter
hardness depth at tooth root
surface structure, random inspection (to be mainly fine -acicular martensite).

The hardness pattern shall be checked at a representative test piece with the same geometry (profile and
root shape) and type of material as the actual gears (except for face width which may be smaller). For batch
production this testing shall be made at least before and after each batch.
The hardness pattern checking applies to both ends and the mid-section of the test piece. All three sections
shall have values within the approved minimum to maximum range. Each gear shall be visually inspected at
both ends and the contour shall be consistent with the test piece.
For small gears with spin type hardening (see ISO 6336-5) only the surface structure (random) and external
contour need to be checked. .
3.1.10 For all surface hardened teeth the final flank hardness shall be measured and documented with a
Work certificate (W). The hardness shall be measured directly on the flanks near both ends and in the middle
and at each 90 degrees. Low force testers are preferred provided suitable surface finish. For batch production
a less frequent checking may be approved.
3.1.11 All teeth shall be crack detected, no cracks are accepted. This shall be documented with a Work
certificate (W).Gears shall be checked by means of the wet fluorescent magnetic particle method. However,
nitrided or not surface hardened gears may be checked by the liquid penetrant method. For batch production
a reduced extent of crack detection may be approved. The crack detection shall be made prior to any shot
peening process.

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2)

This inspection may be done by:


nital etching per ISO 14104 or ANSI and or AGMA 2007-B92 (grade B temper permitted on 10% of
functional area (FB1))
or
a calibrated magneto elastic method (acceptance criteria subject to special consideration)
3.1.13 The tooth accuracy of pinions and wheels according to ISO 1328 shall be documented with a Work
certificate (W) as follows:

for
for
for
for

specified
specified
specified
specified

grade
grade
grade
grade

4 or better, all pinions and wheels shall be measured


1)
5 at least 50% shall be measured
1)
6 at least 20% shall be measured
7 or coarser at least 5% shall be measured.

1)

When a wheel cannot be measured due to its size or weight, at least every mating pinion shall be
measured.
If other standards (e.g. DIN 3962 or ANSI/AGMA 2015-A01) are specified, measurement program equivalent
to the above applies (with respect to pitch, profile and lead errors).
Bevel gears (that are not covered by ISO 1328) shall be measured regarding pitch and profile errors if
required in connection with the approval. All bevel gear sets shall be checked for accuracy in a meshing test
without load. The unloaded contact pattern shall be consistent with the specified, and documentation thereof
shall follow the gear set to the assembly shop.
3.1.14 The surveyor shall review all required documentation and carry out visual inspection of the pinions
and wheels with special attention to:

surface roughness of the flanks


tooth root fillet radius
surface roughness of tooth root fillet area
possible grinding notches in the root fillet area. Any grinding (or any other machining) of the root area is
not accepted unless this has been especially approved.

3.2 Welded gear designs


3.2.1 Welded gears shall be documented with Work certificates (W) as follows:
chemical composition and mechanical properties of all the materials
stress relieving (time-temperature diagram)
100% weld quality control according to ISO 5817. To meet level B for internal defects unless otherwise
approved.
100% surface crack detection by MPI or dye penetrant. No linear indication >1.5 mm unless approved.
visual inspection by a surveyor with special emphasis on the shape of the outer weld contour (stress
concentrations) at the root.
The 3 last items refer to the gear after the final heat treatment (e.g. after case hardening).

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3.1.12 For case hardened gears grind temper inspection shall be carried out randomly and be documented
by a test report (TR).

3.3.1 Balancing of rotating parts and subassemblies of rotors shall be documented with Work certificates (W)
and shall be within the approved specification.
Guidance note:
The permissible residual imbalance U per balancing plane of gears for which static or dynamic balancing is rendered necessary by
the method of manufacture and by the operating and loading conditions can be determined by applying the formula
(kgmm)

G =

mass of component to be balanced [kg]

n =

operating speed of component to be balanced [min-1]

z =

number of balancing planes []

Q =

degree of balance []

6.3 for gear shafts, pinions and coupling members for engine gears

2.5 for torsion shafts and couplings, pinions and gear wheels belonging to turbine transmissions.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

3.3.2 Cylindrical shrink fitting of pinions, wheels, hubs, clutches, etc. shall be documented with Work
certificates (W) with regard to shrinkage amount. The diameters (and therewith the shrinkage amounts)
shall be checked at various positions along the length of the shrinkage surface. If conicity or ovality in a
connection with length to diameter ratio >1 result in:
a shrinkage amount near the minimum tolerance value at the torque transmission end
and
an amount near the maximum tolerance value at the opposite end,
the shrinkage specification shall be reconsidered with respect to possible fretting near the torque
transmission end. (If the non-torque end is subjected to bending stresses, possible fretting shall be
considered.)
3.3.3 Tapered shrink fit connections shall be documented with Work certificates (W) with regard to contact
area and pull up distance or push up force or diametrical expansion (whichever is the approved specification).
The contact between the male and female parts shall be checked with a thin layer of contact marking
compound (e.g. toolmakers blue). There shall be full contact at the end with torque transmission (which
is normally the upper end). If this is not obtained, light correction grinding with a soft disc and emery
paper may be done in the female part only (if wet mounting). Alternatively a test pull up may deform small
irregularities and result in an improved contact.
3.3.4 Keyed connections shall be checked with regard to:
key fit in shaft and hub (for connections where the torque may be reversed the key shall have a tight fit in
both shaft and hub)
shrinkage amount, see [3.3.2]
push up force, see [3.3.3].
3.3.5 Spline connections shall be checked with regard to:
tight fit if of the fixed type
lubrication if of working type.
3.3.6 Bolted connections such as bolted wheel bodies or flange connections shall be checked with regard to:

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3.3 Assembling

3.3.7 Access through inspection openings to gearing and clutch emergency bolts (if applicable) shall be
verified, see also [2.8.1], [2.8.2] and Sec.3 [2.3.2].

4 Workshop testing
4.1 Gear mesh checking
4.1.1 The accuracy of the meshing shall be verified for all meshes by means of a thin layer of contact
compound (e.g. toolmakers blue). This shall be done in the workshop in the presence of a surveyor.
When turning through the mesh, the journals shall be in their expected working positions in the bearings.
This is particularly important for journals which shall assume a position in the upper part of the bearings (and
the bearing clearances are different), and when external weights (such as clutches) may cause a pinion to tilt
in its bearings.
For small and medium gears with ground or skived flanks on both pinion and wheel it is sufficient to check
this at one position of the circumference.
For large gears (wheel diameter >2 m) and for all gears where an inspection after part or full load (in the
workshop or onboard) cannot be made, the contact checking shall be made in several (3 or more) positions
around the circumference of the wheel.
For bevel gears the contact marking shall be consistent with the documented contact marking from the
production, see [3.1.13].
For highly loaded gears it may be required to carry out such a mesh contact test under full or high part load
by slow turning through a full tooth mesh at 3 or more circumferential positions.
The result of the contact marking shall be consistent with that which would result in the required faceload
distribution at rated load.
For propulsion gears connected to shafts in excess of 200 mm diameter, and all multi-pinion gears, the
contact marking of the final stage shall be documented by tape on paper or photography and shall be
forwarded to the builder as a reference for further checking onboard.
The backlash shall be documented for all gear meshes.
4.1.2 All gear transmissions shall be spin tested in presence of a surveyor.
Prior to the spin test some teeth at different positions around the circumference of all gear meshes shall be
painted with an oil resistant but low wear resistant test lacquer. For multi-mesh gears the lacquer shall be
applied to the flanks that mesh with only one other member.
After the spin test the initial contact patterns shall be documented by sketches. The position of the initial
contact shall be consistent with that which would result in an acceptable load distribution at rated torque.
4.1.3 For gears that are workshop tested with a part load sufficient to verify the load distribution at rated
torque, the testing in [4.1.1] and [4.1.2] may be waived, except for backlash measurements.
Such part load testing shall only be representative for the full load condition on board if the in- and out-put
shafts are connected to systems that shall not impose significant bending moments or forces. Furthermore,
the part load shall be so high (40% torque or more) that reliable extrapolation to rated torque can be made.
Therefore, this part load testing is subject to approval, see [1.2]. If such part load testing is successfully
carried out, the gear transmission certificate may have a remark stating that contact pattern testing onboard
may be waived.
4.1.4 During the running test the gearbox shall be inspected for leakage.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 2

tightness of fitted bolts or pins


pre-stress as specified.

4.2.1 For clutches delivered integral with the gear box the clutching-in function shall be tested in the
presence of a surveyor. For oil operated clutches the testing shall be made with the oil at normal service
temperature.
The pressure - time function shall be within the approved specification and the end pressure at the specified
level. No pressure peaks beyond the nominal pressure are allowed. The clutch operation pressure shall be
measured as closely as possible to the clutch inlet.

4.3 Ancillary systems


4.3.1 The manufacturer shall demonstrate to the surveyor that the lubrication oil intake shall be submerged
under all environmental operation conditions for the actual type of vessel. Furthermore, it shall be checked
that the oil sprays for lubrication and cooling function properly. After the running test the filters shall be
inspected.
4.3.2 All equipment delivered with the gearbox regarding indication, alarm and safety systems shall be
function tested.
4.3.3 Piping for hydraulic and lubrication systems shall subject to pressure / tightness test.

5 Control and monitoring


5.1 Summary
5.1.1 The requirements in [5] are additional to those given in Ch.9.
5.1.2 The gear transmissions shall be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according to Table 8.
5.1.3 If individual local pressure indicators are not fitted, quick connectors for a portable instrument shall
be provided in order to do local readings and set point verification of switches. The corresponding portable
instrument shall be provided on board.
5.1.4 Alarms (Gr 1) and start of standby pump shall be without delay, other than those necessary to filter
normal parameter fluctuations, if not otherwise approved.
Table 8 Monitoring of gear transmissions
Gr 1
Indication
Alarm
Load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic start
of standby
pump with
1)
alarm

Gr 3
shut down
with alarm

Comments

1.0 Gear bearing and lubricating oil


Oil lubricated fluid film
bearings (axial and radial),
temperature

Applicable to gears with totally


transmitted power of 5 MW or more.

IR, HA

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4.2 Clutch operation

Alarm
Load reduction

Thrust bearing, temperature

Gr 3
shut down
with alarm

IL, IR, LA

Differential pressure over filter

IL, HA

Lubricating oil, temperature

IL, or IR, HA

Lubricating oil temperature

IL or IR

2)

Comments

Applicable to gears with totally


transmitted power of 5 MW or more.
Sensors to be placed in the bearing
metal or for pads in the oil outlet.

IR, HA

Lubricating oil, pressure,


differential pressure over filter

Sump level

Gr 2
Automatic start
of standby
pump with
1)
alarm

At bearings and spray, if applicable.


If equal pressure, one common
sensor is sufficient for Gr 1.

AS

Alarm in case of clogged filter.


At inlet to bearings, i.e. after cooler.
In sump, or before cooler

ILor IR
2.0 Integrated clutch activating media

Hydraulic oil

IL, IR, LA

AS

SH

SH means either declutching or


engine stop

Gr 1 Common sensor for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)
Gr 2 Sensor for automatic start of standby pump
Gr 3 Sensor for shut down

IL
IR

= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.
1)

To be provided when standby pump is required, see [2.9] and Ch.1 (Rules for Classification of Ships).

2)

For gears with totally transmitted power of 500 kW or less, dipstick inspection is considered adequate.

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Gr 1
Indication

6.1 Installation and fastening


6.1.1 The gearbox shall be arranged so that appropriate alignment and running conditions are maintained
during all operating conditions. For shaft alignment, see Ch.2 Sec.4.
6.1.2 Gearboxes shall be fastened to the ship structure in compliance with Ch.2 Sec.1 [6].
Gearboxes that are or may be subjected to external forces such as thrust, shall have end stoppers. End
stoppers may be waived if fitted bolts or equivalent solutions are used.
6.1.3 Piping etc. shall not be arranged to obstruct access to inspection openings.
6.1.4 All pipe connections shall be screened or otherwise protected as far as practicable in order to avoid oil
spray or oil leakage into machinery air intakes or onto potentially hot surfaces.

7 Vibration
7.1 General
7.1.1 Regarding torsional vibration, see Ch.2 Sec.2
The vibration of the gearbox foundation (except when flexibly mounted) shall not contain gear alien
frequency components with amplitudes exceeding 10 mm/s. Alien frequencies are those that are not
rotational frequencies of any gear internal parts.
Higher amplitudes may be accepted if considered in the gear design.

8 Installation inspection
8.1 Application
8.1.1 [8] applies to inspections in connection with installation of complete gearboxes. Regarding external
couplings and shafts, and internal clutches, see respective sections.
Unless otherwise stated, a surveyor shall attend the inspections given in [8] and [9].

8.2 Inspections
8.2.1 The following inspections shall be carried out:
shaft alignment, see Ch.2 Sec.4
fastening of propulsion gearboxes (stoppers and bolt tightening)
flushing, applicable if the system is opened during installation. Preferably with the foreseen gear oil. If
flushing oil is used, residual flushing oil shall be avoided.
lubrication oil shall be as specified (viscosity and FZG class) on makers list
pressure tests to nominal pressure (for leakage) where cooler, filters or piping is mounted onboard
clutch operation, see Sec.3 [8]
tooth contact pattern, see [8.2.2].

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6 Arrangement

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 Gear teeth inspections
9.1.1 To prevent initial damage on the tooth flanks (scuffing) and bearings, the gear shall be carefully run in,
according to the gear manufacturers specification.
9.1.2 All inboard gears shall be checked with regard to contact pattern under load.
Exceptions are accepted when:
this is mentioned in the design approval (due to low stress levels)
the design makes an inspection impossible without dis-assembling such as certain epicyclic gears (this
does not exempt ordinary gears from having suitable inspection openings)
the contact pattern under load is accepted in the workshop test, see [4.1.3].
9.1.3 The contact patterns (all gear stages) shall be checked by a suitable lacquer applied to some teeth
(normally 2 each 120 degrees) prior to the checking under load. The lacquer shall be applied to flanks that
have only one mesh (in order to avoid accumulated patterns). When part load contact pattern checking
applies, the lacquer shall be of a kind that quickly shows the final pattern.
9.1.4 The gear shall be operated at the specified load level(s) without exceeding that particular level(s).
After each specified level the contact patterns shall be checked in the presence of a surveyor. The results, in
both height and length directions, shall be within the approved specification.
9.1.5 After the full load test, or after the sea trial, all teeth shall be checked for possible failures as scuffing,
scratches, grey staining, pits, etc. Shrunk-on rims shall be checked for possible movements relative to the
hub.

9.2 Gear noise detection


9.2.1 Gears shall be checked for noise in the full speed range (high frequencies as gear mesh frequencies)
and in the lower speed range (gear hammer).
9.2.2 If the high frequent noise is higher than expected, measurements may be required.
9.2.3 Gear hammer shall be detected in the lower speed range and also during diesel engine misfiring tests
(see Ch.2 Sec.2 [3.2]). Speed ranges or operating conditions resulting in gear hammer shall be restricted for
continuous operation.

9.3 Bearings and lubrication


9.3.1 Lubricating oil and bearing temperatures (as far as indication is provided) shall be checked during the
full load test. All temperatures shall reach stable values (no slow gradual increase) without exceeding the
approved maximum values.
9.3.2 After the sea trial all oil filters shall be checked for particles.

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8.2.2 A tooth contact pattern inspection as described in [4.1.1] shall be made for gears where the
installation on board can alter the initial tooth contact pattern. This means e.g. all gear transmissions with
more than one pinion driving the output gear wheel and propulsion gears connected to shafts in excess of
about 200 mm diameter. The result of the contact pattern check shall be consistent with the result from the
workshop.

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 This section applies to clutches, both for use in shaft-lines and in gearboxes that are subject to
certification, see Ch.2 Sec.1 [1.1].
1.1.2 Clutches of standard design shall be type approved. Standard design is components which a
manufacturer has in their standard product description and manufactured continuously or in batches in order
to deliver for general marked supply. Case by case approval may be accepted upon application and shall be
subject to special consideration.
1.1.3 Clutches shall be delivered with a product certificate (PC) issued by the Society. However, this does not
apply to clutches used in gearboxes/thrusters and produced by the gearbox/thruster manufacturer, see Sec.2
Table 7.

