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A

I N C O MPA RATIVE

ST UDY

SY M B O LI C S

T HE

LUTHERAN M OVEM ENT INENGLAND


D UR ING T H E

H E NRY

VIII

R E I G NS

A ND

OF

E D WARD VI

A ND

I T S L I T E R A RY

M O NU M

E NT S

BY

H E NRY E Y S T E R

J AC O B S

z co lo y in th e N e o lo ic a l S e m in a ry c t c
s te m a tic Tl
S
g
g
f
f y

T ra n s la to r a n d
E vange lica l L utlz cra n C /z u rclz in P /z ila a cl
p/z ia

P rofesso r
E dito r

fMe

T[zoology

o ok

f #2 :

C o n cord,

E 72 L

ut cra n

S c m zd :

Ck urc k,

e tc . etc .

O
M

P HI L AD EL P HI A :
G

FRED ERICK
I

89 0

octrin al

P R E FA C E

NVE ST I GAT I O NS i nto the hi s tor y


t ions

of

of

transla

the Eng l i s h

the Aug sburg C o n fes s i o n m ad e s everal y e ar s


,

ago ,

in

perati o n wi th the l ate Re v B M S ch m ucker D D l e d the


writer i nt o a much wi d er e ld than he ha d o riginally i nten d e d
co o
-

to enter

N o te s taken i n the begin n ing for hi s

o wn

i n fo r ma

ti o n s o on accumul ate d to such extent that he e mb o d ie d their


res u l t s i n a s erie s o f arti c l e s that appeare d i n 7 71: L at/ze ran in
188 7
D uring the preparati o n o f the artic l e s ever y avai l ab l e
s ource o fi n for m ation was l ai d un d er contribution for a dd itional
,

fact s T he n um ber o f arti c l e s grew be y on d expectation Re


ques t s havin g been m ad e fro m vari o u s quarter s that the y s houl d
be pub l i s he d i n a m o re perm anent fo rm , thi s vo l um e i s the re s u l t
T he m ateria l here given h as on ly i n part appeare d be fore M uch
.

rewritten whi l e s everal o f the ear l i er chapter s an d near


ly all o fth e l atter p art o f the book a e en tire ly n ew
It wi ll s peak fo r it s e l f It s facts supporte d b y the d ocu m ent
ar y evi d ence wi ll s ugges t thei r o wn l ess on s I t has n o t been
wri tten chie y i n a p o l e m i c al i ntere s t It s great en d i s to pro

h as been

m ote a th o ro ugh un d er s tan d ing


Lutheran Church

to

of

the hi s t o rical re l ati o n

of

the

the v ari o u s Eng l i s h s peaking co mm unions

thi s c o untr y wh o s e c o ur s e h as been i nuence d b y the hi s tor y


o f the Ch urch i n Eng l an d d uri ng the S i xteenth Cen tur y
of

vn

vii i

R E FAC E

W i th s o m uch m aterial o n the s ubject rea d i ly acce ss ib l e i t i s


s urpri s ing that a b o o k ll ing thi s p l ace has n o t appe are d be fore
Eng l i s h writers h o wever as a ru l e have fe l t l itt l e i nteres t i n
ackn o w l e d gi ng their d epen d ence o n the G er m an R e fo r m ati on 3
,

L aurence

l ike Archbi s h o p

fe w,

fo rm ing bri ll iant excepti o n s

an d Arch d e ac o n H ar d wi ck

G er m an writer s h ave general

ass um e d that the Eng l i s h cou ld be re l ie d up o n fo r the fact s


have n o t exerci s e d their
o f their o w n hi s t o r y an d there fore

1
y

characteri s tic cauti o n


e d

or

wi th nothi ng s hort

their c us to m ar y practice

of

the rs t s ource s

of

being

sa

is

A l th o ugh the cor

re s p o n d ence o f Luther an d Me l an chthon an d that ri ch s tore


,

ho use

of

d ocum entar y evi d ence

S e c k e n do rf s E kto ria L

utlz er

ab o un d i n m o s t va luab l e i n form ati on o n the s ubject but


l itt l e attenti o n h as hithert o been given to what wi th a l itt l e in

anis mi

dus try,

c o uld have been d rawn fr o m thei r p age s

T he t i m e

h as

c o m e however

fo r a

m ore care ful an d thorough


exam i nati o n o fthes e facts In thi s countr y the Lutheran Church
has bec o m e a co mm un ion o f over a m i ll i o n c o mm unicant s an d
T he Eng l i s h
n o t l e ss than four o r ve m i ll i o n s o f a pop ul ati o n
,

l anguage has agai n beco m e the m e d i um


As

the Lutheran faith


the vari o us nat ion alitie s which it s ad herent s repre s ent m erge
.

i n the o ne Am erican nati o nal i t y


er or

tr y

fo r

l ater are l ai d as i d e
,

fo r the

so

their vari o u s l anguage s s oon


,

co mm on l anguage

Even be fore thi s pr o ce ss i s c o m p l ete the


,

of
o ne

the coun

m e d iu m

thr o ugh which th o s e wor s hipping in d i fferen t l anguages c an c o n


fer with an d kn o w o n e an o ther m us t nece ssari ly be the E ngli s h
T he prob l e m o f the h o ur fo r the Luther an Church i n A m eri ca
,

is

h o w to

unite th es e variou s e l e m ent s i n the hi s torical faith

the Lutheran Church

as

of

e mb o d ie d i n her hi s t o rical Con fe ss ion s

an d wi th the wors hip pres cribe d i n her hi s tori cal Liturgie s

an d

RE FA C E

ix

Church O r d er s A s i n the ear l ier e ffort s o f Cran m er F ox


Barnes Cover d al e R o gers T averner an d o ther s i n the S ixteent h
.

Centur y i n Eng l an d s o h ere the E ng l i s h l anguage i s agai n e m


p l o y e d to furn i s h the m o uld i n whi ch Luther an T heo l o g y i s to be
,

recas t
ed

I n thi s work the hi s t o rica l c o nnecti o n i s agai n pre s erv


,

is

T he g o o d fo un d ati o n then l ai d

not

to

be i gnore d

We

g l a dly re sum e the un d ertaki ng at the s tage i n which i t was l e ft


,

by

pre d ece ss o r s i n the sam e e ld an d wi th hum b l e

o ur

ti o n

of

re c o gn i

their a d m irab l e s ucce ss take i t up s i m p ly where i t


,

of

l e ft i nc o m p l ete b y the i nterventi o n


d uri ng the s econ d peri o d
in e d i n the s e p age s

exp l ai n

o ur

B ut

re l ati o n s

to

f the

the Ca l vin i s ti c reaction


of

reign

E d war d VI

i n d o i ng s o i t bec o m e s nece ssar y t o


,

the Church

of

Eng l an d an d
,

to

care fully

t o e ach Church

exam

as

d i s cri m i nate between wh at i s co mm on territ o r y an d what i s


c uliar

w as

It i s a matter

no t

o f regret but
,

pe

o f re

j o ic in g that the Church o f Eng l an d an d her d aughter i n A m er


ic a have jea l ou s ly pre s erve d an d hearti ly c o mm en d e d b y con
s tan t u sage s o m uch o f the co mm on heri tage n o t o n ly an te dat
,

i ng the R e for mation an d exten d ing even far back be yo n d the


corruption s o f the M i ddl e Ages but al s o o f wh at the y have d i
,

re c tly

d rawn fro m the Lutheran R e fo r m er s

It m us t not how
,

ever be fo rg o tten that the p o l iti cal co m p l ication s as we ll as


other e l e m en ts that entere d ren d ere d the w o rk o f the Lutheran
,

Church i n re for m i ng the


part s

f G er m an y ,

o ld

C hurch S ervice inc o m p l ete i n m an y

an d that eve n am o ng tho s e who have been

faith ful Lutheran s i n their Con fess ional p o s ition there m a y be


fo un d th o s e wh o are ready to i n d i s cri m i nate ly cen sure wh at i s
c o mm on propert y as th o ugh i t were a l ien to the Lutheran
,

Church
N or mus t the aggress ive attitu d e
.

o f th e

Church e s o f the Ang l i

can fam i ly be o ver l o o ke d

RE FA C E

T he cha ll enge to all o ther b o d ie s

of

Chri s tian s to e s t ab l i s h their hi s t o rica l p o s iti o n h as been brave ly


m ad e an d wi th a d eter m i nati o n th at s h o w s that i t wi ll n o t be
,

sati s e d with s ki l ful evas i o n s o f the que s ti o n It wi ll certai nly


be o f s ervi ce i n givi ng thi s s ubject the s eri o u s c o n s i d erati o n
.

which i t j us t ly d e m an d s to take i nto the acco un t a ll the bi s tori


T he e ffo rt to re q uire all m o ve m ent s at
cal fact o r s acce ss ib l e
,

unio n

to

re s t up o n a c l e ar d i s ti nct an d une quivoca l hi s torical


,

bas i s i s certai n ly i n the right d irecti o n

It

is to

be h o pe d

ho w

No
pr o gre ss c an be m ad e n o r an y perm anent re s ul t s gai ne d b y l a y
ing e m phas i s up o n o n e c l as s o f fact s an d re s o l ute ly c l o s ing the
e y es to an o ther ; urgi ng the exam in ati o n o f H i s t o r y at o ne poi nt
an d begging to be exc us e d fr o m l o o king i nt o i t at an o ther W e
ever that t h i s pri ncip l e wi ll be c o n s i s tent ly m ai nt ai ne d
,

s i ncere ly

h O pe

that thi s b o o k m a y i n s pire a m o ng

o ur

Lutheran

pe o p l e a true re s pect fo r much that i s val uab l e an d s cho l ar ly an d


a d m irab l e i n the re sul t s o f the faith o f the R e fo rm ati o n that have
,

ab o un d e d i n the Eng l i sh Church an d her d aughter s i n a ll perio d s

s i nc e an d that o n the o ther han d i t m ay i ntr o d uce s o m e rea d


er s fr o m the s e c o mmun i o n s to the rich s t o re s o f go s pe l t ruth
,

with which their father s were fam i l iar an d which have m o s t pow
ully i n uence d their entire career s i nce
e rf
,

T he q ue s ti o n

of

the

re v rslo n

of

Cree d s an d C o n fess i o n s i s

now attracting wi d e s prea d attenti o n

pers i s tent ly d e man d ing all pro fe ss ion s

T hi s i s a critic al age
to

be put

to

a rigi d tes t

M uch l ight wi ll be fo un d up o n the subject b y a care ful rea d i ng


,

the account s o f the d i s cuss ion s be tween the E ng l i s h an d the


Lutheran the o l o gian s i n thei r s everal C o n fere nces T here i s

of

s carce ly an i te m whi ch enters i nt o a d i s cri m in ating view o f the


s ubject that was no t there anti ci pat e d T here were m an y hi nt s
.

R E F AC E

xi.

given then b y the W i ttenberg theo l ogian s whi ch are jus t as ap


p l i cab l e to the pre s e nt s it uati o n an d m o ve m ents i n the Pres b y
,

teri an

an d

Lut h eran

At the ri s k
E xcurs u s

on

i ntro d uce d
vice

as

we ll as the Epi s c o p al Church

fvi o l ati ng

so m e w l at

the subject an

the re l ati o n

of

to

a S ervi ce for wh o s e

h as

been

the Eng l i s h S er

the Lutheran O r d ers there s ee m e d to be a call

to

s o m e att e nti o n

fo r giving

xp l anati o n even Luther

entire ly d pen d ent upon m aterial


li s h l an gu age
an s

T he Ty pi ca l Lut h eran Chie f S e rvice

W hi l e treating

the uni t y

fo un d i n the Eng

no t

are

B e y on d the ackn o w l e d gm en t o f the g e ner o us ai d ren d ere d the

wri ter ab o ve a ll b y t he
,

late D r

B M S ch m ucker m ent ion


.

s h o ul d be m a d e o fo ther s to wh o s e kin d ness he i s m uch i n d ebte d


A m o ng the m he wi s he s e s pecia lly t o n am e R ev Kar l W o l ter s
.

Pas tor

of

S t Peter s Church H amburg G er m an y who


.

m uch i nteres t i n m aking re s earche s


at H am b urg

fo r thi s

h as

taken

bo o k i n the Archives

W e o n ly regret that i n fo rm ati o n he c o mm un icate d

fterwar d s S uperinten d ent


E ng l an d an d hi s c o n ference s wi th H enr y VIII

concerning the vi s i t
at H am b urg

to

fJ o h n lE pin us ,

ecc l e s ias ti ca l matters be fore the s en d ing o f the Eng l i s h C o m


m i ss i o n to W i ttenberg wh o s e hi s tor y i s given i n Chapter IV

on

cam e a fter th at ch apter ha d al ready been s et up

W e re fer

to

it

for the i n fo rm ati an o f th o s e who m a y m ake thi s v o l u m e the


s tarting p o in t fo r further i nves tigati o n s R ev J A S e iss D D
LL D ki n dly furni s he d hi s cop y o fC ranm e r s Catechi sm with
note s s howin g the res u l ts o f h is c o m pari s o n s w ith the Lat in e d i
t i o n R e v Pr o f W J Mann D D LL D e s peciall y i nter
-

e s te d

hi ms e l f i n gatherin g i n fo rm ation concern in g Erne s t Sarce

riu s the Nas sau theo l o gian


R ev Pr o f A S paeth D D has
free ly given ai d o n H ym n o l o gi cal an d Li turgica l q ues ti o n s
,

xi i

P R E FAC E

Penci l n o te s

o f th e

the margi n

on

S e m inar y
gre ss e d

at

of

D LL D ,
i n the Librar y o f the T he o l o gi cal

l ate R ev Pro f C P Krauth


.

bo o ks

now

Mt Air y Phi l ad e l phia


.

in d i c ate

that he ha d

pro

far i n s i m i l ar i nve s tigation s , an d have repeate dly give n

us the c l ue to m uch val uab l e i n fo r m ati o n


In add i ti o n to th e m an y frien d s i n the Lutheran Church who
.

have as s ure d u s

of

their i ntere s t i n th e s e s t ud i e s we wi s h
,

e spe c i

ally to rec o gni ze the c o urte s y o f R ev Pro f G eorge P F i s her


D D LL D o f Y al e U nivers it y fo r urging that the y s h o ul d
.

'

be e m b o d ie d i n a v o l um e as we ll

as

fo r

hi s kin d re ference to

wh at we h ad previo us ly p ub l i she d on the Ang l ic an Catechi sms


i n an add re ss d e l ivere d i n the A utu m n o f 1888 at H arvar d Um

vers it y

T ru s ting that the fact s here given wi ll contrib ute towar d s the

c l earer un d er s tan d in g
o us

caus e s

f the

of

d i fference am o ng the vari

A m eric an ch urche s an d thus i n G o d s


,

o wn

ti m e

if

po ss i

b l e t o war ds thei r u l ti mate adj us t m ent we o ffer thi s v o l u m e to


the ca l m an d unpreju d i ce d con s i d er at i o n o f th o ught ful rea d er s
,

H E N RY E J A C O B S
.

T e o logi ca l S e m in a ry
at

f tne

P h ila de l
ph ia

E va nge lica l L u t/z e ra n C /z u rc


A iry) , j

uly

9t/z ,

89 0

C O NT E NT S

C H APT E R I
B EG I NN I NG S O F THE E NG L I S H R E F O R M A T I ON
.

T HE

C H APT E R I I
T YND A L E

T HE

D E P EN D EN C E

ON L U THER

C H APT E R III
P O L I T I CA L COM P L I CA T I ON S

T HE E NG L I S H

COMM I SSI ON

C H APT E R

OG R E SS O F THE WAR

FO R

THE

T HE T EN A R T I CL E S O F

FA I TH I N E NG LA N D ,

6
53 ,

B IS

HO P S

88

OO K O F I 5 3 7

10 4

C H APT E R VIII

T HE E NG L I S H B I B LE S O F

15 3

COMM ISSI ON

A N D 15 3 7

TO

1 15

C H APT E R

T HE L U THE RA N
(xii i )

74

C H AP T E R VII

SS

C H APT E R VI

T HE

39

WI TTEN B E R G

TO

C H AP T E R IV

PR

IX

E NG L A N D

OF

5 3 8,

12

xiv

CONTENT S

C H APT E R X
M

O R E LU THE RA N L I TE RA T UR E

14 0

C H APT E R XI
FR U I T L E SS

NEGOT I A T I ON S

O F 15 3

14 8

C H APT E R X II

A L I TE RA RY FO R GE RY

C H APT E R XI II

L U THE R S

ST

RO B E RT

C LO SI NG

EV ENT S

OF

H EN RY S

R E I GN

C H APT E R

XV

CON F L I C T O F T H E O L O G C A I P A RT I E S I N
THE R E I GN O F ED WA RD VI

E NG LA N D D U R I NG
2 06

O UR C E S O F THE B OO K O F COMMON
C H APT E R XVIII

T HE L I TA N Y O F

THE E NG L I S H CH U R C H

O R N I NG A N D
CH U R CH
M

ER

XX

2 18

30

41

45

COMM U N I ON S E RVI C E O F THE E NG L IS H CH UR C H


C H APT E R

T HE

P RA Y

C H APT E R X I X

T HE

19 8

C H AP T E R XVII

L U THE RA N

79

190

C H APT E R XVI

NE W D I FF I CU LT I E S I N THE R E I GN O F ED WA RD

S9

C H AP T E R X IV

E VEN I NG S E RVI C E S

O F THE E NG L IS H

C ONTENT S

XV .

C H APT E R XX I

T HE

O RD

E R O F B A PT IS M I N THE E NG L I S H CH U RC H
C H APT E R XX II

T HE

O RD E RS F O R

O F THE

CON F I R MAT I ON

E CON D

A RR I A GE

ER

T HE A NG L I CA N

C A TE C H IS MS

H OM I L I E S

OF

E ENT

83

14

339

H I S TO RY ,

C H AP T E R
B I B L I OG RA P H I CA L ,

75

333

C H APT E R XXVIII
SUB S Q U

5 4 7,

65

C H AP T E R X XVII

T HE

T HE T H I RT Y NI NE A RT I C L E S

T A T I ON

C H APT E R XXVI

T HE

V I SI

ON THE TY P I CA L L U THE RA N CH I E F S E RVI C E


C H APT E R XX V

53

BOO K O F ED WA RD VI

C H AP T E R XX IV
A N E X CU R S U S

S I C K, B U R I A L ,

P RA Y

C H AP T E R XX III

T HE

3 43

XX I X

3 50

T HE

L UT H ER A N M O V E M E NT I N E N G L A ND
D UR

R E I G N S O F H E NR Y V I I I

I NG

L I T E RAR Y

THE

A ND E D WAR D V I

M O N UM E NT S

C H AP T E R I
T HE B

E GI N N I N G S

O F TH E

A ND I T S

E N G L I S H RE FO RM A T I O N

Not i n de pe n d e nt o fth e m o v e m e nt in G e rmany No t due to th e c o ntro v e rsy


c o n c e rnin g th e d i v o rc e o f H e nry V I I I Pr e p arato ry i n fl ue n c e s in th e
T h o mas o f B I adw ardin
W icl i f T h e L o ll ar ds D e an
X I V C e ntury
E r asm us an d th e Ne w L e arn i ng
G re e k s an d T roj ans Fro u de
C o let
Te c t o f L uth e r s Th e se s
T h e w ar agai nst L uth e r an
o n th e i mm e di ate e f
Warh am s C o rr e sp o n d e n c e H e n ry V I I I v s L uth e r B i sh o p
B oo k s
Fish e r s S e rm o n Th e Y o ung L uth e r ans o f C am b ri d ge B i l ne y
H is C o n v e rs io n
L atim e r s I n a gural add re ss agai nst M e l an ch th o n
u

To rd B arn e s C o ve r d al e
e tc
Th e H o use c alle d
G e rm any
S taf
T h e L uth e r an C o l o n y t r ans fe rr e d to C ar d inal C o ll e ge O x fo r d
C l ark
Pe rs e c uti o n E sp io n age Th e H um il iatio n o f B arn e s
C o x F rith e tc
Wo ls e y s L ast M e ss age Th e I nd e x Pro hib ito rum o f 15 2 9
.

,
.

T wo V E RY s up e rci al theorie s c o ncerni ng the Eng l i s h Re fo r


mat i o n are current O ne ai rm s that i t w as a m o ve m ent o ri gi
nating al m o s t entire ly withi n the Eng l i s h Church an d c ulm inat
ing i n the ass erti o n o f i ts i n d epen d ence o f the Church o f R o m e
b y the cas ti ng o ff o f the y oke whereb y fo r cen turie s i t ha d been
un jus t ly o ppre ss e d but havi ng l i tt l e to do wi th c o nte m p o rane o us
m ove m en ts i n G er m an y T he o ther regar ds i t s re l igi o us ch ar
acter pure ly acci d ental an d as cribe s i t a l t o ge t h er to th e quarre l
o f the K ing o f Eng lan d wi th the P o pe o ver l o o king the fact that
the re l ati o n o f H enr y VIII to i t w as a hi n d er ance r ath e r than an
a d vantage that i t began agai n s t hi s wi l l an d receive d i t s great
.

(1

The

L uth e ran M

o e me n t

in E ng la nd

es t i nj ur y when he becam e i t s cham pi o n A care ful review o f


the fact s s h o w s rs t that the evange l i ca l l eaven h ad been w o rk
i ng i n Eng l an d fo r m an y y e ar s an d s e c o n dly that t h i s latent
p o wer at l ength e m erge d i nto vig o r o us acti o n an d becam e a
wi d e ly ext e n d e d an d d eep m o ve m ent as i t receive d supp o rt fr o m
th e fe ar l ess t e s ti m o n y pr o c l ai m e d at W i ttenberg an d d i ffus e d
am o ng th e s cho l ar s o f Eng l an d b y the i n s trum en ta l i t y o f the
pre ss
In th e Fo urteenth Centur y al re ady the way fo r the R e form a
tion h ad been prep ar e d T h o mas o f B radwardin (D o cto rpro
fa ndus ) Pr o fes s o r i n Mert on C o ll ege O x for d an d a fterward s
Archbi s h o p o f Canterb ur y (b 1 2 90 d 1 3 4 9) w as the earne s t
repre s e nt ative o fA ugus t iniani sm w h o c o m p l ai ne d th at al m o s t

th e wh o l e w o r ld ha d fall en i nt o the err o r s o f Pe l agi ani sm


an d
s tarte d th e care e r o fhi s m o re e m inent pupi l J ohn W i c l i f W i c l i f
s p e nt the gr e ater p art o f hi s l i fe at O x fo r d w h ere i n 1 3 6 3 he
be ca m e Pr o fe ss o r o f D ivi nit y T he s o l e aut h o rit y o f the H o ly
S cripture s i n m att e r s o f fait h the rej e cti o n o f pr ay ers to sai nt s
o f p urgat o r y o f tr an sub s t an ti ati o n
o f the nece ss it y o f private
c o n fe ss i o n the c o n cepti o n o f the Church o n its in n e r i n s tea d o f
i t s o utwar d s i d e m arke d a n ew era even t h o ugh hi s teaching o n
a
n
o
t
a
s
u
s
tic
ti
n
an
d
the
m
s
t
c
l
s
e
ly
a
ll
ie
d
d
ctrin
s
o
e
w
a
s
o
o
o
j
c l ear B ut s ti ll wi d er i n fl uence was exerte d b y hi s tr an sl at i o n o f
the B ib l e i n d us tri o us ly circul ate d i n s h o rt s ecti o n s t h r o ugho ut all
Engl an d b y fo ll o wer s so n um er o us that o ne writer sa y s that
ever y o ther pers o n m et o n the r o a d c o uld be so reck o ne d T he
Lo ll ar ds as th o s e wh o s e intere s t ha d been ar o us e d b y W i c l i f
were call e d aft e r a c o nti nent al s ect s pre ad far an d wi d e the s ee d
T he U nivers i ti e s o f O x fo r d i n Eng l an d
o f th e future h arve s t
an d o f S t An d rew s i n S c o t l an d becam e cen t e r s o f the m o ve
m ent which al th o ugh externally suppre s s e d b y b l o o dy pe rse cu
ti o n s ti ll l ive d beneath th e s ur face A l th o ugh m en were c o n
S ign e d to th e s t ake for such utter ances y et i n 15 0 6 we n d D ean
C o l e t o f S t Paul s L o n d o n an O x fo r d al um n us (d 1 5 1 9) ex
po un d ing the S cri pture s thri c e a week i n th e s ci entic fo rm o f
.

'

B eg inning s

[ b e E ng lis h R efo rm atio n

l ecture s AS l ate as 15 2 1 the bi s h o p o f Lon d on ar


res te d nearly ve hun d re d Lo ll ar d s w h o pr o bab ly h ad no c o n
n e c tio n wi th the m o ve m ent then begi nn ing i n G er m an y

T o thi s i nuence w as add e d that o f th e New Learni ng


of
which Eras m us was the a d vocate at Cambri d ge I t i s s o m eti m e s
fo rg o tten that whi l e thi s great s cho l ar be l o nge d to H o ll an d hi s
s t ud ent l i fe w as p ass e d i n p art at the tw o d i s ti ngui she d Eng l i s h
univers i tie s H e was the i nti m ate fri en d o f Co l et an d return
i ng to E ng l an d i n I 5 10 w as fo r fo ur y ear s fr o m 1 5 1 1 La dy
Margaret Pr o fess o r o f D ivi nit y an d Lecturer i n G reek i n Q ueen s
C o ll ege Cam bri d ge T he s ti mul us which hi s attenti o n to the
origin al o fthe New T e s tam ent gave hi s p upi l s m a y be trace d i n
the m an y e m inent n am e s o f re fo rm ers herea fter to be note d
a m o ng the m G reat teacher s o ften i ncul cate pre m i s e s who s e
conc l us i o n s are s o far reaching that i n s tead O f d rawing the m fo r
the ms e l ves the y l eave thi s work to their p upi l s E rasmus never
br o ke wi th Ro m e ; but hi s teac hing l e d m an y to that act fo r
whi ch he hi ms e l f was to o feeb l e o r rather prepare d th e m fo r the
i n uence e manating fr o m W i ttenberg The y ear s o f hi s C am
bri d ge Pr o fe ss o r ship were not as s erene as thi s great l o ver o f
peace d e s ire d The pub l icati o n o f hi s G reek New T e s ta m ent
i nval i d ate d the auth o rit y o f the Vu l ga te an d ar o us e d the appre
h e ns io ns o f th o s e w h o were att ache d to the o ld o r d er o f things

T he war o f wor d s between


G reek s
an d
T r o jan s o r

O bs c uranti s t s as the cham pi o n s o f the new s tud ie s an d thei r


o pp o nent s were re s pective ly ca ll e d waxe d e rc e r an d e rc e r an d
w as o fj us t s uch char acter as w o u ld excite the enth us iasm o f s tu
d ent s at tha t s eas o n o f l i fe when the y are m o s t apt to bec o m e in
ten s e p arti san s W hen there fore the y hear d fro m hi m such
s tate m ent s as the fo ll o wing :
T he H o ly S cript ure s tran s l ate d
i nt o a ll l anguages s h o u ld be rea d n o t o n ly b y the S c o tch an d
Iri sh b ut even b y Turk s an d S aracen s The h usban d man s hould
s ing the m as he h o ld s the han dl e o f hi s p l o ugh the weaver re
peat the m as he p l i es hi s s h utt l e 3 an d the wearie d trave l er hal t
in g o n hi s j o urne y re fres h hi ms e l f un d er s o m e s hady tree b y
d iv i nit y

'

L uthe ra n M

The

o ve m e nt

in E ng land

thes e go o dly n arrative s


what w o n d er that as pirati o n s were
excite d fo r a better o r d er wherei n ever y Eng l i shm an m i ght rea d
the W o r d o f G o d fo r hi m s e l f an d th at y o ung he art s al ready re
s o l ve d that if G o d w o uld s pare the m thi s sh o uld be ac c o m
,

plish e d

Luther s act

O ct o ber

1 17 w as n o t a l t o gether un e x
s
t
5
3
utter the prote s t
break
the
s
i
l
ence
an
d
r
s
t
W
t
h
w
o
a
s
o
e
c
t
e
d
p
o r i n what fo rm o r p l ace i t w as to be given n o o n e i n d ee d c o uld
d ivi ne B ut man y e y es were l o o king fo r the cri s i s i n whi ch the
oppre ss e d c o n s cience wou ld s peak with a p o wer that c o u ld not be
res traine d A s Mr Fr o u d e say s :
The t h ing whi ch all were
l o nging fo r w as d one an d i n tw o ye ar s fro m that day there w as
s carce ly perhaps a vi ll age fr o m the Iri s h chan ne l to the D an ube
i n which the n am e o f Luther w as n o t fam i l iar as a w o r d o f hope

As ear ly as 15 2 0 P o lydo re Vergi l m enti o n s


and pr o m i s e
the i m p o rtati o n i nto Engl an d O f a great n um ber o f Lutheran
" 3
b o o ks
T 0 s uch an extent were Luther s wri ti ngs d i ffus e d
an d wi th such e e c t that i n March 1 5 2 1 Archbi s h o p W arham
wrote to Car d inal W o ls e y c o ncerning the c o n d iti o n O f a ffair s at
the U nivers it y o f O x fo r d i n a l etter whi ch S ir W i ll iam E ll i s
4
o
f rm er ly l ibrari an o f the B riti s h M us e um h as p ub l i s he d :
I am e n fo rm yd that d ivers e o f that U n iv e rs itie be in fe c tyd
with th e h e resye s of L uth e r an d o t h er s o f that s orte h av yn g
th e ym a grete n o m bre o f b o o k s o f the s ai d e perver s e d o ctrin e
I t i s a s o rr o w ful t h ing to s ee h o w gre dyly in c o ns taun t m e n an d
spe c yally inexpert
yo uth e fall eth to newe do c tryn e s be the y never
so pe s ti l ent
P ytie i t were th at t h r o ugh the le w dn es o f o n o r
tw o c ank e rd m e m ber s
th e h o l e U n iv e rs itie sh uld run i n fam y
O fso o h ayn o us e a cr ym e the h e r n
y g where o f sh uld be right d e
le c tab le an d p l es ant to open L uth e ra n e s be y o n d the se e
If
all the h o l e n o m b yr o f y ong sc o le rs suspe c tyd i n thi s caus e (which

of

'

1
3

i
u
m
u tio n s in E n li sh H is tor
, V augh an s R ev o l
p
g
y
H is to ry of E nglan d, I I : 40

H ar wick s H is to ry of th e R eform atio n , p 18 2

P a ra clesis

a d le c t

O rigin a l L e tte rs ,

Fi rst S e rie s I
,

: 2

3 9 sq q

10 1.

fo rmatio n

th e E ng lis h R e

B eg in n ing s

U n ive rs itie

wri teth to m e be marve lo us e s o ry an d repent


a un t that ever t h e y ha d an y s uch bo o k s o r r e dd e o r her d e an y o f
Lut h er s Opyn yo n ) sh ulde be c allyd up to L o n d o n yt sh uld e n
gen d re grete O b l o quy an d s c lan dre to the U nivers i te b o the b e
h yth e r the se e an d b e yo nde
the sai d U n ivers ite h ath e d e
s re d m e to m o ve Y o ur G race to be so g o o d an d grac yo use unt o
y
th e ym
to g yve i n c o mm i ss ion to s o m e s a dd father which was
br o ught up i n the Un ive ris tie o f O x for d to s y t ther an d e xam yn e
n o t the h e dds b ut the n o v ic ye s which be n o t y et y et th o r o ugh ly
cankere d i n the sai d err o r s
Ite m the sai d U nivers ite hath
des ie ryd m e to m o ve y o ur g o o d G race to nc te o ut b e syde w e rhs
of L uth e r c o n de m yd alre dy the nam es a ll o ther s uche writers

T he re que s t fo r s uch i n qui s i


L uth e r s adh e re nts andfauto rs
tion was i n acc o r dance with a pr o c l amation which Warha m had
s uccee d e d i n in d ucing W o l s e y to p ub l i s h entit l e d A c o mm i s
s i o n to warn all pers on s both ecc l es ias ti ca l an d s ecul ar un d er
penal t y o f exc o mmuni cation an d o f b eing d eal t wit h as hereti c s
that within the ti m e as s ign e d [ fteen d ays ] the y bri ng an d d e
l iver i nto the han ds o f the bi sh o p o r hi s d ep ut y all w ri tings ana
5
b oo hs of M artin l ath e r th e h e re tic
The pr o c l amati o n w as
acc o m pani e d b y the rehe ar sa l o f fo rt y tw o a ll ege d error s o f L u
ther q u o te d fr o m the Papa l b ull o f exc o mmuni cation s o m e o f
wh ich are the greate s t perver s i o n s o fwhat he taught whi l e o th
e rs even as s tate d b y ene m ies can con d e m n o n ly th o s e w h o d e e m
the m reprehen s ib l e as e g
In ever y g o o d work the
32

j us t man s i nneth
3 3 A go o d work d o ne bes t i s a venial

S in
3 4 T o b urn hereti cs i s c o ntrar y to the wi ll o f the

S piri t
T he fact that thi s d e m an d to s urren d er the writi ngs o f
Luther w as to be rea d i n ever y church at the ti m e o f mass sh o w s
the pr o gress whi ch t h e y ha d m ad e thr o ugh o ut the K ing d o m
T he d ay be fo re thi s pr o c l a mati o n F i sher bi s h o p o f Ro ches ter
had preache d i n S t Pau l s
Again y e pernici o u s do c tryn o f
as

th e

'

Th e

d e c re e is giv e n

in

ful l

in S trype

3 3 2 ; G e rde s ius , H is t R ef , I V : 112

S tr
6 1
s
e
m
o
r
i
I
e
a
M
l
s
:
,
yp
57
.

M e mo ria ls

f the

R eformation , V

L uthe ran lilo ve m e nt in E ng lan d

The

Marti n L uther
A week l ater the Ki ng hi m s e l f s en t a m o s t
urgent l etter to Lewi s D uke o f B av ari a i n s i s ting up o n e m p l o y
8
ing extre m e m eas ures again s t L uther
No r mus t i t be fo rgo tten
that the fam o us b o o k b y which he earne d the tit l e o f D e fen d er

but su e re d fo r i t fro m Luther s pen far m ore


o f the F aith
than he gaine d be l o nge d al s o to the sam e y ear 15 2 1 T w o
y ear s l ater B i shop F i s her fo ll o we d hi s s er m o n b y a treati s e
9
again s t Luther an d H e nr y wr o te a l ong l etter to the pri nce s o f
S axo n y
It s te m per m ay be l earne d fr o m the fo ll o wing :
I
am c o m pe ll e d to ad m oni sh an d exh o rt yo u that yo u give y our
attent ion at as e ar ly a d ate as p o ss ib l e to repress ing th at e x ecra
hle s e ct of L uth e r with o ut the executi o n o f an y o n e i f i t c an be
1
d o ne o r w i th b l o o d i f i t cannot be o therwi se acc o m p l i s he d
In 15 2 4 when H ugh Lati m er at that ti m e l ike Saul o f Tars us a
bitter zeal o t again s t the cau s e fo r which he a fterward s l ai d d own
hi s l i fe avai l e d hi ms e l f o fhi s inaugur al add re ss as B D at Cam
bri d ge to m ake a s weeping attack up o n the frien d s o fthe revi ve d
G o s pe l he ch o s e as hi s the m e :
Phi l ip Me l an chthon an d hi s
1
O pini o n s
B ut n o thing c o uld check the progress o f the truth
It s wept
all ob s tac l es be fo re i t The y o un g s ch o l ars o f Cam bri d ge c o uld
not be suppre ss e d Chie f am o ng the m w as Th o m as B i l ne y The
s t o r y o f hi s c o nver s i o n narrate d b y hi ms e l f i n a l etter written
fro m pri s o n i n 15 2 8 has been s um marize d as fo ll ow s :
In
Trinit y C o ll ege Cam bri d ge there w as a y oung m an e ngagad i n
th e s tu dy o f canon l aw re m arkab l e fo r hi s s eri o us ne ss hi s m o d
es t y an d hi s c o n s cie n tious ness H i s pri es t w as to hi s s o ul what
hi s ph ys ician was to hi s b o dy H e o ften to o k hi s p l ace pal e an d
anxi o u s at the feet o fhi s c o n fe ss o r
B ut the pres cripti o n s gi ven
d i d n ot reach hi s cas e Mas s e s vigi ls in dul gences an d free c o n
trib utio ns i n m one y all were tri e d b ut th e patient on ly s ee m e d
to grow wo rse
At t i m e s the th o ught wou ld ari se A m I in
,

'

7
9

dwi k
r dwick

H ar

Ha

11

C o o pe r

,
,

79

179

Ge rde s ius , I V

117

10

s A th en a:

L e tte r in G e rde s ius , I V


Ca n ta hrzg
ie ns es, I : I 3 0
'

: 12

B eg in n ing s

fo rm atio n

the E ng lis h R e

the right path ? Ma y n O t the prie s t be i n e rro r o r be a se l f


s eeker i n all that he d o e s ? B ut the S us pi ci o n w as i n s tant ly re
ay the tr o ub l e d
O
ne
c te d as a s ugg e s ti o n fr o m the ene m y
d
e
j
s cho l ar heard two frien d s tal ki ng o fa new b o o k T he b o o k was
the G reek T e s tam ent b y Eras mus with an e l egant Lati n transla
ti o n T he s ch o l ar w as p l eas e d w i th the s o un d o f the Lati n an d
w o uld fai n have taken up the v o l um e an d have exam ine d i t
B ut he knew t h at the auth o ri tie s o f the U niver s i t y h ad c o n d e m ne d
a ll s uch b o o k s an d e speci ally that b o o k as ten d ing to noth
i ng b ut here sy H e ab s t aine d ; b ut hi s d e s ire to l o o k i nto the
v o l um e grew s tr o nger H e s t o l e i nt o the h o us e i n Cam bri d ge
where the b o o k w as s e cret ly s o ld H aving o bt aine d a c o p y he
ret urne d to hi s r o o m to r e ad i t an d the r s t text t hat arr e s te d hi s
attenti o n was
Th i s is a fait h ful s ay i ng an d w o rth y o fall ac
c e ptatio n
etc T hi s was to the s pirit w o rn s t ud ent as the v o ice
o f an orac l e
H e p o n d e re d i t an d d erive d fro m i t what the
prie s t ly i m p o s iti o n s to whi ch he ha d s o l o ng s ub m itte d h ad fai l e d
to give hi m peac e o f c o n s cience an d en l arge m ent o f h eart
H ence fo rth he s i t s at the feet o f hi s L o r d an d o f hi s i n s pi re d
13
m ess engers
A p e rusal o f Er as mus N T an d the w ants
"

sa y s the hi s t o ri an o f hi s U niver s i t y
taught hi m
of L uthe r
other views o fre l igi o n an d he e m brace d the tenet s o f the re
fo rm ers exc e pt the d eni al o f tran sub s tan tiati o n H e l abo re d
earne s t ly to pr o mul gate hi s vi ews an d am o ngs t th o s e wh o m he
c o nverte d were J ohn Nich o las a lias Lambert Th o m as Arthur
R obert B arne s pri o r o f the Augu s tinian s an d H ugh Lati m er
B i l ne y an d Lati m er vi s ite d an d con s o l e d the s i ck an d nee dy an d

the unhapp y i n m ate s i n the town an d c o untr y pri s o n s


L atim e r s c o nvers i on als o i ll us trates the c o n n ecti o n wi th the
Luth e ran R e fo r mati o n s i nce i t w as hi s fam o us attack upo m Me
lan ch th o n ab o ve m enti o ne d that pr o m pte d B i l n e y to has ten t o
the s t udy o fthe y o ung preacher an d beg hi m
fo r G o d s s ake
,

1
13

Fo x e

A cts

Vaugh an

1 C o o

pe r s

and

o n u m e n ts ,

II :

2 17 ;

Ge rde s ius ; I V

R ev o lut io n : in E nglis h H is to ry ,
A th C an ta b , I : 4 2
.

I:

104.

: 12

Th e L uthe ran M o ve me nt in E ng la nd

to hear hi s con fe ss ion


with the resul t that fr o m that ti m e fo r
war d he began to sm e ll the W o r d o fG o d an d fo r s o o k the s cho o l

d o ct o rs an d s uc h fo o l eri e s

G ra d ually the C irc l e o fsuch m en en l arge d


T here viz at
15
even
C am b ridge said a B am pt o n l ect urer s o m e few y ear s ago
m
en
s o ear ly as 1 2 8 ha d been s een a l itt l e so ci et y o f re l igi o us
5
w h o (l ike the W e s l e ys two h un d re d y ear s l ater at O x fo r d ) e n
es
c o urage d each o ther i n rea d ing the S cript ure s i n m ut ua l c o n f
s i o n an d s i m i l ar pre s cribe d act s o f pers o n al piet y T he y vi s i te d
the pri s oners at j ai ls 3 the y preache d anew the vit al S piri tual
truth s fo r m er ly en shrine d b ut n o w obs cure d b y the ri tual an d
cere m o nie s o f t h eir Church an d were i n s hort engage d i n re
v iv in
T he n am e s
g re l igion i n Eng l an d un d er its an cient fo rms
o f twent y s even o f the s e m en have been pres erve d to us 3 an d
j us t as the ear ly Meth o d i s ts o btaine d the h o n o r s o fri d i cu l e an d
s o cial pers ecution so the h o u s e where thes e rs t E nglish L uth
e rans m et was ca ll e d
Fu ll er particul ar s are fur
G e rmany
1
n ish e d b y S tr yp e i n hi s
Li fe o f Archbi s h o p Parker
Park
e r s lo t w as to fall i nto the U niver s i t y i n th o s e d ay s when l earn
i ng an d re l igi o n began to d awn there 3 when d ivers g o dly m en
re s o rte d t o gether fo r c o n ference sake ; w h o al s o o ftenti m es
o cke d together i n open s ight both i n the s ch o o l s an d at the
s erm o n s i n S t M ar y s an d at S t Augu s ti ne s where D r B arne s
was pri o r an d at o ther d i s p ut ati o n s
O f whi ch s ort were se v
eral 3 an d o f t h es e c o ll eges es peci ally viz K ing s C o ll ege
Que en s C o ll ege S t J ohn s Peter H o us e Pe mbroke H all G on
we ll H all an d B en e t C o ll ege T heir m eetings to c o n fer an d dis
cour s e together fo r e di c atio n an d Chri s tian know l e d ge were
chie y at an h o us e call e d The W hi te H o r s e which w as there
fo re afterwar ds n am e d
b y t h eir ene m ies T hi s
G e rma ny
h o us e was ch o s en be caus e the y o f Ki ng s C o ll ege Queen s C o l
l ege an d S t J ohn s m ight co m e i n with the m o re privac y at the

back d o o r
.

15
16

C urte is ,

12 .

D issen t in its

re lation to

th e Ch urch

f E nglan d

56

B eg in n ing s

R efo rm atio n

the E ng lis h

T hi s c o m pan y o f twent y s even i nc l ud e d ss t o f all B i lne y


N ext am ong the m i s nam e d G e o rge S ta o rd o f Pe m broke H all
fro m 15 2 3
H e h ad i ntr o d uce d an i nn ovati o n b y l ecturing on

the H o ly S cript ure s i n s tea d O f the S entence s


In hi s vi s it a
tion s to the s ick he becam e i n fecte d with the p l ague and d ie d
i n 15 2 9
T here w as o n e o fC l e m ent H o s te l call e d S ir H enr y
the c o nj urer o n account o f hi s s ki ll i n the b l ack art Fall ing
s ick o f the p l ague Mr S ta b rd vi s ite d hi m argu e d o n hi s wicke d
l i fe an d practice s br o ught hi m to repentance an d c aus e d all hi s
c o nj uring b o o ks to be burne d be fore hi s face ; b ut Mr S ta o rd
caught the i n fecti on and d ie d there o f between 19th o fJ une an d
1"
I 7th Nove m ber
A thir d T ho mas Arthur was i nti m i d ate d to take an o ath

abjuring Luther s O pi ni o n s
fr o m which he d oe s n o t s e e m to
have rec o vere d as d i d s evera l o f hi s c o m rad e s O f R obert
B arne s an d H ugh Lati m er we s hall hear m uch i n what fo ll o ws
Mi l e s C o ver d al e was to ac quire d i s tincti o n as a tran s l at o r o f the
B ib l e an d o f Luther s h y m n s P ayn e ll o r Parne ll w as to be ao
tive i n l ater y ear s as a d ip l o m at H e yn e s i n 15 2 8 w as Pre s i d ent
o f Q ueen s C o ll ege an d a fterwar d s Vi ce C h ance ll o r o f the U ni
vers it y H e b aptize d E d war d VI w as o n an e m bass y to France i n
1 2
5 5 an d w as e m p l o y e d o n vari o us i m p o rtant co m m i ss i o n s c o n
n e c te d with the re fo r m o f the Eng l i s h Church
T hixte ll i n 15 2 9
w as a m e m b e r o f c o mm i ss i o n s c o ncerning the d ivorce an d i n
15 3 0 w as a cen s o r o f p ub l icati o n s
D i s tingui s he d a s a d ebater
he continue d to the en d a war m fri en d o f th e R e fo r m ation The
so n O f the L o r d Ma y or o f Lon d on was i n the b an d vi z Th o m as
A ll en w h o c o mfo rte d B i l ne y i n hi s h o ur o fmart y r d o m Turner
w as d es tine d to be the m o s t ver sati l e o f the m all i n hi s s ch o l ar
s hip a c l erg y m an ph y s i cian m e mber o f par l i am ent b o tani s t
o rnith o l o gi s t m inera l o gi s t critic o f N
T text tran s l at o r an d
pr o l i c auth o r o fboth re l i gi ous an d s ci entic b o o k s
There al so w ere N icho l as R i dl e y the future mart yr bi sh o p
E d war d Cro m e alre ady a d octor o f divin it y who ha d y ear s o f
-

'

11
C oo

p e r s A lh

Ca n ta b

39

L uth e ra n [ Mo ve m e n t in E ng lan d

T he

IO

i m pri s on m ent be fo re hi m Ru d o l ph B rad fo r d w h o afte r exi l e fo r


C ircul ating the New Te s tam ent was to r e t urn an d ai d i n prepar

S h ax to n an d S kip
ing T h e In s tit uti o n o f a C h ri s tian Man
fut ure ap o s t ate s an d S ygar Nich o l s o n w h o was treate d wi th
18
much crue l t y fo r h avi ng i n h is h o us e the w o rk s o f Luther
O f thi s ban d o f twent y s ev e n S kip R i dl e y an d H e yn es were
as s o ciate d wi t h Cran m er i n the preparati o n o f the l i t urg y o f E d
ward VI
the r s t Eng l i s h Luth
B ut thi s gr o up d i d n o t c o m pri s e a ll
eran s
Fr o m C am bri d ge a co l o n y o f s e l ect
o f C am bri d ge
s ch o l ar s h ad been s e nt to O x fo r d as the n uc l eus o f Car d i nal C o l
19
l ege fo un d e d b y W o l s e y : W e l earn fr o m the n o te s i n E ll i s :
L uth e ranis m i ncreas e d d ai ly i n the U niver s it y o f O x fo r d an d
chie y i n Car d in al C o ll ege b y cert ai n o f the Cant abrigian s tha t
th e n re m ai n e d T he chi e fes t Luther an at thi s ti m e w as J o hn
C l ark o n e o f th e j uni o r can o n s to wh o s e private l ect ure s an d
d i s put ati o n s i n p ub l i c d iv e rs grad uate s an d s ch o l ar s o f c o ll ege s
res o rte d S o great a re s pect h ad the y fo r hi s d o ctrine an d ex
e m plary c o ur s e o f l i fe th at the y w o ul d o ften recur t o hi m f
o r re s o
T h e y ha d al s o thei r private m eetings wherei n
lutio n o f d o ubt s
the y c o n ferre d ab o ut the pr o m otion o f t h eir re l igi o n
The y
pray e d toget h er an d read certai n b o o k s contain ing the pri nciples
No twith s tan d ing m an y e m i nen t m en d i d d i s
ofL uth e r
pute an d pr e ach i n the U niver s it y again s t i t y et the L uth e rans
pro ce e de d an d t o o k a ll private occas i on s to pr o m o te their do c

trine
S h o rt ly afterwar ds th e Archbi s h o p o f L o n d on wr o t e to W o l s e y :
W ith res pect to th e m o s t accur s e d w o rk s o f Luth e r I have re
c e ive d thr o ugh th e d o ct o r m enti o ne d cert ai n p am ph l et s whi ch I
wi l l b o th m o s t d i l igent ly read an d n o te 3 an d that I m ay do t h i s
the m o re care fully I wi ll betake m ys e l f as s o o n as p o ss ib l e to O x
fo r d wh e re I wi ll en d eav o r care fu lly t o exam ine s o m e co d ice s o f

J o hn W i c l i f
'

C oo pe r

s A th

I : 51
19 O ri in a l
L ette rs T h ir d S e r ie s I I : 71
g
2
E ll i s O rigin a l L e tte rs T hir d S e ri e s I :

18

C a n ta h

'

2 46 .

B eg inn ing s

fo rmatio n

the E ng lis h R e

11

A m ong thi s group o fLutheran s tu d en t s transferre d fro m Cam


bri d ge to O x fo r d w as R ichar d C o x a fterwar d s t utor to E d war d
VI Chance ll or o f the U ni vers i t y o ne o f the c o m pi l er s o f the

B o o k o f Co mm o n Pr ay er
B i s h o p o f No rwi ch an d wh o s e
exi l e un d er Mar y w as d i s tingui s he d for hi s c o ntr o versy wi th J o hn
Kn o x at F rank fort an d hi s tri um ph o ver Puri tani sm
An o ther
w as the m art y r J ohn F rith as s ociate d wi th T yn dale in the tran s
l ation o fth e B ib l e wh o a fterwar d s accepte d ei ther the Zwing l ian
or Ca l vini s ti c vi ew o f the Lo r d s S upper Richar d Taverner
the tran s lat o r o f the B ib l e an d o f th e Aug sburg Con fe ss i o n w as
a thir d A m ong the o ther s were C l ark be fo re m enti o ne d S um
ner B ett s H ar m ann F rier A kars G o d m an L aw n e y D o m inick
an d D r umm T he entire part y w as arres t e d an d i m pri s one d
S o m e were exi l e d Taverner e s cape d b y hi s s ki ll as a m us ician
C l ark d ie d i n Augus t 15 2 8 o f a d i s te m per occas i o ne d b y the
s tench o f the pri s o n i n whi ch he w as c o nne d In hi s l as t m o
m ent s he was re fus e d the co mmuni o n not perhap s as a s pecia l
act o f crue l t y b ut becaus e the l aw s o f the Ch urch w o u ld n o t per
m i t the h o ly thing to be pro fane d b y the to uch o f a hereti c
W hen he w as t o ld i t wou ld n o t be suffere d he sai d C re de e t
S u m ner d ie d fr o m the sam e cau s e
At Cambri d ge as we ll as at O x fo r d s trict m e as ure s were taken
to s uppre ss Lutherani sm U n fo rtunate ly n o t all it s a d herents
mani fe s te d the greate s t pru d ence B i l ne y an d Lati m er th o ugh
s ubj ect to the c l o s es t s urvei ll ance d es erve cre d i t fo r their c o u s e
m arke d b y s o un d j ud gm ent an d d i s cretion T he bi s h o p o f E ly
en d eav o re d to thr o w the l atter o ff o f hi s guar d b y entering un
expecte dly wi th a reti n ue o f d i gn i tarie s the chape l at Ca m
bri d ge where h e w as preaching W ith c o m p l ete m as ter y o f the
s i t uati o n the preacher a d r o i t ly change d hi s text an d s poke e lo
q uent ly c o ncern i ng the d ut y o f bi s h o p s to fo ll o w Chri s t as their
great m o d e l D r R obert B arnes was o f an o ther te m per am ent
Vehe m ent i m p uls ive d irect he c o u ld s carce ly be res traine d
fr o m at o nce assai l ing p ub l ic ly a ll that he fe l t to be wr o ng In
D ece m ber 15 2 5 he precipitate d a cri s i s which en d e d i n hi s d eep
,

The L uthe ran /o ve me n t in E ng land

12

hum i l iation b y i nveighing with m os t d irect per s onal itie s again s t


the bi s hop s T he truth s ee ms to be that he t o o k Luther s s er
m on o n the Epi s t l e fo r the F ourth S un d ay i n A d vent
an d repr o d uce d i t with s o m e change s fo r hi s C am bri d ge au

H e so p o s ti ll e d the wh o l e epi s t l e
s ay s F o xe
fo l
die n c e
l owing the S cript ure an d L uth e r s p os til that fo r that s er m o n he
2
W hatever m a y have been
w as i mm e d i ate ly acc us e d o f here s y

the exce ll ence s o f S t Ro bert as Luther ca ll e d Barne s a fter


hi s d eath he certain ly d i d n o t know h o w to O b s erve ti m e s an d
s eas o n s T he Church o f Eng l an d o f 15 2 5 w as not prepare d for
what s uite d ad m irab ly an aud ien ce i n W ittenberg i n 15 2 1 A
m art yr s courage fai l e d hi m at thi s ti m e a l though fo urteen y ears
l ater he jo y fully maintaine d hi s d e l i t y to the G o s pe l at the
s take T he cere m o n y o fhi s recantation F ebruar y r1th 15 2 6
A fter a s er m o n preache d
w as m ad e as h um i l iating as p o ss ib l e
i n S t Paul s Lo n d on b y B i s h o p F i s her i n the pre s ence o f
thirt y s ix bi s h o p s abbot s and pri o r s Agains t L uth e r an d D r

B arne s
he kne l t an d as ke d fo rgivene ss which w as grante d wi t h
t he penan ce attache d o fwal king thrice aroun d a b l azing pi l e o f
l arge bas ket sful o f Lutheran bo o k s B i l ne y an d Arthur a ls o were
une qua l to the tri al
i nt o which B arne s i n d i s creet ar d or ha d
brought the m Lati m er bore hi ms e l f with s uch s hrew d ne ss that
i n s tea d o f puni s h m ent he receive d the C ard i n al s l icen s e to
preach an ywhere i n Eng l an d
T he l as t m e ssage o f Card i nal W o l s e y to hi s s o vereign s ent
fr o m hi s d eath b e d was to have a vigi lan t e y e o n the new s ect
the Lutheran s that i t d o not i ncreas e through y o ur n eg l igence
i n s uch s o rt as yo u be at l ength co m pe ll e d to put harness o n y our

back to sub d ue the m


An In d ex o f Prohibi te d B ooks o f 15 2 9 give s the nam e s o f
the w o rks whi ch ha d been so d i l i gent ly circu l ate d b y the y o un g
s cho l ar s o f thes e tw o univers i ti es an d thei r frien ds It h as the
tit l e L ihri s eetce s ive factio nis L uth e riana imp o rtati ad civi
,

'

21

A cts

an d
.

78

on ume nts

H is to ry of (Pre sb yt e ri an B o ar

of

Pub licatio n

B eg inning s
tatem L

R efo rm atio n

the E ng lis h

13

A fter fo ur bo oks o f W ic l i f i t read s :


C o ncern ing G o o d W o rks
Le tter o f
D r M arti n Luther
Luther to Po pe Leo X T essarade cas Con s o l atoria o f Marti n
Luther Tract o f Luther Concerning Chri s tian Libert y
S er
m o n s o f D r Marti n Luther Exp o s it ion o f the Epi s t l e s o f S t
Peter b y M arti n Lut h er R ep ly o f Martin Luther to B arth o le
m e w C ath arin us
O f th e W o rks o f G o d b y M arti n C e llarius
D euteron o m y fr o m the H ebrew wi th an n o tati o n s o f Martin
Luther Luther s Catechi sm i n Latin b y J L o n ic e rus T he
Prophet J o n ah exp laine d b y Martin Luther C o mm entar y o f
Marti n Luther o n the Epi s t l e o f Paul to th e G al atian s S e l ec
ti o n s fro m the l etter s o f M arti n Lut h er fu ll o f piet y an d l earn
i ng with the i nterpretation o f s evera l p sa l ms Narrati o n s o f
Po s ti l s o f Martin Lut her upon the l ess o n s fr o m the G o s pe l s etc
S ixteen Conc l us i o n s o f the reveren d father Martin Luther c o n
cerning F ai th an d Cere m o nie s M o s t W h o l e s o m e D ec l arati o n o f
the sa m e concerning Fa ith and W o rks Mo s t Learn e d Exp l ana
tion o f Cer e m o ni es F i ft y Conc l us i o n s b y the sam e fo r ti m i d
con s ciences Luther s Exp l anation o f hi s thirte e nth prop o s i tion
Concerning the P o wer o f the P o pe
O rati o n o f D i dym us
Fave n tin us o n b e h al f o f Marti n Luther
New n arrati on s o f Mar
ti n Luther o n the pr o phet J o nah J ud gm ent o f M arti n Luther
Concerning M o nas ti c V o w s Enchiri d ion o f th e G o dly Pray ers
S everal brie f s erm o n s o f Marti n Luther o n
o f Martin Luther

the Virgi n the Mother o f G o d


Then fo ll o w w o rks o f ( E c o lam padius B illicanus Zwi ng l i
B ugenhagen B uce r R egi us Me l anchth o n Agri c o l a B rentz
23
La m be rt W e ss e l G o c h ius an d Car l s ta d t
Wh o a fter read ing thi s l i s t w o uld vent ure to maintai n that the
re fo r mat o r y m o ve m ent i n Engl an d was i n d epen d en t o f that i n
G erm an y ? It s ho w s ver y c l ear ly that the the o l o gian s o f Eng
lan d were keeping abreas t o f the entire d eve l op m e nt o f the o l ogi
cal l iterature o n the C o nti nent
o ndo n

23

Thi s

me n ts

l i st i

fo un d

in Ge rdes ius , I V

: 13

sq q

Fo x e

A cts

an d

on u

C H APT E R II
T YND AL E S

T yn dale

B i rth

an d

D E P EN D EN C E

E d uc ati o n

Re

ti

a on

ON L U THE R
to C o

le t

and

E r asmus

E ar y

signi c an t Pro ph e cy L ife in L o n do n R e p ul se d b y th e


B i sh o p
T yn d al e at
H um phre y M o nm o uth an d h is T r o ub l e s
H am b urg Was T yn d al e at W itte nb e rg ? I nsuf c i e n t argum e nts o f
A n d e rs o n an d W al te r
Th e E ngl ish G e n e s is o f 15 3 0 p ub l i sh e d b y L u
th e r s p ub l i sh e r H an s L uft
W h e r e w as M arlb o ro ? T h e igh t fro m
Pro cl am a
C o l o gn e
T w o e d itio n s o f Ne w T e stam e nt i nste ad o f o n e
tio ns o f T unstal an d Warh am Fi fte e n th o us an d E ngl ish t e stam e nts
se nt fro m G e rm an y to E ngl an d A rre st an d e x e c uti o n T yn dale s
tr ansl atio n an d th at o fL uth e r T e stimo ny o f H all am W e stc o tt an d M o m
H is p r e fac e s fr o m L n
b e rt T yn d al e an d L uth e r in p ar all e l c o l um n s

th e r
H is gl o ss e s fro m L uth e r
H is tr e atise
T h e W ick e d M amm o n

A nne B o l e n s
fr o m L uth e r
T h e O b e d i e n c e o f a C h r is ti an M an
y

de vo tio nal m an ual H is E x pos itio n o f th e S e rmo n o n th e M o unt


fro m L uth e r Was T yn d al e a L uth e r an ? A rgum e n ts o f D r E adi e
in th e n e gati v e ; o f V E L Os ch e r in th e af
rm ativ e
Wo rk
L o rd

A MONG the s cho l ar s o f O x for d an d Cam bri d ge there i s o ne


w h o h ad l e ft the U niver s itie s y e ar s be fo re th e e vent s j us t nar
r ate d b ut wh o s e i n uence fr o m abroa d w as a ver y i m portant
fact o r i n a d vancing the m ove m ent
H i s work i s so pr o m inent
an d far reaching and except i n hi s preparati o n as a s t ud ent s o
i s o l ate d fr o m the re s t unti l t h rough hi s tran s l ati o n o f the New
T e s tam ent an d h is v ari o u s evange l i cal treati s e s he acte d up o n
hi s c o untr ym en that i t j us t ly re quire s s epar ate tr e at m ent
Wi l
l i am Tyn dal e was a quiet an d retire d s ch o l ar w h o wr o ught d i l i
gent ly i n hi s s t udy with a xe d en d i n V iew fro m whi ch he never
s w e rve d an d which re quire d hi s wi th d rawal fr o m the i nti mate
as s o ciati o n s an d the wi d er s phere s o f d i s cuss ion i n which o ther s
fe l t ca ll e d upon to pro m o te the s am e cau s e H e there fore was
,

( 14)