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object
Clutch

Documentation type
C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Additional description
The drawing shall show all details such as:

Info
AP

connection to external shafts


mechanical properties
heat treatment of splines etc.
stress raisers
activation system.

C040 - Design analysis

The following particulars shall be submitted for each clutch:

AP

static friction torque (with corresponding working pressure)


dynamic friction torque (with corresponding working
pressure)
maximum working pressure
minimum working pressure
pressure for compressing return springs
permissible heat development and flash power when
clutching-in (upon request when case-by-case approval)
For each application the clutching-in characteristics with
tolerances (pressure as function of time) including max.
engaging speed.
Documentation (simulation calculation) of the engaging
process.
M010 - Material
specification, metals

Power transmitting parts. Chemical and mechanical properties

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AP

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 3

SECTION 3 CLUTCHES

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

M060 - Welding procedures


(WPS)

If applicable

FI

C050 - Non-destructive
testing (NDT) plan

Method extent and acceptance criteria

FI

AP = For approval; FI = For information


ACO = As carried out; L = Local handling; R = On request; TA = Covered by type approval; VS = Vessel specific

1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

2 Design
2.1 Torque capacities
2.1.1 The torque capacities of clutches for auxiliary purposes as well as propulsion shall be:
1)

static friction torque at least 1.8 T0 and preferably not above 2.5 T0
dynamic friction torque at least 1.3 T0.

Both requirements referring to nominal operating pressure and no ice class notation.
1)

When above 2.5 T0 the documentation requested in Table 1 is obligatory.

2.1.2 The torque requirements in [2.1.1] may have to be increased for plants with class notation Ice, see
Pt.6 Ch.6 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.
2.1.3 For clutches used in plants with high vibratory torques (beyond 0.4 T0) or intermittent overloads, the
torque capacity requirements shall be especially considered.

2.2 Strength and wear resistance


2.2.1 The relevant parts such as flange connections, shrink fits, splines, key connections, etc. shall meet the
requirements given in Sec.1 [2.3] to Sec.1 [2.7].
2.2.2 If a disc clutch is arranged so that radial movements occur under load, the possible wear of the teeth
and splines shall be considered. This may be relevant for clutches in gearboxes where a radial reaction force
may act on the discs. Such radial forces may occur due to bearing clearances in either an integrated pinion
and clutch design or shafts that are moved off centre due to tooth forces.
2.2.3 Trolling clutches are subject to special consideration.

2.3 Emergency operation


2.3.1 Clutches for single propulsion plants shall be of a design that enables sufficient torque transmission
to be arranged in the event of loss of hydraulic or pneumatic pressure. This means that for plants on board
vessels without class notation Ice or reinforcement due to high torsional vibration level at least half of the
rated engine torque shall be transmitted.

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Object

2.4 Type testing


2.4.1 Type testing is required in order to verify friction torques as specified in [2.1.1].

2.5 Hydraulic/pneumatic system


2.5.1 Clutches in single propulsion plants shall have a standby pump with immediate activation.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 Certification
Table 2 Certification requirements Clutches
Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Clutches

PC

Society

Certification
standard*

Additional description
Not applicable for auxiliary machinery
installation with power ratings up to 500 kW
and rated torque less than 5 kNm.
Not applicable to clutches used in
gearboxes/thrusters and produced by the
gearbox/thruster manufacturer.

Clutches

MC

Manufacturer

Clutches

NDT

Manufacturer

Torque transmitting parts

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.


For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

3.2 Ancillaries
3.2.1 Pumps, electric motors, coolers, piping, filters, valves, etc. that are delivered as integral parts of the
hydraulic/pneumatic system of the clutch, shall be checked by the manufacturers quality system as found
relevant.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 Function testing
4.1.1 The clutch shall be function tested before certification.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 3

2.3.2 If the requirement in [2.3.1] is fulfilled by means of bolts, easy access to all bolts shall be provided.
For built-in clutches, this means that all the bolts shall be on the part of the clutch that is connected to the
engine. This in order to gain access to all bolts by using the engine turning gear. Such bolts shall be fitted
in place and secured to the clutch. Alternative arrangements are subject to special consideration and in any
case it should be possible to carry out the emergency operation within 1 hour. The emergency operation
procedure shall be given in the operating manual.

5 Control, alarm and safety functions and indication


5.1 Summary
5.1.1 The clutches shall be fitted with instrumentation and alarms according to Table 3.
5.1.2 If individual local pressure indicators are not fitted, quick connectors for a portable instrument shall
be provided in order to do local readings and set point verification of switches. The corresponding portable
instrument shall be provided on board.
Table 3 Monitoring of clutches

Load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic start
of standby
pump with
1)
alarm

IL, IR, LA

AS

Gr 1
Indication
Alarm

Gr 3
shut down
with alarm

Comments

1.0 Clutch activating media


Hydraulic/pneumatic air,
pressure

SH

SH means either declutching or


engine stop.

Gr 1 Common sensor for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)
Gr 2 Sensor for automatic start of standby pump
Gr 3 Sensor for shut down

IL
IR

= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.
1)

To be provided when standby pump is required, see [2.5.1].

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 3

4.1.2 If the clutch is delivered with the activation control, the pressure-time function for clutching-in shall be
verified in the presence of a surveyor. If the clutch is oil operated this shall be made with a representative oil
viscosity.

6.1 Clutch arrangement


6.1.1 Clutches shall be arranged to minimise radial support forces, see [2.2.2].
6.1.2 Easy access to the emergency operation device shall be provided, see [2.3].

7 Vibration
7.1 Engaging operation
7.1.1 The calculation of the engaging process shall be based on the particulars specified in [1.2.1]. The
calculation shall result in torque, flash power and heat development as functions of time, and shall not
exceed the permissible values for the clutch or any other element in the system. See also Ch.2 Sec.2 [3.4]
and Ch.2 Sec.2 [2.4.3].

8 Installation inspection
8.1 Alignment
8.1.1 Clutches not integrated in a gearbox or thruster, shall be checked for axial and radial alignment in the
presence of a surveyor.

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 Operating of clutches
9.1.1 The following shall be checked in the presence of a surveyor:
when engaged, the operating pressure shall be within the approved tolerance
access to the emergency operation device (see [2.3]), if applicable
during engaging, the operating pressure as a function of time shall be according to the approved
characteristics.
9.1.2 The clutch engaging as mentioned above, shall be made at the maximum permissible engaging speed.
The pressure indication shall be representative for the operating pressure, i.e. measured close to the rotating
seal and without throttling between the instrument and operating pressure pipe. No pressure peaks beyond
the specified maximum pressure are accepted.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 3

6 Arrangement

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 This section applies to couplings used in machinery that is subject to certification; see Ch.2 Sec.1
[1.1].
Bending compliant couplings are membrane couplings, tooth couplings, link couplings, universal shafts, etc.,
i.e. all couplings that have a low bending rigidity, but high torsional rigidity. Couplings combining both low
bending and low torsional rigidity shall fulfil the requirements in both Sec.4 and Sec.5.
1.1.2 Couplings of standard design shall be type approved. Standard design is components which a
manufacturer has in their standard product description and manufactured continuously or in batches in order
to deliver for general marked supply. Case by case approval may be accepted upon application and shall be
subject to special consideration.
1.1.3 Couplings shall be delivered with a product certificate (PC) issued by the Society.

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The Builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object
Coupling,
bending
compliant

Documentation type
C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Additional description
Drawings showing the couplings in longitudinal section (for
link couplings also transverse section) shall be submitted for
approval.
The drawings shall specify:

Info
AP

surface hardening (if applicable)


shot peening (if applicable)
Design details as keyways, bolt connections, or any other
stress concentration.
For tooth couplings the tooth accuracy (ISO 1328) shall be
specified.
C040 - Design analysis

The following particulars shall be submitted:

AP

the permissible mean torque


the permissible maximum torque (impact torque)
the permissible vibratory torque for continuous operation
the permissible angular tilt for continuous operation
the permissible radial misalignment or reaction force (if
applicable) for continuous operation
the permissible axial misalignment for continuous operation
the angular (tilt), radial and axial stiffness (as far as
applicable)
maximum permissible r. p. m.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 4

SECTION 4 BENDING COMPLIANT COUPLINGS

Documentation type

Additional description
For membrane, link or disc couplings the safety against fatigue
shall be documented:

Info
AP

All relevant combinations of permissible loads shall be


considered.
The calculations may be combined with results from material
fatigue tests.
The safety against fatigue may also be documented by
fatigue testing of the complete coupling. If so, the load
and the kind of loading (or combinations thereof) shall be
selected to document the safety when all permissible loads
are combined.
For high speed couplings (for connection to gas turbines) the
maximum residual unbalance shall be specified.

FI

M010 - Material
specification, metals

Power transmitting parts. Chemical and mechanical properties.


Material specification including surface modification (surface
hardening, shot peening)

AP

M060 - Welding procedures


(WPS)

For power transmitting welds a NDT specification (method,


extent and acceptance criteria) shall be submitted.

FI

C050 - Non-destructive
testing (NDT) plan

Method extent and acceptance criteria

FI

AP = For approval; FI = For information


ACO = As carried out; L = Local handling; R = On request; TA = Covered by type approval; VS = Vessel specific

1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.2.4 Calculations to substantiate the relevant particulars requested in Table 1 shall be submitted upon
request.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 For design principles see Ch.2 Sec.1 [2].
2.1.2 Couplings for turbine machinery (high speed side) containing high energy rotating parts that may be
ejected in the event of a remote failure shall have special guards or design precautions.

2.2 Criteria for dimensioning


2.2.1 The couplings shall be designed with suitable safety factors against fatigue (suitable safety factors
shall depend on the method applied, but typically be about 1.5).
2.2.2 For connections as flanges, shrink fits, splines, key connections, etc. see the requirements in Sec.1
[2.3] to Sec.1 [2.7] respectively.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 4

Object

all relevant combinations of permissible loads, see Table 1, shall be considered


the calculations may be combined with results from material fatigue tests
the safety against fatigue may also be documented by fatigue testing of the complete coupling. If so, the
load and the kind of loading (or combinations thereof) shall be selected to document the safety when all
permissible loads are combined.
2.2.4 Tooth couplings shall be designed to prevent tooth fracture, flank pitting and abrasive wear.
The maximum permissible radial reaction force, the permissible mean and vibratory torque, the angular
misalignment and the lubrication conditions shall be combined in the calculations.
2.2.5 Universal shafts with power transmitting welds shall be designed for a high safety against fatigue in
the weld. The calculation shall consider the maximum permissible loads and the specified weld quality.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 Certification
3.1.1 Regarding certification schemes, short terms, manufacturing survey arrangement and important
conditions, see Ch.2 Sec.2.

3.2 Inspection and testing of parts


3.2.1
Table 2 Certification requirements Bending Compliant Couplings
Object

Certificate
type

Bending Compliant
Couplings

Issued by

PC

Society

Bending Compliant
Couplings

MC

Manufacturer

Bending Compliant
Couplings

NDT

Manufacturer

Certification
standard*

Additional description
Not applicable for auxiliary
machinery installation with power
ratings up to 500 kW and rated
torque less than 5 kNm.
Torque transmitting parts
Mandatory for torque transmitting
welds.

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.


For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 Balancing
4.1.1 The couplings shall be balanced in accordance with the approved specification.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 4

2.2.3 For membrane, link or disc couplings the safety against fatigue shall be documented:

4.2.1 For membrane, link and disc couplings verification of the specified stiffness in angular and axial
directions shall be carried out by means of static measurements in the presence of a surveyor. This applies
to:
one coupling of a series for which type approval is requested
every case by case approved non-standard coupling.

5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication


5.1 General
5.1.1 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication are not required.

6 Arrangement
6.1 Coupling arrangement
6.1.1 Couplings shall be arranged in compliance with the limits defined, see Table 1. Furthermore, the
reaction forces from couplings on the adjacent elements shall be taken into account. All permissible operating
conditions shall be considered.

7 Vibration
7.1 General
7.1.1 Intentionally left blank.

8 Installation inspection
8.1 Alignment
8.1.1 The coupling alignment (axial, radial and angular) shall be checked in the presence of a surveyor. The
alignment shall be within the approved tolerances for the coupling as well as any other limitation specified in
the shafting arrangement drawings (in particular for the high speed side of gas turbine plants).
8.1.2 The alignment shall be made under consideration of all adjacent machinery such as resiliently mounted
engines.

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 General
9.1.1 Intentionally left blank.

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 4

4.2 Stiffness verification

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 This section applies to couplings used in machinery subjected to certification, see Ch.2 Sec.1 [1.1].
Torsional elastic couplings mean steel, rubber and silicone couplings designed for a low torsional rigidity.
Couplings combining both low torsional rigidity and bending flexible elements as membranes or links shall
fulfil the requirements in both Sec.4 and Sec.5.
1.1.2 Couplings of standard design shall be type approved. Standard design is components which a
manufacturer has in their standard product description and manufactured continuously or in batches in order
to deliver for general marked supply.
1.1.3 Couplings shall have a product certificate (PC) issued by the Society.

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.
These particulars shall be documented by means of relevant tests and calculations. See [2.1] and [2.2].
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object
Coupling,
elastic

Documentation type
C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Additional description
Longitudinal section shall be submitted. For elements that
are non-symmetrical around the axis of rotation, a transverse
section is also needed.
The drawings shall specify:

Info
AP

type of material and mechanical properties


surface hardening (if applicable)
shot peening (if applicable)
design details as keyways, splines or any other stress
concentration

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

SECTION 5 TORSIONALLY ELASTIC COUPLINGS

The following particulars shall be submitted:

AP

permissible mean torque TKN with the corresponding


highest nominal shear stress in the elastomer and the
bonding stress
permissible maximum torque TKmax1 for repetitive loads as
transient vibration, typically during clutching in etc., see
Figure 1
permissible maximum torque range Tmax for repetitive
loads as transient vibration, typically as passing through a
major resonance during start and stop etc., see Figure 2
permissible maximum torque TKmax2 for rare occasional
peak loads, e.g. short circuits in generators
permissible vibratory torque1) for continuous operation TKV,
see Figure 3
permissible power loss

1)

(heat dissipation) PKV

permissible angular tilt, radial and axial misalignment for


continuous operation
1)

angular (tilt), radial and axial stiffness

permissible permanent twist of rubber element (applicable


to progressive couplings)
maximum permissible r. p. m.
Strength of emergency claw
quasi-static torsional stiffness
dynamic torsional stiffness
damping characteristics
1)

1)

1)

1)

including production tolerance

including production tolerance.

as a function of the main parameters

C060 - Mechanical
component documentation

Couplings of standard design shall be type approved. Details


stated in Type Approval programme.

AP

M010 - Material
specification, metals

For power transmitting parts as hubs, sleeves, shaft tubes,


flanges. Regarding chemical composition of the material,
mechanical properties and surface hardness. For rubber shore
hardness H shall be specified.

AP

C050 - Non-destructive
testing (NDT) plan

For power transmitting welds. Method, extent and acceptance


criteria.

FI

AP = For approval; FI = For information


ACO = As carried out; L = Local handling; R = On request; TA = Covered by type approval; VS = Vessel specific

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

C040 - Design analysis

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

Figure 1 TKmax1 at transient vibration

Figure 2 Tmax at transient vibration

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1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.2.4 Definitions of stiffness and damping are:
A) For linear couplings

Figure 4 Linear couplings


The stiffness

is the gradient of a line drawn between the extreme points of the twist as indicated in

Figure 4.
For hysteresis plots that deviate from the ellipse (pure viscous damping) the line that determines K shall be
drawn through points determined as midpoints between the upper and lower part of the hysteresis curve, see
Figure 5.