Yy n dale

D epe nde n ce

L uthe r

on

15

content to s tan d d uring hi s l i fe ti m e al m o s t alo ne i n or d er t o


e e c t th e R e fo rm ati o n o f hi s c o untr y an d to re ach future gen
e ratio ns t h r o ugh the Eng l i s h B ib l e which even i n it s pres ent
for m i s pr o per ly s peaking hi s B ib l e revi s e d
B o rn pr o bab ly ab o ut 14 84 o n the boun d ar y o f W al es he

br o ught up sa ys Fo xe
fr o m a chi ld at the U niver s i t y o f
w as
O x fo r d w h ere h e b y l o ng c o ntin uance grew an d i ncreas e d as
w e ll i n the k n o w l e d ge o f t o n gue s an d o ther l ibe ral art s as s pec
ially in the kn o w l e d ge o fth e S cript ure s to w h ich hi s m in d w as
s ingu l ar ly add icte d ; in s o m uch that he ly ing there i n Mag d al en
H all re ad privi ly to certain s t ud ent s an d fe ll ows o f Mag d al en
C o ll ege s o m e parce l o f d ivinit y in s tructing the m i n the know l
e d ge an d tr uth o f the s criptures wh o s e m anner s als o an d c o n
ver sati o n being c o rres pon d ent to the sam e were s uch that all
the y that knew hi m repute d an d es tee m e d hi m to be a m an o f
m o s t virt uo u s d i s p o s i ti o n an d o f l i fe un s p o tte d T hus he i n the
U n ivers i t y o f O x for d i ncreas ing m o re an d m o re i n l earning
an d procee d ing i n d egrees o f the s cho o l s s p y i ng hi s ti m e re
m ove d fr o m thence to the U nivers it y o f Cam bri d ge where a fter
he ha d l ikewi s e mad e hi s abo d e a certain s pace being n o w
further ripene d i n the kn o w l e d ge o f G o d s W o r d l eavi ng that
un ivers it y al s o he res o rte d t o o n e m as ter W e l s h a Kn ight o f
Gl o uces ters hire ; an d was there s cho o l mas ter to hi s chi ld ren

an d i n very g o o d fav o r with hi s mas ter


At O x fo r d he un
d oubte dl y cam e un d er the in uence o fD ean C o l et H i s re m o val
to Cam bri d ge was pr o bab ly fo r the purpo s e o f pr o fiting b y
Eras m us l ectures w h o taught G reek there fr o m 15 0 9 ti ll the b e
ginning o f 15 19 3 whereas there w as no regu l ar G reek l ect ures hip
1
foun d e d i n O x fo r d ti ll ab o ut
At the h o u s e o f S ir J ohn
W e l s h o r W als h whi ther he went abo ut 15 19 he s o o n becam e
i nvo l ve d i n c o ntr o vers i es wi th the pri es t s tran s l ate d again s t the m
Era s mu s
Enchiri d ion M ilitis an d d e s tro y e d their i n uence
wi th the fam i ly fr o m which the y previ o us ly ha d d erive d l arge c o n
-

Wal te r s L ife Qf Tyndale p re x e d


cie ty ) p X V

to

D octrin al Treat ises

(Park e r

So

The L uthe ran do ve me nt in E ng la nd

16

H e was a zeal ou s preacher at B ri s t o l an d was s u m


as
m o ne d to an s wer be fo re the C hance ll o r b ut whi l e treate d

tho ugh I had been a do g e s cape d puni s h m ent S h o rt ly after


thi s i t was that i n a d i s cuss i o n wi th a l earne d but bi tter advo
cate o f th e Papac y he m ad e the O ften q u o t e d re m ark that he d e
e d th e P o pe an d a ll hi s l aws an d further add e d that i f G o d
s par e d hi m l i fe ere m an y y ear s he w o u ld caus e a b o y that driv

eth th e p l o ugh to kn o w m o re o f the s cripture s t h an he d i d


H i s p o s iti o n bec o m ing m o re an d m o re unc o mfo rt ab l e an d being
inv o l ve d in c o n s tant d i s pute s he saw that the evange l ic al caus e
w as re l ative ly he l p l e ss un ti l the B ib l e c o uld be rea d b y th e l ait y

in their o w n l anguage In hi s Pre face to th e Pent at e uch


he
sa y s :
I perceive d h o w that it was i m p o s s ib l e to e s tab l i s h the
l ay pe o p l e i n an y truth except the s cript ure were p l ain ly l ai d
be fo re their e y e s i n their m o t h er t o ngue that the y m ight S ee the
pr o cess o r d e r an d m e aning o f the text Fo r e l s e w h atever tr uth
i s taught t h e m t h e s e ene m ie s o f all t ruth q uench i t again part ly
with app arent r e as o n s o f s o phi s tr y fo un d e d wi th o ut gr o un d o f
s cript ure 3 an d part ly i n j ugg l ing wi th the text exp o un d ing i t
i n s uch s en s e as i s i m p o ss ib l e to gather o f the text i f th o u se e the

proce ss o r d er an d m eaning there o f


W i th thi s en d i n view
he re s ign e d h is p l ace an d ab o ut 15 2 3 went t o L o n d o n where
re ly ing up o n an extravagant i d ea o f the i nter e s t o f the B i s h o p o f
Lon d o n T o nstall i n such work he h o pe d to receive a h o m e i n his
h o u s e an d enc o ur ag e m ent H e carrie d wi th h im as an evi d ence
o fhi s s ch o l ar s hip a tran sl ation whi ch he ha d m ad e o f o n e O fthe
o rati o n s o f I s o crate s
B ut the Eng l i s h B ib l e w as n o t to be tran s
l ate d i n an epi s c o pal palace H e fo un d n o h o m e or enco ur age
m ent wher e he ha d expecte d it T he Lo r d h o wever rai s e d up
fo r hi m a fai th ful frien d in a weal th y m erch ant H um phre y M o n
m o uth w h o h ad hear d hi m pr e ach i n S t D unstan s church an d
pr o vi d e d fo r hi m at hi s o wn h o us e Y e ar s a fterwar d s M o n m o uth
was i m pri s o n e d fo r t h i s act o f kin d ne ss
In hi s te s ti m o n y i n hi s
de fence he thr o w s s o m e l ight up o n T yndale s h abit s :
He
s tu d ie d m o s t part Of the d ay an d o f the n ight at hi s b o ok 3 an d
trib utio ns

Tyn da/e

'

pe n de n ce

on

uth e r

17

he wou ld eat b ut s o dd en m eat b y hi s goo d wi ll nor d rink but


sm a ll s ing l e beer I never saw hi m wear l i nen ab o ut hi m
W hen I hear d m y L o r d o f L o n d on preach at Paul s Cr o ss that
S ir W i ll i am Ty n d al e ha d tran sl ate d the New Te s t am ent i n Eng
l i s h an d was n aughti ly tr an sl ate d t h at w as th e r s t ti m e that

ever I s us pecte d o r kne w an y evi l b y hi m


Ty n d al e s o o n fo un d i t n e ce ssar y i n or d er to pro s ec ute hi s
work s ucce ss fully to repair to G er man y Acc o r d ing ly ab o ut
Ma y 15 2 4 he l e ft L o n d o n fo r H am burg In Apri l 15 2 5 he i s
kn o wn to have been i n H amburg H ad he been there th e entire
ti m e o r ha d he been e l sewhere i n the m e anti m e ? C o ncerning thi s
there h as been a d ivers it y o f opi n i o n There h as been a wi d e ly
d i ffus e d trad iti o n that he repaire d at o nce fr o m Ham b urg to W i t
tenberg A ll o f T yn dale s c o nte m p o rari e s w h o have written
c o ncerni ng hi s m o ve m ent s so afr m In the artic l e s agai nst
M o n m out h i n 15 2 8 he i s charge d wi th ai d ing
S ir W i ll iam

who
H utchin o the rwi s e call e d Ty n d al e
went i nt o A lm ayne
G
er
m
an
y
S
i
r
t
o L ut h er there to s t udy an d le arn h is s ect
[
]

T h o m as M o re i n hi s D ial o gue d ec l are s t h at at th e ti m e o f


hi s tr an sl ati o n o f t h e Ne w T es t am ent Tyn dal e w as with Luther
at W i tt e nberg an d the c o n fe d erac y betw een hi m and Luther

w as we ll kn o wn
C o c h lae us s p e ak s o f Ty n d a l e and R o y as

tw o Eng l i s h ap o s tate s w h o h ad been s o m eti m e at W ittenberg


F oxe i n hi s Act s an d M o n um ent s s ay s :
O n hi s r s t d e
part n o ut o f the real m Tyn d a l e t o o k hi s j ourne y i nt o the
further p art s o f G erm an y as i nt o Saxon y where he ha d c o n fer

ence with Luther an d o ther l e arne d m en i n th o s e q uarters


S o m e writers o f the pre s ent cent ur y e s pecially An d erson i n

hi s Ann al s o fth e Eng l i s h B ib l e


an d W a l ter i n hi s Li fe O f

Tyn dal e
prexe d to the Parker S o ciet y e d iti o n o fhi s w o rks

ques ti o n hi s vi s i t to W ittenberg b ut as D e maus s ho ws upon t he


bas i s o fto o wi d e an app l i cation o f a d enial b y Tyn d al e to the
C harge o f M o re Ty n d al e d enies th at he w as con fe d erate wi th
Luther H e d o es n o t d en y that he w as at W i tt enbe rg
The
,

Willia m

Ty ndale , A B iography

94 s q q

Th e

18

L uth e ran lllo ve me n t in E ng lan d

truth i s sa ys D e mans
that the who l e o f thi s theor y o f T yn
d al e s m o ve m ent s c o n s tructe d as we have s een i n d irect opp o s i
ti o n to all c o nte m p o rar y autho rit y h as s pr ung fr o m a narrow
that T yn dale s rep utati o n wo uld be in
an d ill gro un de d fe ar
j ure d b y the a d m i s s i o n o f h is having been at W ittenberg wi th
Luther T h e a d m irer s o f o ur gre at Eng l i s h tran s l at o r have been
j us t ly i n d ignant at the i gnorant m i s repre s entati o n s whi ch have
s o m eti m e s treate d hi m as a m ere ech o an d p aras ite o f hi s G er
m an c o nte m p o rar y an d i n thei r zeal to m ai ntai n thei r hero s
origin alit y th e y have d i s car d e d ancient authori t y an d have d e
n ie d t hat th e two R e fo rm er s ever m et T he m otive for s uch a
d e fence m ay be prai s eworth y but i t s wi s d o m i s ques ti o nab l e
T o m ai ntain i n d e ance o f a ll conte m p o rar y evi d ence that Ty n
d al e re m aine d fo r a y ear i n a b us t l ing c o mm ercial t o wn where
there we re n o pri nt e rs where he wo uld be d i s t urbe d b y bitter
quarre ls an d d eprive d o f all opportunitie s o f c o n sul ting books
o r c o n ferring with fri e n d s that m ight have ai d e d hi m i n the
w o rk thi s i s s ure ly a s trange m eth o d o f vi n d i cating Ty n d al e 3
thi s i s an atte m pt to d e fen d hi s original it y at the c o s t o f hi s goo d
sen s e
Mr An d er s o n s theori e s about T yn dale s re s i d en ce i n
H am b urg hi s i gn o ran ce o f G er m an hi s never havi ng m et L n

ther are the o ri e s a d o pte d i n the face Ofa ll ancient te s ti m o n y


Pr o f W al ter s argum ent that T yn dale s s ta y at H amb urg w as
for the purp o s e o f l earn ing H ebrew fr o m the n um erous J ew s
there an d th at pr o o f o f thi s c an be s h o wn fr o m the fact that
whereas H ebre w at that ti m e w as not taught i n an y Eng l i s h U n iver
s ity T yn dale s pr o gre ss bec o m e s s o o n m ani fe s t fr o m the in s ight
i nt o the pecul iaritie s o f th at l anguage s h o wn b y s o m e re m ark s i n

hi s M amm o n i s n o t c o n c l us ive The pas s age would e e c tually


pr o ve thi s i f that bo o k were o ri g in al wi th Ty n d al e 3 b ut S ince i t is
on ly a tr an s l ati o n fr o m Luther as wi ll herea fter appear the pro
gre ss i n H ebrew ass erte d cann o t be s h o wn
5
D r Ea d ie
wh i l e tr y ing to S how that Ty n d al e was no Luth
,

'

Tyn dale

D ep e n de n ce

L uth e r

on

19

eran a fter weighing the evi d ence c o nc l ud es :


Argu m ent s

again s t the vi s it to Witte m b e rg are o fn o great m o m ent

Mr G e o rge O e r i n the
Me m o ir o f Tyn d al e
prexe d to
a reprint O f hi s New Te s tam ent o f 15 2 6 p ub l i sh e d b y the B ag
It w as at Wytte m b urg that wi th inten s e app l ica
s te rs sa y s :
t i o n and l abor Tyn d al e c o m p l ete d hi s t ran s lat i o n o f thew New
"
T es tam e n t
6
In the abse nce o f p o s itive hi s t o ri cal
D r M o m bert sa ys :
d ata i t i s i m po ss ib l e to m ake a re l i ab l e p o s itive s tate m e nt It i s
pr o bab l e that Tyn d al e d i d m eet Luther 3 i t i s c l ear that he us e d
Luther s ver s i o n as I expect to pr o ve
T he prep o n d erance
o fevi d e nce p o in t s i mm e d i ate ly to T yn dale s vi s it to Witte m b e rg
T he s am e wri ter has als o c o nc l u s ive ly pr o ve d that the s tate m ent
hit h ert o c urrent that T yn dale s tran s l ati o n o f G ene s i s o f 15 3 0
w as printe d b y H an s Luft at Marb urg i s i ncorre ct the l ibrari an
o f the U n ivers it y o f Marb urg having m a d e a s pecia l exam in ation
i nt o the m atter i n 188 1 wi th the res ul t th at he fo un d t h at H an s
Luft never ha d a pri n ting o i c e at Marburg an d that the al bum
o f th e U n iver s i t y has n o entr y o f the nam e s o f Ty n d a l e an d
F ri th H an s L uft being the fam o us B ib l e pri nter at W i tten

M arlb o ro w i n th e l an d e O f H ess e
berg the n am e
given as
hi s p l ace o f printing i s i n all pr o babi l it y a p s eud o n y m to c o n
ceal the act ual p l ace j us t as he hi m s e l f ass um e d the p se ud o n ym
to thwart the d e s ign s o f hi s vigi l ant e n e m i e s
o f H utc h yn s
W ittenberg there fore a s ec o n d ti m e beco m es c o nnec te d with
7
T yn dale s w o rk an d o ur Eng l i s h B ib l e
B ut we h ave anticip ate d s o m ewhat the chr o no l o gi ca l or d er
A ft e r ret urni ng fr o m W ittenberg to H am b urg i n 15 2 5 an d h av
ing h is tran slati o n o fthe New T e stim e nt n is he d Ty n dal e went
H e re he w as
to C o l o gne fo r th e p urp o s e o f having i t pri nte d
d i s c o v e re d b y C o c hlae us an en e m y o f the R e fo rm ation w h o
pr o m pt ly rep o rte d what he had l e arn e d T he s tor y i s i nteres t
,

5
5

H is to ry
A

1h

f E nglis h
H a ndhoo h of th e

pp

10 7 115
-

B ible ,

7
E nglis h Versions , 82
12

sq q

L uthe ran M

Th e

20

o ve m e n t

in E ng la n d

C o c hlae us ,

i nten d ing to prin t a w o rk o f hi s o w n had


go ne to C o l o gne w h ere s o m e o f the c o m p o s it o r s he w as ab o ut to
e m p l o y i n an un guar d e d m o m ent inti m ate d t h at t h e y were e n
8
gage d i n preparing a w o rk fo r tw o Eng l i sh m en l ate ly arrive d
fr o m Wytte m b e rg which w o uld s o o n m ake Eng l an d Lutheran
By p ly ing the m wi th d ri nk he d i s c o vere d t h at t h ere were i n the
pre ss three tho usan d c o pie s o f the Lutheran New T es tam ent
tran s l ate d i nt o E ng l i s h By hi s e ffo rts the S enate pr o hibi te d
the w o rk fr o m pr o cee d i ng an y furt h er It h ad reache d the s ig
n at ure K i n 4to
U p o n whi c h th e tw o Eng l i s h m en carr y in g
away wi th the m the s heet s al ready ni s he d e d up th e R h ine to
W o r ms i n h o pe t h at as the i nhabi t ant s were gener ally Lutheran
the y m ight n d s o m e pri nter to bri ng their un d ert aking t o
9
c o m p l eti o n
T hi s atte m pt to suppre ss th e pub l i cati o n res ul te d i n two s im
Peter S c h o e ffe r o f W o rms
ultan e o us e d i ti on s i n s tea d o f o n e
pri nte d an o ctavo e d iti o n whi l e at the s am e t i m e the quart o
e d iti o n w as c o m p l ete d an d b o un d T h e o ppon e nt s o f the Re f
o r the q uart o e d iti o n s i t w as gen
o rm atio n bei ng o n the watch f
e rally i ntercepte d o n its w ay t o Eng l a n d 3 b ut the o ct av o e d iti o n
n o t being s us pecte d m a d e i t s wa y for a ti m e with o ut in te rf
er
ence T here w as no l i tt l e s tr ateg y i n such pro c e dure No l ess
than s i x th o usan d c o pi e s were pri nte d i n the s e two e d iti o n s
wh ich app e are d e arly i n 1 5 2 6 E v e n be fo re thi s D ece mber 2 d
1
1 2
warne d H enr y
5 5 D r E d war d Lee wri ting fr o m B o rd eaux
VIII o fwhat w as c o m ing :
Pl eas e i t y o ur H ygh n e sse m o re o ver to un d er s tan d that I a m
c e rtain lie en fo r m e d as I pas s e d i n t h i s c o ntr e e t h at an Eng l i s h
m an y o ur s ubj e ct at the s o ll i ci tati o n an d i n s t a nce o f Luther
with w h o m e he i s h ath e tran sl ate d the N e we T e s t am ent i nt o
Eng l i s h an d wi thi n fe w e d aye s e n te n de th t o arrive with the
sam e e m prin te d i n Eng lan d I nee d e n o t to a d vert i s e y o ur G race
ing :

Wi ll iam Ro y e w as T yn dale s am anue n s is


9 E ll is O ri in a l L e tte rs Th ir d S e r ie s I I : 88
g
0 E ll is O r L e tte rs I I :
71 s qq

Tyndale

D epe nde n ce

L uth e r

on

what i n fecti o n an d daun ge r m ay e en sue h e e rb ie i f i t be not


T hi s i s th e next way to ful ll y o ur Re alm e with
w iths to n de d
F or all Luther s pervers e o pin i o n s bee gro w nde d
L uth e rians
A ll
o p o n b ar w o r d s O f S c riptur n o t we ll t aken n e o n dre sto n de d
adre s govern o r s o f the C h urc h e o f Eng l an d b athe with
o rf
o ur f
all d i l igen ce fo rb e d an d e sc h ue d p ub l icati o n o f E nglish e bib l e s
as appe re th e i n c o n stitutitio ns pro v in c iall o f the C h urc h e o fE ng
l an d
H idre to o b l e ss e d be G o d y o ur R e alm e i s save fro m
i n fection o f Luther s se ct as fo r S O m utc h e that alth o ug an y e
c re tlie b l o tte d within
r
t
u
r
bee
se
y et fo r fear o f yo ur
r
a
d
v
e
e
p
r o y all M aj e stie wiche h ath e d rawen hi s s wer d i n G o d s cau s e

the y dar n o t o pe n lie av o w


It i s i nteres ting to n o te that o n ly tw o m o nths be fo re thi s
I st
o l o gizing to H enr y VIII f
S
ept
Luther
ap
o r hi s
(
attack up o n hi s bo o k d o e s so b y exc us ing the K ing o n the
gro un d that i t w as n o t really wri tt e n b y H enr y b ut b y S ophi s t s
who abuse d hi s t it l e es peci ally as D e We tte th inks b y the writer
Car
o f the ab o ve l etter E d war d L e e wh o m he iron ica lly ca ll s

d in al o fY o rk
an d terms that m o n s ter an d pub l ic o d i um o f
1
Ma y there n o t be i n thi s at l eas t s o m e in d i
G o d an d m en
cati o n o f in d ignat i o n arou s e d b y i n fo r mati o n given hi m thro ugh
Tyn da l e
T hi s bec o m e s the m o re pr o bab l e w h en we re ad i n the
sam e l etter tha t Luther has been m o ve d to write becaus e he was
in fo r m e d that H enr y was begi nning to favor the g o s pe l and to

He
b e n o t a l i tt l e wear y o f s uch a se t o f worth l ess fe ll o w s
pra ys that the Lor d m ay c o nti nue the work whi ch he h as begun s o

that with a full s pirit he m a y favor an d o be y the G o s pe l


I n s pi te o fa ll e ffo rts to s uppre ss the m the c o pie s o f the Ne w
T es tam ent m ad e thei r w ay thr o ugh Eng l an d Wh o the tran s
l ator was no one then knew S o m e Lutheran s o r o ther o f
c o urs e 3 b ut that was a ll H enry i n hi s rep ly to Luther s l etter
s ai d that Luther fe ll into d evi ce wi th o ne o r two l ew d fe ll ow s
b o rn i n thi s o ur r e al m fo r the tran s l ating o fth e New T es tam en t

i nt o Eng l i s h
T o ns tal B i s h o p o f Lo n d o n i ss ue d hi s pro hib i
,

De

We tte

L uth e r s B rig/2 n ,

III :

2 4.

Th e

2 2

L uthe ran do ve m e n t in E ng land

ti o n O ct o ber 2 4th 15 2 6 i n whi ch he sai d :


W e havi ng un
de rstan ding b y the report s o f d iver s cre d ib l e per s o n s an d al s o
b y the evi d ent app e arance o f the m atter t h at m an y chi ld ren o f
i ni qui t y maintainer s o f Luther s s ect b l in d e d thr o ugh extre m e
wicke d ness wan d ering fr o m the wa y o f t ruth an d the cath o l i c
fait h crafti ly have tran s l ate d the New Te s tam ent i nt o o ur Eng
1
l i s h t o ngue
Th i s was fo ll o we d b y a s i m i l ar pr o c l am ati o n b y
Archbi sh op Warham o n N o ve mber 3 d E ffo rt s were m ad e to
arre s t their i m p o rtation b y d e s tr o ying the m as the y pas s e d
through Antwerp i n the Nether l an d s B ut the ver y pr o p o sal on
the re ques t o f the Eng l i s h go vern m ent to have the m m ad e i ll e
gal there br o ught to l ight the fact that i n J an uar y 1 5 2 7 an e u
te rprising Antwerp pri nter w as at w o rk o n a repri nt fo r the Eng
l i s h market 3 an d the burge ss es o f that cit y d ec l ine d to i nter fere
with what wou ld cripp l e an y i n d us tr y o f their ci tizen s T hen
T o nstal d evi s e d another expe d ient At great co s t he e m p l o y e d
agents to b uy up all copi es as the y appeare d T hi s d i d n o t d i
m ini s h the n um be r o f c o pi es as the pre ss contin ue d to s en d
the m fo rth but pr o ve d o f great ad vantage to Ty n d ale b y giv
i ng hi m the m ean s o f l i fe whi l e tran s l ating the O ld an d re
vi s ing the New T e s tam ent The o ld er an d l e ss correct copie s
were al s o thus s pee d i ly wi th d raw n fr o m the m arket t o give
p l ace to revi se d e d it ion s By 15 3 0 no l ess th an six e d ition s
o f the New T e s tam ent appeare d
nu m bering
c o pi es
Neverthe l ess s o erce an d s ys te mati c was the per s ecution that
there re main s o f the r s t one fragm ent o n ly whi ch w as fo un d
ab o ut thirt y y ear s ago at tache d to the fragm ent o f an o the r
tract ; o f the s eco n d one cop y wanti ng the t it l e page an d an
other ver y i m per fect ; an d o f the o ther s tw o o r three c o pi es
13
which are not h o wever sati sfact o ri ly i d entie d
In I 5 3 0
hi s tran s l ati o n o f the Pentateuch appe are d an d i n the fo ll o w
I ng y ear
that o f the pr o phet J o nah
O ther bo o ks o f the O ld
T es tam ent were tran s l ate d b ut not pub l i s he d H e was s tea d i ly
,

12

13

Fo x e s A

cts a n

Wes tco tt s

d lklo n um e nts , I V

H is tory

f th e

6 66

E nglis h B ib le,

45

Tyndale

D epe nde nce

L uthe r

on

at work upon the unni s he d porti on s d uring h is i m pri s on m ent


H e was al s o the autho r o fa n umb er o f D o ctrinal an d Exp o s i tor y

treati s e s
A Pathway i nto H o ly S cripture
T he W icke d

Mamm on
T he O be d ience o f a Chri s tian Man
E xpo si

ti o n o f F i rs t J o hn
Exp o s ition o f the V VI an d VII chapter s

o f Matthew
H i s en d i s we ll known
F or y ear s l ivi ng i n vari o us p l aces
an d un d er an assum e d nam e he was d i l igent ly s o ught fo r b y the
agent s o fH enr y VIII W hen the R e fo rm ati o n ha d progre ss e d
i n E ng l an d an d the rupture wi th the Papac y s ee m e d c o m p l ete
he suppo s e d i t sa fe to aban d o n s ecrec y an d p ub l ic ly l ive d an d l a
bore d at Antwerp H ere he w as s o o n appr e hen d e d (Ma y 2 3 d o r
b
y
the
e
m
i
ss
arie
s
o f the Eng l i s h pre l ate s an d a fter
1
2 4th
5
an i m pri s on m ent o f over a y ear at the cas t l e o f Vilvo rde n w as
s trang l e d an d b urne d O ct o ber 6 th 15 3 6 H enr y VIII has
enough s i n s fo r which to an swer W e cann o t h o ld hi m re s p o n s ib l e
fo r thi s mur d er up o n the am o unt o f evi d ence n o w to be fur

Pers evering as had been H enr y s en d eav o r i n form er


n ish e d
y ear s to apprehen d hi m ti m e ha d brought i t s changes The
gui l t m us t ul ti m ate ly fall upon the E m per o r Charl e s V an d
th o se fr o m Eng l an d w h o in s tigate d hi m to the act
W e co m e n o w to the re l ati o n between the l i terar y work o f
Tyn d al e an d that o f Luther O n the o n e han d T yn dale s
abi l it y as an i n d epen d en t tran sl at o r has be en d enie d as b y H al
l am wh o traces hi s tran s lati o n entire ly to the Vul gate an d
Luther ; on the o ther han d hi s in d ebte d ness to Luther has been
i gn o re d
C an o n W e s tc o tt the e m inent New T e s tam ent cri tic
whi l e en d eav o ri ng to prove the ut m o s t i n d epen d en ce o f Luther
s ay s that i t i s i m p o ss ib l e to rea d a s ing l e chapter wi th
o ut n o ting that the G reek text w as d irect ly us e d an d at the
sam e ti m e tracing the i n uence o f Luther t o gether wi th that o f
5
the Vul gate an d o f Eras m us Lati n vers ion
D r M o m bert
.

5
15

Ty n da le , p 4 2 4
Ii is to ry qf E nglis h B ib le , p 174
D e m aus

L ife

The L uthe ran M

in E ng la n d

o ve m e n t

Luther s G er m an an d Tyn dale o n D e u


5
te ro n o m y 6 : 6 9 as fo ll o w s :
6 L e t th e s e wo r d s wh i ch I co m
di i h dir
6 Un d diese W rt
m an d th e e thi s day sti ck fast in thi n e
h ut e g b ie t soll t da z u H rz e n n eh

m akes a co m pari s on

of

men

e,

e,

h e art

z n de rn
K
d
e in e n
7
r
e de n , w e n n du
n
a
v
o
n
d
d
u
e
n
s ch ar
f ,
in de in e m H a us e s itz est, o de r a uf de m
VVege ge h est, w e n n du dich n ie de rle
: a u Iste h es t
es t, ode r
/
g
8 Un d s o llst s ie b in de n z u m Ze ich
e n a uf de in e H a n d, u n d so lle n dir
e in D e n h m a l v o r de in e n A uge n s ey u
n d s o lls t s ie ub e r de in es H a u ses
U
9
Pforte n s ch re ib e n un d a n die Th o re
.

Un d

s o llst

' '

s ie

'

7 A n d wh e t th e m o n th y ch il re n ,
an d t alk o f th e m as th o u s itte s t in
.

th i ne

h o us e , an d as th y w alk e st b y
o wn ,
th e w ay, an d wh e n th o u l i e s t
an d wh e n th o u ris e s t up
8 A n d b in
th e m fo r a to k e n to
thine h an , an d le t th e m b e a r e m e m
b r an c e b e twe e n thin e e y e s
9 A n d w r ite th e m o n th e p o sts
an d gate s o f thi ne h o us e

T here w as nothing
s ays thi s writer
i n the Eng l i s h
l anguage he c o uld have us e d e g fo r the ren d ering o f the H e
brew S hinnae n b y th e Eng l i s h Wh e t which c o nve ys an i d ea
c o ntai n e d neither i n th e G reek o f the S ept uagint nor the Lati n
H a d he
b ut it h ad been e m p l o y e d b y Luther
o f the V ul g ate
been a s ervi l e i m itat o r o f Luther he w o uld have ren d ere d a fter
the exam p l e o f the d read ful tran s l at o r s o f th e peri o d :
An d
whet the m i n o r int o th y chi ld ren 3 b ut h e knew that that
w o uld have vi o l ate d the Eng l i s h i d i o m an d t h ere fo re he ren
d ere d whet on an d he un d er s t o o d the Pie l fo rce o f the r o o t
Agai n i n ver s e 8 Luther tran s l ate s the H ebrew
S h a n an
D e nkm aal v o r d ei nen A uge n
It
L e totapho th b eyn eyne ch a
i s evi d ent that he d e l iberate ly gave pre ference to Luther s adm ir
ab l e free ren d ering as much superior to the vague G reek an d
s ti ll vaguer Lati n o f the l i teral H ebre w b an ds o r lle ts 3 b ut

knew H ebrew en o ugh to perceive that rem e mbran ce b e tw e e n


thine e y e s c o n fo rm e d at o n ce to the H e brew and Eng l i s h
i d i o ms T he s e tw o exam p l es I think wi ll suf ce to c o nvi nce
an d pr o ve to s cho lars that Ty n d al e u s e d Luther an d un d er s t o o d

H ebrew
T 0 an y s cho l ar
say s the bi o grapher o f Ty n d al e Rev R
w h o s it s d o wn to c o ll ate with care the ver s i o n s o f
D e maus
the Eng l i s h an d G e r m an t ran sl at o r s two fact s s pee di l y beco m e

H andbooh

to E

glish Ve rs io n ,

115 .