Figure 5 Hysteresis curve

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

Figure 3 TKV at continuous operation

For couplings with typical elliptical hysteresis curves, other definitions may be considered.
B) For non-linear couplings

Figure 6 Non-linear couplings


Plants with non-linear couplings may be calculated by either simulation (numeric time integration) in the time
domain or in the frequency domain by linear differential equations.
In the first case the torque twist plots can be used directly.
In the second case (more common method) representative linearized coupling properties shall be used in the
calculation. For this purpose the following applies.
The (linearized) stiffness K is the gradient between the extreme points of the twist as indicated above.
For determination of the damping the elastic work Ael shall be determined so that the above indicated
areas of Ael are equal (A1 = A2). Then the same definition as for linear couplings applies.
1.2.5 The control and monitoring system, including set-points and delays, if required in [5], shall be
approved by the Society.
For requirements to documentation, see Ch.9.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 For design principles see Ch.2 Sec.1 [2].
2.1.2 See [5.1.1]and [2.2.10]for emergency claw devices.

2.2 Criteria for dimensioning


2.2.1 The couplings shall be designed with suitable safety factors (depending on the method applied, see
[2.3]) against fatigue and overheating (rubber).
2.2.2 For connections such as flanges, shrink fits, splines, key connections, etc. see the requirements in
Sec.1 [2.3] to Sec.1 [2.7] respectively.
2.2.3 For steel spring couplings the safety against fatigue shall be documented. All relevant combinations of
permissible loads specified in accordance with Table 1 shall be considered. The calculations may be combined

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

The damping is the ratio between the area described by the hysteresis loop AD and the elastic work Ael,

The design shall be so as to prevent fretting on vital elements.


2.2.4 Couplings shall not have rigid torsional deflection limiters (buffers) within the permissible TKmax2.
Furthermore, TKmax2 shall not be less than 1.4 TKN.
2.2.5 For class notation Ice the couplings shall be designed so that:
1)
2)
3)

TKmax1 T0 KAice
TKN 0.5 T0 (KAice + 1)
As long as the natural frequency of the "propeller versus engine"-mode is much lower than the propeller
blade passing frequency (ratio < 50%):
TKV 0.5 T0 (KAice 1)
otherwise:
TKV > T0 (KAice 1)

KAice

= application factor due to ice impact loads (applicable for ice classed vessels), see Pt.6 Ch.6
of the Rules for Classification of Ships.

Alternatively to the above criteria, the ice impact loads on the elastic coupling may be documented by
simulation of the transient dynamic response in the time domain. For branched systems, such simulation
is recommended.
2.2.6 For elements that are not designed to avoid local strain concentrations, stricter values for the criteria
given in [2.2.7] and [2.2.8] may apply.
For silicone couplings special considerations apply.
2.2.7 For rubber couplings with shear loaded rubber elements the shear stress (MPa) due to TKN shall not
exceed the smaller value of:
1% of the shore hardness value
or
0.65 MPa
The corresponding shear stress in the steel-rubber bonding surfaces shall not exceed 0.45 MPa.
For coupling designs where centrifugal action can be of significance, the shear stresses in the rubber element
as well as in the bonding surface shall be considered. The evaluation shall take into account the influences of
TKN and rpmmax separately as well as combined. The permissible stress levels are specially considered.
The shear stress due to the permissible vibratory torque for continuous operation shall not exceed 0.25%
of the shore hardness. This shear stress is superimposed to the shear stress due to TKN. The corresponding
peak value is not limited by TKmax1 in [2.2.8]
2.2.8 When not substantiated by means of an approved fatigue testing combined with FE analyses, the
following applies:
Permissible torque Tmax and TKmax1 for transient operation (50.000 cycles) are limited to:
a)
b)

A nominal shear stress max not to exceed max < 0.24 10

-3

A nominal shear stress


1.5 TKN

max1 not to exceed in any direction max1 < 0.2 10-3 H2 and limited to TKmax1

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

with results from material fatigue tests. The safety against fatigue may also be documented by fatigue
testing of the complete coupling. If so, the load and the kind of loading (or combinations thereof) shall be
selected to document the safety when all permissible loads are combined.

2.2.9 For couplings having elements that are loaded in compression, TKmax1 shall be specially considered.
2.2.10 The strength of the emergency claw device (if required, see [2.1.2]) shall be documented by
calculations. This device shall be designed for a minimum lifetime of 24 hours and combined with all
permissible misalignments.
2.2.11 Couplings of natural rubber shall not be subjected to ambient temperatures above 70C. The limit for
silicone couplings is 100C.

2.3 Type testing


2.3.1 Type testing applies to all rubber and silicone couplings, but also for special kinds of steel spring
couplings.
2.3.2 Steel spring couplings that are designed such that the damping properties are essentially non-viscous
(e.g. mainly friction damping), shall be dynamically tested in order to establish the dynamic characteristics
(stiffness and damping) as functions of their main parameters.
2.3.3 Rubber and silicone couplings shall be documented with regard to compatibility with the characteristics
and permissible loads given in [1.2.1]. This shall be made with both calculation and testing:
As a minimum the dynamic torsional stiffness and the damping shall be verified by testing, see [2.3.4].
A reduced extent may apply for couplings that are approved for very restricted applications as e.g. in
electric motor driven thrusters.
Couplings used in plants with reciprocating machinery shall be tested for determination of permissible
power loss. Exemptions may only be made if the value for PKV is assessed very much to the safe side.
The necessity for test documentation of the angular (tilt), radial and axial stiffness depends on the
corresponding values for permissible misalignment.
For case by case approval of a non-standard coupling the documentation (i.e. testing) applies to the
necessity for the actual coupling application.
For type approval of a coupling series where the coupling sizes only differ by a scale factor, the
documentation testing for stiffness and damping shall comprise at least one size for each rubber type.
However, if power loss testing applies, this testing shall be made with at least two different coupling sizes
in order to extrapolate for inclusion of the whole series.
Quasi-static tests such as described in [4.2] shall be made with the same elements as used for the
dynamic testing, and prior to it. The purpose shall establish reference values for certification testing.
2.3.4 The testing of stiffness and damping shall establish the relations between the quasi-static tests
mentioned above and the dynamic behaviour of the coupling. Furthermore, the type testing shall establish
the dynamic torsional stiffness and damping (for the relevant rubber qualities of relevant element sizes) as
functions of the main parameters such as:
Mean torque TM, at steps as
TM/TKN =

0.25

0.75

0.50

Vibratory torque TV, at steps as


TV/TKV =

1.0

0.50

2.0 *

(* for the purpose of transient vibrations)


Vibration frequency, at steps as

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

Note that TKmax1 is not limiting the shear stress due to TKN + TKV.

10 Hz

20 Hz

and for elements loaded in compression, also at 40 Hz


Temperature of the element. This is for the purpose of establishing representative stiffness and damping
values under various ambient temperatures as well as under high power losses, at:
reference condition, e.g. 30C
25% of permissible PKV *
100% of permissible PKV *
For couplings not to be used in diesel engine plants the tests at reference condition may be sufficient.
* PKV as for rotating or non-rotating coupling, whichever is relevant for the laboratory.
It is not required to test all the possible combinations of the conditions mentioned above. Reference
conditions as e.g. the bold values above, are kept constant when one parameter dependency is tested.
However, for typically progressive couplings (stiffness increasing with torque) all permissible combinations of
mean and vibratory torques shall be tested.
The test results shall be presented as torque-twist plots, together with the details of the evaluation method.
2.3.5 The testing of the permissible power loss shall be made by means of at least one temperature sensor
in the rubber core at the expected (calculated) position of maximum temperature (position to be approved
prior to the testing).
The core temperature during pulsating of the element shall be plotted as a function of time until the end
temperature is stabilised. The maximum permissible core temperature is 110C for natural rubber and 150C
for silicone.
The permissible power loss PKV is defined as the power loss that results in the maximum permissible core
temperature. PKV shall be tested at an ambient temperature of 20C and shall be linearly interpolated to
zero at maximum permissible core temperature as a function of operating ambient temperature. For coupling
series where the sizes only differ by a scale factor, interpolation and extrapolation may be done by the
following formula:
PKV = a TKN

where the constants a and b can be determined by testing two or more different sizes of couplings in a
series.
The power loss shall be measured by means of torque-twist plots and applied frequency. Alternative methods
may be considered if their relevance can be documented and the results are estimated to the safe side.
When a steady state condition is reached, e.g. not more than 1C increase per hour, the actual power loss is
determined from a torque-twist plot as PKVtest = AD f (Hz).
If the core temperature during this test test is different from the permissible value p, the PKV is

determined as:

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Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

2 Hz

= ambient temperature during test


= reference temperature in catalogue.

Alternative methods to torque-twist pulsating may only be accepted if the evaluation of PKV is made
conservatively (to the safe side). If rotating with radial or angular misalignment is used, the assessment of
the actual power loss in the elements shall consider all possible increase of other losses (e.g. in bearings).
Further, the different temperature field versus the real one in torque-twist shall be taken into consideration
by e.g. finite element analyses or preferably by comparison measurements in order to arrive at a correlation
factor between the applied method and the real torque-twist condition.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 Certification
3.1.1 Regarding certification schemes, short terms, manufacturing survey arrangement and important
conditions, see Ch.2 Sec.2.

3.2 Inspection and testing of parts


Table 2 Certification requirements Torsionally Elastic Couplings
Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Certification
standard*

Additional description

Torsionally elastic
Couplings

PC

Society

Not applicable for auxiliary machinery installation with


power ratings up to 500 kW and rated torque less
than 5 kNm.

Torsionally elastic
Couplings

MC

Manufacturer

Torque transmitting parts.

Torsionally elastic
Couplings

NDT

Manufacturer

Mandatory for torque transmitting welds.

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the rules.


For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.
For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 Stiffness verification
4.1.1 Each rubber or silicone coupling or elastic element shall be verified with regard to quasi-static torsional
stiffness in the presence of a surveyor. This shall be done by twisting the coupling or by subjecting the
elastic elements to a load which is equivalent to the coupling twist. The test torque shall be at least 1.5 TKN.
The resulting deflection shall be within the approved tolerance and the deviation shall be specified in the
certificate.
4.1.2 For couplings that are not approved for use in plants with reciprocating machinery a reduced extent of
testing may be accepted.

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Page 85

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

A
Aref

4.2 Bonding tests


4.2.1 For couplings with bonded rubber or silicone elements the bonding shall be checked in the presence
of a surveyor. The coupling or elastic element shall be loaded in at least one direction to the 1.5 TKN. At
this load the element shall be inspected for any signs of slippage in the bonding surface. Additionally the
corresponding torque-deflection curve shall be smooth and show no signs of slippage in the bonding.
4.2.2 The bonding may also be documented by alternative tests as e.g. tension where the tensile stress shall
be at least as high as the shear stress under 1.5 TKN.
4.2.3 For couplings that have a limitation of the permanent twist (all progressive couplings) shall be marked
so that the actual permanent twist and the limit twist are legible during service inspections.

4.3 Balancing
4.3.1 Couplings for PTO/PTI branches shall be single plane balanced when:
tip speed >30 m/s
un-machined surfaces and tip speed >10 m/s.

5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication


5.1 General
5.1.1 The elastic couplings for propulsion of single diesel engine plants shall be fitted with instrumentation
and alarms according to Table 3.
5.1.2 For couplings where twist amplitude alarm is chosen for monitoring of torsional vibration, see Ch.2
Sec.2 [2.5], Ch.3 Sec.1 [5.4.1] and Ch.3 Sec.1 [5.5.1], the alarm levels and time delays are subject to
special consideration.
Table 3 Monitoring of elastic couplings for single diesel engine propulsion plants
Gr 1
Indication
Alarm
Load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
shut down
with alarm

Comments

1.0 Twist of elastic couplings


Angular twist amplitudes

IR, HA

Mean twist angle

IR, HA

SH

Rules for classification: Ships DNVGL-RU-SHIP-Pt4Ch4. Edition July 2016


Rotating machinery power transmission

DNV GL AS

Applicable when failure of the elastic


element leads to loss of torque
1)
transmission

Page 86

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

4.1.3 For segmented couplings the assembling of a coupling with segments from different charges (possibly
different stiffness) shall be within the approved tolerance range for segment differences.

Alarm
Load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
shut down
with alarm

Comments

Gr 1 Common sensor for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)
Gr 2 Sensor for automatic start of standby pump
Gr 3 Sensor for shut down

IL
IR

= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component

A
LA
HA
AS
LR

= Alarm activated for logical value

SH

= Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console
= Alarm for low value
= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm
= Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant.

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1 of the Rules for Classification of Ships.
1)

May be omitted if the vessel is equipped with a take me home device, e.g. a electric motor connected to the gearbox
(so-called PTH or PTI). Exemption may also be accepted for couplings that are of a design that enables the full torque
to be transmitted in the event of failure of the elastic elements. Such emergency claw devices are not getting home
devices, but only meant for temporary emergency in order to prevent loss of manoeuvrability in harbours, rivers, etc.

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Page 87

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

Gr 1
Indication

6.1 Coupling arrangement


6.1.1 Couplings shall be arranged in compliance with the limits defined, see [1.2.1]. Furthermore, the
reaction forces from couplings on the adjacent elements shall be taken into account. All permissible operating
conditions shall be considered.

7 Vibration
7.1 General
7.1.1 Torsional vibration is covered by the relevant section for the prime mover, e.g. diesel engines in Ch.2
Sec.2. Lateral vibration is covered by Ch.2 Sec.3.
7.1.2 Lateral vibration calculations of arrangements with segmented couplings may be required. The
calculations shall consider the rotating forces due to possible unbalanced tangential forces (1.0 order) at full
torque as well as corresponding forces due to torsional vibration. Stiffness variations, in accordance with the
approved tolerance for the segmented coupling, shall be assumed.
7.1.3 The coupling data as stiffness and damping used for torsional vibration analysis shall be representative
for the actual ambient temperature as well as the temperature rise due to power loss. Further, the specified
production tolerances shall be considered.
Guidance note:
Typical ambient temperature are:

bell housing (with ventilation openings) 70C

free standing at flywheel of diesel engine up to 50C

free standing PTO branch from a gearbox 30C

outside main engine room, special consideration.


---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

8 Installation inspection
8.1 Alignment
8.1.1 The coupling alignment (axial, radial and angular) shall be checked in the presence of a surveyor. The
alignment shall be within the approved tolerances for the coupling as well as any other limitation specified in
the shafting arrangement drawings.
8.1.2 The alignment shall be made under consideration of all adjacent machinery such as resiliently mounted
engines, etc.

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Page 88

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

6 Arrangement

9.1 Elastic elements


9.1.1 After the sea trial all rubber elements in propulsion plants and power take off branches shall be visually
checked by a surveyor. No cracks or deterioration are acceptable.

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DNV GL AS

Page 89

Part 4 Chapter 4 Section 5

9 Shipboard testing

Part 4 Chapter 4 Changes historic

CHANGES HISTORIC
October 2015 edition
This is a new document.
The rules enter into force 1 January 2016.

January 2016 edition

Amendments January 2016


Sec.1 Shafting
[2.2.8] item 4): Exceeding 5 seconds for passing barred speed range may require extended
documentation of fatigue capacity. Guidance Note is updated.

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Rotating machinery power transmission

DNV GL AS

Page 90

DNV GL
Driven by our purpose of safeguarding life, property and the environment, DNV GL enables
organizations to advance the safety and sustainability of their business. We provide classification and
technical assurance along with software and independent expert advisory services to the maritime,
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range of industries. Operating in more than 100 countries, our 16 000 professionals are dedicated to
helping our customers make the world safer, smarter and greener.

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

RULES FOR CLASSIFICATION


Ships
Edition July 2016

Part 4 Systems and components


Chapter 5 Rotating machinery - driven units

The content of this service document is the subject of intellectual property rights reserved by DNV GL AS ("DNV GL"). The user
accepts that it is prohibited by anyone else but DNV GL and/or its licensees to offer and/or perform classification, certification
and/or verification services, including the issuance of certificates and/or declarations of conformity, wholly or partly, on the
basis of and/or pursuant to this document whether free of charge or chargeable, without DNV GL's prior written consent.
DNV GL is not responsible for the consequences arising from any use of this document by others.

The electronic pdf version of this document, available free of charge


from http://www.dnvgl.com, is the officially binding version.

DNV GL AS

FOREWORD
DNV GL rules for classification contain procedural and technical requirements related to obtaining
and retaining a class certificate. The rules represent all requirements adopted by the Society as
basis for classification.

DNV GL AS July 2016

Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnvgl.com


If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of DNV GL, then DNV GL shall
pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten
times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million.
In this provision "DNV GL" shall mean DNV GL AS, its direct and indirect owners as well as all its affiliates, subsidiaries, directors, officers,
employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of DNV GL.

Part 4 Chapter 5 Changes - current

CHANGES CURRENT
This document supersedes the October 2015 edition.
Changes in this document are highlighted in red colour. However, if the changes involve a whole chapter,
section or sub-section, normally only the title will be in red colour.

Main changes July 2016, entering into force 1 January 2017


Sec.1 Propellers
Sec.1: Updated text related to hub caps with fins (and cap bolts).
Sec.1 [1.2.5]: Polar and diametrical mass moment of inertia of entrained water to be specified.

Sec.2 Water jets


New Sec.2 [2.1.4]: Requirements have been moved from guidance note in Sec.2 [2.1.3].

Sec.3 Podded and geared thrusters


Sec.3 [2.4.3] a): The paragraph has been rephrased to reflect the IACS UI SC242 / MSC.1 Circ 1416
regarding steering for thrusters.
New Sec.3 [2.8.4] and Sec.3 [2.8.5]: Requirements moved from guidance note in Sec.3 [2.8.3].

Sec.4 Compressors
Sec.4 [4.1.4] and Sec.4 Table 7: Requirement for temperature measurement of compressed medium has
been deleted.

Editorial corrections
In addition to the above stated changes, editorial corrections may have been made.

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Rotating machinery - driven units

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Page 3

Changes current.................................................................................................. 3
Section 1 Propellers................................................................................................ 8
1 General................................................................................................ 8
1.1 Application....................................................................................... 8
1.2 Documentation................................................................................. 8
1.3 Certification requirements................................................................ 10
2 Design................................................................................................12
2.1 General..........................................................................................12
2.2 Criteria for propeller blade dimensions.............................................. 13
2.3 Pitch control mechanism and propeller hub........................................ 14
2.4 Fitting of propeller blades to the hub................................................ 16
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................16
3.1 General..........................................................................................16
3.2 Inspection and testing of parts......................................................... 17
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................18
4.1 General..........................................................................................18
5 Control and monitoring......................................................................18
5.1 General..........................................................................................18
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 19
6.1 General..........................................................................................19
6.2 Arrangement of propeller................................................................. 20
6.3 Hydraulic system for pitch control.....................................................20
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 20
7.1 General..........................................................................................20
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 20
8.1 General..........................................................................................20
8.2 Fitting of propeller and propeller blades.............................................20
8.3 Pitch marking................................................................................. 20
8.4 Hydraulic piping..............................................................................20
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 21
9.1 Sea trial........................................................................................ 21
Section 2 Water jets............................................................................................. 22
1 General.............................................................................................. 22
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 22
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 22

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Page 4

Part 4 Chapter 5 Contents

CONTENTS

1.4 Definitions......................................................................................25
2 Design................................................................................................26
2.1 General..........................................................................................26
2.2 Design of components..................................................................... 26
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................27
3.1 General..........................................................................................27
3.2 Testing and inspection of parts......................................................... 27
3.3 Assembling.....................................................................................27
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................28
4.1 General..........................................................................................28
5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indications................................ 28
5.1 General..........................................................................................28
5.2 Monitoring and bridge control...........................................................28
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 29
6.1 General..........................................................................................29
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 30
7.1 General..........................................................................................30
8 Installation survey.............................................................................30
8.1 Surveys......................................................................................... 30
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 30
9.1 General..........................................................................................30
Section 3 Podded and geared thrusters................................................................ 32
1 General.............................................................................................. 32
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 32
1.2 Definitions......................................................................................32
1.3 Documentation............................................................................... 33
1.4 Certification requirements................................................................ 35
2 Design................................................................................................37
2.1 General..........................................................................................37
2.2 Shafting......................................................................................... 37
2.3 Gear transmissions..........................................................................38
2.4 Azimuth steering gear for thrusters...................................................38
2.5 Steering column and pod stay and underwater housing........................40
2.6 Propeller........................................................................................ 40
2.7 Bearings........................................................................................ 41
2.8 Lubrication system.......................................................................... 41
3 Inspection and testing.......................................................................42

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Page 5

Part 4 Chapter 5 Contents

1.3 Certification requirements................................................................ 23

3.2 Assembling.....................................................................................42
4 Workshop testing...............................................................................42
4.1 Testing of assembled unit................................................................ 42
5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication..................................42
5.1 General..........................................................................................42
5.2 Bridge control.................................................................................43
6 Arrangement...................................................................................... 45
6.1 General..........................................................................................45
6.2 Propulsion thrusters........................................................................ 46
7 Vibration............................................................................................ 46
7.1 Torsional vibration...........................................................................46
8 Installation inspection....................................................................... 47
8.1 Installation onboard........................................................................ 47
8.2 Install fastening to foundation.......................................................... 47
9 Shipboard testing.............................................................................. 47
9.1 Sea trial........................................................................................ 47
Section 4 Compressors.......................................................................................... 48
1 General.............................................................................................. 48
1.1 Application..................................................................................... 48
1.2 Documentation............................................................................... 48
1.3 Certification required....................................................................... 50
2 Workshop testing...............................................................................51
2.1 General..........................................................................................51
3 Design................................................................................................52
3.1 General..........................................................................................52
3.2 Piping and arrangement.................................................................. 52
3.3 Crankshafts.................................................................................... 53
3.4 Rotors for non-reciprocating compressors.......................................... 55
3.5 Rotor casing for non-reciprocating compressors.................................. 55
4 Control and monitoring......................................................................55
4.1 General..........................................................................................55
5 Arrangement on-board...................................................................... 56
5.1 General..........................................................................................56
6 Vibration............................................................................................ 56
6.1 Torsional vibration...........................................................................56
7 Installation inspection....................................................................... 56
7.1 General..........................................................................................56

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Page 6

Part 4 Chapter 5 Contents

3.1 General..........................................................................................42

Changes historic................................................................................................ 58

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DNV GL AS

Page 7

Part 4 Chapter 5 Contents

7.2 Vibration........................................................................................ 57

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The rules in this section apply to propellers intended for propulsion, steering and manoeuvring, subject
to certification.
Ch.2 describes all general requirements for rotating machinery and forms the basis for all sections in Ch.3,
Ch.4 and Ch.5.
1.1.2 The following items are recognised as parts of the propeller and are subject to approval:

propeller blades
blade fitting mechanism (e.g. blade bolts - if any)
propeller hub
pitch control mechanism (if any).

For fitting of the propeller to the shaft, see Ch.4 Sec.1.


1.1.3 See Pt.6 Ch.6 Sec.1 concerning propellers for ships with ice strengthening.
1.1.4 See Pt.5 Ch.13 concerning additional requirements for propellers for naval vessels.
1.1.5 See Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.7 concerning additional requirements related to redundant propulsion.
1.1.6 See Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.1 and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2 concerning additional requirements related to dynamic
positioning systems.

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The builder shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be reviewed
by the Society as a part of the class contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Info
FI

Detailed geometry, including:


verification details of fitting of hub to
propeller shaft
Hub

hub cap with fins and cap bolts (as


applicable)

C030 Detailed drawing

AP

blade fitting arrangement (as


applicable).
Material specification, properties and heat
treatment.
C040 Design analysis

Fitting calculation.

Rules for classification: Ships DNVGL-RU-SHIP-Pt4Ch5. Edition July 2016


Rotating machinery - driven units

DNV GL AS

FI, R

Page 8

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

SECTION 1 PROPELLERS

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

Z162 - Installation manual

Shall follow each delivery.

FI, R

C030 - Detailed drawing

Detailed geometry, including blade flange,


as applicable. Material specification,
properties and heat treatment.

AP

FE calculation (mandatory for special


designs), including background
documentation:

Blade

detailed hydrodynamic calculation

C040 Design analysis

FI, R

wake field data.


(Blade geometry data file in ASCII format,
preferably PFF may be requested).

Controllable pitch servo


mechanism

Controllable pitch
mechanism

Detailed geometry of all load carrying


parts, such as servo cylinder, piston and
piston rod.

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

Material specification, properties and heat


treatment.
S042 - Hydraulic control diagram

Including permissible operating servo


pressures, specification of oil filter, and
alarm list with setpoint and relay times.

Z161 - Operation manual

If pitch adjustment is used as load control


of propeller driver.

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

FI, R
FI

Detailed geometry of all load carrying


parts, such as crank disc, push pull rod,
cross head and sliding shoe.

C030 - Detailed drawing

AP

AP

Material specification, properties and heat


treatment.

Control and monitoring


system

C040 Design analysis

Analysis including description of pitch


propeller system is mandatory for new
design.

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

According to Ch.9.

FI, R

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information; R = On request

1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.
1.2.4 Relevant design parameters shall be given. As a minimum, the following shall be specified:

engine power at maximum continuous rating (MCR)


corresponding propeller rotational speed
maximum ship speed
design pressure of hydraulic pitch system (if any)
relevant additional class notations (see [1.1.3] - [1.1.6]).

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DNV GL AS

Page 9

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Object

1.2.5 The following additional information shall also be submitted for the propeller:

weight and buoyancy


polar and diametrical mass moment of inertia in air
polar and diametrical mass moment of inertia of entrained water (for zero and full pitch for CP propellers)
predicted operational hydraulic pressure for controllable pitch propellers, when available.

1.2.6 For instrumentation and automation, including computer based control and monitoring, see Ch.9.

1.3 Certification requirements


1.3.1 Pumps, electric motors, coolers, piping, filters, valves, etc. that are delivered as integral parts of the
hydraulic operation and cooling systems, shall be checked as found relevant by the propeller manufacturers
quality system.
1.3.2 Certificates shall be issued as per Table 2 and scope of testing and inspection of components as per
Table 3.
Table 2 Certification required for propeller
Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Certification
standard*

Additional description

PC
MC
Propellers cast in one piece

NDT

Society

TR

(See Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.7 and Pt.2 Ch.2


Sec.10).
Dimension control (see [3.1.9]).

PC
MC
Separate blades

NDT

Society

TR

Separate hubs

Hub cap with fins

Blade bolts

(See Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.7 and Pt.2 Ch.2


Sec.10).
Dimension control (see [3.1.9]).

MC

Society

PC and MC may be issued by


manufacturer for axillary propeller.

NDT

Society

(See Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.7 and Pt.2 Ch.2


Sec.10).

NDT

Manufacturer

(See Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.7 and Pt.2 Ch.2


Sec.10).

TR

Manufacturer

Material and dimension control.

PC

Society

MC

Manufacturer

NDT

Manufacturer

Rules for classification: Ships DNVGL-RU-SHIP-Pt4Ch5. Edition July 2016


Rotating machinery - driven units

DNV GL AS

PC may be issued by manufacturer


for auxilliary propeller.

Page 10

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

The manufacturing tolerance class (ISO 484) shall be specified on the propeller drawings.

Certification
standard*

Issued by

Additional description
Crank disc, push pull rod, servo
cylinder and cross head.

MC
Controllable pitch mechanism

Other parts of pitching mechanism


upon request.

Manufacturer

NDT shall cover highly stressed


areas, such as blade bolts, crank
disk fillet, threads of push-pull
rods, etc.

NDT

Pitch control and monitoring


system

PC
MC
TR
TA
NDT

PC

Society

See Ch.9.

= product cert
= material cert
= test report
= Type approval
= NDT report

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society rules.

1.3.3 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


1.3.4 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
1.3.5 The surveyor shall do visual inspection of parts. Visual inspection shall include random dimensional
check with emphasis on critical dimensions, tolerances and stress raisers.
Manufacturers measurement report shall be presented for main items and shall be available upon request for
minor components.
Manufacturers survey report shall be available upon request.
Table 3 Testing and inspection of components

Component

Material test (chemical


composition and
mechanical properties)

Magnetic
particle
inspection or
dye penetrant

Visual and dimensional


inspection

Propellers cast in one piece

Society

Society

Society

Separate blades

Society

Society

Society

Separate hubs

Society or manufacturer

2)

Manufacturer

1)
1)

3)

Hub cap with fins


Blade bolts

Society or manufacturer

2)

Manufacturer
Society or manufacturer

2)

Crank disc, push pull rod, servo cylinder


and cross head. Other parts of pitching Manufacturer
mechanism when found necessary

Manufacturer
Manufacturer

Manufacturer
4)

Manufacturer

The propeller shall be delivered with a Societys certificate, see [1.1.1]. Reference is also given to [1.1.2].

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Rotating machinery - driven units

DNV GL AS

Page 11

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Certificate
type

Object

Component

Magnetic
particle
inspection or
dye penetrant

Visual and dimensional


inspection

1)

See also [3.1.9]

2)

The Society if propulsion.

3)

Only required in A and C zones (see Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.8 and Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.11 [3]).

4)

Only required in highly stressed areas, such as blade bolts, crank disk fillet, threads of push-pull rods, etc.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 Materials for propellers shall comply with the requirements in Pt.2 Ch.1 and Pt.2 Ch.2.
For other materials, particulars of mechanical properties and chemical compositions shall be submitted to
the Society. Fatigue properties different from the ones given in Table 4 may be accepted, provided sufficient
documentation is presented.
Table 4 Material properties
Material constant
2
U1 [N/mm ]

Material constant
U2 [-]

Minimum yield strength


2
y [N/mm ]

Minimum tensile strength


2
B [N/mm ]

Mn-Bronze, CU1
(High tensile brass)

55

0.15

175

440

Mn-Ni-Bronze, CU2
(High tensile brass)

55

0.15

175

520

Ni-Al-Bronze, CU3

80

0.18

245

590

Mn-Al-Bronze, CU4

75

0.18

275

630

Martensitic stainless steel


(12Cr 1Ni)

60

0.20

440

590

Martensitic stainless steel


(13Cr 4Ni/13Cr 6Ni)

65

0.20

550

750

Martensitic stainless steel


(16Cr 5Ni)

70

0.20

540

760

Austenitic stainless steel


(19Cr 10Ni)

55

0.23

180

440

Material

Forged steel and other materials shall be especially considered.


Guidance note:
Fatigue properties in sea water U1 (fatigue strength amplitude) and U2 (relative reduction of fatigue strength with increasing mean
stress) may be documented in accordance with the following recommended testing procedure:

Material specimen without notches should be tested in sea water. The specimen should be welded, according to an approved
repair method, including post heat treatment as applicable. Surface roughness should be as for finished propellers. Material
properties and chemical composition should be representative for the minimum material requirements.

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Rotating machinery - driven units

DNV GL AS

Page 12

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Material test (chemical


composition and
mechanical properties)

Bending of flat bars is preferred, but testing with rotating bending is also acceptable.

Thickness of specimen should be at least 25 mm.

Number of cycles to be at least 10 at a bending frequency not higher than 5 Hz.

Number of tests should be minimum 25. Specimen shall be taken from at least two separate material charges.

Testing should be performed according to the Staircase method.

U1 (N/mm ) to be taken as:

where:

UE7
E7

=
=

average fatigue amplitude [N/mm ], corresponding to 10 cycles at zero mean stress (stress ratio, R = -1)
2

corresponding standard deviation [N/mm ].

The factor of 1.3 reflects a correction related to tested number of cycles vs. the expected number of cycles experienced during a
ships life time.
The factor of 2.0 is chosen to account for the scatter of fatigue strength.
In case U2 should be documented, additional testing should be carried out as above, with a stress ratio, R = 0.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.2 The requirements given in [2.2], [2.3], and [2.4] apply to all propellers of conventional design and
arrangement, unless otherwise explicitly stated. For propellers not recognised as conventional by the Society
(e.g. surface piercing propellers, tip fin propellers, cycloidal propellers etc.), the approval shall be based on
special consideration.
2.1.3 The combination of materials shall be such as to minimise galvanic corrosion.
2.1.4 The surface of the hub, conical bores, fillets and blades shall be smoothly finished.