Tyndale

D ep e nde nce

L uthe r

on

p l ain an d i n d i s putab l e viz that Ty n d al e ha d Lut her s work b e


fo re hi m an d c o n s tant ly con s ul te d an d o ccas i o n ally a d o pte d i t 3
an d t h at he never i m p l i ci t ly fo ll o w s L uther b ut tran s l ate s fro m
the origi na l wi th the free d o m o f a m an wh o ha d a per fe ct c o n
7
d ence i n hi s o w n s ch o l ar s hip
In s tan ce s however m a y be cite d where hi s i n d epen d ence is
n o t as great as i s s o m eti m e s c l ai m e d f
o r hi m
Fo r i n s tance
Luke 2 2 : 2 0 where T yndale s
b l o o d whi ch s h all fo r yo u be

She d i s n o t E ng l i s h i n i t s or d er o fwo r ds b ut i s that o f Luth


er s G er m an 3 whi l e he o btain s the fut ure b y m i s un d er s tan d ing
e s pecially when c o m pare d wi th th e Vul gate
ve rgos s e n w ird
fun de tur H ere he c l ear ly h as aban d one d the G reek i n o r d er
3
to fo ll ow L ut h er
T he i n d ebte d ne ss o f Ty n d a l e to Luther i n other re s pect s than

as a tran s l at o r o f the B ib l e , i s ver y great


T he ext e nt
sa y s
Canon W es tc o tt
to which Ty n d al e s i l ent ly i nc o rp o rate d free
o r verba l tran s l ati o n s o fpa sage s fro m Luther s w o rk s i nt o hi s o w n
T o d e ne i t acc urate ly
has e s c ape d the noti ce o f hi s e d it o r s
w o u ld be a w o rk o f ver y great l ab o r but the re sul t as s h o wi ng
the p o i nt s o f c o nt act an d d ivergence i n the o pini o n s O f the tw o
great re fo rm ers w o uld be a m o s t i n s tructive passage i n the d oc
9
trinal hi s t o r y o f the ti m e
W e give the fo ll o wing exam p l e s
,

'

I.

R O L O GU E S P R E PA R E D I N TR O D UC I N G TRA N S LA TI O N S
I

T o th e

Ne w

G le ichwi e das A lte T e stam e nt is t


e in B uc h d ari nne n G o tte s G e s e tz un d
G e b o t dane b en die G e s c h i c h t e b e id e
d e re die die se lb ige n ge h alte n und
b
n
e s c h ri e b e n
l
t
n
h
a
e
h
a
e
n ic h t
e
g
g
si n d ; al so is t das N e ue T e stam e nt e in
B uc h d arin n e n das E v an ge l i um un d
G o tte s Ve rh e i ss ung d an e b e n auc h

d d

d d

13

O th e r

am

A b i o gr aph y,

p l e s m ay b e fo un d

h
b y o h n R B e ar
th e C h u rc ,
9
I iTsto ry of E nglis h B ible ,
.

Ty n dale

T e stame nt

Ty nda le
Th e O ld T e stam e nt is a b o o k ,
wh e re i n is w ri tte n th e law o f Go d,
an d th e
e e s o f th e m wh i c h ful l
th e m , an d o f th e m als o wh i c h ful l
th e m no t
T h e Ne w T e stam e nt is a b o o k ,
wh e re i n are c o ntai n e th e p ro m is e s
e e s o fth e m whi c h
o fG o d ; and th e

L uth e r

1"IVillia m

19 2

37

A R evis e d E nglish B ible , th e w an t


D , L o n o n , 185 7

in

The

L uth e ran M

o ve me nt

in E ng lan d

Ge s ch ichte b e i d e d e r e die d ar an
e s ch
l
b
e n un d n i c h t gl aub e n
a
u
g
g
r i e b e n s i n d D e nn E v an ge l i um is t e in
auf
h e i sst
un d
gri e c h i s c h W o rt
D e uts c h gute B o ts c h aft gute M ah re
gute n e ue Ze itung gut G e s c h re i da

b e l i e v e th e m , o r b e l i e v e th e m no t
E v ange l i o n (th at w e c all G o spe l ) is
,
a G re e k wo r , an d s ign i e th go o ,
m e rry , gl a and j o yful ti in gs , th at
m ak e th a m ans h e art gl a , an d m ak
,
,
an c e , an d l e ap f
o r o y;
e th h im S i n g,
,
,
j
s inge t , s age t und frOhlic h as wh e n D av i h ad k i ll e G o l i ath ,
v o n m an
is t : als da D av i de n gro ss e n G o l i ath th e giant , c am e gl a ti ings unto th e
ul an d cr ue l e ne
e ws , th at th e ir fe arf
ub e rw an d, k am e in gut G e s c h r e i un d
e l i v e re
o ut
n e ue
Ze it ung unte r das m y w as s l ai n , an d th e y
trOs tlic h e
an ge r ; f
o r gl a ne ss wh e re o f,
ih
r gri
i ulic h e r o f all
V
as s
i
o lk ,
ii
d
s
che
j
Fe i n e rs c h l age n , und s ie e rlOs e t, z u th e y sung, an c e an d we re j oyfu
F re u e un d Fri e e ge s te lle t war e n ,
av o n s ie s unge n , un d sprun ge n un d
frOhlich w ar e n
.

d
d
d

d d

d
d

T o E pis tle to th e R om ans

Tyn dale
Fo r asm uc h as th i s E p ist e is th e
D i e s e E p i s te l is t das r e c h t e H aupt
de s N e ue n T e stam e n ts , un d p r i n c i p al an d m o st e c e ll e nt p art o f
s tii ck e
das alle rlaute rs te E v ange l ium , we lc h e th e Ne w T e stam e nt , an d m o st p ur e
wo h l w iirdig und we rt h is t, ass s ie E v ange l io n , th at is to s ay, gl a tid
i n gs an d th at w e c all go sp e l , an d al so
e in C h ri s te n m e ns c h n ic h t all e in v o n
\N
is a l i gh t an d a w ay un to th e W h o l e
o rt z u VVO I t auswe n i g wi ss e , s o n
am it um b ge h e , als m it
s cripture 3 I th i n k it m e e t th at e v e ry
e r n ta
glich
D e nn C h r i sti an m an n o t o n l y k n o w it, b y
de r S e e l e n
taglich e m B ro
an d W i th o ut th e b o o k , b ut al so
no te
s ie n i mm e r k an n z u v i e l un d z u wo h l
ge l e se n , o e r b e tr ac h t e n we r e n , un d e e rc i se h i m se lf th e r e i n e v e rino re
j e m e h r s ie ge h an e lt wi r , j e k Os t c o ntin uall y, as with th e ail y b re a o f
l i c h e r s ie wi r un d b ass s c h m e ck e t
th e so ul
N 0 m an v e rily c an r e a it
D arum b ich auc h m e i n e m D i e nst to o o ft, o r stu y it to o we ll ; fo r th e
az u t h un
wi ll , un d urc h ie se m o re it is stu ie , th e e as ie r it is 3 th e
Vo rr e e e ine n E i ngan g az u b e re ite n , m o re it is c h e we , th e p l e as ant e r it
am it
so v ie l m ir G o tt v e rl e ih e n h at,
is ; an d th e m o r e gr an ly it is s e arc h
e s te b ass v o n
s ie
in
e e rm an n v e r
e d, th e pre c io us e r th ings are fo un
stan e n we r e D e nn S ie b ish e r mit it, s o gr e at tre as ure o f s pi ritual th i ngs
G lo sse n un d m an ch e rl e i G e s c hwi tz l ie th h id th e re i n I wi ll th e re fo re b e
o c h an ih r s to w m
ub e l v e r ns te rt is t, die
y l ab o ur an d i l i ge n c e , th ro ugh
s e lb s e in h e ll e s L i c h t is t, fas t ge n u
th i s l ittl e p re fac e o r p ro l o gue , to pre
gs am, die gauz e S c hr i ft z u e r e uch te n p are a w ay in t he re unto , s o far fo rth
as G o d s h all gi v e m e grac e , th at it
m ay b e th e b e tt e r un e rs too o fe v e ry
m an ; fo r it h ath b e e n h it h e rto e v i l
ark e ne
with gl o ss e s an d wo n e rfu
re am s o f s o p h i ste rs , th at n o m an
c o ul sp y o ut th e i n te n t an d m e aning
o f it ; w h ic h , n e v e rth e l e ss , o f itse lf is
a b ri gh t l i gh t , an d s ui cie nt to gi v e
igh t unto all S cri pture
L uth e r

d
d

d
d
J d

d
d

d
d

d
d

d d

d
d

Ty ndale

D ep e nde nce

on

To S e co nd C o rinthians

I n de r e rst e n E p i ste l h at S Pau us


die Ko ri n th e r h art ge s trafe t in v i e l e n
S tiic k e n , un d s c h arfe n We i n in die
W un e n ge go ss e n , un d s ie e rs ch re k e t;
A po s te l so ll e in trOs t
n u ab e r e in
l ic h e r Pr e ige r s e I n , die e rs c h ro ck e n
G e w isse n aufz urich te n ,
un d b l o e n
m e h r de nn z u s c h re ck e n : darum b
l o b e t e r s ie n un w ie de rum b in ie se r
E pi ste l , un d ge usse t au c h O le in die
W un e n , un d th ut s ich w un de rfre un d
ic h z u i h ne n , un d h e is s e t de n S iin de r
mit L i e b e wi e e r aufz un e h m e n
I m 1 un d 2 C ap z e ige t e r s e i ne
L i e b e ge ge n s ie , w ie e r all e s ge re dt,
ge th an un d ge l itte n h ab e z u i h re m
N utz un d H e il , ( l as s s ie j a s i c h all e s
B e ste n z u ihm v e rse h e n s o ll e n
D ar nac h pre is et e r das e v ange l
i s ch e A m pt , we lch s das h Oh e s te un d
un d
trOs tlich s te W e rk is t, z u N ut z
H e i l de r G e wi ss e n , un d z e ige t w ie
e nn das G e s e t
ass e l b i ge e l e r s e i,
ol
z e s A m pt, un d w ie
as s e l b i ge v e rf
ge t wi r , un d o ch z unim pt an de n
G laub ige n , un d e i n e H o ffn ung m ac h e t
urc h s Kre uz de r e wi ge n H e rrl i c h
A b e r m it de m all e n riih re t e r
k e it
die fal s c h e n Apo s te l , we lc h e das
G e se tz w i e r das E v an ge l i um tre ib e t,
un d e ite l auss e rlic h e H e i l i gk e it (das
is t, H e uc h e l e i ) le b re te n , un d l i e sse n
die i nwe n i ge S c han e de s Unglau
b e ns s te h e n
.

Tyn dale

L uth er

L uth e r

As in th e rs t e p i stl e h e r e b u e th
th e C o ri nth i an s sh arp ly , s o in th i s h e
c o mfo rte th th e m , an d p raise th th e m ,
and c o mm an e th h im th at w as e x
c o mm un i c ate to b e re c e i v e o v i ngl y
i nto the c o ngre gati o n agai n

d
d

dl

d
d

A nd in th e rst an d s e c o n d C h ap
te rs , h e s h o w e th h is l o v e to the m
war , h o w th at all th at h e sp ak e , did,
fe r e
w as fo r th e i r s ak e s , an d
o r s uf
fo r th e i r s alv ati o n
T h e n in th e t h i r , fo urth an d f
th ,
h e p r ais e th th e o f c e o fp re ac hin g th e
G o sp e l , ab o v e the p re ac h i n g o f the
L aw ; an d s h o w e th t h at th e G o sp e l
gr o we th th ro ugh p e rs e c uti o n , an d
th ro ugh th e cro ss , whic h mak e th a
m an s ur e o fe te rn a l i fe

th e re h e to uch e th
th e fal s e p ro ph e ts wh i c h stud i e d to
t ur n th e faith o f th e p e o p l e fro m
C h rist unto th e wo rk s o fth e L aw
A n d h e re

an d

To G alatians

Tyn dale
D ie G a ate r war e n urc h S P aul
A fte r Paul h ad c o n v e rte d th e G a a
um , z u de m r e c h te n C hris te nglaub e n , ti ans , an d c o up l e
th e m to C h rist , to
un d ins E v ange l i um v o n de m G e se t z t tr us t in him o n ly fo r th e r e m i ss i o n o f
A b e r n ac h s e i ne r A ln c hie d s ins , and h o p e o fgr ac e an d s alv ati o n ,
ge b r ac h t
k am e n die fal s c h e n A po s te l , die de r and w as e p arte , th e re c ame fal se
r e c h te n A po ste l J iinge r war e n , un d A po stl e s unto th e m , an d th at , in th e
wan te n die G al ate r wi e e r um b , n am e o f Pe te r , am e s an d o h n , wh o m
ass s ie gl aub te n , s ie m iiss te n
urc h
th e y c alle th e h i gh A po stl e s , an d
de s G e s e t z e s W e r se l i g we r e n , und p re ac h e C i rc um c i si o n an d th e
eep
th ate n S ii nde , W O s ie ni c h t de s Ge s
ing o fth e L aw , to b e s av e d b y
e tz e s W e rk h i e l t e n

d
d
d
d

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land


'

To E ph e s ia ns

5
L uth e r

di s

r E p i s te l

le h re t S P aul u
das E v ange l um s e i,
e r , w as
auf
in E
w ie es all e n v o n Go
gk e i
v e r e h e n , und urch C h ris tum v e r
as s all e ,
e ne t un d au ge gan ge n is t,
rum m ,
ar an gl aub e n , ge r e c h , f
die
l e be n g, e l ig un d vo m G e e z ,
D as
e r en
S tin e un d T o d fre
h u e r urch die re i e r e n Ka e

In

e e

st

di

d
di
d

t t

tt

st

i w
d
st

wi

pit

Ty n da le (15 2 6 )
I n th i s E p i stl e , n am e ly in th e rst
th re e c h apte rs , P aul s h o w e th th at th e
G o spe l an d grac e th e re o f, w as fo r e
s e e n an d p re e sti n ate o f G o d fro m
e s e rv e
b e fo re th e b e gi nni ng an d
th ro ugh C h ri st, an d n o w at th e l as t
se nt fo rth , th at all m e n sh o ul b e l ie v e
th e re i n 3 th e r e b y to b e j ust i e d , m a e
righ te o us , l i vi ng an d h app y ; an d to
b e e l i v e r e fr o m un e r th e
am n a
ti o n o f th e law , and c apti v ity o f c e r e

mon

ie s

d
d

To P h ilipp ians

Ty ndale
Pau p raise th th e Ph i l i pp ians , an d
I n d ie s e r E p i ste l , lo b e t un d e rmah
ass s ie
fas t in th e
e h o rt e th th e m to s t an
n e t S Paul us die P h ilippe r,
b l e ib e n un d fo rtfah re n s o ll e n im t rue fa ith an d to i ncre as e in l o v e
re c h te n G aub e n , und z une h m e n in A n d b e c ause th at fal se p ro ph e ts stu y
a lwa s to
im p ugn and e s tro y th e
D ie we il ab e r de n G l au
de r L ie b e
y
b e n all e z e it S c h a e n th un die fal tr ue faith , h e w ar me th th e m o f s uc h
s ch e n A po ste un d We rkl e h r e r , w arn e t wo rk l e arne rs , o r te ac h e rs o f wo rk s ,
z ei et
an d p r ais e th E p aph r o it us ; an d all
e ns e l b ige n , un d
frir
e r s ie
g
ih n e n an m an c h e rl e i Pr e i ge r , e tl i c h e th i s o th h e in th e rst an d se c o n
gute , e t l i ch e b Os e , auc h s ic h s e lb s un d c h apte r s
se i n e J ii nge r, T im o th e um un d E paph
ro ditus ; das th at e r im 1, 2 K ap

L uth er

l
d

'

S i m i l ar exam p l e s m ight be given fro m the pro l og


ue s to Co l o s
s ian s 1 T he ssal onian s 2 T hessa l o nian s 1 T i m oth y 2 T i m o t h y
T i t us Phi l e m o n 1 Peter 2 Peter the T hree Epi s t l e s o f S t
J o hn an d to a l e ss d egree I C o ri nthi an s The l ong pr o l o gue
to H ebrew s keep s i n V i ew what Luther s brie f pr o l ogue s ugge s t s
an d argu e s agai n s t a s tate m en t o f Luther Even where hi s pro
lo gues d o n o t repro d uce S i m i l ar pr o l ogue s o f Luther n o o n e who
kn o w s the latter wi ll fai l to se e that Ty n d al e pre s ent s i n an o ther
fo r m what Luther h as e l s ewhere taught W e cite as an exam p l e
T yn dale s treate d o f the a ll egorica l i nterpretation o f S cript ure
i n the pro l ogue to Leviti cus fo r ever y s tate m ent o fwhi ch a c o r
re s p o n d ing pas sage o f Luther c o u ld be given Pec ul iar expre s
s i o n s to o i nc l i ne o ne great ly to m o s t th o ro ugh ly s earch Lut h er s
works fo r the m as e g
T he H o ly G ho s t is n o d um b G o d,
,

Ty n dale

D ep e nde nce

L uthe r

on

S o as Canon W e s tcott
nor a G o d that g o eth a mumm ing
Ty n d al e at the c l o s e o f hi s pr o l o gue to S t Mat
h as re m arke d
the w whic h i s an ext e n s ive e ssa y repr o d uce s i n a m o d ie d
fo rm Luther s fam o us j ud gm ent o n th e re l ative w o rth O f the

apo s to l i c b o ok s i n hi s Pre face to the N ew T e s tam ent


.

Ty n da le

uth e r

A n d th e r e to Paul s E p i st l e s , with
un d
E v ange
s e i n e e rste E pi ste l , S Paul us E p iste l , th e G o sp e l o f o h n , and h is rst e pi s
so n e rl i c h die z u de n R Om e m , G al a tle , an d th e rs t e pistl e o f S t Pe te r ,
te rn , E ph e s e rn , un d S Pe te rs e rste are m o st p ure G o sp e l an d m o st p l ai n l y
e s cr i b e
E p is tl e , das s in die B iic h e r, die dir an d r i c h ly
th e gl o ry o fth e
C h ris tum z e i ge n , un d all e s l e h re n , grac e o fC h rist
das dir z u w isse n n o th un d s e l i g is t

S umm a, S

o h ann i

T he Appen d ix o n R epentance i s on ly a repr o d ucti o n o fL u


th e r s we ll kn o wn d i s c uss i o n o f m etan o i a wi th s pecia l re ference
to the d e fect s o f the Latin tran s l ation ago po e nite ntiam

THE

I I.

L O SS E S

T he m argina l n o te s tho s e pe s ti l ent g l o ss e s again s t whi ch


the i n d ign ation o fthe c l erg y was e s pecially excite d have been to
a l arge e xtent tr an s l ate d b y Ty n d al e fro m t h o s e o f Lut h e r Not
that Ty n d al e tran sl ate d l ike a s ervi l e i m it at o r who s e i nte ll ect
w as to o barren to be capab l e o f o riginal it y 3 ever y where he u s e s
hi s o w n j ud g m ent ; s o m etim e s he curt ai l s Lut h er s note s 3 s o m e
t i m e s he o m i t s the m 3 O ften he i n s ert s n o te s o f hi s o w n an d
thes e o f vari o us ki n d s exp l anator y an d d o ctrinal S o m e o f the
l onge s t o f the s e m argi nal g l o ss e s as we ll as s o m e o f t h o s e which
m o s t e m phatically pro po un d the d o ctrine o fj us ti cati o n b y fai th
are o riginal to Ty n d al e 3 i n o ther cas e s the w o r d s o f Luther
h ave been expan d e d an d have for m e d not so m uch the s ource
Of
o fT yn dale s n o t e s as the nuc l e us o ut o fwhich i t h as gr o wn
the wh o l e n um b e r o f n ine ty m arginal g l o ss e s which o ccur i n the
fragm ent o fT yn dale s quart o that h as c o m e d o wn to u s /ty tzo o
have been m o re o r l ess l i terally taken fro m Luther an d th irty
2
e ight are o rigi na l
.

2
2

H is to ry

f E nglish

B ib le ,

D e m s us , PVil/ia m Tyn da le

19 8

A B iography

Th e L uthe ran M

W e give
.

l e h re n
ge

se t

13

aut

uth e r

we r d e n

We nn
re n G o tte s W o rt z u
M e ns c h e n
vo n
s ie

Ty n da le
(S al t ) Wh e n th e p re ac h e rs c e ase
to p r e ach G o
s \Vo rd, th e n m ust
b e o pp r e sse an d t ro
un
th e y n e e

de r fo o t wi th m an s tr a iti o n s

( D as S alz )

un d

z utre e n

d
d

uth e r

R o m 5 : 14 : Wie A am un s m it
fre m b de r S ii n de , o h n u n e r S c h ul ,
C h r tu
v e rde rb e t h at ; al o h at un s
m it fre m b e r G n a e o h n un e r Ve r
S e lig ge m ac h
en
.

di

m iiss e n
zen
iib e rfalle n
,

in E ng lan d

i llus tration s :

tw o
L

M atth 5
(lie L e hre r

o ve m e n t

st

is s

am ne
us
iso b e i e n c e
A am s
all e re w e o urs e lv e s w ro ugh t e v i l ;
an d C h ri s t s O b e i e n c e s av e th us all

we

e re

rs e lv e s wo rk

ou

an y

goo

T HE

I I I.

W I C KE D

AM M O N

T hi s i s a treati s e wri tten b y Ty n d al e at W o r ms an d pub l i s he d


un d er hi s o w n n am e May 8th 15 2 7 It s re al t h e m e i s J u s ti

A n um ber o fs cri pt ural text s urge d b y the


c atio n b y Fai th
Papi s t s again s t thi s d o ctrine are exam ine d an d exp l aine d i n
an evange l i cal manner T he r s t an d the o ne accor d e d m o s t

pro m inent treat m ent i s T h e Parab l e o f the U nj us t S tewar d


F r o m beginning to en d i t h as Lut her s s pirit an d s t yl e
A l arge p o rtion o f i t i s fro m Luther s S er m on o n the Ninth
S un day a fter T rinit y W e s e l ect fr o m page s th at m ight be
here i n s erte d o n ly the pas sage o n the m eani ng o f unrighteous
Mamm on whi ch Pr o f W al ter triu m phant ly add uce s as an i n d i
2
l
u
cati o n O fT ynda e s pro fo n d H ebrew att ain m en ts
,

uth e r

Ty n da le
am m o n is t H e b rais ch ,
A ufe rste
First, m a m m o n is an H e b re w wo r d ,
an d
s ign i e th
ric h e s o r te m po r al
un d h e i sst so v ie l als R e ic h th um b o e r
e ss e m an
z e it l ic h G ut, n am lic h das ,
j
go o s ; an d, n am e ly , all s upe r uity,
am it
an d all th at is ab o v e ne c e ss ity an d
uh ri g h at z u s e i n e m s tan e , un d
,
th at wh i c h is r e u ire to o ur n e ce s
e r de m an e r n wo h l k an n n iitz s e in
D e nn H am o n auf s a ry us e s ; wh e r e w ith a m an m ay
S ch a e n
o h ne
e nge , O e r gro ss e r
h e l p an o th e r , with o ut un o i ng o r
H e b rais c h h e isst
ar aus wi r
e nn
h urti ng h i m s e f ; fo r h am o n in th e
H auf un d v i e l ;
M a h a m o n o e r /la mm on , das is t, H e b r e w sp e e c h , s ign i e s a m ul titu e
en e
o r ab un an c e , o r m an y ; an d t h e re
di e
g de s Gute s o e r R e i c h
h e n c e c o m e th m ah a m an o r m a m m o n ,
th umb s
ab un an c e o r p l e nte o us n e ss o f
goo ds
o r ri c h e s

d
d

'

d d

T yn dale

o ctrin a l

Tre atis es

(Park e r

So c i e ty) ,No te

on

68

Ty ndale

e nde nce

unrigh t
S e c o n ari l y, it is c all e

n o t b e c aus e it is go t
e o us m amrno n ,
un ri gh te o us ly , o r with us ury ; f
or of
un righ te o us go tte n goo s , c an n o m an
wo rk s , b ut o ugh t to r e sto re
do goo
h o m e agai n : as it is s ai , E s s y

L uthe r

A ufs aude r h e i ss t e s un re c h t M am
mo n , n ic h t as s e s mit un re c h t o e r
W uche r e rwo rb e n s e i ; e nn vo n nu
re c h te m G ut, k ann m an k e in gut
W e rk th unn , so n e m so ll e s wi e e r
ge b e n , w ie J e s aias (6 1, 8 ) h at ge s agt

on

The entire b o o k i s o ne o f the m o s t d evout earne s t an d evan


ge lic al i n the En g l i s h l an guage ; an d s h o u l d be reprinte d as a
m o s t s o l i d Lutheran d evotion al w o rk fo r the pe o p l e O n ever y
page pas sage s o f great fo rce an d beaut y abo un d where we fee l
Luther back o f the m even when unab l e to trace the m to hi s
work s e g
Pray er i s a m o urn ing a l ongi ng an d a d e s ire o f the s piri t to
G od War d fo r that which sh e l acketh ; a s a s ick m an m o urneth
an d s orr o weth i n hi s heart l ongi ng fo r he al th Faith ever pra y
eth Fo r a fter that b y faith we are reconci l e d to G o d an d have
receive d m erc y an d fo rg i veness o f G o d the s piri t l ongeth an d
thirs teth fo r s trength to d o the wi ll o f G o d an d that G o d m ay
be h o n o re d hi s nam e be hall o we d an d hi s p l eas ure an d wi ll ful
ll e d
T he s piri t waiteth an d watcheth o n the wi ll o f G o d an d
ever hath her o w n fragi l it y an d weakne ss be fo re her e y e s ;
and when s he s eeth te m ptation an d peri l d r aw n igh sh e turneth
to G o d an d to the te s tam en t that G o d hath m a d e to a ll that b e

l ieve an d t ru s t i n Chri s t s b l o o d
G o d l o oketh w ith w h at h e art thou w o rk e st an d n o t wh at

thou w o rkes t
I f thou c o m pare d ee d to d ee d there i s die r
ence betwixt was hing o f d i shes an d preaching o f th e wor d o f
G o d 3 but as t ouching to p l e as e G o d n one at all3 fo r neither
that nor thi s p l eas eth but as far forth as G o d h ath cho s en a
man hath put hi s S piri t i n hi m an d purie d hi s heart b y fai th

an d tru s t i n Chri s t
Faith the m other o f all go o d w o rks j us ti e th u s be fo re we
can bring fo rth an y g o o d w o rk : as the h usb an d m arrieth hi s

wi fe be fo re he can have an y l aw fu l chi ld ren b y her


D ee d s are the frui ts o f love 3 an d l o ve i s the frui t o f fai th
L o ve an d al s o the d ee ds are great or s ma ll , accor d ing to the
,

'

The L uthe ran M

in E ng la n d

o ve m e n t

pr o portion o f faith Where fai th i s m ight y an d s tr o ng there i s


l o ve fervent an d faith p l ente o us : w here faith i s weak t h ere l o ve
i s co ld an d the d ee d s few an d s e ld o m as o wer s an d b l o ss o ms

in wi nter
Th e fo ll o wing i s an ech o o f the fam o us pas sage i n Luther s
Pre face to Ro man s ( 0 es is t ein le b e ndzg, s ch aftzg thdtzg rrzdch tzg
,

D ing ! )

Faith i s m ight y i n o perati o n fu ll o f Vi rt ue an d ever work


ing ; which al s o re n e w e th a m an an d begetteth hi m a fre sh
C h angeth hi m an d t urneth hi m al t o gether in to a new nature an d
c o nvers ation 3 s o that a m an fe e le th h is heart al t o gether a l tere d
an d ch ange d an d far otherwi s e d i s p o s e d than be fore an d h ath
power to l ove that which be fo re he cou ld n ot b ut hate and d e
l ighteth i n that whi ch be fo re he abhorre d 3 an d hateth th at

which be fo re he c o uld n o t b ut l ove


,

IV T h e O b edie nce of a C h ris tia n M an


In thi s tr e ati s e p ub l i s he d i n 15 2 8 we have been unab l e to
n d an y tran sl ati o n s fr o m Luther a l tho ugh i t i s pr o bab l e that
the y are to be fo un d T h e t o pi c s treate d are th o s e o n which
Luther was c o n s tant ly wri ting an d s peaking I t treat s rst o f
the O be d ience whi ch all subj ect s (chi ld ren wi ve s civi l s ubject s )

Should y ie ld with an App e n d i x o n T he Po p e s Fals e Po wer 3


f
u
a
the
d
u
ti
e
s
O
r
l
er
s
f
f
o
s e co ndl
y
( thers h usban ds m as ter s l an d
l o r d s king s an d j ud ge s) with an appen d i x o n Anti chri s t ; thir dly
the s ubjects O f Pen ance Con fess i o n C o ntriti o n S ati s facti o n
Abs o l uti o n C o nr mati o n An o inting M ir ac l e s an d W or s hip
pings O fS aint s Prayer T he Fo ur S en s e s O f the S cript ure
I n 1 5 2 9 Anne B o l e y n h ad a c o p y o f t h i s b o o k whi ch She
l o ane d to o n e o f her atten d ant s It pas s e d fr o m the atten d ant
i nt o the han d s o f h e r suit o r an d he w as d etecte d wi th i t T he
b o o k w as s eize d an d c am e i nt o the po ss e ss i o n o f Car d in al
W o l s e y fro m w h o m the ki ng o n the i nterce s s i o n o f the o wner
O btaine d i t W h e n he h ad rea d i t he expr e ss e d hi s gr e at sati s
faction
H enr y was e s pecially d e l ighte d wi th the m anner i n

which i t enj o i ne d the d ut y o fo be d ience to ru l er s


T hi s b o ok
.