2.2 Criteria for propeller blade dimensions


2.2.1 The following load conditions shall be considered:
a)
b)

High cycle dynamic stresses (> 10 cycles) due to rotational propeller load variation in normal, ahead
operation.
6
Low cycle dynamic stresses (< 10 cycles) due to propeller load variations in a seaway, manoeuvres,
starting and stopping, reversing, repetitive ice shock loads etc. shall also be considered when dynamic
stresses are not dominated by high cycle load variations, e.g. for propellers for which turning direction
may be reversed and propellers running in undisturbed axial inflow.
Guidance note:
Class guideline DNVGL-CG-0039 offers detailed methods on how to assess the minimum safety factors in Table 5 for these load
conditions.
Alternative methods may also be considered on the basis of equivalence.
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2.2.2 The propeller blades shall be designed with the minimum safety factors as given in Table 5, see
also guidance note in [2.2.1]. The safety factors reflect the expected inaccuracies in the methods used for
predictions of loads and stress calculations, as well as the influence of allowable material defects.
It is on the condition that manufacturing tolerance class I or S is specified according to ISO484 for propulsion
propellers. (Tolerance class II or better for other propellers.)
Otherwise higher safety factors may be required, based upon special consideration.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Application

All propellers, exclusive tunnel thrusters


Reversible direction of rotation,
exclusive tunnel thrusters
Tunnel thrusters

Considered Section

Load condition
Static

Low cycle fatigue

High cycle fatigue

At root section

1.8

At 0.6R

1.6

At 0.8R

1.5

At root section

2.2

2.2.3 Somewhat lower safety factors than given in Table 5 may be accepted after special consideration if
dynamic stresses are documented by means of reliable measurements and/or advanced calculation method.
2.2.4 Blade root fillet shall be designed in order to maintain a safety factor in the fillet as required for the
root section. Fillets with constant radius of 75% of root thickness, or multi-radius fillets of a constant stress
design are considered to comply with this requirement.
2.2.5 For calculation of the blade stress of special propeller designs such as tip fin propellers, special profiles,
etc., FE calculation shall be submitted with documented details of the hydrodynamic loads.
For calculation of the blade stress of these special propeller designs, in addition to the documents to be
submitted according to [1.2], a blade geometry data file (ASCII format, preferably PFF) shall be submitted to
the Society. Supplementary information for propellers of special designs can be requested by the Society.
2.2.6 If the propeller is subjected to an essential wear e.g. by abrasion in tidal flats or dredgers, a wear
addition shall be provided to the thickness determined according to class requirements to achieve an
equivalent lifetime.
2.2.7 If the propeller of azimuthing thruster is subjected to highly oblique inflow in transient conditions such
as crash stop manoeuvring, the propeller blade shall be strengthened accordingly.
2.2.8 Regarding devices for improving propulsion efficiency, the rules for classification of ships Pt.3 Hull, has
to be observed.

2.3 Pitch control mechanism and propeller hub


2.3.1 Mechanical components of a pitch control system and propeller hub shall be able to withstand the
static loads with the safety factor against yield as specified in Table 6.
Table 6 Minimum safety factors for static strength of propeller hub, pitch mechanism and blade
fitting mechanism
Load condition

Required safety factor

Load transmitted when two of the blades are prevented from pitching (servo force acting on
two blades)

1.0

Load transmitted when a propeller blade is exposed to maximum hydrodynamic load

2.0

Load corresponding to maximum servo pressure for strengthening the servo cylinder

2.0

Load corresponding to maximum servo pressure, with the load evenly distributed on all
blades

1.3

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Table 5 Minimum safety factors for propeller blades

The latter load case is dimensioning for push-pull rods.


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2.3.2 Safety factors for static load conditions reflect the risk and criticality related to the specified load
conditions, as well as the expected prediction quality of the acting loads. The minimum safety factors shall
be against yielding, and shall be applied on acting load. Local geometrical stress concentrations may be
neglected. Stresses referred to are equivalent stresses. It is provided that stresses are predicted according to
good engineering practice.
2.3.3 Maximum servo force (servo pressure corresponding to set point to safety valve) shall be applied in the
calculations. Guide pin is assumed to be located in the most critical position.
2.3.4 Unless the propeller is intended for auxiliary purposes only, fatigue strength of pitch mechanism and
propeller hub shall be considered taking the load conditions specified in Table 7 into account:
Table 7 Minimum safety factors for fatigue strength of propeller hub and pitch mechanism
Load condition

Required safety factor

Start and stop of propeller

1.5

Change of pitch setting in normal operating condition

1.5

Rotational load variation of propeller in normal, ahead operation (for propellers


intended for propulsion only).

1.5

2.3.5 Fatigue strength related to each load condition can be calculated separately.
2.3.6 Number of cycles shall correspond to a realistic number of load variations, corresponding to the
described condition.
2.3.7 Safety factors for dynamic load conditions reflect the risk and criticality related to the specified load
conditions, as well as the expected prediction quality of the acting loads and fatigue strength of material.
Safety factor shall be applied on acting dynamic load vs. fatigue strength of material. Influence of stress
concentrations shall be taken into account in fatigue calculation. Stresses referred to shall be principal
stresses. It is presumed that stresses and fatigue strength are predicted according to good engineering
practice.
Guidance note:
Class guideline DNVGL-CG-0039 offers more information on how to assess the minimum safety factors in Table 5 for these load
conditions.
Alternative methods may also be considered on the basis of equivalence.
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2.3.8 The design shall be such that reasonably low stress concentrations are ensured.
2.3.9 For shrink fitted propellers, hub thickness shall be sufficient to avoid stresses from the dynamic loading
of propeller blades influencing significantly on the shrink fit and vice versa.
Guidance note:
In order to provide the above statement a hub thickness in way of propeller blade corresponding to 70% of the required thickness
of the propeller blade root section is considered enough as a minimum.
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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

Guidance note:

Guidance note:
Specification of a pressure filter for maintaining suitable fluid cleanliness may be 16/14/11 according to ISO 4406:1999 and 6-7 (c)
= 200 according to ISO 16889:2008.
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2.3.11 For general design requirements for piping and ancillary equipment such as pipes, pumps, filters and
coolers see Ch.6 and Ch.7, as found applicable.
2.3.12 If necessary for corrosion protection, a hub cap with sufficient strength to protect the shaft effectively
from water ingress shall be fitted. If hub cap with fins are mounted any damage of the fins shall not harm the
integrity of the cap.
Guidance note:
The hub cap should be thicker than the fin.
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2.4 Fitting of propeller blades to the hub


2.4.1 The pre-tensioning of the blade bolts shall ensure friction forces sufficient to prevent sliding of the
propeller flange with a safety factor greater than 1.0 when the propeller is exposed to forces as described in
Table 6 If shear pins are fitted, the sum of friction and shear forces shall be considered. The blade retaining
bolts shall be tightened in a controlled way to ensure an appropriate pretension. Pretension stress in the
minimum section of the blade bolts shall be in the range of 50 to 70% of the bolt-material yield strength or
maximum 56% of the tensile strength, whichever is the least. During operation any blade opening or loss of
bolt pretension shall be prevented. The blade bolt stress shall not exceed yield strength of the bolt material.
2.4.2 The blade bolt pre-stress shall be high enough to ensure that a certain minimum surface pressure
between mating surfaces is obtained in all permissible operating conditions.
2.4.3 High cycle dynamic stress amplitudes in the minimum thread section of the blade bolts for propellers
intended for propulsion shall fulfil the following criterion:

where:

S
A
U

= safety factor, not to be less than 1.5


= dynamic stress amplitude

= allowable nominal stress amplitude in the threaded area, 35 N/mm for machined threads and 60
2
N/mm for rolled threads.

2.4.4 Other means of propeller blade fitting mechanisms shall be especially considered.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 General
3.1.1 Blade bolt pre-tensioning shall be carried out in the presence of a surveyor.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

2.3.10 The degree of filtration of hydraulic oil shall correspond to maximum allowable particle size in the
system or better. In addition, the selection and arrangement of filters shall provide for an uninterrupted
supply with filtered oil, also during filter cleaning or exchange.

3.1.3 For controllable pitch propellers, all connections shall be properly sealed.
3.1.4 For controllable pitch propellers intended for propulsion, the following pitch settings shall, as a
minimum, be properly marked on the hub and blade flange:
pitch at 70% radius is zero
maximum pitch ahead (pitch limited by mechanical pitch stopper)
maximum pitch astern (pitch limited by mechanical pitch stopper).
The correctness of pitch marks and the mechanical feedback of pitch setting shall be verified by the Society.
3.1.5 The function of the pitch stoppers shall be demonstrated. If pitch stoppers are located outside of the
hub, it shall be verified by the Society that maximum travel in each direction is less than inside the propeller
hub.
3.1.6 After assembly, the complete servo system shall be properly flushed.
3.1.7 The complete controllable pitch propeller system shall be function tested and pressure tested as
follows:
hydraulic pitch control to 1.5 times design pressure
tightness of propeller subject to 1 bar.
3.1.8 For hub caps serving as corrosion protection a tightness test shall be carried out.
3.1.9 The propeller blades shall be manufactured according to the specified tolerance class (ISO 484).
As a minimum, verification of the following is required:

surface finish
pitch (local and mean pitch)
thickness and length of blade sections
form of blade sections
location of blades, reference line and blade contour
balancing (see also [4.1])
for propellers running in nozzle or tunnel:
extreme radius of blades (for controllable pitch propellers with outer section at zero pitch).

See also [2.1.4].


For verification of blade edge thickness for ice classed propellers, see also: Pt.6 Ch.6.
Guidance note:
Verification of blade section form may include the use of edge templates as specified for manufacturing tolerance classes S and I in
ISO 484.
Equivalent methods can be accepted, for instance the use of multi-axial milling machines, which have proven to be capable of
producing the specified geometry with such an accuracy that only a slight grinding is necessary to obtain the specified surface
finish.
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3.2 Inspection and testing of parts


3.2.1 Certificates shall be provided as required in Table 2.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

3.1.2 All tests and inspections in [3.1.4] to [3.1.7] shall be carried out in the presence of a surveyor.

for propeller blades and hubs, the criteria given in Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.8 and Pt.2 Ch.2 Sec.11 apply
no defects are accepted in highly stressed areas of components in the pitching mechanism.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 General
4.1.1 The complete propeller shall be statically balanced in accordance with specified ISO 484 tolerance class
(or equivalent) in presence of a surveyor. Dynamic balancing shall be carried out for propulsion propellers
with tip speed exceeding 60 m/s. The manufacturer shall demonstrate that the assembled propeller shall be
within the specified limits.
Guidance note:
For built-up propellers, the required static balancing may be replaced by an individual control of blade weight and gravity centre
position.
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5 Control and monitoring


5.1 General
5.1.1 For controllable pitch propellers, control and monitoring systems shall comply with the requirements of
Ch.9.
5.1.2 Pitch adjustment shall not be used as load control system of prime mover, unless the propeller system
is especially designed for this purpose.
5.1.3 A local control stand for pitch control shall be arranged.
5.1.4 Instrumentation and alarms shall be provided according to Table 8, if not otherwise approved.
Table 8 Control and monitoring of propeller

System/Item

Gr 1
Indication
alarm
load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shutdown
with alarm

Comments

1.0 Pitch, speed and direction of rotation


Propeller rotational speed

IR

Direction of rotation for


reversible propellers

IR

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

3.2.2 With respect to non-destructive testing for detection of surface defects, the following acceptance
criteria apply:

alarm
load reduction

Propeller pitch for CPpropellers

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shutdown
with alarm

Comments

For propulsion, the following pitch


settings shall be marked on the local
pitch indicator:
IL, IR

Mechanical pitch limits ahead


and astern, pitch at full ahead
running, maximum astern pitch
and pitch at zero thrust.

2.0 Servo oil for CP-propeller


Pressure

IL, IR, LA

Level

IL, LA

Differential pressure over filter

HA

Gr 1 =

AS

1)

The indicators shall be able to show


sudden peaks in servo pressure.

2)

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shutdown
= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS

= Alarm activated for logical value

LR

Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e.g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant

SH

Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm

For definitions of load reduction (LR) and shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

To be provided when standby pump is required, see [6.3.1].

2)

Applies only to propulsion propellers.

6 Arrangement
6.1 General
6.1.1 Bolts and nuts shall be properly secured, see [8.2.3].

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

System/Item

Gr 1
Indication

6.2.1 The arrangement and design of the propeller shall be such that satisfactory performance is maintained
under all operating conditions.
6.2.2 The arrangement of attached free-wheeling propellers shall be especially considered.

6.3 Hydraulic system for pitch control


6.3.1 Unless the propeller is intended for auxiliary purposes only, for single propulsion plants where the
pitch-control mechanism is operated hydraulically, at least two mutually independent, power-driven pump
sets shall be installed.
6.3.2 For general requirements with respect to hydraulic systems, see Ch.6 Sec.5 [8.1].

7 Vibration
7.1 General
7.1.1 Not applicable.

8 Installation inspection
8.1 General
8.1.1 Installation of external components shall be carried out according to the makers specifications.

8.2 Fitting of propeller and propeller blades


8.2.1 For fitting of propeller, see Ch.4 Sec.1.
8.2.2 For blade bolt pre-tensioning, see [3.1.1].
8.2.3 The surveyor shall verify that bolts and nuts are properly secured. In case bolts are fixed by welding, it
shall be verified that only regions with low stress levels are affected.

8.3 Pitch marking


8.3.1 For pitch marking, see [3.1.4].

8.4 Hydraulic piping


8.4.1 Pipes shall have a suitable location and be properly clamped. Inspection and testing shall be possible.
8.4.2 The hydraulic system shall be flushed after assembly to a degree of cleanliness as specified by the
maker.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

6.2 Arrangement of propeller

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 Sea trial
9.1.1 For controllable pitch propellers, the pitch function and the servo pressure shall be demonstrated to
the satisfaction of the surveyor. Also the function of the local pitch control shall be demonstrated, and the
correctness of local pitch indicator shall be verified.
9.1.2 Unless the propeller is intended for auxiliary purposes only, the pitch behaviour with inactive servo
(zero servo pressure) shall be demonstrated to the surveyor during sea trial.
9.1.3 The performance of the propeller shall be tested at both full ahead operation and full astern operation.
For fixed pitch propellers reversing shall be tested at maximum permissible astern r/min. For controllable
pitch propellers reversing shall be tested at maximum astern pitch of maximum permissible r/min.
9.1.4 For controllable pitch propellers, the function and setting of the safety valve shall be demonstrated to
the satisfaction of the surveyor.
9.1.5 The filter for the servo oil shall be inspected after the sea trial.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 1

8.4.3 System hydraulic oil shall be in accordance with maker's specification.

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The rules in this section apply to axial water jets intended for main propulsion and steering for all
types of vessels.
1.1.2 Ch.2 describes all general requirements for rotating machinery and forms the basis for all sections in
Ch.3, Ch.4, Ch.5 and Ch.10.
1.1.3 Water jet units with main steering function are also regarded as steering gear for the vessel.
1.1.4 Water jet units for auxiliary steering purposes (i.e. not for propulsion) are only subject to classification
after special consideration.

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The manufacturer shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be
reviewed by the Society as a part of the certification contract.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object

Waterjet, fixed;
Waterjet, variable

Shafting

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including cross section

FI

C040 - Design analysis

Impeller thrust, vessel thrust and


maximum reversing forces at crash stop

FI

Z100 - Specification

Water jet pump characteristic, with


operation limits including cavitation limits,
see limit as for Table 5

FI

Z100 - Specification

Normal operating parameters that define


the permissible operating conditions, such
as thrust, impeller speed, vessel speed,
impeller speed. versus vessel speed, see
limitations in Table 5

FI

Z261 - Test report

Non-destructive testing (NDT)

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

Input shaft and impeller shaft shall


be documented according to rules for
shafting

AP

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Bearing arrangement with particulars

AP

C040 - Design analysis

Calculated lifetime of roller bearings

AP

C030 - Detailed drawing

Seal box, if water lubricated

FI

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Info

Page 22

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

SECTION 2 WATER JETS

Impeller

Stator housing

Stern flange

Waterjet casing

Reversing arrangement;
Steering arrangement

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

C030 - Detailed drawing

All bolt connections carrying thrust or


torque, specification of bolt material and
tightening procedure (bolt pre-stress)

AP

C030 - Detailed drawing

Including NDT specification

FI

C040 - Design analysis

Impeller blade strength calculations

C030 - Detailed drawing

With guide vanes

C040 - Design analysis

Strength calculations

C030 Detail drawing

Including bolting

AP

C040 Design analysis

Strength calculation

FI

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Including water inlet ducting

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

Cross section of unit.

FI

C040 - Design analysis

Water inlet ducting, hydrodynamic

FI

C040 - Design analysis

Housing strength calculations, see [2.2]

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Steering arrangement

AP

C040 - Design analysis

Strength calculation of the steering and


reversing mechanism

AP

S042 - Hydraulic control diagram

Including relief valve setting and alarm list


with set points

AP

FI, R
FI
FI, R

FI, R

Reversing deflector
actuator

C030 - Detail drawing

AP

Steering deflector
actuator

C030 - Detail drawing

AP

Control and monitoring


system

I200 - Control and monitoring system


documentation

According to Ch.9

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information; R = On request

1.2.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.2.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

1.3 Certification requirements


1.3.1 Water jet parts, semi-products or materials shall be certified according to Table 2 and tested according
to Table 3 and [3.2].
1.3.2 All piping systems shall be properly flushed, in accordance with the manufacturers specification. This
shall be documented by a work certificate.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

PC

Society

PC

Society

MC

Manufacturer

TR

Manufacturer

Stator housing

MC

Manufacturer

Impeller housing

MC

Manufacturer

Shafting

MC

Manufacturer

Hydraulic actuators for


reversing

PC

Society

MC

Manufacturer

MC
NDT

Manufacturer

PC

Society

MC

Society

Other steering components

MC

Manufacturer

Bolts

TR

Manufacturer

Ducting

MC

Manufacturer

Control and monitoring


system

PC

Society

Object
Waterjet

Impeller

Other reversing components

Hydraulic actuators for


steering

Certification
standard*

Additional description

Required if manufactured by sub


supplier

Balancing - See [3.2.4]

As required in Ch.4 Sec.1


Required if manufactured by sub
supplier

Required if manufactured by sub


supplier

If delivered integral with the water


jet

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society rules.

1.3.3 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


1.3.4 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
1.3.5 The surveyor shall do visual inspection of parts. Visual inspection shall include random dimensional
check with emphasis on critical dimensions, tolerances and stress raisers.
Manufacturers measurement report shall be presented for main items and shall be available upon request for
minor components.
Manufacturers survey report shall be available upon request.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

Table 2 Certification required

Ultra-sonic or
X-ray testing

Surface crack
3)
detection

Impeller

Dimensional
inspection

Visual
inspection

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

Society

Pressure testing

Stator
housing

Manufacturer

4)

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

Society

Impeller
housing

Manufacturer

4)

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

Society

Shafting

According to Ch.4 Sec.1

Hydraulic
actuators for
reversing and
5)
steering

U-S or surface crack detection


4)
(manufacturer)

Other
steering and
reversing
components

Manufacturer

Other
Manufacturer

1)

Society or
2)
manufacturer

4)

Manufacturer

Bolts
Ducting when
delivered
integral with
the water jet

Manufacturer

Manufacturer

1)

See [3.2.4].

2)

Society for steering hydraulic actuators, manufacturer for reversing hydraulic actuators.

3)

Crack detection in final condition.

4)

NDT of welds upon request.

5)

Hydraulic actuator includes cylinder, rod, cylinder end eye and rod end eye.

Society

1.4 Definitions
1.4.1 The following definitions in Table 4 are used in this section.
Table 4 Definitions
Term

Definition

ducting

water streaming along the vessels bottom and flows into a duct, leading the water to the
water jet. The duct forms an integral part of the vessel hull. It is normally manufactured at the
builder

hydraulic actuators

used for either steering or reversing as the driving force that impose the reversing bucket or
acts on the steering nozzle to create a change in the water flow direction

impeller

the rotating hub with blades. The impeller is connected to the shaft. The impeller is usually cast
in one piece. Alternatively, the blades are welded onto the hub

impeller housing

the water jet casing surrounding the impeller

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

Table 3 Testing and inspection of components

Definition

reversing bucket

for reversing purposes, the water jet incorporates components that can force its entry into
the water flow thereby turning the water jet discharge to be thrown somewhat forwards. This
creates a reversing force that acts on the vessel. The flow is either thrown forwards in an angle
directed below the vessel, or to both of the sides of the water jet. The components used for
this purpose is denoted a bucket

stator housing

by leading the water flow through a row of stationary vanes downstream of the impeller, the
swirl added to the water by the impeller is reduced, and the longitudinal speed of the water
flow is increased. The vanes are usually formed as an integral part of the water jet housing

steering nozzle

the water flow is lead through a passageway that can be tilted horizontally in relation to the
vessel's longitudinal axis, thereby changing the direction of the water jet flow. This creates a
turning moment used for steering the vessel

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 For general design principles for machinery, see Sec.1 [2].
2.1.2 The water jet unit shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed by all permissible operating
modes, including the condition when the inlet of the suction is blocked.
2.1.3 The stresses in water jet components shall be considered based on loads due to the worst permissible
operating conditions, taking into account:
hydrodynamic loads, including varying hydrodynamic loads due to water flow disturbances introduced e.g.
by the ducting or hull
vessel accelerations versus water jet r/min.
2.1.4 Harmful impeller cavitation shall not occur when operating at full design speed on a straight course and
at designated trim, giving the designed water head above the water intake.
Guidance note:
Harmful cavitation in this context is that cavitation which shall reduce shafting system and water jet component lifetime by
introducing vibration or impeller erosion.
The water jet may be exposed to operating conditions outside the intended design. Such situations may occur for instance
due to increased vessel weight, increased hull resistance, vessel operating at deeper waters etc. In situations where operation
exceeds the design premises, harmful impeller cavitation may occur as a consequence of abnormal water jet flow conditions. This
phenomenon has showed to be of increasing importance with increasing water jet size.
To combat this, the water jet should be designed with reasonable margin for cavitation, and care should be taken to avoid vessel
overweight due to e.g. reasons mentioned in the above. The bigger the water jets are the more important this advice become.
---e-n-d---o-f---g-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

2.1.5 The water jet units shall be provided with inspection facilities for inspection of the shaft and impeller.

2.2 Design of components


2.2.1 The dimensions of the shafts and the shafting components, including bearings, shall comply with the
requirements in Ch.4 Sec.1.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

Term

2.2.3 Steering and reversing mechanisms shall be designed taking into account the worst permissible
operational conditions.
2.2.4 The materials used in the hydraulic actuators shall be suitable for the expected environmental
conditions.
2.2.5 Hydraulic actuators for steering shall comply with the requirements given in the Ch.10.
2.2.6 Hydraulic actuators for reversing shall comply with the requirements given in Ch.6 Sec.5 [8]. However,
if the hydraulic system for the reversing actuators is the same as for the steering system, the design and test
pressure for the reversing actuators shall be the same as for the steering actuators. Higher nominal stresses
may be accepted for the reversing actuator.
2.2.7 The critical details of the duct and connections to the hull structure shall be designed against extreme
loads occurring during crash stop and fatigue considerations related to reversing, steering and impeller
pulses.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 General
3.1.1 The certification principles and the principles of manufacturing survey arrangements (MSA) are
described in Pt.1 Ch.1 Sec.4.
Regarding material and testing specifications, see Pt.1 Ch.3.
3.1.2 Welding procedures shall be qualified according to a recognised standard or Pt.2.

3.2 Testing and inspection of parts


3.2.1 The inspection and testing described in the following are complementary to Table 3.
3.2.2 The visual inspections by the Society shall include random dimensional check of vital areas such as
flange transition radius, bolt holes etc., in addition to the main overall dimensions.
3.2.3 Particulars concerning ducting inspections are stated in [8.1.5].
3.2.4 The impeller shall be statically balanced.
Guidance note:
VDI standard no. 2060 Quality class 6.3 or ISO 1940/1 Balance Guide G6.3 may be used as reference.
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3.3 Assembling
3.3.1 For fitting of the impeller to the shaft, see Ch.4 Sec.1 [2.3] to Ch.4 Sec.1 [2.7].

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

2.2.2 The impeller housing and stator housing shall be designed against fatigue, considering impeller pulses
and other flow pulses.

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

4 Workshop testing
4.1 General
4.1.1 Not applicable.

5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indications


5.1 General
5.1.1 Systems shall comply with the requirements in Ch.9.

5.2 Monitoring and bridge control


5.2.1 The monitoring of water jets (for propulsion) shall be in accordance with Table 5 in regard to:
indications, alarms and requests for slowdown.
Table 5 Control and monitoring of water jets
Gr 1
Indication

System/Item

alarm
load reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

1.0 Steering
Loss of steering and reversing
signal

A, LR

Request for slow down

IR, LA, LR

Request for slow down

2.0 Hydraulic oil


Pressure
Level in supply tank

IL, LA

3.0 Lubricating oil


Temperature

IR, HA

Pressure (if forced lubrication)


Level in oil tank (if provided)
4.0 Operational limitations

IR, LA, LR

Request for slow down

IL, LA

1)

The ratio impeller r.p.m versus


vessel speed

IR, HA, LR

Request for slow down

Maximum permissible vessel


acceleration exceeded

Indication on bridge

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Gr 2
Automatic
start of standby pump
with alarm

alarm
load reduction

Gr 1 =

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shutdown
= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS

= Alarm activated for logical value

LR

Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. g. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant

SH

Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm

For definitions of load reduction (LR) and shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

These requirements are only valid for water jets with inlet diameter in excess of 1 000 mm.

5.2.2 Monitoring and bridge control shall also be in compliance with Ch.9 and Ch.10 Sec.1 [5.5] to Ch.10
Sec.1 [5.7].
5.2.3 Frequent corrections in the steering control system, when the vessel is on straight course, shall be
avoided if practicable.
Guidance note:
The actual corrections should be read preferably by monitoring the control signal. Alternatively, direct measurements on
mechanical feedback device from the water jet can be used.
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6 Arrangement
6.1 General
6.1.1 The installation and arrangement of the water jet unit with auxiliaries shall comply with the
manufacturers specification.
6.1.2 Ship external parts of the water jet shall be protected by guard rails or other suitable means.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

System/Item

Gr 1
Indication

7.1 General
7.1.1 For requirements concerning whirling calculations and shaft alignment specification, see Ch.2.
7.1.2 For requirements concerning torsional vibration calculations for water jets, see Ch.2.

8 Installation survey
8.1 Surveys
8.1.1 The fastening of the water jet to the hull and the structural strengthening around the water jet unit
with ducting shall be carried out in agreement with the approved drawings.
8.1.2 Impeller clearances shall be checked after installation and shaft alignment and shall be in accordance
with the manufacturers specification.
8.1.3 Normal procedures for shafting apply, see Ch.4 Sec.1 [7].
8.1.4 Thrust bearing axial clearances after installation shall be verified to be in accordance with the
manufacturer specification, unless verified during assembly of the water jet.
8.1.5 The ducting shall be manufactured in accordance with drawings and specifications from the water
jet designer. The surfaces shall be smooth and free from sharp edges or buckling that could give raise to
turbulence in the water flow and thereby adversely affect water jet operating conditions.
Guidance note:
Great care should be taken in assuring that the ducting dimensions agree with the water jet designers drawings. The ducting
designer should be consulted for use of possible dimensional checking equipment, such as templates especially made for that
purpose.
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8.1.6 Pressure testing of piping shall be done according to Ch.6.

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 General
9.1.1 For general requirements related to the testing of control and monitoring, see Ch.9.
For testing of steering gear, Ch.10 Sec.1 [9] applies.
9.1.2 Final acceptance of the control system is dependent upon satisfactory results of the harbour testing
and the final sea trial, as specified in items [9.1.3], [9.1.4] and [9.1.5].
9.1.3 Attention shall be paid to combinations of operational functions. Testing of all combinations of functions
shall be carried out.
9.1.4 Indication and alarm (if applicable) of operation outside the specified operation limits shall be checked.
This applies to acceleration as well as impeller speed versus vessel speed.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

7 Vibration

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 2

9.1.5 The water jet speed versus vessel speed shall be noted and plotted against the manufacturers
operational curves when inlet diameter exceeds 1000 mm. The surveyor shall verify the correct reading of
values, and the results shall be submitted to the approval centre after completion of test.

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The rules apply to thruster plants intended for propulsion, propulsion and steering, dynamic positioning
and, if above 300 kW for auxiliary duty. However, the requirements in [3.2.2], [3.2.3], [5], and [9] apply to
all thrusters.
The tunnel and other parts, that are welded or bolted to the hull and form a barrier against the ingress of
seawater, shall always be subject to approval, also for auxiliary units of 300 kW or less.
Thrusters of unconventional design are evaluated based on equivalence and may be accepted provided that
safety and reliability can be documented to be equivalent or better than the requirements of this section.
1.1.2 For thrusters that are part of a dynamic positioning system, additional requirements are given in Pt.6
Ch.3 Sec.1 and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2.
For thrusters that are installed in a vessel with additional class notation RP additional requirements are given
in Pt.6 Ch.2 Sec.7.
For thrusters intended for navigation in ice, additional requirements are given in Pt.6 Ch.6.
1.1.3 Ch.2 describes all general requirements for rotating machinery and forms the basis for all sections in
Ch.3, Ch.4 and Ch.5.
1.1.4 The requirements in [2.4] are specific for steering gear for azimuth thrusters and replace the
equivalent requirements in Ch.10 Sec.1, which apply to conventional rudders.
However, Ch.10 also gives requirements, depending on vessel type and size, which shall be complied with in
addition to the requirements in [2.4].
1.1.5 For HS, LC and NSC the following rules also apply:
machinery in general: HSC Code 9.1.1 to 9.1.14, HSC Code 9.7 and 9.8 (passenger craft), and HSC code
9.9 (cargo craft)
propulsion and lift devices: HSC Code 9.6.1 to 9.6.5.