Ty ndale

D ep e n de n ce

L uth e r

on

33

An d i n a l itt l e ti m e
sai d he
i s fo r m e an d all k ing s to read
a dd s S tr y pe
the K ing b y th e he l p o f thi s virt uo us l ady b y the
m ean s afo re sai d ha d hi s e y es o pene d to th e truth to s e arch the
t ruth to a d vance G o d s religi o n an d g l o r y to abhor the pope s

d o ctri ne
A l as ! that i t w as o n ly the i ntere s t o f the s ton y
3
gr o un d h e arer
W e cann o t fo rbear gi ving a few paragraph s o f the Pre face as
in d i cative o f the s piri t which ani m ate s the b o ok :
Mark thi s : I f G o d s en d thee to the se a an d pr o m i s e to go
with t h ee an d to b ring thee sa fe to l an d he wi ll rai s e up a
t e m pe s t again s t thee to prove whether thou wi l t abi d e b y hi s
w o r d ; an d that th o u m ay e s t fee l th y fai th an d perceive hi s
g o o d ne s s Fo r i f i t were a l wa ys fai r weather an d th o u never
br o ught i nt o s uch je o par dy whence hi s m erc y o n ly d e l ivere d
thee th y fai th w o u l d be a pre sum pti o n an d th o u would es t be
ever unth ank ful to G o d and m erci l e ss unt o th y neighbor
I f G o d pro m i s e s riches the way theret o i s p o vert y W h o m
he l ove s h im he chas ten s 3 wh o m he exal t s he cas t s d o wn 3 he
bring s n o man to heaven except he s en d hi m to he ll r s t 3 when
he b ui ld s he cas ts all d o wn r s t 3 he i s n o p atcher he cannot
build o n an o ther s foun d ati o n 3 h e wi ll n o t w o rk un ti l all be pas t
re m e dy that m en m ay se e how hi s han d h is power hi s m erc y
h is go o d ne ss an d trut h have wr o ught a l t o gether
J o s eph saw the sun an d m o o n an d the e l even stars w o rshipping
hi m Neverthe l ess ere that cam e to pass G o d l ai d hi m where
he could s ee neither sun n o r m oon neither an y s tar o f the sky
an d that fo r y ears ; an d al s o un d e s e rve dly : to n urture hi m to
hu mb l e to make hi m m eek an d to teach hi m G o d s ways an d
to make hi m apt an d m eet fo r the p l ace an d hon o r agai n s t he
cam e to i t that he m ight perceive an d fee l that i t cam e o f G o d
an d th at he m i ght be s trong i n the S pirit to m ini s ter i t i n a
go dly manner
H e pr o m i s e d the chi ld ren o f I s rae l a l an d wi th ri vers o f m i l k
an d hone y b ut br o ught the m for the s pace o f fort y y ear s i nto a

'

S trype
4

M e m orials ,

I:

177.

L uthe ran M o ve m e nt in E ng land


'

The

34

l an d where not on ly ri vers o f m i l k an d hone y were not but


where so m uch as a d rop o fwater w as not
H e pr o m i s e d D anie l a king d o m an d i mm e d iate ly s ti rre d up
K ing S aul again s t hi m to per s ecute hi m 3 to h unt hi m as m en d o
hares wi th gre yh o un d s an d t o ferret hi m out O f ever y ho l e an d
that fo r the s pace o f m an y y ears T hi s w as to tam e hi m to m ake
hi m m eek 3 to ki ll hi s l us t s 3 to m ake hi m fee l o ther m en s d i s
eas e s 3 to m ake hi m m erci ful 3 to m ake hi m un d er s tan d that he
was m ad e a ki ng to m ini s ter an d s erve hi s brethren an d that he
s h o uld n o t think that hi s s ubjects were m ad e to m i ni s ter un to hi s
l ust s
T rib ul ati o n i s o ur right bapti sm W e that are bapti s e d i n

the n am e o f Chri s t saith Pau l are b aplise d to die with hi m


,

E xpos itio n

f th e S ermo n o n th e M ount
In N o ve mber 15 3 0 d uring B uge nh age n s ab s ence fro m Wit
tenberg Luther o ccupie d hi s p ul pi t i n which he pre ache d a

s erie s o f s erm o n s on T he S erm o n o n the M o unt


T hes e were
p ub l i s he d i n G er m an i n 15 3 2 an d i n Lati n i n 15 3 3
In 15 3 2
T yn dale s Expo s ition appeare d
G eorge J o y e who s e atte m pt t o
pirate T yn dale s tr an s l ation o f the New T e s tam ent occas ione d
an
exciting c o ntrovers y i n T yn dale s l i fe ti m e ass erte d that
Luther m a d e i t Ty n d al e on ly b ut tran s l ati ng an d p o w d ering

i t here an d there wi th hi s O wn fa ntas ie s


T hi s charge h o w
ever i s at o nce s een to be unj us t i f we c o m pare the tw o T he
Exp o s i ti o n
i s T yn dale s T he u s e m a d e O f Luther i s per
fe c tly l egiti m ate
B ut i t i s e qually c l ear that either note s O f L u
th e r s d i s c o ur s e s o r the printe d vo l um e were be fo re Ty n d al e
an d free ly u s e d There are n o t m an y p as sag e s where the cor

res pon d ence i s as C l o s e as the fo ll o wing :


V

uth e r

Ty n da le

Ge re ch tigk e it m uss an d i e se m O rt
R igh te o us ne ss in th i s p l ac e 15 n o t
tak e n fo r th e p rin cip al righte o us ne ss
n ic h t h e i ss e n die c hri st l i c h e H aupt
dad urch die Pe rso n o f a C h risti an m an th ro ugh wh i c h
ge re ch tigk e it
frumm un d ange n e hm wi r d fur G o tt
th e pe r so n is go o d an d acc e pte d b e
,

24

L uth e r s

Worhs

E rl E d ,
.

XL I I I

41

Ty n dale

D ep e n de nce

on

L uthe r

3S

d ie s e ach t Stuc k nich t An fo re Go d Fo r th e se e igh t po ints are


d rs sind de nn e i ne L e h re o n de n b ut do ctri ne s o fth e fruits an d wo rk s
Friich te n und gute n W e rk e n e i ne s o f a C h ri stian m an b e f re wh i ch th e
C h ri ste n
o r we lc h e n
de r G l aub e faith m us t b e th e re to m ak e righ te o us
uv o r m uss da s e i n als de r B aum un d with o ut all d s e rv i n g o f wo rk s
an d
H aupts tuck o d e r S umrn a s e in e r C c
as a tr e e o ut O fwh i c h all s uc h fruits
re ch tigk e it
un d s e l i gk e it
and wo rk s m us t sp ri ng
o h n all e
We rk un d Ve r di e nst d ar aus so lch e
S tuck all e wac h s e n un d fo l ge n m us
D e nn

se n

TY N D A LE

WA S

Dr

L U THE RA N ?

Ea d ie the e m i nent c o mm en tator o f the U ni te d Pres b yt e


rian Church o f S c o t l an d urge s that i t i s a great wrong t o ter m

25
hi m s uch
It w as a m i s t ake o f n o c o mm on m agnitu d e
he
sa ys
to ass oci ate the nam e an d w o rk o f Ty n dal e with the
nam e an d work o f Luther T he m i s take h o wever c an be eas i ly
exp l aine d as i t was co mm on at the ti m e to ca ll al l m en Luther
an s w h o s h o we d an y l eaning t o war d s re fo rm ation T he great
R e for m er h ad so s tam pe d an i m age o f hi ms e l f up o n the T eut o nic
m o ve m ent that s i m i l ar ten d encie s i n other l an ds were v ague ly
n am e d after hi m S i r T h o mas M o re K ing H enr y Lee an d
C o c hlae us regar d e d Ty n d a l e as a pr o m oter o f Lutheran i s m an d
hi s tes tam ent w as l o o s e ly s p o ken o f as a tran sl ati o n o f Luther s
G er man ver s ion The tit l e page o f S ir T ho m as M o re s D ial ogue
r e ads :
To uching the pe s ti l ent s ect o f Luther an d Ty n d al e
B ut i t i s again s t all evi d ence to ca ll Ty n d al e Lutheran o r to aver
that hi s p urpo s e w as to pr o mo te Lutherani sm i n hi s o wn c o untr y
H e was n o s ect arian was never a ll ie d to Luther as c o ll eague o r
in s t ru m ent an d n o thing w as farther fro m hi s tho ught s than to

fo un d a s ect an d i d enti fy hi s o w n nam e wi th i t

T he c o ncept i o n o f Lutheran
here pres ente d b y D r Ea d ie
i s that o f o ne wh o went fo rth fro m the Church o f R o m e
to

fo un d a s ect
T hen Luther hi ms e l f was n o t a Lut h eran ; n o r
were an y o f hi s co l ab o rers Lutheran
A Pr o te s t an t the o l ogi an
w h o trace s it s beginni ngs to a m ove m en t i n G erm an y to fo un d a
ne w sect certain ly h as a s trange vi ew o f the R e fo r m at ion
The
nam e Lutheran a term o freproach again s t which Luther pro
,

'

H is to ry

f E nglish

B ib le ,

I:

12 2 sq q

36

L uth e ran ll/o ve m e n t

Th e

in E ng la n d

t es te d l ou d an d l ong beca m e the current nam e for that pure S c rip


t ural d o ctrine whi ch Luther ass erte d an d maintai ne d i n o ppo s i ti on
to the c o rr upti o n s o f th e Papac y Even up to the d i et o f Augs b urg
the h o pe h ad not al t o gether bec o m e extinct that the R o m an
Church w o u ld y et re turn to thi s d o ctri ne T he Lutheran m o ve
m ent had n o thing to d o with a s eparate o rgan i zati o n unti l the act
o f i t s e ne m ie s i n cas ting o ut tho s e w h o pr o fess e d thi s d octrine as
hereti c s s ep arate d the ene m i e s the ms e l ve s fro m the con fe ss or s
o f the fai t h o f the G o s pe l

An appeal i s m ad e b y D r Ea d ie to a Prote s tati on b y Ty n


d al e in hi s revi s e d New T e s tam ent o f 15 3 4 A ll h o wever that
i t s h o w s i s th at i t i s w o rth y to be p l ace d al o ng s i d e o f s i m i l ar
n um er o us pr o te s t ati o n s o f Luther Ty n d al e sa y s :
I take G o d
which al o ne s eeth the he art to rec o r d to m y con s ci ence be s eech
i ng H i m th at m y part b e no t i n the b l o o d o f Chri s t i f I wr o te
O f all th at I h ave wri tten t hro ugh o ut a ll m y bo o k s aught o f an
evi l p urp o s e o f env y or m al i ce to an y m an o r to s tir up an y
fal s e d octrine o r O pi ni o n i n the Church o f Chri s t 3 o r to be au
th o r o fan y s ect 3 o r to d raw d i s ci p l e s a fter m e 3 o r that I be e s
tee m e d o r ha d i n price ab o ve the l eas t C hi ld that i s b o rn 3 save
o n ly o f pit y and co m pass i o n I ha d o n the b l in d ne ss o f m y breth
ren an d t o bri ng the m i nt o the know l e d ge o f Chri s t 3 an d to
make ever y o n e o f the m i f i t were p o ss ib l e as per fect as an an
ge l o f he aven ; an d to wee d o ut all that i s n o t p l ante d o f our
H e aven ly Fath er an d to bring d own all that l i fte d i t se l f again s t

th e kn o w l e d ge o f the s al vation that i s i n the b l o o d o f Chri s t


I
B ut thi s i s o n ly an echo o fwh at L uther wrote i n 1 5 2 2
beg o f yo u keep S i l ent about m y n am e 3 an d call yo ur s e l ve s not
Luth e ran s b ut Chri s tian s W hat i s Luther ? T he d o ctrine i s
I h ave been crucie d fo r n o o n e
S t Paul ( 1 C o r
n o t m i ne
4 : 5 ) wi ll n o t a ll ow Chri s ti an s to be ca ll e d Pau l i ne o r Petrin e
H o w have I c o m e to i t th at the chi ld ren
b ut o n ly Chri s tian s
O f Chri s t s h o uld be call e d b y m y m i s erab l e nam e P Not so d ear
frien d b l o t o ut part y nam e s an d be call e d Chri s tian s fro m hi m
25
wh o s e d o ctrine w e have
B ut thi s was exp l aine d the ver y
,

'

26

E rl E d
.

2 2 :

55

Ty ndale

D ep e n de n ce

on

L u the r

3 7

s am e y ear
T rue i t i s that y ou s h o u ld n o t sa y :
I am Luth
eran o r Popi s h 3 fo r he has not d ie d fo r an y o f yo u neither i s
he y our Mas ter b ut Chri s t o n ly an d yo u s h o uld con fess Chris t
B ut i f yo u h o ld that Luther s d o ctrine i s evange l i ca l an d the
Pope s unevange l ica l yo u m us t n o t entire ly reject Luther 3 o th
e rw ise wi th hi m
o
u
reject
hi
s
d
octrine
which
have
l
ea
ne
d
o
u
r
y
y
to kn o w as C h ri s t s d o ctrine Y o u mus t sa y : W hethe r Luther
be rascal o r sai nt m atters not ; b ut hi s d o ctri ne i s n o t hi s but
Chri s t s hi ms e l f
Y ou se e that the t yrant s are tr y ing n o t m ere ly
to d es tr o y Luther b ut to exterm i n ate hi s d o ctri ne ; an d becaus e
o r yo u an d ask yo u whether yo u be
o f the d o ctri ne the y fee l f
Lutheran
H ere truly yo u mus t no t waver b ut mus t free ly c o n
fess Chri s t whether he have been pre ache d b y Luther C l aus o r
G eorge T he per s on y ou ma y l et go 3 b ut the d o ctri ne y ou
2"
m us t c o n fess
The q ues ti o n then i s s i m p ly as to whether the d o ctrine o f
Ty n d al e w as th e s am e as that o f Luther C o ncerning thi s Val
H e who has receive d hi s kn o w l
c utine Ern s t L Osc h e r sa y s
e d ge fro m Luther s writings an d o fwh o m o ne has n o rep o rt that
he h as taught i n an y arti c l e o therwi se than Luther m ay j us t ly be
acc o unte d Evange l ical Lutheran even though he have n o t l ive d
i n full c o nnecti o n wi th a Luthe ran c o n gregation o r we d o n o t
have fro m hi m a con fess i o n c o nce rn ing ever y artic l e i n contro
5
L Osch e r s i n fo rm ati o n concern ing Tyn d a l e h o wever
ve rsy
i s d e fective In all the treatis e s we have n o te d hi s apprehen s i o n
o f the d octrine o fj us ticati o n b y faith i n a ll i t s re l ati o n s an d o f
the d i s tinct i o n be tween Law an d G o s pe l , d rawn fr o m Luther i s
In the
so c l ear an d hi ll as to l eave l itt l e to be d es ire d further

O be d ience o f a Chri s ti an Man the d octrine o f the Sacr a


m ent s i s not treate d wi th the sam e c learn ess an d a weakening i s
al ready man i fes t Luther s s tate m en ts c o ncerning b apti sm ap

pear h o wever in the foregroun d :


The w as hing wit h o ut th e
w o r d he l pe th not 3 b ut through th e wor d i t puri e th an d c l ean s
.

zl

28

1b

8 : 3 16

iihrlich e H is toria M otuu m ,


A us f

89

The

38

L uthe ra n lo ve m e nt in E ng land

eth
T he i nuence o f hi s frien d J o hn F rith w h o ha d e mbrace d
the Zwing l ian d o ctrine m ad e Ty n d al e hes itate between the two
s i d e s B ut he p l ead wi th Frith to d e s i s t fr o m c o ntr o vers y : O f
the pre s ence o f Chris t s b o dy i n the S acram en t m e ddl e as l itt l e
as yo u can that there appear n o d ivi s i o n am ong u s B arnes
wi ll be h o t again s t yo u T he Sax o n s are s o re o n the af rm at ive ;
whether c o n s tant o r ob s ti nate I co mm i t i t to G o d
I w o u ld
have the right u s e preache d an d the pre s ence to be an in di e r
T o be l ieve th at the bo dy o f Chri st i s eve ry
en t thing
where th o ugh it can not be pr o ve d hurt s n o m an that w o rs hip s

hi m n o where s ave i n the faith o fhi s G o spe l


T hi s was written
i n I 5 3 2 tw o y e ar s be fore hi s d eath T he n ext y ear F ri th s im
pri s o n m ent i n Eng l an d in d uce d hi m to write a d e fence o f hi s
frien d s vi ew s S ti ll l ater he wr o te the ver y m i ld an d m o d erate

tre ati s e call e d A B ri e f D ec l ar ati o n o f the S acram ent s


It
d irect ly argue s again s t the Lutheran d o ctrine F rith s i n uence
ha d gr adually overc o m e that whi ch Luther ha d s o c o m p l ete ly
he ld o ver thi s retire d s ch o l ar whi l e the ver y extent o f hi s form er
i n d ebte d ne ss to Luther an d the exaggerati o n o f thi s d ebt b y ene
m i es ren d ere d hi m m o re apt to n d s o m e p o i nt o n which to as
s ert hi s i n d epen d ence B ut on e nee d on ly co m pare T yn dale s
writings with Zwi ng l i s to n d h o w re l ative ly th o rough a Luth
eran the fo r m er a l way s re m aine d It w as i m p o ss ib l e fo r hi m t o
carr y o ut t o thei r c o n s e quence s what w as i nvo lve d i n hi s l ater
d o ctrine o f the Lor d s S upper
,

'

C H AP T E R III
TH E

O L I T I C A L C O M P L I CA T I O N S

r e tar di ng facto r
Wo ls e y s
an d F r an c i s I

He nry V II I ,
V

Wo ls e y s

b arrass m e n t

Th e D i v o rc e

Q ue stio n

R e l ati o n s to Char

A ntip ath y to C ath e r ine

O v e rth ro w

Th e R is e

of

Po pe s

Th e

C r anm e r

es

H is C o n

r i d ge L uth e r ans an d with th e B o l e y ns A mb as


sado r to G e rm an y A t Niirnb e rg Th e Re fo rm atio n Re fo rm e rs and
H is des crip
L ite ra ti o f Nii rnb e rg C r anm e r n d s a wi fe at Nii rnb e rg
tio n o f th e O r de r o f Wo rsh i p in o ne o f th e Niirnb e rg ch urch e s Th e
B r an d e nb urg Niirn b e rg O r d e r o f 15 3 3
O p i n io n s o f T h e o l o gi ans and
M e l an ch th o n s D ipl o m ac y L uth e r th e
Uni v e r siti e s o n th e D iv o rc e
Th e S m alc ald L e ague an d its C o n fe ss io n al
A d v o c at e o f C ath e r ine
F ran c is I an d th e Fre n ch L uth e r ans M e l an c hth o n an d M ar
B as is
f
H
n ry s e f
r
a
e t o f N av arre
e
o rts to e nte r th e L e ague
g
n e c tio n

with

th e C amb

l eaven t h us w o rki ng at the Eng l i s h univers i


ti es an d carrie d fo rth thence to ret urn to th o s e centers wi th
i ncreas e d p o wer w as far m o re in uentia l than ei ther the in dig
n ati o n d e e p ly fe l t at the exe m pti o n fr o m s ec ul ar j uri s d icti o n
c l ai m e d b y the R o m i s h c l erg y which fo un d expre ss i o n e s pecially
i n the pr o te s t s o f H enr y S tan d i s h o r the r e s ent m e n t o f the K i ng
at the Po pe s re fusa l to gran t hi m a d iv o rce T he l atter factor
s ee m s at r s t s ight to overs had o w a ll e l s e an d t o h ave been the
act ual d eterm i ning c aus e whi ch e ffecte d the break wi th R o m e
No o n e can d en y that the m ove m ent w as thereb y acce l erate d
B ut the i nter ference o f the g o vern m ent o n the Pr o te s tan t s i d e
be fo re t h i s h ad sufcient ly m ature d b y a true i nwar d gr o wt h w as
i n the en d a m i s fo rt une rather than a b e net I f H enr y had re
m ai ne d the ch am pi o n o fR o m e ten y ears l onger th e i n d e p e n d ent
d eve l o p m ent o f E n g l i s h Pr o tes tanti s m w o uld have b e e n ret ar d e d
i res o f per sec uti o n unti l i t m ight have
and been te m pere d b y the f
T H E E vange l i ca l

(3 9)

The

40

L uthe ran llfo ve me n t in E ng lan d


/

been ready fo r a co m p l ete rejecti o n o f hierarchi cal c l ai ms an d


ten d encie s A S thing s were th e external rupture occurri ng b e
fo re the i nner s ep arati o n w as c o m p l ete it had to m eet a cri s i s
pre mat ure ly an d h as ever s i nce suffere d fro m the c o n fus i o n an d
co m pr o m i s e bet ween d iam etric ally opp o s ing e l e m ent s withi n the
sam e c o mmuni o n which re sul te d
T he zea l o f H enr y VIII o n the Pope s s i d e when Luther s
hamm er s tart l e d a s l eeping w o r ld i s we ll kn o wn
H i s c o ntro
i n s tigate d pr o bab ly b y Car d i n al
v e rsy with Luther i n 1 5 2 1
W o l s e y an d entere d i nt o b y the King i n o r d er to exhibi t hi s
ac quai ntan ce with s ch o las ti c the o l o g y O btaine d as i t s reward th e
Papal ti t l e o f D efe ns o r de i but wi th i t s uch a s evere han dl i ng
fro m the m i ner s s o n th at it I s d oubt ful whether he fe l t hi ms e l f
repai d O n ly a few y ear s e l ap s e be fo re we n d hi m i n ne go tia
tion wi th th e W i ttenberg R e form er s i n o r d er to supp o rt hi ms e l f
agai n s t th e Po pe
T he p o l i ti ca l s i d e o f the que s t i o n i s s o i m p o rt ant as to d e m an d
s o m ewhat exten d e d c o n s i d eration H enr y VIII had as cen d e d
the thr o ne o f Eng l an d i n 15 0 9 being at that ti m e eighteen y ear s
S even y ear s be fo re hi s e ld er brother Arthur ha d d ie d
o ld
a fter a m arriage o f fo ur m o nth s with Catherine o f Arag on
d augh ter o f F er d inan d an d I sabe ll a o f S pai n P o l iti ca l m o tive s
d oubt l e ss c o n s p ire d wi th th o s e o f the s o r d i d avari ce generally
all ege d viz the retenti o n o f the d o wr y to i n uence H enr y
VII to m arr y her to hi s s eco n d so n B ut as m arri age with a
br o ther s wi fe w as c l ear ly fo rbi dd en b y the can o ni ca l law a d i s
f
o pe was as ke d an d rea d i ly grante d i n 1 0
n
i
n
o
the
P
t
e
s
a
o
p
5 3
In 15 0 5 al ready when s ixteen y ears o ld H enr y VIII ha d e n
te re d pr o te s t i n the s e w o r d s 3
That whereas he being un d er
age w as m arrie d to the pri nce ss Katheri ne y et n o w co m ing t o
be o f age he d i d n o t c o nr m t h at marriag e b ut retracte d an d
ann ull e d i t an d w o uld n o t pr o cee d i n i t b ut i nten d e d i n full

fo r m o f l aw to v o i d i t and break i t o ff
A fter hi s acce ss i o n ,
he ha d the cas e l earne dly argue d be fore hi m o n both s i d es T he
,

'

r ts

1B u ne

flisto ry

f th e

R efo rm ation ,

I:

2 2

Th e P o litical C o mp licatio ns

41

d es irabi l it y O f a c l o s e all iance with S pain an d the attractive


character o fC atherine fo r the ti m e s i l ence d all s crup l es 3 an d the
m arri age w as p ub l ic ly ce l ebrate d J une 3 d 15 0 9 Two s o n s b o rn
O n ly M ar y a fterwar d s
o f thi s m arriage d ie d s h o rt ly a fter birth
Q ueen survive d i n fanc y
I t w as the great am bi ti o n o f H enr y to c o ntr o l the po l iti cs o f
E ur o pe H i s great rival w h o i n l arge m easure gaine d th e p o s i
ti o n to which H enr y as pire d w as the E m p e r o r Char l e s V In
Charl es o pini o n Fran ci s I o f F rance w as a m o re fo r m i dab l e an
B o th ru l er s there fore co m pete d fo r H enr y s favor
tago n ist
Char l e s repeate dly m ad e pr o m i s e s which were never ful ll e d
Car d ina l W o ls e y w as twi ce as sure d that he w o uld succ e e d to the
Papac y at the ver y next vacanc y ; an d twice Char l e s saw to i t
that the p ro m i s e w as br o ken In 15 2 2 Char l e s pr o m i s e d to
m arr y hi s c o us i n the pri nce ss Mar y ; but ve y ear s l ater no t
being i ncl ine d to wait fo r a bri d e w h o w as o n ly ten y e ar s Old
excu s e d hi ms e l f up o n the gr o un d that sh e w as the chi ld o f an
un l aw ful m arri age
It was n o t then a m ere fanc y fo r Ann e B o l e y n Wt h sug
ge s te d the th o ught o f d ivo rce The sam e d es ire to s ecure an
o r s o far Eng l an d h ad nev e r b e en
ru l e d
un d i s pute d s uccess i o n (f
b y a q ueen ) Wt h l e d Nap o l eon to h is wr o ng again s t J o s ephine
un d o ubte dly h ad much fo rce aug m ente d as i t w as b y the su
r
s titio us i n ference s whi ch he drew fr o m th e d e ath o f h is s o n s
e
p
as a d ivi ne j ud gm ent becau s e o f the s upp o s e d un l aw ful m arriage
an d b y the d o gm ati c s tate m ent s o f hi s fav o rite s c h o o l man
Th o mas A quinas W e have n o d o ubt that he r e ad ever y s en
tence o f the chapter s i n the s upp l e m e n t to th e S umma S umma

O f the I m pe d i m ent s to Marri ag e an d th at hi s


rum treating
e y e l i ngere d o n the c o nc l us i o n o fArt VI Q ue s t LV
Pre
ce d ing ainity n o t o n ly hin d er s m arriage that is to be c o ntracte d

an d
b ut al s o d e s tr o y s that which h as been a l rea dy c o ntr acte d 3
that he weighe d care fully the argu m ent s o f Art I X whi ch i n s i s t
that the sa m e rul e m u s t be app l ie d to a fnit y as to c o n s angui nit y
an d that i n b o th cas es the c o nti n uance o f the m arriage , when
,

Th e L uthe ran M

42

o vem e n t

in E ng lan d

the o riginal wr o ng has been d i s covere d i s a m o rta l s in No t


necessari ly a t e n d er c o n s ci ence b ut a regar d for that c o n s i s tenc y
i n which as th e s w o rn d e fen d er o f Ro man ortho d o x y he pri d e d
hi ms e l f c o ntrib ute d much to the re sul t an d le d hi m even to
d o ubt the Po pe s auth o ri t y to give an y d i spen sati o n
Wo lse y s c o ars e
B ut there was a p o wer behin d the thro ne
an d l icenti o us ch aracter an d hi s arr o gant an d arbi trar y pr o cee d
ings were i n th e high es t d egree o ffen s ive to the p ure m i n d e d
queen 3 an d a per s o nal antag o ni sm between the m w as the res u l t
B es i d es she w as not with o ut con s i d erab l e po l itica l i n uence the
Priv y C o unci l being s umm o ne d be fo re her at ti m e s for the d i s
S he was a S p an i ar d 3 an d her
c ussio n o f pen d ing que s tion s
s ym pathie s were agai n s t F rance It w as Wo lse y s po l i c y at thi s
peri o d to m ak e th e s eparati o n fr o m the E m per o r the wi d e s t an d
i f p o ss ib l e to fo r m an a ll i an ce with F ran ce
I f a d enitive
r upt ure w as to take p l ace between Eng l an d an d the B urgun d o
S p ani sh p o wer H enr y s m arriage with Catherine m us t be d i ss o l ve d
an d ro o m th usm a d e fo r a French prince ss W o ls e y fo r m e d the
p l an o fm arr y ing hi s K ing i n Cather i ne s s tead with th e s i s ter o r
even the d aughter o f F ran ci s I W hen he w as i n F r an ce i n
I
2 7 he s ai d to th e R egent
the
K
ing
s
m
other
that
wi
thi
n
a
5
ar s he w o u ld l ive to se e two thing s th e m o s t c o m p l ete s epara
e
y
ti o n o fhi s s o vereign fr o m S pai n an d hi s I n d i ss o lub l e uni o n wi th
2
F rance
S uch being the cas e i t was not won d er ful that Wo lse y s in u
ence with hi s s ub o r d i nate s d eter m i ne d the o pi ni o n o f all the
b ish o ps in Eng l and th e bi shop o f Ro ches ter (Fi s her ) al on e ex
T he q ueen h o wever re fus e d to
c e pte d i n fav o r o f the d iv o rce
rec o gn ize an y authori t y capab l e o f d eci d ing the ques ti o n be l o w
that o f the P o pe C l e m en t VII w as re l uct ant to int e r fere o n
either s i d e an d a d vi s e d H enr y t o ac t o n hi s o w n re s p o n s ibi l i t y ;
b ut at length a fter an in e e c tual atte m pt thr o ugh hi s l egate
Car d inal Cam peggi to i n d uce C atherine to yi e ld her c l ai ms
w as c o m pe ll e d to d eci d e agai ns t the K i ng part l y i n or d er t o
.

Ran

s E

ngla n d,

I:

12 2 .