1.2 Definitions
1.2.1
Table 1 Definitions
Term

Definition

auxiliary thruster

is a thruster for all other purposes than propulsion and dynamic positioning

azimuth thruster

is capable of providing omni-directional thrust by being rotated around the vertical axis

declared steering angle


limits

are the operational limits in terms of maximum steering angle, or equivalent, according to
manufacturer's guidelines for safe operation, also taking into account the vessel's speed or
propeller torque/speed or other limitation

dynamic positioning
thruster

is a thruster that is a part of a dynamic positioning system on board a vessel with a dynamic
positioning class notations, see Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2 and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.1

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

SECTION 3 PODDED AND GEARED THRUSTERS

Definition

geared thruster

thruster with a lower gear or lower and upper gear

podded thruster

thruster with the prime mover directly attached to the propeller shaft (often called pod or
podded propulsor)

propulsion thruster

is a thruster that is assigned to propulsion of the vessel. A propulsion thruster may also provide
steering function

thruster

is a unit equipped with a propeller or impeller in order to produce thrust and is considered to be
the complete assembly; from the propeller with nozzle (if applicable) to the input shaft at the
upper gear or slip ring unit (if applicable)

tunnel thruster

thruster mounted in a tunnel for the purpose of providing lateral thrust for the vessel

1.3 Documentation
1.3.1 Documentation shall be submitted as required by Table 2.
Table 2 Documentation requirements
Object

Thruster

Documentation type

Additional description

Info

C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Arrangement drawing of the thruster unit, including driver and


intermediate shafting (yard supply)

AP

C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Sectional drawing of the whole thruster unit, including bearing


arrangement

AP

C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Shaft brake/locking device arrangement (if applicable)

FI

C040 - Design analysis Shaft brake/locking device capacity calculation (if applicable)

FI

C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Sealing arrangement for flexibly mounted tunnel thrusters

AP

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Sectional drawings including all torque transmitting parts, e.g. shafts,


couplings and gears

AP

C030 - Detailed
drawing

For podded thrusters: sectional drawing of electric motor including


particulars of stator-to-housing and rotor-to-shaft connections and
defined air gap with tolerances

AP

C040 - Design analysis Component strength calculation for structural parts


C040 - Design analysis Torsional vibration calculations (yard supply), see Ch.2 Sec.2
C040 - Design analysis

Torsional impact calculations. Applicable if high transient torque in


electric motor drive (e.g. star-delta start), (yard supply), see Ch.2 Sec.2

C040 - Design analysis Bearing life time calculations. Applicable if roller bearings
Z100 Specification

Material, nominal surface pressure and clearance tolerances in case of


fluid film bearings. Applicable if plain bearings

C040 - Design analysis For podded thrusters: heat balance calculation

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FI, R
AP
AP, R
FI
FI
FI

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Term

Documentation type

Additional description

S010 - Piping diagram


(PD)

For podded thrusters: bilge system

AP

Z060 Functional
description

For podded thrusters: bilge system

FI

Z030 Arrangement
plan

Steering gear compartment for propulsion thrusters (yard supply)

FI

Z050 - Design
philosophy

Info

Operational (design) limitations such as, but not limited to:


limitations in rotation of azimuth thrusters at high vessel speed

FI

maximum vessel speed for lowering and lifting of retractable units

Z051 - Design basis

Maximum forces acting on the thruster unit under the most extreme
allowable manoeuvre, including crash stop

Z060 Functional
description

Load control system including description of the method used to control


the load (CP-mechanism, frequency converter etc.)

FI, R

Z100 Specification

Specification of torque capacity of off-the-shelf gear transmissions used


in steering motor arrangements (see footnote in [1.4.4])

FI

Z161 - Operation
manual

Operation instruction poster for control and steering of the thruster,


including emergency operation. Shall be displayed on the navigation
bridge and in the steering gear compartment

AP

Z250 Procedure

Assembling and adjustment procedures regarding gear mesh contact for


drive gears and steering gears

Z250 Procedure

For propulsion thrusters: crash stop procedure

FI

Z051 - Design basis

Maximum start-up torque (KAP factor, see class guideline DNVGLCG-0036).


Does not apply to thrusters which obtain the required scuffing safety
factor (see Table 3) with a peak torque factor KAP of 1.5 or higher and
have equivalent mass moment of inertia of motor higher than equivalent
mass moment of inertia of the propeller

FI

Fixation
arrangement

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Sectional drawings of slewing bearing and thruster support bearing

AP

Housing and
structural
part

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Structural drawings (gear housing etc.) and connections to the tunnel or


nozzle (if not covered by sectional drawings), including NDT specification

AP

Gears

Ref to Ch.4 Sec.2

AP

Propeller

Ref to Sec.1

AP

FI

FI, R

Propeller
shaft seal

C030 - Detailed
drawing

AP

Propeller
nozzle

C030 - Detailed
drawing

AP

Steering
column

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Including NDT specification

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AP

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Object

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 - Assembly or
arrangement drawing

Steering gear assembly, including azimuth brake/locking device

AP

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Including all load transmitting parts

AP

S042 - Hydraulic
control diagram

Including alarm and indicator set points

AP

Z060 Functional
description

Description of steering gear function and load limiting devices including


maximum values

FI

Z100 Specification

Load data for azimuth gear, including capacity of azimuth brake

FI

Z110 Data sheet

Electrical motor for steering gear (if applicable), including motor rating
according to IEC and torque versus speed characteristics of electrical
motor

FI, R

Z110 Data sheet

Frequency converter set value of parameters, list of alarms, shutdowns


and ramp functions (if applicable)

FI

Thruster seal

C030 - Detailed
drawing

Sealing arrangement for steering column, see [2.5]

AP

Lubricating
system

S010 - Piping diagram


(PD)

Lubrication oil system including alarm and indicator set points

AP

Control and
monitoring
system

I200 - Control and


monitoring system
documentation

Steering
gear
actuator

Info

AP

AP = For approval; FI = For information; R = On request

1.3.2 For general requirements for documentation, including definition of the info codes, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.2.
1.3.3 For a full definition of the documentation types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.3.

1.4 Certification requirements


1.4.1 The complete thruster shall be delivered with certificate as required in Table 3 and tested and
inspected as required in Table 2. It shall be based on the design approval in [2], the component certification
in [3], the workshop testing in [4] and relevant monitoring equipment in [5].
Table 3 Certification requirements
Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Thruster

PC

Society

Underwater housing

MC

Manufacturer

Inboard housing

MC

Manufacturer

Outer housing

MC

Society

Steering column or rotating


support

MC

Society

Certification
standard*

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Additional description
Complete thruster

Non rotating, forming barrier to sea

Page 35

Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Object

Certificate
type

Issued by

Propeller nozzle

MC

Society

Control and monitoring


systems

PC

Society

Certification
standard*

Additional description

Required for thrusters for


propulsion and dynamic
positioning duty

*Unless otherwise specified the certification standard is the Society rules.

Table 4 Testing and inspection of components


Ultra-sonic or
X-ray testing

Surface crack
2)
detection

Pressure testing

Dimensional
inspection

Visual
inspection

Underwater
housing

Manufacturer

Society

Inboard
housing

Manufacturer

Society

Outer
housing

Manufacturer

Society

Propeller
nozzle

Manufacturer

Society

Manufacturer

Society

Steering
column or
rotating
support

Manufacturer

1)

Other

1)

The test certificate shall refer to a recognized standard and approved acceptance levels.

2)

Surface and crack detection (MPI or dye penetrant) is required in way of zones with stress risers and in welded
connections. The extent and acceptance criteria shall be specified in the documentation submitted for approval.

1.4.2 For general certification requirements, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.4.


1.4.3 For a definition of the certification types, see Pt.1 Ch.3 Sec.5.
1.4.4 Certification requirements are given in the respective references or in this section:
pinions and wheels for propeller drive, see Ch.4 Sec.2
pinions and wheels for azimuth steering, see Ch.4 Sec.2*
Guidance note:
* For propulsion thrusters which have high speed hydraulic motor or electric motor (equivalent to rudder actuator) which is
combined with off the shelf, mass produced gear boxes, the certification of the gearboxes may be based on function testing
only, provided that:

vessel has two or more independent propulsion thrusters

vessel is fully manoeuvrable with one thruster locked in worst possible condition (other thruster(s) in operation)

each thruster is provided with two or more steering gear actuators

the gearboxes shall be conservatively chosen with regard to required safety factors and able to handle all relevant loads for
the steering gear

easily replaceable.
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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Object

shafts, see Ch.4 Sec.1


clutches, see Ch.4 Sec.3
couplings, see Ch.4 Sec.4
propeller, see Sec.1
hydraulic motor for steering (to be handled as a pump), see Ch.6 Sec.6.

1.4.5 Electrical equipment shall be certified as required in Ch.8.


1.4.6 For a definition of the certificate types, see Pt.1 Ch.3
1.4.7 Welds in any part mentioned in [1.4.1], if specified during approval shall be ultrasonic tested. These
tests shall be carried out at an appropriate stage of the manufacturing process. The test certificate shall refer
to a recognized standard and approved acceptance levels.
1.4.8 Visual inspection shall be carried out of all parts mentioned in Table 4 and [1.4.4] unless otherwise
defined in a manufacturing survey arrangements (MSA).
1.4.9 Ancillaries, which are not part of the steering gear, such as pumps, electric motors, coolers, piping,
filters and valves that are delivered as integral parts of the lubrication, hydraulic operation and cooling
systems of the thruster, shall be subjected to a quality control in accordance with the thruster manufacturers
quality system as found relevant.

2 Design
2.1 General
2.1.1 The thruster shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed by all allowable operating conditions
including effects of thermal expansion elastic deformations.
2.1.2 In-dock inspection of thruster gears shall be made possible either through proper inspection openings,
or by other means (e.g. fibre optical instruments) without extensive dismantling.
2.1.3 Podded thruster internals shall be shielded in order to provide safe entrance/accessibility to perform
necessary maintenance and inspection without risk of damage neither to equipment nor personnel. Sufficient
ventilation shall be provided.
2.1.4 For general design requirements for piping and ancillary equipment such as pipes, pumps, filters and
coolers, see Ch.6 and Ch.7, as found applicable.
Hydraulic components shall be chosen in consideration of the expected level of contamination the system will
be exposed to during its lifetime.
Flange connections for piping systems shall be located as far as practicable outside the podded thruster.
Flanges and valves inside podded thrusters shall be arranged to minimise the consequence of leakage, i.e. by
drip trays and leakage drain to safe location.
2.1.5 The cooling system shall be in accordance with Ch.6 Sec.5 [2].
2.1.6 For design and arrangement requirements for electric systems and control systems reference is made
to Ch.10 Sec.1 [5] (for propulsion thrusters only) and Ch.8 and Ch.9.

2.2 Shafting
2.2.1 The dimensions of the shafts and the shafting components shall be in accordance with Ch.4 Sec.1.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

2.2.2 A shaft sealing box shall be installed to prevent water from entering into internal parts of the thruster
or into the ship. The sealing arrangement shall protect the steel shafts from seawater, unless corrosionresistant steel especially approved by the Society is used.
For single thruster arrangements, the shaft seal shall be duplicated and means for leakage detection shall be
provided.

2.3 Gear transmissions


2.3.1 Gear transmissions shall be in accordance with the requirements in Ch.4 Sec.2 as far as applicable.
The lifetime criteria given in Table 5 shall as a minimum be used for dimensioning the gears in the propeller
drive line.
Table 5 Thruster type and load cycles
Type of thruster
Propulsion

1)

Minimum number of input shaft revolutions at full power


(NL load cycles)
10

110

Dynamic positioning

510

Auxiliary

510

1)

For thrusters subject to frequent overload (intermittent load), relevant load and corresponding accumulated number
of load cycles shall be applied, see also Ch.2 Sec.1 [2].

The safety factors SF, SH, SHSS and SS shall be at least as specified in Ch.4 Sec.2 Table 5. The safety factors
for gears in thrusters for dynamic positioning shall be as for propulsion gears.

2.4 Azimuth steering gear for thrusters


2.4.1 Steering gear for auxiliary and dynamic positioning thrusters need not comply with [2.4.2], [2.4.3],
[2.4.4], [2.4.5], [2.4.7], requirements for safety valve set value in [2.4.8], [2.4.10] and [2.4.17].
2.4.2 Steering arrangement for the vessel shall comply with the following requirements:
a)
b)

the vessel shall be provided with two steering gears, each with strength and capacity as specified below
a single failure shall neither lead to loss of steering of the vessel, nor consequential damage to the
thrusters.

2.4.3 The steering gear for the thruster shall:


a)
b)
c)

be capable of turning the thruster from one side to the other at declared steering angle limits at an
average rotational speed of not less than 2,3 deg/sec with ship running at maximum ahead service
speed, which shall be demonstrated at sea trial
have capacity to turn the thruster from side to side according to steering gear test. See Ch.10 Sec.1
[2.4.1] b
be capable of bringing the thrusters back to neutral position from any allowable angle at maximum
service speed.

2.4.4 The thrusters shall be prevented from sudden turning in the case of power failure, failure in the
steering control system or any other single failure, except failure in steering column and support bearings.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

For podded thrusters there shall be a sufficient air gap between rotor and stator under all relevant operating
conditions.

2.4.6 Steering gear shall be designed considering all relevant loads from internal and external forces.
2.4.7 Steering gear drivers shall be designed with a capacity not less than 125% of the maximum torque
occurring during the steering gear test as described in Ch.10 Sec.1 [2.4.1] b). See also [2.4.17] for electro
motor rating.
2.4.8 The steering gear arrangement shall be provided with a load limiting device (limiting torque/ pressure
as applicable), such as relief valve or frequency converter limiter.
The load limiting device shall have a set value not less than 125% of torque occurring during steering gear
test as described in Ch.10 Sec.1 [2.4.1] b), however not exceeding the design torque in the system.
2.4.9 Hydraulic systems for steering gears shall not be used for other purposes than steering.
For propulsion thrusters the requirements given in Ch.10 Sec.1 [2.10] apply.
Guidance note:
Steering hydraulic may share the oil sump with systems for propeller pitch control and/or internal lubrication. This is provided that
impurity from one system is not transmitted to the other systems and sufficient cooling capacity is available.
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2.4.10 Azimuth thrusters designed for reversing the thrust by turning the unit shall be able to do so at a
turning rate of minimum 2 r/min.
2.4.11 Azimuth steering gears shall have a margin against self-locking in order to avoid stick slip effects.
The total drive train efficiency (excluding the driving motor) shall not be less than 0.65.
2.4.12 Azimuth steering gears for dynamically positioning thrusters shall be designed for continuous
running. See the Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.1 [6.1] and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2 [6.1].
2.4.13 Steering gear transmissions shall as far as applicable be in accordance with the requirements in Ch.4,
regardless of power rating. The steering gear transmission shall be designed considering the relevant loads
(see [1.2.1]).
Guidance note:
Typically the following load cases shall be considered:

Maximum torque corresponding to relief valve setting pressure (steering gear design pressure pD) for hydraulic operation,
respectively max torque for electric motor operation. This should be considered as a static or low cycle fatigue case (1 000
cycles).

Loads occurring at larger manoeuvre (course changing). This load corresponds to the maximum working pressure pW and will
typically occur in the range from 5 000 to 100 000 times during the vessels lifetime.

Loads occurring due to course keeping corrections (auto pilot load). This is a high cycle load case and more than 510 course
corrections (load cycles) may be expected during the vessels lifetime.
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2.4.14 For reduction gears, the safety factors SF against tooth fracture, SH against pitting, SHSS against
subsurface fatigue (surface hardened gears only) and SS against scuffing shall be at least as specified in
Table 6.

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2.4.5 It shall be possible to bring the thruster to neutral position and lock it to allow it to produce thrust in
the case that its steering gear is inoperative.

SF

SH and SHSS

SS

1.5
1.5

1.15
1.0

1.4*
1.2*

Azimuth steering gear


for surface hardened
for not surface hardened

* Not applicable to slow speed gears (pitch line speed < 2 m/s)

2.4.15 Inspection of azimuth gear and pinion shall be possible either through proper inspection openings or
by other means (e.g. fibre optical instruments) without extensive dismantling.
2.4.16 The control system for electro motors driving the steering pinion directly shall be designed to avoid
abrupt acceleration and shock loads in mechanical parts.
2.4.17 The electro motor driving the steering gear shall at least have a rating according to IEC60034-1:
a)
b)

For electro hydraulic arrangement: S6-25.


For electro motor directly driving pinion:
S1 - for torque corresponding to maximum torque occurring during steering gear test, and for the
entire speed range including zero rpm.

2.5 Steering column and pod stay and underwater housing


2.5.1 The maximum local stress in the steering column and pod stay shall not exceed 0.8 times the yield
strength of the material under the most extreme allowable (possible) manoeuvre (see [1.2.1]). FEM
calculation may be required when analytical methods cannot give satisfactory accuracy. The maximum
nominal stress shall not exceed 50% of the yield strength.
2.5.2 The steering column and pod stay shall be designed to withstand the fatigue loads arising from thrust
variations and other hydrodynamic loads and accelerations. This applies to parent material as well as to any
welds.
2.5.3 The thruster structure like underwater housings, steering column and pod stay, etc. shall have stiffness
sufficient to avoid harmful deformations which may cause damage to internal shafting, sealing, bearings and
gear mesh when subjected to the loads defined in [1.2.1].
2.5.4 The sealing around the steering column and pod stay, at the hull penetration, shall be arranged such
that any leakage can be detected and drained before water can gain access to water sensitive parts, such as
slewing bearing and gears. Existing designs with a proven service record may be accepted with other sealing
arrangements.
2.5.5 Podded thrusters shall be provided with a bilge system.
The bilge system shall be provided with full redundancy for single podded thruster arrangements.