The P o litical Co mp licatio ns

43

mai ntain the sanctit y o f papal d i s pen sation s an d part ly becaus e


o f the o verpowerin g i n uence o f the E m peror who i n 15 2 7 had
hum b l e d hi s s piri tual father capture d R o m e an d he ld hi m pri s
oner for m onths C har l es was un y ie ld ing i n hi s oppo s i tion to
the d iv o rce not o n ly becaus e o f their p o l itical rival r y b ut al so
becaus e Q ueen Catherine was hi s aunt an d however i ncon s i s ten t
wi th hi s o wn rep ud i ation o f Prince ss Mar y i n 15 2 2 he regar d e d
H enr y s c o ur se as an i n d ignit y to hi s fam i ly As the Po pe w as
thu s subs ervient to the E m per o r H enr y t o o k m atter s into hi s o w n
han d s i n a s en s e far di e re n t fr o m that to which he had been pre
v io usly a d vi s e d b y the fo rm er
W o l s e y fe ll h o rrie d that in
s tea d o fa F rench princess An ne B o l e y n w as i n view an d T h o mas
Cru m we ll r o s e
Archbi sh o p W arham d i e d 3 an d Cran m er
w as summ one d fr o m G erm an y to succee d with m uch re l uctance
to the se e o f Canterb ur y
A s thi s bring s be fo re u s the m o s t pr o m inent gure i n the Eng
l i s h R e fo rm ati o n i t i s tting that s o m e acc o un t o f Cran m er
s h o uld be here given H e was born o f an anci en t fam i ly i n
N ottingham J u ly 2 d 14 89 H i s b o y h o o d w as l arge ly d ev o te d
to the s p o rt s an d exerci s es o f the Eng l i s h gentr y to which hi s
father be l onge d A fter hi s father s d eat h he w as s ent at the
age o f fo urteen to C ambri d ge where unti l he was twent y tw o
hi s attenti o n was given al m o s t exc l us ive ly to the s ubti l ti es o f
s ch o l as tici s m A fter 15 1 1 he fe ll un d er the in uence o f Eras
H e gave hi ms e l f to the read ing o f Fabe r E rasmu s
m us
an d go o d Lati n auth o r s fo ur o r ve y ear s t o gether unto the
ti m e that L uth er b egan to w rite An d then c o n s i d eri ng what
great c o ntrover s y w as i n m atter s o f re l igi o n n o t on ly i n trie s
but i n the chie fes t arti c l e s o f o ur sa l vati o n be bent hi ms e l f to
tr y o ut the truth therein An d foras m uch as he perceive d he
c o u ld not j ud ge indi e re n tly i n such weight y m atters with o ut
the kn o w l e d ge o f the H o ly S cripture s 3 there fo re be fo re he was
i n fecte d wi th an y m an s opinion s o r err o rs he app l ie d hi s wh o l e
A fter thi s he gave hi s m i n d to g o o d
s tu dy three y e ars therein
wri ters both new an d o ld 3 no t ras h ly run ning o ver the m 3 for
,

'

'

L uthe ran [Mo ve m e nt

Th e

44

in E ng la n d

he w as a s l ow re ad er b ut a d i l igent m arker o fwhat s o ever he read


s e ld o m read i ng witho ut pen i n h an d An d what s o ever m a d e
ei ther fo r th e o n e p art o r the o th er o fthing s i n c o ntr o ver s y he
wr o te i t o ut i f it were s h o rt o r at l e as t note d the auth o r an d
the p lace that he m ight n d i t an d w rite it o ut at l ei sure 3 whi ch
T hi s
w as a gre at he l p to hi m i n d e b ating o f m atter s e ver after
kin d o f s t udy he us e d ti ll he was m ad e d o ct o r O f d ivini t y :
which w as ab o ut th e thirt y fo urth y ear o f hi s age an d about the
3
y ear 15 2
B e fo re thi s b y m arr yi ng he ha d l o s t hi s fe ll ow sh ip i n J e sus
Co ll ege an d becam e l ect urer i n an o ther o f the c o ll eges o f Ca m
bri d ge 3 b ut hi s wi fe dy ing he had s o o n been re s tore d to hi s o ld
fe ll o w s hip
H e had been s e l ecte d am o ng the b an d o f S ch o l ar s
to be tran s ferre d to C ar d in al W o l
(C l ark C o x Taverner
s e y s new C o ll ege at O x fo r d b ut d ec l ine d H e becam e l ect urer
o n d ivin it y i n J e s us
C o ll ege an d e xam iner o f can d i d ate s fo r
the o l o gical d egree s 3 an d hi s exam inati o n l ai d s peci al s tre s s up o n
the can d i d ates pr o cienc y i n H o ly S cripture At thi s ti m e
H enr y ca ll e d up o n th e th e o lo gians o f the U niver s itie s fo r their
O pi ni on s c o ncerni ng hi s d ivo rce Cran m er w as foun d to be on e
o f th e few w h o fr o m the beginning
favore d i t T he K ing at
o nce d e m an d e d hi s s ervi ce s an d ha d hi m ass i gne d a h o m e at
D urham wi th S ir T h o m as B o l e yn father o f the fut ure queen
whi l e he wrote a bo o k i n the caus e O f H enr y B o l e yn w as al s o

an earn es t s t ud ent O f the W o r d o f G o d as S tr ype quo te s fr o m


Eras mus wh o i n a l etter to S i r T h o m as s ay s :
I do the m o re
c o ngr at ul ate y o ur happine s s when I o b s erve the s acre d s cripture s
to be s o d e ar to a m an as yo u are o f p o wer o n e o f th e l ai t y an d

C ranm e r s h o m e i n her father s h o u s e h ad m uch


a c o urtier
to d o with Anne B o l e yn s future c o nnection with the c au s e o f
the R e fo r m ation A fter thi s he ha d to pers o na lly appear an d
argue the m atter i n b o th univer s iti es W e next n d hi m engage d
i n an swering a b o ok O f Car d inal Po l e s again s t the d ivorce T hen
,

S trype

Ih

[ Me m orials

f A rch b ish op

C ran me r,

I:

Th e P o litical Co mp licatio ns

45

i n 15 3 0 he was s en t o n the sam e m i ss i o n to Fr ance It aly an d


G er man y At Ro m e he re mai ne d fo r s ever al m o nths but with
n o succe ss
H e s o on appear s as am bass a d o r fr o m Eng l an d to
G erm an y
T he E m per o r b e ing a l o ng ti m e d uring the y ear I 5 3 2 at Rat
i s b o u (R egen s b urg ) i n att e n d ance o n the D i e t Cran me r w as
with hi m there an d m ad e vi s it s to the cit y o f Niirn b e rg fty
three m i l e s d i s t ant to con fer with the E l ect o r o f Saxo n y where
o f co ur s e h e bec am e a d eep ly i nteres te d s pect at o r o f all the
change s which th e R e fo r m ati o n had wr o ught i n t h at cit y s i nce
i t s i ntr o d uc ti o n i n 15 2 4 At Niirnb e rg he fo un d the p l ace o f
whi ch L uther ha d wri tten that i t s hine s t h r o ugh o ut all G er

man y l ike the sun am i d s t m o o n an d s t ars


an d whi ch M e lan c h
th o n h ad call e d L ume n o culum de cus e t o rn am e ntum prae
czpuum G e rm an iac
Long fe ll o w h as s ung o f i t :
,

to wn o fto i l an d t raf c quaint O ld to wn o fart an d s o n g


M e m o rie s h aunt th y po inte d gab l e s l ik e th e roo k s th at ro un d the m th ro ng :
M e m o ri s o fth e M i dd l e A g s wh e n th e e m pe ro rs ro ugh and b o l d
H ad th e i r dw ll i n g in th y c as tl e ti m e d e fy i ng c e nturie s o ld

Q uaint

o ld

ch urch o f s ai nte dSe b al d s l e e ps e nsh ri ne d h is h o ly d ust


in b ro n z e th e T we lv e A po st l e s guar d fro m age to a e th e i r trus t

I n th e
A n d,

ch urch o fsai nte d L awre n c e stan d s a pix o fs c ulpture r are


L i k e th e fo am y sh e af o ffo un tai ns ri s ing th ro ugh th e p ai nte d air
I n th e

H e re

wh e n

L iv e

an d

still r e ligio n with a s im p l e r e v e re n t h e art


A l b re c h t D iire r th e E v ange l ist o f A rt 3

A rt w as

l ab o re d

dh

is

n o t

E m igra v it is th e ins cri ptio n


D ea

b ut

on

p art e d

to mb sto ne wh e re h e l i e s ;
fo r th e a rtist n e v e r di e s

th e

H ere w as the Gym nas i um that b o as te d o f Me l anchthon as i ts


fo un d er an d at wh o s e d e d i cati o n he h ad d e l iver e d th e a dd re ss
H ere S t aupi tz ha d preache d y ear s be fo re an d Luther h ad vi s ite d
o n hi s wa y to A ugs b urg i n 1 5 1 8
It ha d been th e h o m e o fthe
hum ani s t P e rkh e im e r wh o o n acc o unt o f hi s frien ds hi p fo r
Luther ha d been nam e d i n the Po pe s b ull agai n s t the r e fo rm er
H ere A l brecht D Lire r the great p ai nter ha d d ie d i n 15 2 8 A m ong
,

'

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in E ng la nd

46

tho s e who m Cran m er d oubt l ess m et was the juri s t L az aru s


S peng l er w h o h ad be en a d e p ut y fr o m Niirnb e rg to the D iet o f
Aug s burg i n I 5 3 0 H e w as the aut h o r o f the h ym n D urch
A da m s Fall is t ga nz ve rde rb t an d ha d S hare d P e rk h e im e r s
h o n o r o f being i nc l ud e d i n the b ull agai n s t Luther Ah
other ce l ebrit y o fNiirnb e rg t h en l iving was H an s S achs
No t th y C o un c i l s no t th y Kais e rs w in fo r th e e th e wo rl d s r e gar d :

b
b
B ut th y p aint e r A l b r e c h t D ii re r an d H an s S ach s th y c o b l e r ar d
A m o ng the t h e o l o gian s were C am e rarius the i nti m ate frien d
c o rre s p o n d ent an d biographer o f M e l anchthon w h o w as P ro fe s
so r i n the Gy m n as i um an d al s o ha d been a d eput y to Aug s b urg ;
W ence sl aus Link preacher o f S t S e b ald s C hurch an d the i nti
m ate frien d O f the W ittenberg re fo rm er s 3 an d An d re w O s ian de r
preacher i n S t L o renz church w h o ha d particip ate d b o th i n the
M arb urg C o ll o quy an d i n the c o n feren ce s o f the t h e o l o gian s at
the D iet o f Aug sb urg with J o hn B re ntz sh aring th e part o f Me
lan c h th o n s chi e f c o un s e l o r W ith O sian de r Cr an m er s o o n becam e
e s pecially i nti mate H e per s ua d e d hi m to wri te i n fav o r o fH enr y s
d iv o rce an d Cran m er i n t urn urge d the preparati o n for pub l i ca

ti o n o f O siande r s H ar m on y o f the G o s pe l s
T hen O s ian
d er s n iece captivate d the heart o f the Eng l i s h a mbas sa d o r s o
th at the future Archbi s h o p o f Canterb ur y took to hi ms e l f a L uth
er an wi fe T he i nti m ac y thus begun w as contin ue d for y ear s
Long a fter
T h e c o rre s p o n d ence w as fre q uent an d exten d e d
w ar d s ( 15 40) Cran m er wr o te to O siande r that he w as al wa ys re
pro ach e d for whatever faul t s c o u l d be charge d up o n the G erm an
re fo r m er s an d
that he w as fai n to m ake the be s t an s wer s he
5
could either o ut o f their b o o k s or o ut o f hi s own i nvent i o n
C ran m e r s r s t V i s i t to N iirnb e rg w as be fo re March 14th an d
even then he c l o s e ly O b s erve d an d cri ticize d the O r d er o f S er
vi ce in u s e W e l earn t h i s fr o m an i ntere s ting l etter o f S i r
T h o mas E l i o t :
To uching Nurenberg it i s the m o s te pr o pre
t o wne an d be s t o r d ere d pub l ike weal e that ever I behe ld
A l th o ugh I ha d a c h aplayn y et co uld I no t be su re d to have
,

'

Stryp e , [ Me m

f C ra n me r I :

180.

'

Th e P o litical C o mp licatio ns

47

hi m s ing Mass but was c o nstrayn e d to here ther e Mas s which i s


b ut o n e i n a C h urc h e an d t h at i s ce l ebr ate i n fo rm e fo l o wing :
T he P re es te i n ves t m ent s a fter o ure m anner singith e ve ri thing
i n Latine as we use o m i tting su rage s T he Epi s te l he read eth
i n Latin In th e m eane ti m e the sub D eac o n goeth i nto the
p ul pi te an d read eth to the peop l e th e Epi s t l e i n their vu l gare 3
a fter thei pe rus e o ther th ings as our pres te s do o Than the
In the m eane s pace
P re eSte re dith s o ft ly the G o spe ll in Lati ne
the D eac o n g o e th i nto the pul pite an d he adith al oud e the G o s
pe ll i n the A lmaign e tung M r C ran me re s ayith i t w as S h e wid
to hi m that i n the Epi s t l es an d G o s pe l s thei kept n o t the o r d re
that we do o b ut do o perus e ever y d ay e o n e C hapi tre o f the New
T e s ta ment A fter the pres te an d the q uere d o s ing the C re do
an d the pri es t
as w e do o ; the s ecrete s an d pre face the y o m itt
s in gith wit h a high v o yc e the wor d es o f the con s ecrati o n 3 an d
a fter th e Levati o n the D e ac o n to rne th to the pe o p l e te ll ing t o
the m i n A lmaign e t unge a l o nge proce ss how thei sh o ld prepare
thei m se lfe s to th e co mm un i o n o fthe es h an d b lo de o f Chri s t 3
an d than m ay ever y man c o m e that lis tith with o ut go ing to an y
c o n fess i o n B ut I l es t I sh o lde be p artaker o f their c o mmun
n
e partid than
an
d
the
A
m
b
s
a
d
r
which
o
d
a
s
o
r
a
n
o
f
F
u
c
e
y
caus e d all th e pe o p l e i n the C h urc h e to won d er at us as though
we had been gretter h e re tike s than thei O ne thi n
g l ike d m e
we ll (to s hew yo ur G race free ly m y hart ) A ll the pre es tes hadd
5
w yv es 3 an d thei were the f
ayris t w o m en o fthe t o wne
T he s ervice thus d es cribe d was to be rep l ace d th e next y ear
b y the B ran d enb urg Niirn b e rg K irch e no rdnung i n c o urs e o f
preparation that v e r y summ er d uring whi ch the Wiirte m b e rg re
fo rm er J o hn B rentz s pent s ix week s i n j o int l ab o r with O sian de r
i n the ver y h o us e where Cran m er m et hi s bri d e H e hear d there
the Exh o rtati o n to the C o mm uni o n c o m p o s e d b y W o l fgang Vo l
precht (115 2 8) w h o i n 15 2 4 had ad m ini s tere d the H o ly C o m
muni o n fo r th e rs t ti m e i n b o th fo rms to three th o usan d per

s on s Thi s Exhortati o n i s fam i l iar to us fro m its use i n a


,

'

E ll is, O rigi n a l L ette rs ,

III

vo

II p

189.

L uth e ran M

The

48

in E ng la n d

o ve m e n t

s o m ewhat c o n d en s e d fo rm i n th e
Church B o o k an d Co m

m o n O r d e r o f S ervi ce
Cran m er h avi ng gaine d th e c o n d ence o f O sian de r was prob a
b ly ad m itte d i nt o th e full kn o w l e d ge o f th e grievances fr o m
which O s iande r was then c o m p l ai ning N o t o rious ly arbitrar y
an d hea d s tr o ng he at r s t h ad regar d e d i t h is right to prepare
a l i t urg y wi th o ut an y ai d o r ass i s tance 3 an d the i nter ference o f
S p e ng l e r i n an atte m pt to s ec ure the c o o per ati o n o fo ther s was
i n d ign ant ly re s e nte d unti l O sian de r w as at l ength o b l ige d to
y i e ld an d B re ntz w as call e d i n to m e d iate No r i s i t i m pr o bab l e
that Cr an m er l earne d m uch o f the d et ai l s o f the work i n c o n
H e certain ly kne w o f the great
te m platio n o r even i n pr o gre ss
d es ire o f th e Lutheran theo l o gian s to uni te up o n o n e C o mm o n
O r d er o f S ervice an d t h us re m o ve th e repr o ach t h at i n o ur
7
Church there w as n o thing b ut d i s o r d er
C ranm e r s pre s ence
i n Niirnb e rg there fo re was d es tine d to bear ri ch fr ui t i n Eng
l an d in y ear s to c o m e
A s B uc e r i n 15 3 6 d e d i cate d to Cran m e r h is Metaphras i s e t

o n th e Epi s t l e to the R o m an s i n a attering l etter


E narratio
i t i s pr o b ab l e that about the s am e t i m e as that o f the event s ab o ve
m enti o ne d t h e y al s o h ad m et
T he negotiati o n s
B ut to ret urn to th e ques t ion o f the d iv o rce
i n whi ch Cr a
n m e r w as engage d m et with v ari e d re s ul t s O x fo r d
a fter thr e e m onths c o ntr o ver s y d eci d e d j us t as the K i ng wi s h e d
Cambri d ge wi th much d i f c ul t y w as i n d uce d to fo ll o w the L u
theran e l e m ent t h ere h aving been i n B urnet s O pinion a m o s t
s eri o us o bs t acl e R ichar d Cr o ok w as s ent to Italy to m ake re
s earche s exam ine G reek m anu s cript s c o p y ever y t h ing i n the Fa
th e rs re l ating to d egree s o f m arriage an d o btai n the opi ni o n s o f
l earn e d J ew s M o ne y was free ly u s e d an d b o ught preci s e ly
s uch O pi ni o n s as s ui te d H enr y F ranci s can s D o m i n ican s Se r
vite s C o nv e nt uals th e U niver s it y o f Pad ua the d ivi ne s o f B o no
nia an d F errara the facu l t y o f the C an o n L aw at Pari s that at
the S o rb o n n e that o f Law at Angi er s o f D ivin it y o f B ourg e s
.

A cta H is t E
.

ccle s .

XL IX

718

Th e P o litica l C o mp licatio ns

49

the who l e U n iver s it y o f T o u l o us e coinci d e d w ith w o n


de rful har m o n y A m ong the R e fo r m e d O e c o lam padius favore d
b ut B uc c r o pp o s e d th e king 3 Zwing l i a d vi s e d th at the marriage
be d i ss o l ve d y et wit h th e l egi ti m iz ati o n o f the i ssue born i n i t
Ca l vi n a l s o d ec l are d th e m arriage v o i d an d a d vi s e d that the
q ueen be put away F o rtie d b y th e s e O pi ni o n s Cran m er w h o
d uri ng h is s tay i n G er man y ha d n o t s uccee d e d i n gain ing fo r
h is s i d e an y Lutheran o pi ni o n s except that o f O s ian de r a fter
h o ld i ng an ecc l e s ias ti ca l c o urt for the tri al o f the cas e pro
n o unc e d the ma rriage n ull an d voi d (M ay 2 3 d 1 5
In th e
s ucc e e d ing y ear 1 5 3 4 the Papal autno rity w as c o m p l ete ly ab o l
"
"
T he Act o f S upre m ac y
ish e d b y th e neces sar y l egi s l ati o n
i nve s ting th e K i ng with the s upre m e h e ads hip o n e arth o f th e
Church o f Eng l an d ; whi l e i n I 5 3 5 Cr um we ll was m ad e vice
gerent fo r the K ing i n all ecc l e s i as ti ca l matter s o utranki ng even
the Archbi sh o p O f Canterb ur y
T he W i ttenberg the o l o gi an s ha d n o t been neg l ecte d i n the re
q ue s t fo r o pini o n s c o ncerning the d iv o rce In Aug us t an d S ep
te mber 15 3 1 D r R o bert B arn es wh o s e open a d v o cac y o f Luth
e ran i s m a l ready i n 1 5 2 6 has been n o ti ce d appear s at W i tt e nberg
Me l anchtho n s o pini o n o fA ug
o n a c o mm i ss ion fr o m the ki ng
l
o f thi s great s ch o l ar as an
2 d
s
h
o
w
s
the
genera
character
3
ecc l e s i as ti cal d ip l o mati s t i n seeki ng a m o s t un fo rt un ate c o m
pro m i s e be tween tw o an tagon i s ti c po s iti o n s F ir s t he atte m pt s
to d e m o n s trate that the pr o hibiti o n o f m arri age wi th the wi fe o f
a d eceas e d br o ther given i n Leviticus be l o ngs to the C e re m o ni al
Law an d i s n o l o nger bin d ing I f i t were bi n d ing he argue s
that the o ther pr o vi s ion c o m pe ll ing a br o ther to m arr y hi s br o th
er s wi d o w i f the r s t m arriage be without chi ld ren m us t al s o
be en force d R egar d ing the m arriage there fo re as entire ly
law ful he urge s that a d iv o rce w o u ld be s i n ful o n the gr o un d
that the d ivine law i s i mm utab l e i n i ts pr o hibiti on o f d ivorce
T he queen m us t al way s have the p l ace
ex tra cas am a dulte rii
o f a l aw ful wi fe 3 an d Mar y be regar d e d a l egiti m ate d aughter
B ut i f the s ucce ss i on i s to be guar d e d he h as another re m e dy to
and

The L uthe ran [Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

50

propo s e
T hi s can be d o ne without an y peri l to the con s cience
A l though I w o u ld
o r reputation o f an y o n e b y p o l
ygamy
not c o nce d e p o lygam y as a co mm o n m atter y et i n thi s e m ergency
o n acc o unt o f i t s gre at a d vantage t o the king d o m p o ss ib ly o n
acc o unt o f the c o n s ci ence o f the king I say that i t w o u ld be
sa fe s t fo r the king to m arr y a s ec o n d with o ut rep ud iating hi s
r s t wi fe
Abraham D avi d an d o ther h o ly m en ha d m an y

3
wives etc
In o ur ad m ir ation o f the r are gi ft s o f M e lan c h
th o n an d the e m i nen t s ervice which he ren d ere d the caus e O f
Chri s t we o ught not to c l o s e o ur e y e s to the m i s t akes into which
he was o ften betray e d wh en ever he entere d the e ld o f p o l iti cs
an d all o we d c o n s i d erati o n s o f te m p o rar y expe d ienc y to prevai l
Luth e r s ju d gm ent o f tw o week s l ater s h o w s h o w d eep ly he was
exerci s e d b y the wrong prop o s e d
I f the a d ver s arie s carr y the
king with the m l et o ur me n tr y with all thei r m ig h t at l eas t to
keep the queen fr o m i n an y way con s enting to the d iv o rce Let
her r ather d i e than bec o m e an acc o m p l i ce to s uch a cri m e i n
G o d s s ight and l et h e r m o s t r m ly be l ieve that She i s the true
If
an d l egi ti m ate Queen o f Eng l an d m a d e so b y G o d hi ms e l f
the y cannot save the king (which m a y G o d avert ) l et the m at
l eas t save the s o ul o f the queen s o that i f the d iv o rce cann o t be
prevente d sh e m a y bear thi s great evi l as her cr o ss but i n no
way appr o ve o r c o n s ent to i t S ince I c an do n o thing e l s e m y
pray er i s d irecte d to G o d that Chri s t m ay hin d er thi s d iv o rce
an d m ake v o i d the c o un s e l s o f A hith o pe l i n per s uad ing i t an d
that the queen m ay have r m fai th an d c o n s t ant as sur ance that
sh e i s an d wi ll be Queen o f Eng l an d even th o ugh the gate s o f
9
the w o r ld an d o fhe ll m ay o pp o s e
A s to th e succe ss ion L iI
ther s ugge s t s wh at H enr y m a y have recall e d y ear s a fterwar d s
w h en he as k s as to what ass urance the king h as that the chi ld o f
10
an y o ther m arriage w o uld b e a so n
W hi l e there i s o n e c l aus e
i n hi s o pin i o n o f e l even p age s d ec l aring that even po lygam y
,

M e l Ope ra , C
.

9
1

De

We tte

Ib p
.

96

II

L uth e r s B

20

53 7

rig e n ,

I V : 3 06

The P o litical C o mp licatio ns

51

wou l d be preferab l e to a d ivorce there i s no m o r


e evi d ence o f
s uch an expe d ient being s erious ly pro p o s e d b y Luther as i t was
b y Me l anchthon than that he a d vi s e d s uici d e when he d ec l are d
that th e queen s h o u ld d ie rather than bec o m e an acco m p l ice to a
cri m e W e are at once i m pre ss e d b y the can d o r o f Luther when
c o n tras te d wi th the c o urs e o f the P o pe T he l atter s ought to
eva d e the d i f cu l t y b y per s uad ing th e queen to surren d er her
c l ai ms 3 the fo r m er urge s that the q ueen e s peci ally m us t be urge d
T0 hi m i t i s a que s t ion n e ither o f
n o t to y i e ld an hair s brea d th
ecc l es ias tica l n o r civi l p o l ic y b ut o ne o f d e l i t y i n hi s tes ti m on y
to the t ruth i nv o l ve d T here i s another j ud gm ent given b y the
entire b o dy O f W ittenberg the o l o gian s fo un d i n B urnet s H is
t o r y V o l 11: D o c No 3 5 an d i n Me lanchth o n s W orks C R
II : 5 2 3 which s h o w s s uch a d ivergence i n the character o f the
argum en ts add uce d so that tho ugh the conc l us i o n i s the s am e
s o m e o f the pre m i s e s have been entire ly C hange d that the di e r
ence w o uld be i nexp l icab l e i f we ha d no t the c l ue given i n S eek
1
en d o r f that i n the archive s at W ei mar the o riginal i s d ate d
ugge s ti o n which i s c o nr m e d b y the fact that i t i s n o t
a
s
1 3 6
5
the s ing l e l egate o f 15 3 1 but the three l egate s o fI 5 3 5 an d 15 3 6
who are there m enti o ne d
Thes e an swers however d i d no t repe l the king o f Englan d
fr o m s eeking further ai d at W ittenbe rg wh e n he nee de d i t Al
though the Po pe h ad been d ee d H enr y d read e d far m ore the
wr ath o f th e E m per o r an d s o ught fo r s uch C o ntinen ta l all iances
T he Sm alcald League ha d
as m igh t s trengthen hi s po s iti o n
been fo r m e d March 2 9th 15 3 1 between the Lutheran con fe d
e rates the E l ect o r o f S axon y the D uk e s Phi l ip Ern s t an d F ran z
O f B r un s wick L iine b urg the Lan d grave Phi l i p o f H e ss e Prince
W o l fgan g o f An ha l t C o unt s Gebhar d t an d A l brecht o f Man s
fe ld and the citi es o f S trassb urg U lm Con s tance Re ut l i ngen
Me mm ingen Li n d au B iberach I ss ni L iib e c k M ag d eb urg an d
B re m en O n J uly 2 3 d 15 3 2 the league conc l ud e d with the
E m per o r the R e l igious P eace o f N
j irnb e rg guaranteeing unti l
,

'

III

2 12 .

The L uth e ra n M

o ve m e n t

in E ng lan d

the convening o f a G eneral Counci l peace to a ll the Con fe d er


ates b y n am e upon the s tip ul ation that the y m ake no furt h er

be y o n d the C o nfess io n As s ent


an d other inn o vati o n
an d
Ap o log pre se nte d at Aug sb urg an d that whi ch agrees therewith
acc o r d ing to a l aw ful Chri s tian an d j us t s en s e an d that the y in
tro duc e n o cere m o nie s a d vers e to o r whi ch d o not agree wi th
" 1
the A ugs burg C o nfes s ion a nd th e Apo logy
T he s e terms b y n o m ean s s ati s e d the Lan d grave an d a nu m
ber o f the the o l o gian s as U rbanus Rie gius Erhar d S chnep f
Ant o n y C o rvin us etc w h o were aver s e to th e acceptan ce o f
an y p l e d ge o fpeace which d i d not s ecure pr o tecti o n also fo r all
who s h o uld h e rea fter accept the C o n fess ion al b as i s Rie gius
1
maint aining that the peace pr o po s e d w as wor s e than war
B ut
Luther urge d the m o re m o d erate cour s e and s uccee d e d i n hav
5
i ng it a d o pte d
T he League thus fo r m e d becam e a ver y i m portant fact o r i n the
po l itic s o f E ur o pe It was to the i nteres t o f b o th F r anci s 1 o f
F r ance an d H enr y VIII to have i t s s ym path y an d c o O perati o n
i n their p l an s agai n s t the E m per o r o r at l eas t to preven t i t s m e m
be r s fr o m giving the E m peror their s upp o rt
F ranci s i n o r d er
to break the c o n fe d er ac y between the P o pe an d th e E m peror
ha d i n O ct o ber 1 5 3 3 fo rm e d a co m p act with the fo r m er at
Mar s ei ll e s acc o r d ing to which hi s so n H enr y , m arrie d Cath
erine d e Me d ici the niece O f the Po pe B ut hi s p l an s fai l e d b y
the d eath o f C l e m ent VII i n the s uccee d ing O ct o ber F oi l e d
thus i n hi s e ffo rts to use the Papal p o wer agai n s t the E m peror he
next t urne d to the Lutheran princes In F ebruar y 1 5 3 5 he
wr o te to the m a l o ng l etter amo ng o ther things ap ologizing fo r
the per s ecuti o n O f the French Lutheran s b y the assuran ce that
5
n o G erm an withi n hi s rea l m h as s uf
fere d
T hen fo ll o ws s o m e
,

s t

en e
13

dd d b
e

fsi

to th e C o n e s o n

lb

1 I b

te rm

Th is

13

pp 2 4
p 22
.

c ause

of

th os e

S e ch endo r
f,

fte r

who a

III

24

th e

die t

We tte s
Fo r l e tte r s e e C
Ih ; D e

15

uth e r s

II :

B riefen , I V : 3 6 9, 3 73 , 3 80
82 8
.

of 1

5 3 0, h ad

as

The P o litical C o mplicatio ns

53

corr e s pondence be twee n Melanchtho n and Cardin al B el lay re


s ult in
g in an i nvitation to th e form er to vi s i t Fran ce in order to
e ffect an agree m ent i n d o ctrine with the French the o l o gian s
Even pri o r to thes e nego tiati o n s in the preceding Augu st Me
lan c h th o n p o ss ibly at the s ugges ti o n o f Margaret o f Navarre
s i s ter o f Franci s and f
av o rably di sp o sed to the Lutheran cau se
had tran sm itted an outline o f doctrine acc o rding to which he
pr o p o s ed to rec o ncile the di fferences But as c ruelti es t o ward s
Pr o tes tant s i n France were n o t abated and the prince s dee m ed
.
the pledges even o f the E m per o r m o r e tru s tworthy than any that
c o uld b e o ffered by the ki n g Melanchthon s de s ire to accept the
invitati o n w as denied by the Elect o r At the m eeting o f the
S m alcald League i n Dece m ber Cardinal Bellay i s pre sent with
1'
new pr o po s iti o n s only to hear h is s che m es i ntended purely for
p o litical expediency an s wered by the ad m irable C o n fess i o n that
the League had be en e stabli shed arrio ng t h e m for no other
reas o n s than fo r the pure W o rd o f G o d and fo r preserv i ng an d

pr o pagating the s ound doc trine o f faith


Bent o n war how
ever Fran ci s at las t fo un d an ally i n the Turks ; an d ho s tilities
be g
an in I 5 3 6
The se di fculties o f the E m per o r were propitiou s to Henry
and he has tened to make the bes t o f the m I f he c o uld only be
ad m i tted into the S malcald League and be made i ts chie f he
i m agined that he would so o n hu m ble both Po pe and E m peror
and that Franci s al so m ight be m ade pay a s evere pen alty fo r n o t
ha v ing es po us ed h is caus e Fo r the League had be gun to sh o w
an aggress ive s pirit The E m per o r s brother Ferdinand had
been c o m pelled by the Landgrave to surrender the r o yal power
o fW rte m b e rg and to res t o re i t to Duke U lrich w h o i n 1 5 3 4
intr o d uced the Re fo rmation The League its el f w as jus t ab o ut
extending its pr o vi si o n s to the li m its fo r which Rie gius an d hi s
Th e pur
ass o ciate s had so urgently plead to no e ffect i n r5 3 2
p o se w as be ing fo rm ed which at las t w as regularly ado pted i n
Dece m ber I 5 3 5 i n the enact me nt that allb e rec e i v ed int o the
,

"

C R
.