2.6 Propeller
2.6.1 The propeller and propeller components shall meet the relevant dimensional requirements in Sec.1.
See also class guideline DNVGL-CG-0039.

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Table 6 Safety factors

2.6.3 Controllable pitch mechanism on thrusters that are used in a dynamic positioning system shall be
designed for continuous operation.

2.7 Bearings
2.7.1 Fluid film bearings shall be designed in accordance with the requirements in Ch.4 Sec.2 [2.7.1].
2.7.2 Ball and roller bearings shall have a minimum L10a (ISO 281) as specified in Ch.4 Sec.2 [2.7.2].

2.8 Lubrication system


2.8.1 The lubrication system shall be designed to provide all bearings, gear meshes and other parts requiring
oil with adequate amount of oil for both lubrication and cooling purposes. This shall be maintained under all
environmental conditions as stated in Ch.1.
2.8.2 Podded thrusters where the total circulated lube oil quantity Voil (in litres) is less than 0.1 P (P =
propeller power in kW) shall have separate lube oil system for each bearing assembly.
2.8.3 The lubrication system shall include:
an arrangement to take representative oil samples with respect to detecting water and particle
contamination
if necessary, a cooler to keep the oil temperature within the specified maximum temperature, when
operating under the worst relevant environmental conditions (see [2.8.1])
a filter of suitable fineness for gearing, hydraulics and bearings (see [2.7.2]).
Guidance note:
Specification of a pressure filter for maintaining suitable fluid cleanliness may be 16/14/11 according to ISO 4406:1999 and 6-7 =
200 according to ISO 16889:1999.
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2.8.4 for propulsion and dynamic positioning thrusters it shall be possible to change or clean filters without
interrupting the oil supply.
2.8.5 if forced lubrication is required for operation of the thruster, single propulsion thruster installation
shall have a standby pump with immediate action. On vessels with two or more independent and equal sized
propulsion thrusters, one pump per thruster should be accepted.
2.8.6 For thrusters where wind milling may be detrimental and considered as a normal condition, there shall
be either:
a shaft brake designed to hold (statically) twice the highest expected wind milling torque, or
one pump available in windmilling condition. This pump shall be additional to any standby pump required
by other parts of rules.
The chosen version shall be automatically activated within 30 s after shutdown.
2.8.7 For thrusters designed to operate at such low rotational shaft speeds that an attached pump (if
needed) cannot supply sufficient oil pressure, the following shall be accepted:
either an extra electric oil pump that is activated at a given pressure, or

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

2.6.2 Special attention shall be paid to the sealing for propeller blades, in order to prevent ingress of water
into the oil system. The sealing shall be designed to ensure that expected lifetime is securely beyond the
specified service intervals.

3 Inspection and testing


3.1 General
3.1.1 The parts in a thruster shall be tested and documented as described in Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4.

3.2 Assembling
3.2.1 Assembling of the drive gears regarding tooth contact shall be in accordance with the approved
procedure and in the presence of the surveyor. The surveyor shall check access through inspection openings.
3.2.2 For assembling of other elements, see Ch.4 Sec.2 [3.3] and Sec.1 [3.1]. However, for auxiliary
thrusters Sec.1 [3.1.1] and Sec.1 [3.1.2] need not be adhered to.
3.2.3 For propeller fitting, see Ch.4 Sec.1.

4 Workshop testing
4.1 Testing of assembled unit
4.1.1 For gear mesh checking, see Ch.4 Sec.2 [4.2] unless another procedure is approved.
4.1.2 For clutch operation, see Ch.4 Sec.2 [4.2].
4.1.3 All hydraulic systems for steering, lubrication and pitch control shall be function and pressure tested.
For the steering system the test pressure shall be 1.5 times the design pressure pD as required in Ch.10
Sec.1.
For other hydraulic systems the test pressure shall be as required in Ch.6 Sec.6. Regarding function testing
of controllable pitch propellers, see Sec.1 [3.1].
4.1.4 The thruster unit shall be subjected to leak testing (internal pressure, soap water test or similar).
4.1.5 Testing of electrical equipment such as motors and frequency converters shall comply with Ch.8.
4.1.6 Testing of instrumentation and control systems shall comply with Ch.9.

5 Control, alarm, safety functions and indication


5.1 General
5.1.1 For instrumentation and automation, including computer based control and monitoring, the
requirements in this sub-section item are additional to those given in Ch.9.
5.1.2 For additional requirements to vessels with dynamic positioning class notations, see Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.2
and Pt.6 Ch.3 Sec.1.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

2 electric main pumps of the same capacity, one of which is arranged as a standby pump with immediate
action. These 2 electric pumps shall be supplied from different sides of main distribution.

For steering gear see also Ch.10 Sec.1 Table 14.


Additionally, an alarm shall be initiated on the bridge in case of power failure of the alarm, control and safety
system as required in Ch.9 Sec.2 [2.1].
5.1.4 Any alarm condition in the thruster plant shall initiate an alarm on the bridge with individual or groupwise indication. For HS, LC and NSC, all alarms shall have individual indication on the bridge.
The alarm indicators on the bridge shall be readily observed at the position from which the vessel is
controlled and navigated.
5.1.5 Essential and important sensors and components which are not easily replaceable shall be duplicated.

5.2 Bridge control


5.2.1 It shall be possible to stop the propeller from the bridge by means of a system independent of the
remote control system.
If the independent stop facility is arranged as an emergency stop push button, this shall be arranged in
accordance with Ch.8 Sec.2 [8.4].
Table 7 Control and monitoring of thrusters
Gr 1
Indication
alarm

System/Item

load
reduction

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

1.0 Lubricating oil


2)

Pressure

IL , LA

Temperature

IL, HA

Level

1)

AS

If forced lubrication oil system

2)

IL, LA

2.0 Steering system


Azimuth angle

IL

Hydraulic oil pressure

IL, LA

Hydraulic oil supply tank level

IL, LA

Hydraulic pump motor overload,


power and phase failure
Azimuth brake engaged

5)

Interlocking of actuators

4)

Applicable to power units on propulsion


thrusters

IR

If applicable. Manual release shall be


possible. Additional indication on bridge

See Ch.10 Sec.1 [5.7.4]. Identification of


failed system

IR

Running indication for constant speed


propellers

3.0 Pitch, speed and direction of rotation


Propeller r/min

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

5.1.3 Alarms and indications shall be initiated, as applicable, for the faults given in Table 7. For electrodriven propulsion thrusters see also Ch.8 Sec.12 [1.6.4].

alarm

System/Item

load
reduction
Direction of rotation for reversible
Propellers

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

IR
For main propulsion, the following pitch
settings shall be marked on the local pitch
indicator:

Propeller pitch for CP-propellers

Mechanical pitch limits ahead and astern,


pitch at full ahead running, maximum
astern pitch and pitch at zero thrust.

IL, IR

For auxiliary and dynpos thrusters; max.,


min. and zero pitch is sufficient
4.0 Servo oil for CP-propeller
Pressure

IL, LA

Level

IL, LA

Differential pressure over filter


5.0 Electrical prime mover
Load (torque)

7)

AS

2)

HA

Applicable for propulsion thrusters

6)

2)

IR, HA

3)

Additional indication on bridge

6.0 Bilge system


Level

HA

For dry pods

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Gr 1
Indication

alarm

System/Item

load
reduction

Gr 1 =

Gr 2
Automatic
start of
standby pump
with alarm

Gr 3
Shut down
with alarm

Comment

Sensor(s) for indication, alarm, load reduction (common sensor permitted but with different set points and
alarm shall be activated before any load reduction)

Gr 2 = Sensor for automatic start of standby pump


Gr 3 = Sensor for shutdown
= Local indication (presentation of values), in vicinity of the monitored component
IL
Remote indication (presentation of values), in engine control room or another centralized control station such
as the local platform/manoeuvring console

IR

A
LA
HA
AS

= Alarm activated for logical value

LR

Load reduction, either manual or automatic, with corresponding alarm, either slow down (r/min reduction) or
alternative means of load reduction (e. go. pitch reduction), whichever is relevant

SH

Shut down with corresponding alarm. May be manually (request for shut down) or automatically executed if
not explicitly stated above.

= Alarm for low value


= Alarm for high value
= Automatic start of standby pump with corresponding alarm

For definitions of Load reduction (LR) and Shut down (SH), see Ch.1.
1)

To be provided when stand-by pump is required, see [2.8]

2)

Not required for auxiliary thrusters

3)

Set point to be according to approved rating

4)

For single pod installations

5)

For electro-mechanical steering systems

6)

Regarding electric motors, see Ch.8 Sec.12 [1.6.4]

7)

To be provided when stand-by pump is required, see Sec.1 [6.3].

6 Arrangement
6.1 General
6.1.1 The installation of a thruster, including alignment shall be such as to give satisfactory performance
under all operating conditions.
6.1.2 The arrangement of flexibly mounted tunnel thrusters shall provide effective protection against
flooding. Such thrusters shall be placed in a separate watertight compartment, unless the flexible sealing
arrangement contains two separate effective sealing elements. An arrangement for indication of leakage into
the space between the inner and outer sealing shall be provided. The arrangement shall allow inspection of
such sealings during bottom survey without extensive dismantling.
6.1.3 Azimuth thrusters shall be mounted in a watertight compartment unless the penetration through the
hull is situated above the deepest loaded waterline.

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

Gr 1
Indication

6.2 Propulsion thrusters


6.2.1 When propulsion is provided by thrusters with underwater gear or when access to the internal parts of
the thruster is not possible from inside the vessel, there shall be at least 2 separate, equal sized thrusters.
6.2.2 Propulsion thruster compartment is regarded as steering gear room and shall be arranged according to
Ch.10 Sec.1 [6.2].
Local control of steering gear, propeller pitch or speed shall be in the thruster compartment.
6.2.3 For propulsion thrusters with rated power exceeding 2500 kW the steering gear shall be connected to
an alternative source of power, according to the requirements in Ch.10 Sec.1 [5.3.1].
When operating on emergency power, the steering gear's capacity shall be as described in Ch.10 Sec.1
[2.5.1]. The requirement of 15 rudder angle on either side shall be replaced by the manufacturer's declared
steering angle limits (see [1.1.5]), and the average rate of turn shall be not less than 0.5/s.
Guidance note:
This requirement is based on IACS Unified Interpretation SC 242 which is considered equivalent to the SOLAS requirement of an
alternative source of power for steering gears where the required rudder-stock diameter is above 230 mm.
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7 Vibration
7.1 Torsional vibration
7.1.1 For electric or hydraulic motor driven tunnel thrusters calculation of the first and second natural
frequency shall be submitted.
Natural frequencies are not permitted in the range of 0.8-1.2 blade order frequency at MCR unless the
vibratory torque is documented to be within approved limits (accepted KA factor).
7.1.2 For all thrusters other than those covered by [7.1.1] calculations of natural frequencies including
Holzer tables and forced vibrations shall be submitted.
Forced torsional vibration calculation shall be made for normal operation as well as for extreme steering
manoeuvres. The excitation used for extreme steering manoeuvres shall be substantiated. For propeller
excitation, see Ch.2 Sec.2 [2.3.3].
Guidance note:
Propeller excitation for extreme steering manoeuvres can be taken as 3 times the excitation for normal operation (straight ahead),
unless otherwise substantiated.
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Application factors below KA = 1.10 for normal operation shall not be accepted for propulsion plants.
Verification of application factors through measurements may be required (if vessel speed > 10 knots and KA
< 1.2).

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6.1.4 Thrusters mounted to the hull by bolt connections which provide boundary to sea should be protected
by means of a seal.

8.1 Installation onboard


8.1.1 For accessible thruster gears, the requirements in Ch.4 Sec.2 [8] apply.
8.1.2 For shaft alignment, propeller fitting and assembly of shafting components, the requirements in Ch.4
Sec.1 [8] apply.
8.1.3 Sub-assemblies and parts mounted at yards or workshops other than the thruster manufacturers
shall be carried out according to the thruster manufacturers instructions and verified to the surveyors
satisfaction.

8.2 Install fastening to foundation


8.2.1 The mounting and installation of the thrusters shall be in accordance to approved drawings and
according to manufacturers specification (see also Ch.2 Sec.1 [6]).

9 Shipboard testing
9.1 Sea trial
9.1.1 The requirements in Ch.10 Sec.1 [9] apply for propulsion thrusters.
9.1.2 Steering and reversing functions shall be tested under the most severe permissible conditions.
9.1.3 Steering torque (derived from electric current or hydraulic pressure) shall be measured and recorded
continuously during the steering gear test. In addition steering torque in auto pilot mode shall be recorded.
9.1.4 The steering gears capability to bring the thruster back to neutral position from any allowable angle
([2.4.2]) shall be verified by testing on sea trial.
9.1.5 For multiple thruster plants, the manoeuvrability properties shall be tested with one thruster inactive.
9.1.6 Crash stop test shall be performed according to manufacturers procedure.
9.1.7 Verification of design criteria in [2.4.10] may be done at the dockside.
9.1.8 The control, alarm and safety functions shall be tested Table 4 for compliance with the approved alarm
list, ref. Table 2 and Table 7.
9.1.9 Podded thrusters shall be inspected internally after sea trial and full load test for leakage or any other
abnormalities.
9.1.10 Accessible thruster gears shall be inspected as in Ch.4 Sec.2 [9].

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 3

8 Installation inspection

1 General
1.1 Application
1.1.1 The rules apply to all types of compressors intended for the following systems:

those with pressure above 40 bars


starting air
instrument air including working compressors applied as back-up
breathing gas (monobaric and hyperbaric systems)
cargo refrigeration (for ships having additional class notation RM) see Pt.6 Ch.4 Sec.10
evaporated cargo compression (for ships having class notation Tanker for liquefied gas).
inert gas production (when such a system is required by SOLAS and for ships having additional class
notations Inert) see Pt.6 Ch.5 Sec.8.

1.1.2 Design approval is required for all compressors listed in [1.1.1] with a shaft power exceeding 200 kW.
1.1.3 Compressors shall carry a name plate with the following information:

manufacturer
year of construction
3
effective suction rate [m /h]
discharge pressure [bar]
speed [r/min]
power requirement [kW].

1.2 Documentation
1.2.1 The manufacturer shall submit the documentation required by Table 1. The documentation shall be
reviewed by the Society as a part of the certification contract.
1.2.2 For compressors of special type and design, the extent of the documentation shall be considered in
each case.
1.2.3 Documentation of strength through tests shall be accepted as an alternative to calculations.
Table 1 Documentation requirements
Object

Compressor

Documentation type

Additional description

C020 - Assembly or arrangement


drawing

Cross section.

FI

I110 List of controlled and monitored


points

Alarm set points and delay times.

AP

S010 - Piping diagram (PD)

Compressed medium, lubrication and cooling.

AP

Z110 Data sheet

Medium, design pressure for all stages, working


temperature, capacity, maximum shaft power and
maximum rotational speed.

FI

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Part 4 Chapter 5 Section 4

SECTION 4 COMPRESSORS

Documentation type

Additional description

C030 - Detailed drawing

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Crankshaft.

AP

M010 Material specification

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Crankshaft.

AP

C040 - Design analysis

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Crankshaft.

AP, R

C050 Non-destructive testing (NDT)


plan

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Crankshaft.

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Connecting rod.

FI

M010 Material specification

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Connecting rod

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Cylinder and cylinder head with bolts.

FI

M010 Material specification

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Cylinder and cylinder head with bolts.

FI

C040 - Design analysis

Applicable for reciprocating compressors.


Documentation of torsional vibration in reciprocating
compressors, see [6.1.1].

FI

C030 - Detailed drawing

Applicable for rotary and centrifugal compressors.


Rotors with blades.

Info

FI

AP, if > 1 000 kW and rotor with blades.


M010 Material specification

Applicable for rotary and centrifugal compressors.


Rotors with blades.

FI

AP, if > 1 000 kW and rotor wit