II :

1009 s q q

54

ut e ran [ Mo ve m e n t

in

Leagu e w h o have applied for ad m i ss ion o r shall herea ft e r apply


provided that they purely freely an d O penly c o n fe ss G o d and hi s
Go spel love peace and live as b e co m es honorable an d upright
8
m en
,

18

S e e een aorf; I I I

: 100.

CHAPTER IV

TH E E N G L I S H

WI TT E N B E R G

C O M M i ss nSN ro
'

Pre l i minary Ne go tiati o ns M e l anch th o n s l e tte r to H e nry VI I I Re ne we d


Ne go tiat i o n s an d Co rre s po n de nc e M e l anch th o n invi te d to E n gl an d
T h e A ugs burg C o nfe ss i o n as a B as i s o f Uni o n
Th e T hi r d S e ri e s o f
Ne go tiati o ns S k e tch e s o f Fo x an d H e ath Th e O rati o n o f Fo x Th e
Th e Th irte e n A rt ic l e s o f I 5 3 5
H e nry e nt an gl e d in h is o w n to i l s
Th e
D i s c uss i o ns at W itte nbe rg D i pl o m ac y v s Faith Th e A ugsburg C o n
Th e Am bass a d o rs w o n
T h e R e tit ia
fe ss io n un d e r D e bate
Chief

H e nry d e m an ds an Am e n d
d i f cul ty w ith th e art ic l e s o n A bus e s
m e nt
Th e Pro pos e d E m b as s y to E n g
Th e C o nv e nt i o n at Frankfo rt
l an d

WE have thu s far n o ticed how the truly evangelical ele m ent
connected with th e Engli sh Re fo r mation w as wo r king at th o s e
great centers o f religi o us thought and li fe the tw o great Eng
li sh universities n o twi ths tanding all the o ppos iti o n whi ch th e
power o f the g o vern m ent c o uld interpo s e until nally pol iti
cal m o tives cau sed Henry s break with the Po pe an d induced
hi m to try to turn to his o w n s ervice and to c o ntr o l an d
lead the very m ove m en t again s t which he had been p r e
Unchanged in principle and guided so lely by
v io usly arrayed
s ecular c o n s ide r ati o n s b e s o ught to be the head o f Pr o te stanti sm
not o nly in h is o w n lan d but o n the C o ntinent and to direct
ferent fr o m that whi ch it r s t t o o k
its c o urs e in a channel far di f
when with i r r ep r ess ible fo rce the yearning o f the heart fo r th e
assurance o f forgi v eness o f s in s burs t thr o ugh the b o n d s which
had been interpo s ed between the s in burdened s o ul and its G o d
I n acc o rdance with t h i s plan o f Hen r y to bec o m e m as ter o f the
Lutheran S m alcald League Dr Ro be r t Barne s w as o n March
r1th
I 5 3 5 o nce m o re i n Wi ttenberg
Melanchth o n write s o n
(5 5 )
,

'

Eng lan d

Th e L uthe ran /o ve m e n l in

56

t h at date to h is friend C am e rarius and in sert s s everal Gr e e k s en


a s tranger h as c o m e to us s ent fr o m
te n c e s to the e ffect that
Britain treating o nly o f the s ec o nd m a r riage o f the king ; but

fairs o f the Church


as he s ays the king h as n o concern fo r the af
and then he add s i n Latin :
There is t h i s advantage ab o ut i t
that n o cruelty is n o w exerci s ed again s t th o s e o f the p urer do c

trine
T w o days later Melanchth o n at the sugges ti o n o f Dr
Barnes wr o te H enry a letter wh o s e te r ms o f extravag nt prai s e
a
o f the king recall the s agaci o u s dipl o m at rather than the so ber
and di s cri m inating the o l o gian
Y o ur Ro yal Maje s ty ought
justly to be l o ved by all g o od m en o n account o f y o ur e m inent
"
H is reign i s prai s ed as
the golden
m o deration and ju s ti ce
age o f Britain Then a fter having c o m pletely fullled i n
many w o rds o f att e ry the rule o f the great Latin w r iter o n Ora
tory rs t to make the b e are r well di sp o sed he intr o duce s the sug
ge sti o n to which Archbi sh o p Laurence in his Bam pt o n Lecture s
3
as cribe s the origin o f th e f
o n The Thirty n ine Article s
o rm u
lari os o f faith which were pr o m ulgated during the reign o f

Henry
I have n o d o ubt he writes
that the c o ntrovers ie s
concern ing religion would be m itigated i f y o ur R o yal Maj es ty
were to use y o ur authority both to ben d other kings to m odera
tion an d to delibe r ate with lea r ned m en concern ing the kind o f
doct r ine Fo r it is i n n o way a d o ubt ful m atter that so m e abus es
which are n o t to be di ss e mbled have in s inuated the m selves i nto
the ch urch and that kings are n o t taking pain s to h ave a s imple
an d then he add s that
care
a nd s ure fo rm of do ctrin e is s ue d

o ught to be taken that cruelty be not ini cted upon g o od m en


I n Augu s t Melanchthon dedicate s to Henry the edition o f hi s
L o ci o f I 5 3 5 not as a patron but as a cen so r wh o m in the m o s t
c o urtly language he as ks to s tudy and critici s e the book Th e
,

I I : 85 1
C R I I : 86 1 86 4
3
No r is i t to o m uch to s uppo s e th at th e fo rm ul arie s o f fai th wh ic h we re
p ro m ul gate d in th e r e i gn o f H e nry o riginate d in th e a d vic e o f M e l anch th o n
d ate d M arch 3 [ 13 ]
as c o n t ain e d in a l e tt e r to th at P rinc e
A rch
b ish p L a urm ce s L tures Fo urth E d i ti o n O x fo r d 185 3 p 2 00
1

C R
.

ec

The Eng lis h C o m m is s io n to

I/Vztte n he rg

57

whole docu m ent is a m o s t earnes t plea fo r attention abov e all

t h ings to r e fo rm ati o n i n d o ctrine


It is m ani fes t
he write s
that so m e chie f articles o f Chri stian d o ctrine have lain fo r a
l o ng ti m e enveloped in den se s t darkne ss When the w o rks o f
s o m e learned and g o o d m en began to be pr o duced fr o m thi s at
o nce unu sual s everity unw o rthy o f the lenity which s h o uld cha r
No t o nly a r e go o d
ac te riz e the Church began to be exerci sed
and lea r ned m en put to death and abuses c o nrm ed but zeal fo r

Chri stian d o ctrine is alt o gether extingui shed


G o o d an d
wi s e princes s h o uld seek fo r suitable re m edies Why is it that
they are under any o bligati o n s to pre serve the Church fo r p o ster
i ty ? Thi s Church will indeed be rent as under i n innite ways
unless s o m e plan be ad o pted fo r the prop agatio n to pos te rity of a

I have th o ught i t o f the


go dl
y a n d s ure fo rm of do ctrin e
highe st i m p o rtance to pres en t thi s d o cu m ent to yo u the m o s t
lea r ned o fall kings that fr o m it rather than fr o m the calu m nie s
o fo thers your Maje sty m ay fo r m a judg m ent concern ing m e and

the entire kind o f d o ct r ine wi th which I a m e m pl o yed


Dip
lom atic as the m eth o d s o f Melanchth o n are yet back o fthe m w e
nd the earnes t e ffo rt to win the king and h is kingd o m o v er to
the truth o f the G o spel H is hea r t is se t up o n the pr o pagati o n
o f the pure d o ctrine o f G o d s W o rd and n o t up o n any s che m e
The bo o k
o f eccles ia s tical p o lity o r any o ther exte r nal relati o n s
w as entru s ted to Alexander A le s ius a Sc o tch m an to carry to
gether with a letter to Cran m er to England
Ab o ut the m iddle o f Septe m ber while the plague w as raging
at Wittenberg Dr Barne s re turned with a three fo ld prop o s i
ti o n
W o uld an e mbas s y o r am bas sador be received who would
I
be s ent fo r the purp o s e o f c o n ferring cal m ly with Dr Luther an d
the others d o ct o rs c o n cerning certain articles ?
2
W o uld Melanchth o n b e allowed to vi si t England i n o rder
to c o n fer with the King P
3 The King would not be aver s e to c o nnecti o n with the S mal

C R
.

II :

92

1 sq q

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in Eng land

58

cald League pr o vided a place w e re accorded hi m propo rtion e d


to h is rank and the articles o f faith which the League w as
pledged to de fend were tran sm itted to hi m
Even Luther bec o m es san guine as to the re sult and unites
with Jon as C ruc ige r and Bugenhagen in a m o s t urgent petiti o n

that the Elect o r give Dr Barne s an audience


Who know s
they write
what G o d will w o rk ? Hi s wi sd o m is higher and
5
h is will better than ours
The Elect o r s an swer to Dr Barne s o f Septe mber z rs t is im
p o rtant :
r The d o ctor s o f the U n iver s i ty s hall be directed to m eet
the proposed legate attentively hear hi m an d c o n fer with hi m i n
the s pirit o fl o ve
The questi o n c o ncerning Melanchth o n s leave o f abs ence
2
mu s t be de ferred until a fter the return o f the other pro fess o rs to
Wittenberg
3 The terms o f the ad m i ss i o n o f the King o f Englan d into
the League cann o t be decided by the Elect o r s ince he can ac t
o r hi ms el f, and h as n o authority to s peak f
o nly f
o r his c o lleagu e s
But o n e thing is sure
I f the King and the Elector are to b e
m e m ber s o f the League at the s am e ti m e the fo r m er mus t be pre
pared to c o rdially accept and s ub s cribe the Augsburg C o n fe ss ion
We will never reject the correct an d pure doctrine o f the Go s
pel us e ful to the Church which both o ur M o s t Illus triou s Fath
e rs and we with the other allie s c o n fe ss ed at the Diet o f Augs
burg be fo re the Mos t Invincible E m per o r o ur M os t Cle m ent
Lo r d an d the other prince s an d the States o f the Ro m an E m
8
pire
On leaving Dr Barn e s t o ok with hi m a letter written for the
Elector by Melanchthon Septe m ber 2 6 th pro fess ing m uch affe c
tion fo r the king n o t o nly becaus e o f the unbr o ken friend ship
between the rulers o f Saxo ny and the Kings o f England but
chie fly s ince we have learned that yo ur Se r e n e Highn e ss i s
,

5
6

De

We tte

C R
.

II :

uth e r s

94 2

B mefen ,

IV :

63 3

Th e

Eng lis h C o m m is s io n

to

I/Vitte n he rg

59

poss e ss ed o f a great des ire to reform th e do ctrine of religion Fo r


th i s is a care e specially worthy th e highes t kings ; n or can they
No r
w h o g o vern s tate s render G o d any s ervice m o re grate ful
can i t be di ss e mbled that m any faults have for m any generati o n s
in s inuat e d them sel v es int o the Church through th e negligence
an d cupidity o f the Ro m an p o nti ffs an d that thes e have need to
be corrected I f your Serene M aj es ty there fore will dev o te hi s
zeal to rig/o rm ing th e do ctrine and correcting eccles ias tical abu ses
he will in the r s t place make a m o s t pleas ing s acrice to God
and in the s ec o nd will de s erve wel l fro m the whole Church

and all p o s terity


A few days later (October I st) H enry u s ing hi s new title o f

Supre m e Head o n Earth o f the Engli sh Church ackn o wledges


Melan chth o n s c o urtes y in the dedicati o n o fh is L o ci by a brie f
n o te assuring hi m o f the graticati o n i t had affo rded c o m pli
m e n ting the auth o r s learning but a f
fo rding n o trace o f any se

rio us attenti o n pai d to the treat m ent o f d o ct r ine


The letter
w as acc o m panied by a pre s en t o f two hundred cr o wn s and the
pr o m i se that Cru m well w o uld c o mm un icate with h im further
Burnet regard s Melan chth o n s invitati o n to Englan d at thi s ti m e
s i m ply as a plan which Henry had ad o pted to c o unteract the
fect upon Melanchthon and the Elector o f the s i m ilar invi tation
ef
which had been received fr o m the French king
The King o f Englan d had thu s far be en m ade to plainly un
de rs tan d that while the Lutheran princes and the o l o gian s were
kindly di spo s ed to the Engli sh pe o ple an d deeply intere sted in
their wel fa r e ques tion s o f faith and the re form ation i n d o ctrine
overshad o wed all o thers and n o uni on could be e v en for a m o m e nt
entertained that had n o t as i ts bas i s the unres erved acceptance o f
the C o n fess i o nal bas i s laid at Augsburg Thi s will s till further
appear i n what is to fo llo w
Early in Nove mber I 5 3 5 there were further c o n ferences with

Barn es and o ther E ngli s h l e gates


Me lanchth o n , who so o fte n
.

,
,

lb
8
9

9 44
I b 94 8
C

II :

9 6 7 sq q

Th e L

60

uthe ra n

o ve m e nt

Eng la nd

in

called int o service to prepare State papers in which religious


q ues ti o n s were inv o l v ed wr o te fo r the Elector o n Nove m ber
1 7th
a letter which accepted the pr o fess ed e arn e s tne ss o f th e
king in regard to a religi o us re fo r m as th o ugh i t were seri o us
and i n fo rm ed hi m that s o far as he and hi s as sociate s were c o n
cerned their pu r p o s e is :
In thi s cau s e n o thing el s e but that
the glory o f C h ri s t m ay be pr o clai m ed an d g o dly and so un d
d o ctrine h arm o n iz ing w ith the Holy Sc r ipture s be rest o red to
the wh o le w o rld
Let no t the King o f England have the
leas t doubt but that the c o n federated princes an d s tate s are o f
s uch a m ind that s ince by God s ble ss ing they have learned to
know the truth o f the g o spel s o al so they will use all care and
d iligence thr o ugh o ut all li fe in de fending thi s h o ly and godly
doctrine and by G o d s help will never depa r t fr o m the truth
It is indeed v ery agreeable fo r the
w hich they have learned
p r ince s and c o n federated s tates to learn that the Kin g al so de
s i r e s to ai d the pure d o ctrine ; an d they pray that he m ay con

Then a fter s tating h o w necessary har


tinue in thi s opinion
m o n y am ong the m e m ber s o f the League o n thi s subject i s he
No r do th o s e e mbraced in thi s c o n federation have
c o ntinue s :
am o ng the m any di ss ent in d o ctrine o r opini o n s with res pect to
faith an d they ho pe by God s aid to pers evere and be har m on
i o us i n that d o ctrine which they con fe ss ed at the Diet o f Augs

burg be fore the E m per o r and the entire Ro m an E m pire


They cl o s e by expre ss ing their great gratication that the King
o f Englan d is o f s uch a m ind as to de s ir e to agree wi th the m in
the m atter o f Evangeli cal religion and doctrine being ready to
decla r e o n every p o ssible occas ion hi s fav o r in and z e al fo r thi s
m o s t holy cause as become s a Ki ng o f Chris tian an d evangelical
d o ctrine and to affo r d with the greates t diligence every m ean s

fo r advancing the cau s e o f the G o spel


Two m ore in fluential Engli sh co mm i ss i o ners n o w appeare d
upon the s cene repres enting m o re d irectly Henry than di d D r
Barn es in wh o m the King had thu s far u sed an agent alr e ady
c o mm itted to Lutheran i sm and s erviceable chiey b e caus e i t was
w as

'

Co mm iss io n

The Eng lis h

Witte nbe rg

to

61

suppo se d that he w o uld m os t likely be heard by the Re form ers


Am o ng the Engli sh clergy o f that period the nam e s o f Edwar d
Fox and Nicholas Heath are o f the very r s t rank
Fo x was unque sti o nably o ne o f the m o s t brillian t m en o f hi s
day A grad uate o f Et o n and Ca mbridge h is very rs t s er m o n
had so captivated the King that he at o nce becam e h is chaplain
He had been the King s Al m o ner as well as Sec r etary o f State
H i s gi fts shone e specially in the pulpit where
h is exp o s iti o n
was s o th o r o ugh and clear that the in ference m ight be d r awn
that all h is ti m e was occupied with Biblical s tudies ; h is divi si o n
w as so analytical as to give the i m press i o n that h is attention had
been de v o ted chiey to L o gic ; while h is de v el o p m en t w as as
rich i n th o ught as th o ugh he had lai d all the father s and s cho o l
1
m en under c o ntributi o n
C o o per i n h is A th e nae C antab rigie ns es says that he was called

the w o nder o f the U n iver s ity and d arling o f the c o urt


that
he had a vas t capaci ty fo r bus ine ss an d w as an able an d suit

able neg o tiat o r


an d that h is skill as a dipl o m ati s t expre ss ed it
s el f in seve r al p r o v e r bs that have bec o m e current ph r as e s with
p o s te r ity as The sures t way to peace is a c o ns tant prepared

T w o thi ngs supp o rt a g o v e r n m ent


G o ld to
ness fo r war 3
reward its fr iend s and ir o n to keep down its ene m ie s
Ti m e

and I will challenge any in the w o rld etc H e had been s ent
by W o l s ey to Ro m e in 15 18 to negotiate with the Po pe c o ncern
ing the pr o p o s ed div o rce He had been the pr o m inent m e m be r
He w as largely in s tru m ental in di s
o f an e m bass y to France
c o v ering Cran m er and starting the serie s o f event s by which the
He had fo ught
latter becam e Pri m ate o f the Engli s h Church
the battle o f Cambridge where a fter a l o ng re s i stance the nullity
r m ed Alth o ugh greatly di s tru s ted
o f the rs t m arriage w as af
by the Electo r and Melanchthon t h i s vi s it to Ger m any s ee ms to
have decided h is the o logi cal po s i ti o n as a fter h is return to Eng
land he bec o m es the leading repre sen tative o f Lutheran O pinion
.

S taat,

L
.

B e n th e m

889 s q q

Neu ern ete r

E nge lan dis ch e r [ fire ];

and

S ch u/e n

62

Th e L uthe ran M

o ve m e n

t in Eng la n d

i n the n e gotiati o n s that fo llow and i n th e prepa r ati o n o f H e nry s


r s t fo r mula r y ; e v en th o ugh he be o pen to the c h arge o f in c o n
U n fo rtunately h is career was but a brie f o n e as he
s i s tency
died in I 5 3 8
The thi r d o f the env o ys e specially fas ci n ated Melanchthon
w h o i n h is private letters cann o t speak in su f
ciently high terms
o f h is s ch o la r s hip and character
Ni cholas Heath (b o r n abo ut
I
educated at Ox ford an d Cam bridge had been chaplain to
W o l sey and at the ti m e when s ent to Ger m any w as H e ury VIII s
o w n c h aplain
A fter so m e wave r ing i n 15 4 8 he identied hi m
s el f w ith the R o m an Cath o lic s ide ; i n I 5
beca
m
e
Archbi
s
hop
5 5
It
o fY o rk and a fterward s Lord High Chancellor o f England
w as Heath w h o under the reign o f Mary was to i ssue the wri t
fo r the executi o n o f Cran m er
No less than t wo hundred an d
s eventeen per s on s were to be put to death f
o r Evangelical c o n
v ic tio n s w h en he would hold the s eal
The execut o r o f Q ueen
Mary he w as m ade a m e m ber o f the Privy Council at the begin
n ing o f the reign o f Elizabeth ; but was s o o n c o mm itted to the
t o wer and exc o mm unicated A fter hi s releas e he lived i n retire
m ent until h is death i n I 5 79
Such were the am bassad o rs with wh o m the Lutheran th e o lo
gian s were to treat At r st Luther and Melanchth o n were di
re c te d to m eet the m at Jena but Wittenberg was nally des ig
n ate d as
the place o f c o n ference Meanwhile h o wever the
c o nventi o n o f the League was held at S m alc ald The Engli s h
c o mm i ssi o n w as pre sent and o n the 2 4th o f Dece mber Fo x as
their s p o ke sm an delivered an o rati o n Note s o f i t were taken by
Spalatin He clai m ed that he an d his as s ociates were pre sent
not o n behal f o f a hu m an cau s e but fo r the sake o f the Word o f
He sh o wed with what incredible zeal and love
G o d and truth
i n religi o u s m atters their s o ve r eign had been actuated and h o w
an xi o us he was to c o o perate with the other prince s in pro pagat
ing the p ure kn o wledge o f G o d The King he says d o es not
heed the s landers which have been publi shed concerning th e
m e mber s o f the League but e s tee ms the m as evang e li cal me n,
,

'

Eng lis h Co mm iss ion

The
wh o

Witte nbe rg

to

63

would neither de s ign n o r c o mm i t anythin g unworthy o f


the msel v es as con fe ss o rs the G o s pel The King ackn owledge s
the abus es in the Ch urch o f England and is endeav o ring to re
fo r m the m The caus e an d w o rk o f Englis h Chri s tian s i s the
They sh o uld ai m at
s a m e as that o f thei r b r ethren i n Ger m any
per fect ha r m o ny and as its bas i s s hould endeav o r to c o m e to
an unders tan ding t o uching matters o f Chri s tian d o ctrine C o n
cert o f acti o n s ho uld al s o be determ ined i f poss ible c o ncerning
the pr o p os ed C o uncil Peace an d har m o ny o f C h ri s tian doc
trine c o n s titute h o wever the very rs t thing which ab o ve all
1
Certainly a m os t ad m irable s peech !
o thers is to be s ettled
On the next day Ch r i s t mas Melanchthon prepared a paper
fo r the Prince s which after being am ended w as ad o pted an d sub
an d the Engli sh
s cribed b o th by the Elect o r an d Landgrave
a m bas sad o r s as The Thirteen Arti cles o f r
As the tr an slation gi v en in S trype s Me m o rial s o f the Re fo r m a
"
tio n is de fective we tran slate ane w fro m the C o r pu s Re fo r m a
3
t o ru m :
I That the M o s t Serene King pro m ote th e G o spel o f Chri s t
and the pure doct r in e o f faith acc o r ding to th e m o de in which
the Prince s an d c o n federated State s con fe ss ed i t in the die t of
A ugs burg a n d defe n de d it acco rding to the puhlis h e d Apo logy un
l e ss perhaps so m e things m eanwhile jus tly s ee m to require chan ge
o r c o rrecti o n fr o m the W o rd o f G o d by the c o mm o n con s ent o f
th e M o s t Serene King an d the prince s the ms elve s
I I Al so That the M o s t Serene King t o gether with the
Princes an d States con federated defe nd and maintain th e do ctrine
of th e go sp e l m e ntione d an d cere m o nies har m onizing with the
go s pe l i n a fu tu r e general c o uncil
I I I That nei ther the Mo s t Seren e King without the expre ss
n or
c on sent o f the c o n federated prince s an d s tates m enti o ned
th e con federated princ e s an d s tates m enti o ned without th e ex
,

Ib
Iz

pp

Ib V :
.

13

I I : pp

102

pp
.

8 sq q

5 5 9 sq q

103 2 s q q

ve m e n t

Th e L uth e ra n M

64

Eng lan d

in

pre ss con s ent o f the M o s t Serene King m enti o ned con sent or
ass ent to any call for a general c o uncil , which th e P o pe o f Ro m e
pre s ent o r futu r e o r any o n e el s e whatever be the preten ce o f
auth o rity n o w m ake s o r s hall m ake n o r agree to any place o f a
future C o uncil o r to the C o uncil it s el f but that all thes e things
be c o nducted and d o ne with the advice and con sent o f the King
and p r ince s pr o vided neverthele ss that i f ce r tainly and by ju s t
argu m ent s an d reas on s it appear that such a Chri stian free an d
general council have been called as the c o n federates de m an d in
their an swer to Peter Paulus V e rge rius the ambas sad o r o f the
Po pe o f Ro m e such c o uncil is not to be re fused
IV Al so i f i t sh o uld happen that with o ut the con sen t o f the
M o st Se r ene King and the c o n federated s tates c o ncerning the
place o f the c o uncil o r the calling o f the c o un cil and yet the
Pope o fRo m e and the o ther prince s joined with h im i n thi s m atter
s hould deter m ine to proceed t o the c o nvening o f the c o un cil o r
rather caucus (co nciliahuli ) and that to o in a place upon whi ch
the a foresaid M o s t Serene King princes and s tat e s have n o t agreed
that then an d i n that cas e the a fo re said M o st Se r ene King as well
as the a fo re said M o s t Illu s t r i o u s Prince s and State s con federate shall
r s t s trive with all their power that such calling be hin dered an d
br o ught to nought an d reach n o result
V Secondly that they will m ake public an d fo r m al prote sts
and likewi se cau s e the m to be m ade by their cle r gy by whi ch
they will b o th pr o ve the purity o f their faith an d that they dis
s ent alt o gether fr o m such conv o cati o n n o r i f s uch c o uncil ao
tually fo llow will they be b o und by the decree s o r con s tituti o n s
o f that council n o r in the future will they in any way o bey the
sa m e
VI Be s ides that they never will obey o r per m it their subject s
to o bey any decree s m andate s o r s entence s bull s letters o r
b r ie fs fr o m an y c o un cil thu s c o nv o ked an d held o r whi ch pro
c e e d in the nam e o f the Bi s h o p o f R o m e hi m s el f o r any other
power but that they will acc o unt and declare all such writi n gs
decree s bull s and brie fs null an d void and to re m ove all s candal
,

Eng lis h C o mm is s io n

The

Witte n be rg

to

65

wi ll cau s e such to be thu s declared to the p e ople by their bishops


and preachers
VII Al so that as the Mo s t Serene King is by the grace of
God unite d hath in C h ris tian do ctri n e a nd in its co nfe s s io n with
the con federated prince s and s tate s so also is he dee m ed w o rthy
to be as s o ciated with their league i n
o n h o n o rable c o nditi o n s
s uch m anner that h is M o s t Serene Maj es ty o btain the nam e and
place o f De fender an d Pr o tect o r o fsaid league
VIII Al so that n eith er the a fo re said M o s t Se rene King n o r
the a fo re said M o s t Ill us tri o u s P r inces o r State s c o n federated ever
will rec o gn ize m ainta in o r de fend that the pri m acy or m o narch
be held to day o r ever he r ea fter de j ure aivino No r will they
ever agree o r c o ncede that i t is expedient fo r th e Chri stian State
that the b is h o p o fR o m e b e over all the res t o r h erea fter exerci se
in any way any juri sdicti o n whatever i n the real ms or d o m in i o n s
o f the a fo re said King s and P r ince s
I X Al so i f i t s h o uld so happen that war o r any o ther c o n
tenti o n whether o n acc o un t o f religi o n o r even with o ut s uch
caus e fo r any other caus e o r matter what s oever sh o uld be excited
or carried o n by any prince s tate o r pe o ple again s t the a fore said
M o s t Serene King h is real ms d o m ini o n s o r subject s o r al so
again s t th e a fo r e said Mo s t Illus tri o u s Prince s o r States con feder
ated that neither o f the parties m enti o ned b r ing aid o r supplie s
again s t th e o ther party n o r by advice o r fav o r directly o r indi
re c tly p ublicly o r privately ass i s t prince o r p e o p le thu s invading
and waging war
.

X Al s o that the Mo s t Se rene King

t fo r the de fence o f
the league and o f th e cau se o freligi o n to c o ntribute an d dep o s it
with the se m o s t ill us tri o u s princes suretie s being a ffo rded as is
added bel o w the sum o f
cro w n s ; the hal f o f which
m o ney i t shall be law ful fo r the c o n federates to use whene v er
there shall be need fo r the purp o se o f de fence The o ther hal f
the c o n fede r ates shall take o f such m o ney as the y th e ms e lves
have c o ntributed and depo s it ed to that sum
se e

The L uthe ran lo ve me nt in Eng land

66

That i f there be ne e d o fa longer de fence becau se o f th e


continuati o n o fwar o r the invas ion o f ene m ies in such event
s i nce prince s and c o n federate s are under o bliga ti o n n o t o nly for
a furt h er contribution o fm oney but al s o for m utu alde fence with
their bodie s and all their res ource s an d property the M o s t Seren e
King w o uld n o t re fus e in urgent necess ity to c o n tribute even
m o re viz a s ec o n d
cro wn s Thi s m o ney nevertheless
the con federates m ay u s e to the am o unt o f o n e hal f with their
An d s h o uld i t s o happen that the war sh o uld end earlier
o wn
then what is le ft s h o uld be faith fully kept and be m entioned to
the Mos t Serene King at the c o nclu s ion o f the c o n federation
XI

X II That i f the King w o uld have i t

d o ne the Prince s pr o m
ise that they will pledge with s ufcient s uretie s n ot o nly that
they will n o t c o n v ert such m o ney to an o ther use than for the de
fence o f the league and the caus e o f religi o n together with their
own m o ney which they contribute in such c o n federation but
als o that they will faith fully pay an d res t o re to the sam e Serene
Maj es ty whatever sum either be n o t needed o r that re main s
a fter the de fence in cas e i t s hall n o t have been devoted to
that use
.

so

XIV Al s o s ince the Mo s t Revered Legate s

the M o s t Serene
King are to re m ain fo r a ti m e in Ger m any an d are to con fer
with m en learned in sacred literature on certain articles the
princes ask t h at they w o uld as s oon as p o ssible inquire an d learn
the m ind an d o pini o n o f the Mo s t Serene King c o nce r
ning th e
c o ndition s p r esented in the League and t h at when they have
been in fo r m ed the r e o n they w o uld si gni fy it to us the Elector
When thi s is done the
o f Sax o ny and th e Landgrave o f He ss e
Prince s will i mm ediately send legate s i n their o wn nam e an d that
o f the c o n federated State s to the M o s t Serene Kin g and a m ong
the m o n e o f e m inent learning n o t only to diligently c o n fer with
Hi s M o s t Serene Ro yal Majes ty o n the a r ticle s o f Ch r i s tian do c
trine and to del iberate faith fully c o ncerning changing e s tab
lishing an d ordaining oth e r cer e m oni e s i n the Church but als o
.

of

Th e

Eng lis h Co mm is s io n

to

IVitte nhe rg

67

c o nclude with H is M o s t Se rene Maj es ty concerning

all th e articles where o f we have s poken


Edward H e re fo rde ns
Nic o lau s H e yth
Ant o niu s Ba r n s
u
J o hn Frederick Elect o r
Philip L o f Hess e
T h e Engli sh King was certainly placed in an e m b aras s in g po
H is am bassad o r s
as m en who di sse m ble s o o ften are
s itio n
w o rd had bee n receive d i n g o o d faith that he was anxiou s chiey
ab o ut a re fo r m o f d oc trine and wi shed the ai d o f Lutheran the o
lo gians
and acc o rdingly m eas u r es to which hi s repre sen tativ es
feel the ms el v e s c o n strained to as sent were t aken to aid hi m i n
the i m p o rtant w o rk Y e t a letter o f Cru m well at thi s ti m e pre
5
declare s
The King kn o wing hi ms el f to
s erved in Burnet
b e the le arn e de s t prince in Eu r o pe t h o ught i t becam e n o t hi m

The m atter
to s ub m it to the m but the m to s ub m it to hi m
h o wever h as as su m ed the s hape that Fo x an d Heath wi th Barne s
are to s pend s everal m o nth s i n the o l o gi cal c o n fe r en ces at Witten
berg s tudying the Augsburg C o n fe ss i o n and Ap o l o gy under the
in s tructi o n s o f Melanchth o n an d t hat then i f they can accept
such bas i s so m e c o m petent Lutheran d o ct o r is t o go to Eng
lan d to help the m t o co m plete the w o rk So s che m e w as m et by
o r o nce as wi s e as the chil
s che m e the child r en o f light being f
dren o f thi s gene r ati o n fo r the Engli sh hi s t o r ian is per fectly
j us ti ed i n h is in ference that the co o lness o f the Elector cam e
fro m the i m p r e ss i o n that the King had only a p o litical des ign
in all thi s nego tiati o n intending t o bring t he m in to a depend
ence o n hi ms el f with o ut any s incere intenti o n s with relati o n to
1
H o wever thi s may be the c o ur s e o f o ur princes
religi o n
and the o l o gian s i n thi s m atter was per fectly clear and c o n s is tent
It w as s o lely o n que s tion s o freligi o n that they had been fo r ced
int o a see m ing oppos ition to the E m per o r On thes e and these

to

agree

an d

1 C

II :

B u rn e t
1"
1
b p 6
.

10 3 2 s q q

H is tory ,

99

XIII

II

6 98

is

no t

fo un dj

n the

d c um nt
o

Th e L uth e ran lo ve m e n t in Eng land

68

nly they were ready to s tand o r fall They were unwilling to


be e mbar as sed by an y alliances t h at were bas ed o n any o ther
g r o und s Every c o nvert to thes e principles even th o ugh the
Pope hi ms el f they were ready to welc o m e to the League e v ery
o n e w h o s o ught the friend ship o f the League fr o m o ther m o tive s
whether he were the King o f France o r the King o f England
m ight as well understan d fr o m the beginning that he c o uld n o t
enter Thes e religi o u s principles o n which thei r League w as
fo unded they had clearly dened already at Augsburg Every
applicant t h e r e fo re w as s i m ply as ked to read the plat form there
pre sented in the C o n fe ss i o n an d Ap o l o gy ; an d h is future relation
to the League m u s t be decided by hi s willingne ss o r unwilling
ness to subs cribe what w as there se t fo r th No r m u s t any o ppo r
tun ity o fwinning o ver t o the truth th o se who had c o m e to the m
fr o m what were pr o bably other reas o n s than a regard to G o d s
h o n o r be neglected They would accept thes e am bas sad o r s o n
their pr o fe ss i o n s h o wever m uch they di s tru sted the m and dev o te
o n the part o fthe the o l o gian s m o nth s o f ti m e and lab o r and o n
the pa r t o fthe Elector th e expen s e o f the entertain m ent o fr o yal
co mm i ss i o ners i n a s tyle bec o m ing their rank even though he
found i t a heavy burden
A fter the adj o u r n m ent o f the S m alc ald League the Engli s h
ambassad o r s acc o r dingly repaired t o Wittenbe r g The begin
n ing o f the c o n ference the r e w as del ayed until the cl o se o f J an
uary partially becau s e o f the absence o f Melanchthon o n a t o ur
o f inve s tigati o n an d c o un s el c o ncerning the Anabapti s t s
An
to n ius Mu sa wr o te fr o m j ena o n the day a fter Mel anchth o n s de
parture for Wittenb e r g that he is to di s cu ss at Wittenbe r g the
Fo r the King o f E ngland h as s ent a
s ubject o f
Private Mass
bi sh o p wi th s everal lea r ned m en to pre sent th eir argu m en t and
to endeav o r to sh o w that Private Mas s o ught to be retained The
King o f England h as heco me a L uth e ra n to th is e x te nt viz that
s ince the P o pe w o uld n o t appr o ve h is d iv o rce he ha s fo rbidden
all m en in h is real m at the peril o ftheir live s to regard the P o pe
as Supre m e Head o f the church but c o mm anded the m to regard
o

Eng lis h C o m m iss io n

The

Wi tte nb e rg

to

69

hi ms el f in s tead All o th e r papi stical affairs m o nas te ries mass es


indulgences prayers fo r the dead etc they n o t o nly retain i n
Eng land but even obs tinately de fend On thi s acc o unt ambas
sado rs ha ve been sent to fo rti fy and de fend m as s e s in a public
7
Even a fter Melanchth o n s return
d i sputati o n at Wittenbe rg
however o n January I 5 th there w as a rel uctance o f the am bas
On January z rst they as
sado rs t o p r o ceed to s eriou s w o rk
eady to begin the di scuss i o n
s ured Melanchth o n that they were r
8
yet i t is n o t fo r week s
o f each article o f d o ctrine in o rde r
that they are di sp o s ed to treat o n any o ther s ubject than the leg
They are exce ss ively fond o f
itimac y o f the king s divorce

uibbling
Melan
chth
on
write
s
Luther
s letter s
sh o w h o w
q
greatly he w as annoyed by their course Fir s t he s peaks play
fully o f the great i m p o rtance that m us t be attached to the o pin
io n o fhi m s el f an d h is as so ciate s in that while eleven univers ities
have already given their deci s i o n s i t s ee ms that all the w o rld will
unless w e p o o r be ggar s the Wittenberg the o l o gian s b e
b e l o st
1
He is deter m ined however n o t to recede fr o m h is
heard
fo rm er O pini o n tha t the r st m arriage was legiti m ate but in o ther
re spects I will s h o w m ysel f n o t un fr iendly toward s the m i n o r

der that they m ay n o t think that we Ger m an s are s t o ne o r wo o d


Melanchth o n tes tie s at rs t that
Luther lovingly e m braces

the m and i s even delighted by their courtes y


But he beco m es
vexed that i n three days they do n o t ni sh the entire m atter
s tating that in four week s he had c o m plet e d m uch m o re i m p o r
2
tant bus iness than that which o ccupies the m twelve years
an d
i s indignant at the expen se occas i o ned the elect o r by their enter
1
tain m e n t
Melanchth o n grew weary O f waiting fo r the di scu s
s i o n o n m atters o f doctrine an d a fter tw o week s at Wittenberg
retu rn s to Jena to continue hi s con flict with the Anabapti s ts H e
.

17

C R 111:

p 26
19
D e We tte

18

lb

C R
.

12

De

s,

III :

We tte

2
'

L
6

uth e r s

B riefe n ,

IV :

663

IV :

6 71

h
L ut e r s B riefen ,

66 8

Th e L uth e ra n /o ve m e n t in

70

Eng land

wrote to h is fr iend s that nothing at all h as been under c o n s ider


2
Heath fo ll o wed Melanchth o n to Jena
ation but the div o rce
The latter w as m uch gratied by the vi s i t ; and on February
The wh o le plan o f the Engli s h
ro th returned to Wittenberg
am bassad o r s w as pr o bably arranged fo r the pu r p o s e o f gaining
ti m e s o as to receive in struction s fr o m England They m u s t
have so o n pe r cei v ed that any atte m pt to ha v e the Lutheran the o
We can s carcely c o nceive
lo gians jus ti fy the div o rce w as u s ele ss
that they c o uld have had in th o ught a bargain by which i f the
divorce were endor sed by the Luthe r an s every con fess i o nal re
q uire m e n t would then be at o nce m et by the Angli can s and the
Augs burg C o n fess i o n and Apology be received fo r the Engli sh
Church It would b e a m o re cha r itable interpretati o n to re
gard the ambassadors a s s ym pathizing m ore o r le ss with the re
fo r m in doctrine and hoping to win o ver thei r s overeign to the
faith which they rec o gnize as truth by o btaining fr o m the Wi t
tenberg the o logi an s a c o nce ss i o n w hich w o uld ha v e been sure to
have g r eatly gratied hi m Had the divorce been end o r s ed it
is pr o bable t h at the Engl i sh Church would have been pledged to
the Augsburg Con fe ss ion and the Ap o logy
However thi s m ay ha v e been the critical exam ination o f the
Augsburg C o n fe ss i o n article by arti cle and the earne s t di s cu s
s i o n o f the p o int s o f divergence began at length s h o rtly a fter
Melan chth o n s seco nd return and c o ntinued thr o ugh o ut the e n
tire m onth o f March Strype is altogether in error when he
The am bassad o rs returned h o m e i n January excepting
s tate s :
both Melan chth o n s and
Fo x w h o it see ms s tayed
Luther s letters o f that period will at o nce s how Melanchthon
again and again s peaks o f hi s di scuss i o n s with the m and e specially
nam es H eath and at the very cl o s e o f the m onth (March 3 o th )
2
wri te s
S ic me A ngli e x e rce n t vix ut respirare lic e a t
On the 2 8th o f that m onth Luther s ent to the Elect o r a
2
tran slation o f the articles o n which they had b e en able to agree

22

Ih

23
2

M em o ria ls ,

C R
.

II I :

I
53

3 67

Eng lis h C o mm iss ion

The

to

I/ Vitte n he rg

71

tat e d that the Engli sh am bassad o rs be fore proce e ding


further had re fe r red the las t fo ur article s to the king s ince i f
any s eri o us m odicati o n o f the m were required further c o n fer
ence w as u seless T w o days later Melan chthon wr o te that the
c o ntenti o n between the m had n o t been light but nevertheless
25
the r e w as an ag r ee m ent c o ncerning m o s t things
S e c ke n
26
d o r f gives m o re am ple detail s :
They made an exa m inati o n
O f all the a r ticles o fthe Augs bu r g C o n fess i o n and the o pini o n s
o f Luther and h is c o lleague s s ee m to have been given o n all
things
The r e is extant a Repetiti o n and Exeges i s o f the
Augsburg C o n fessi o n elab o rated by the Wittenberger s and re
In ad
c e iv e d and car r ied h o m e by the An gli can legate s
7
diti o n to the Repetition o f the Augs burg C o n fess i o n the Wit
tenberg theol o gian s elab o rated the m o st tr o ubleso m e article s int o

A m o ng o ther s tipulati o n s up o n which


s pe cial di ss ertati o n s
they agreed w as n o t o nly the denial o f the p o wer o f the Pop e by
divine law but al so the pr o m i s e that neither s ide w o uld under
any c o n siderati o n m aintai n any pre e m inence o f the bi sh o p o f
8
Ro m e over o ther bi sh o ps as u s e ful o r expedien t
Although
Fo x a frm ed that there had been an abr o gati o n i n E ngland o f
g o dless po n ti cal abu s es and es pecially o f indulgences M e lan c h
th o n i n o n e o fth e di ss ertation s re ferred to exp r ess ed his as ton
ish m e n t that i n the Engli s h decree n o re fo rma ti o n o f the abus es
Fo r o n reading Henry s decree the
o f the Mass w as p r o p o s ed
Wittenbe rg the o l o gian s saw at a glan ce that o nly the l ess i m p o r
tant had been t o uched upon while the chie f abu s es had all been
9
Melan chth o n write s o n the m argi n th e v e ry sign i
retained

can t Greek word s oude n hygies


nothing so un d

an d s

p 6 83
2
I p 111 s q
9
I h p 112
27
O f th is Re pe titio
5

Ib

narily kno w n as
Se e

Fe ue rlin ,

S uppe r

th e
2

50

can n d no trac e th e do c um e nt o r di
R e p A ug
be in g th e S a x o n C o nfe ss i o n o f15 5 1
S t rype re gar ds i t c o nn e d to th e d o c trin e o fth e L o r d s

h o we v e r , w e
.

S e ch endo rf,

III :

112 .

Eng land

Th e L uthe ran h/o ve me nt in

72

During these di scuss i o n s Henry s an swer to the


Articl e s o f
3"
w as received and hi s legate s co mm unicated its purport
15 3 5
s tating am ong o ther things that har m ony was unattainable un
less s o m ething r s t in yo ur C o nfe ss io n and Apology he modi e d
by private c o n ference s and friendly di s cu ss ion s between hi s and

y o ur learned m en
and that h is Maj es ty as ks that a m an o f
e m inent lea r ning be sent to hi m to con fer diligently o n the
a r ticle s o f Chri s tian d o ctrine and changing e stabli shing and

ordaining other cere m onies i n the Church


Ap r il 2 4th the Pr o te s tant princes m et at Frank fo rt an d early
in the m o nth the Engli s h ambassador s m ade prepa r ati o n s fo r
attendan ce there Becaus e o f hi s di stru s t o f the bi sh o p o f Here
fo rd who m he evidently think s well n am ed Fo x the elect o r re
3
3
He write s h o wever April 2 2 d
fus es a farewell audience
that i f the King w o uld p r o pagate i n h is kingdo m the pure doc
t r in e o f the Chri s tian religi o n acc o rding to the C o nfess io n and

an d adopt cere m onie s in acc o rdance with the pure


Apo logy
d o ctrine o f the G o spel he wo uld use every e ffo rt that the king

De fender o fthe Evangelical Faith


s h o uld receive the title O f
But that i f the King hes itated ab o ut ad m itting into h is king
do m th e p ure doctrin e of th e G o sp e lacco rding to th e C o nfess io n and

according to the a r ticle s recently drawn up at Witten


Ap o logy
be r g ; the Elect o r c o uld not i m agine what us e i t w o uld be ei ther fo r
the King o r h is allies to m ake a league o r exchange am bas sad o r s
In a letter to H enry o f the sam e date he as su r e s hi m o f hi s good
will an d begs hi m to undertake the thorou gh re for m ati o n o f th e
33
Engli s h Church
Secken d o r f s tates that the Elector e n
de av o re d be s ide s to ha v e an e m bas s y app o inted to vi s it England
c o m p o s ed o f Ge o rge Prince o fAnhalt Melanchth o n and Vi ce
chancell o r Franci s Burkhard The Landgrave propo sed send
ing the theol o gian s B uce r and Schnep f o r B re ntz and the civil
ian s C ount S o lm an d Jacob Sturm The r e was s o m e di s cus
,

C R 111: 4 9
.

S e ch e n do r
f,

32

C R
.

33

III :

III :
113

III :
62

111.

The

Eng lis h Co mm is s io n

to

Wttte n he rg
'

73

s ion am ong the princes as to the terms to be propos ed by thi s


e m bass y but they were nally reduced r s t to the acceptance o f
the Augs burg C o n fe ss i o n unless am ended fro m the Word o fG o d
and s econdly its de fenc e in the c o m ing C o uncil ; an d i f the
King did n o t appr o v e o f the article s to treat concern i n g m utual
ass i s tance
But as m os t o f the princes an d citie s were avers e to
any un i o n with the King o f Englan d the atte m pt w as vain ; while
new event s i n England s udd e nly made a v e ry mat e rial change in
th e s i tuation
,

CHAPTER
P

RO GR E SS O F

C o nj e ctur e s

WAR

THE

F A I TH

FO R T H E

N E N G L A ND

fall H e r sym p ath y w ith th e


M e l anch th o n s In dignatio n
M e lan ch
R e fo rm ati o n
C ranm e r s
th o n w arn e d by B arn e s n o t to vi s it E n gl an d A ntago ni sti c E l e m e nts
in th e E ngl ish Ch urch T av e rn e r s E ngl i sh A ugsburg C o nfe s s i o n an d
A po l o gy
C o nv o cat i o n o f C an te rb ury
S e n s ati o n caus e d b y L atim e r s
T h e S i x ty S e v e n Po ints
Th e D e bate s
T h e S i de s d rawn
S e rm o n
Fo x e s T ribute to G e rm an L uth
A l e x an d e r A le s ius an d h is S pe e c h
as

to th e

cause

nn e
G ri ef

o fA

B o l e yn

e ran ism .

I T is

i m p r obable that the fate o f Anne Boleyn was s ealed


by Henry s failu r e to gain fo r hi s sec o n d m arriage the end o rs e
m ent o f the Wittenberg faculty We have alre ady n o ted h o w
clo sely connected s h e was with Cran m er the m o nths which he
had s pent i n her father s hou s e an d the e ffect o f h is vi sit We
have al s o s een that sh e was a d iligent reader o f Evangelical
bo o ks su r reptiti o us ly i ntroduced fr o m the C o ntinent as the dis
Obedience o f a C h ri s tian
c o ve ry o f her c o py o f T yn dale s

an d its i nuence up o n Henry p r o ve She had gener


M an
and
o usly m aintained a nu m ber o f s cholar s at the U niver s itie s
all o f the m am o ng wh o m w as Heath were du ring her li fe ti m e
earnes t cha m pi o n s o f the Re fo r m ati o n One o f the s e s cholar s
w as e s pecially active i n circulating the w o rks o f Luther an d Me
Strype gives a let ter i n which sh e intercede s fo r a
lan c h th o n
m erchant i n tr o uble fo r circulating the New Tes ta m ent :
Anne
tru s ty an d well bel o v ed we greet yo u well And
th e queen
w hereas yo u be c r edibly en fo r m ed that the bearer here o f R y
chard Her m an m e r chant an d citizen o f Antwerp i n B rabant
was in the ti m e o f the late Lord Cardinal put and expelled fro m
no t

(74)

P rog re s s

War fo r

the

the

Fa ith

75

freed o m and fellowship o f and in the Engli sh Hous e there


rm e th but o nly fo r that that h e did
fo r n o thing el se as he af
b o th with his g o o d s and p o licy to h is great hurt and hind r ance
in thi s world help to the s etting fo rth o f the Ne w Tes tam ent i n
Engli sh ; we there fo re des ire and in stan tly pray yo u with all
s peed and favo r c o nvenient ye w o ll cau s e thi s g o o d and hones t
m erchant being m y lord s true faith ful an d l o v ing s ubject to be
1
res t o red to h is pri stin freed o m liberty and fell o wsh ip a fo resaid
The Ro m ani s t s reck o ned her (an d that truly en o ugh ) a great
in s tru m ent in putting the King fo rward to what he had don e i n
re fo r m ing religi o n P o le i n a letter to the King written within
two m o nths a fter her death takes leave t o call her the King s
d o m es tic e v il which God as he said had rid hi m o f and that

sh e w as th o ught to be the caus e o f all h is e v il s


With s uch evidence i t is n o t dic ult to se e h o w Cran m er
could say
I never had better O pini o n i n w o m an than I had
in her
Next unt o your grace I w as m o s t b o un d unto her
I l o ved her n o t a little fo r the love
o fall creature s living
3
I judged her to bear t o ward s God and h is G o s pel
Alth o ugh her writings have no very high au th o rity i t is
nevertheless intere sting to notice that Mi ss Benger in her

Me m o ir s o f Ann e Boleyn
also sugges ts the failure o f the
Wittenberg negotiati o n s as o n e o f the cau ses o f the Queen s
down fall
Drs Fo x and Hethe were sent to Ge rm any o n a
m i ss i o n to th e Lutheran divine s with wh o m m any c o n ferences
to o k place O f which the conclu s i o n w as little sati s fact o ry to the
pride o r prejudice s o f Henry s ince even Anne s p o pularity c o uld
n o t entice the m to ack nowledge the legality o f hi s div o rce and
neither argum en ts nor pro m i s es at o ned fo r h is rejecti o n o f the
C o n fess i o n O f Augs burg It is however m o re than pr o bable
thes e di fculties m ight have been obviated in a s ubs equent neg o
tiatio n but fo r the inuence o f Gardiner w h o w as at the sam e
h is

M e m orials
3

Ib

45 6

a e nk n s
y

R eforma tio n ,

Cra n m e r I :
,

16 4.

I:

44 6

Th e L uthe ran /o ve m e n t in

76

Eng la nd

ti m e e m ployed o n an e m bas s y to Fran ce which afford e d hi m


faciliti e s fo r c o unteracting the united e ffo rt s o f Hethe and Me
The un
lan c h th o n and rendering the whole plan ab o rti v e
pr o sperous i ssue o f the negotiati o n was a s evere di sapp o int m ent

to Anne
The death o f Q ueen Catherine January 6 th I 5 3 6 had i ntr o
As h is m arriage to Anne B o leyn w as
duc e d a new s i tuati o n
regarded illegal not only by th e P o pe but al so by the Luther
fe r ed i f he c o uld in so m e way
an s the o pp o rtun ity w as n o w o f
ri d hi msel f o f her to c o ntract a m atri m o nial alliance which
w o uld be undi sputed by all B o th P o pe and E m per o r m ight
thus be rec o nciled and an unques ti o ned s ucce ss i o n be s till o b
Bes ide s the King s dignity had been o e n de d by a ju st
tain e d
repro o f fr o m h is queen an d h is super s tition s had been q uick
ened as in the fo r m er m arriage by the birth o f o nly prince ss es
Thes e vari o u s m o tives c o m bined to induce hi m to nd so m e
gr o und i f p o ss ible fo r a capital charge The Queen w h o un
con s cious o f the pr o ce ss es already begun again s t her had sat by
h is s ide at the tournam ent at Greenwich May I s t die s eighteen
days later o n the s ca ffo ld It was a s evere blow to Cran m er
Do yo u kn o w what is to happen to day
the Pri m ate as ked
Melanchth o n s pupil Ale xander A lesius wh o w as tarrying with

NO s aid A les ius


hi m
s ince the Q ueen s i m pris o n m ent

I have not le ft m y r o o m
She w ho h as b een the Queen o f

England o n earth said Cran m er hi s eye s rai sed to heaven and


"
will thi s day be a Queen in heaven
h is face wet with tears
The Wittenberg theol o gian s n o twiths tanding their p o s ition c o n
cerning the div o rce were s o greatly shocked that they felt fo r
the ti m e as though all i rth e r negotia tion s with Henry mu s t end
Melanchth o n writes to C am e rarius Jun e 9th
I am alt o gether
freed fro m anxiety ab o ut a j ourn ey to Englan d Since such
tragic calam ities have occurred there a great change o f plan s has
fo llowed The late Queen accu sed rather than convi cted o f
adultery has s u ffered the extre m e p e nalty H o w as toni shing th e
,

'

J e nk yn s Cran me r pp

'

86 s q

P rog re s s

the

War fo r

Fa ith

the

77

charge s h o w they declare to all m en G o d s wrath into what


calam itie s at thi s ti m e do e v en the m o st p o wer ful fall fr o m the
highe s t e m i n ence ! When I think o f thes e thing s I m aintain
that all o ur tr o uble s and dange rs sh o uld be b o rne wi th the
5
H o w ho r
And i n a letter to Ag r ic o la
greater patience
Such is the evil
rib ly d o e s thi s calam ity di sgrace th e king !
6
T o J us tu s J o nas al so he
which the d i v o r ce h as br o ught hi m
write s that Dr Barne s h as written to hi m n o t to undertake the

voyage to Britain
On the sam e day o n which Melanchth o n w r o te thes e letter s
the C o n v o cati o n m et in England at w h ich th e rs t C o n fess i o n
Thi s is a m atter o fsuch im
o f the Engli s h Ch ur ch w as fram ed
p o r tance that i t will aid us to glance rs t at th e c o ur s e o f
eccle s ias tical a ffai r s i n England s ince the Act o f Supre m acy
Every reco r d o f t h o se days bear s the m ark s o f c o n fu si o n
The

Old and
the New Lea r ning b o th had thei r war m adherents
There w ere th o s e u r gent fo r a th o r o ugh re fo r m o f religi o n pr o m
There
ine n t am o ng wh o m were b o th Cran m er and Crum well
were o the r s to wh o m i t see m ed as th o ugh e v en the Wittenberg
Re fo r m e r s had n o t proceeded far en o ugh With o ut any xed
fo rm ulary by whi c h to guide the m they pass ed by va r i o u s grada
ti o n s to Zwingliani s m and even Anabapti sm alth o ugh nu m bering
am o ng their adhe r ent s n o nam e s o f inuence The zeal o f Lati
m er h o wever even then see ms to be beginning to carry hi m b e
y o n d the m o derati o n o f the Lutheran Re fo r m ati o n E m i ssaries
o f the P o pe we r e at hand ready to excite the pe o ple again s t any
inn o v ati o n s which m ight be pr o p o s ed Still o thers vigor o u s ly
de fended the Supre m acy o f the King and as sailed the P o pe
while o pp o sing to the very death any change o f d o ctrine Their
i deal o f the Engli s h Ch urch w as s i m ply the Medi aeval Church
m inu s the P o pe Their zeal fo r Ro m an o rth o d o xy was m ade a
su f
ci ent an swer to the repr o ach o f di s loyalty fr o m the s ucce ss or o f
,

C orpus R efo rm a toru m I I I


6

Ib

Ih

90 s q

89 s q

Engla nd

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

78

St Peter The Evangelical ele m ent had fav o red the d iv o rc e s i m


ply becaus e in it they found an irreparable breach with the Papacy
Thes e va r i o u s ele m ent s had necessa r ily to c o m e int o c o nict
Ma r ty rs had fallen like Sir Th o mas M o re and Bi sh o p Fi sher
becau s e they were faith ful to the Po pe an d J o hn Fryth so o n to
be fo llowed by Franci s Lam bert becau s e o f ultra Pr o tes tanti sm
B I S H O P G ARD I N ER
.

in all p e ri o d s o f c o n fus ion there were leade r s that succes


s iv e ly r o s e and fell n o w gained thei r poin t an d then had to
and as their fo r tunes had vi ci ss itudes so al so
s ub m it to de feat
the p o licy O f the g o v ern m ent veered n o w to th e o n e s ide and
then to th e o ther The neg o tiati o n s an d deliberati o n s tha t are
n o w t o o ccur cann o t be appr e ciated with o ut s o m e e s ti m ate o f
the cha r acter and inuence o f Stephen G ardiner Thre e yo ung
m en had gr o wn up t o gether an d been trained fo r their future
w o rk in the h o us eh o ld o f Cardinal W o l s ey viz Th o m as M o re
Th o mas Cru mwell and Stephen Gardiner The latter had
pr o ved an apt pupil o fh is great m as ter and bec o m e a veri table
s ec o n d W o l s ey o nly o f greater acutene ss and m o re o b s tinate will

The Cardinal was pr o ud to call hi m


m ei dimidium
hal f o f

m y very sel f
Henry though di stru sting hi m s o o n learned to
The young sec r etary was bus y pl o tting with fo r eign
us e hi m
cardinal s fo r Wo lse y s elevati o n to the Papacy and at the sam e
ti m e carrying o n a c o rrespondence fo r the king o n o ther m atter s
which w as care fully concealed fr o m the Cardinal s kn o wledge
With Fo x he had been active i n e ffe cting the div o rce ; with
Fo x he had plead Hen r y s cau se be fo re the Po pe in 15 2 8 with
Fo x he had brought Cran m er to the front i n order by hi s
le arning to support the king ; with Fo x he had s hared in the
h o n o r s o f the vict o ry o f Cam bridge B ut he never fo rgave
Cr an m er fo r having been p r e ferred to hi m as Archbi s h o p o f Can
As Bi sh o p o f Winche s ter as Secretary o f State as Am
te rb ury
b as sado r to France as L o rd Chancell o r he hence fo rth had but
o n e p urp o s e and tha t w as to prevent any change within the Eng
l is h Church bey o n d what had already been e ffected by the tran sfer
As

f the Wa r fo r

P rog re s s

Faith

the

79

the Supre m e Head ship to the King


He dee me d th e work

says Archdeacon Hardwick


when
o f re fo rm ati o n c o m plete
the encr o ach m ents o f th e fo reign p o nti ff had been success fully re

s i s ted
No li fe w as so preci o us but that i t m us t be sacriced
rather than be all o wed to inuence any inner change Shake s pe are
did not err when he put int o h is m o uth the word s :
of

I t w i ll n e e r b e we ll
T i ll C ranm e r C rum we ll h e r tw o h an ds an d sh e 9

S l e e p in th e ir grav e s

He was vindict ive ruthless treacherou s


says Froude
of
clear eye and hard
Such a di scri m inating juri s t as
ll
Lord Cam pbell in h is Lives o f the L o rd Chancell o rs
char
O f original gen iu s o f p o wer ful intellect
ac te riz es hi m thus :
o f independent m ind at the sam e ti m e un fo rtunately o f narr o w

p r ejudices
He w as always a deter m ined ene m y o f the gen
e r al Lutheran doctrines but fo r a while he m ade his creed so
far c o incide with h is inte r e st s as to believe that the Anglican
Church ri gidly m aintaining all its ancient doctrine s; m ight be

s evered fr o m the s piritual d o m ini o n o fthe P o pe


It w as only
as o n the access i o n o f Mary he had n o di fculty
fo r a while
whatever i n utte r ly ign o ring all that he had written c o ncerning
Henry s true suppre m ac y and in not only returning to servile
O bedience to the Po pe but al s o in wielding h is power as
a

m an o f m any wiles
to suppress all other auth o rity
A true
Papi s t at heart thro ugh the wh o le pe riod and the type o fa large
cl as s w h o still bo as t o f the indepe ndence o f the Engli s h Church
and pride the mselves in ha v ing n o thing in co mm on with Pro
T o s uch per so n s the Lutheran Re fo rm ati o n is s till
tes tan tism !
a gre at o ffence an d all trace s o f c o nnecti o n with i t m us t b e
th o r o ughly eradicated
Gardiner had n o t b een inactive while Fo x and h is asso c iates
,

H ar dw ick

nn e

B o l e yn

H isto ry

II : p

0u th e A rticle s ,

f E ngla n d VI

6 1, 6 3

3 70

48

Th e L uth e ra n [ Mo ve m e nt in Eng land

80

were c o n ferring with the theologian s at Wittenberg b ut fro m


France wh ere he w as watching the c o ur se o f Franci s and where
he had h eard o f the pr o p o s iti o n o f a uni o n o n the b as i s o f the
Augsburg C o n fess i o n an d the Apol o gy
unless so m e things be

changed by c o mm on c o n s ent he urges Henry n o t to entertain


the granting o f thi s article would bind the
such prop o s iti o n as
King to the sen se o f the Church o f Ger m an y and thi s w o uld be
under an o bligati o n n o t to m ake use o f the per m i ss ion s o f

revelati o n
The g r eat s ignicance o f Gardiner h o wever bec o m e s pro m i
nent i n the se r ie s o fdeliberati o n s we a r e ab o ut c o n s idering
T H E E N G L I S H A U GS B U R G C O NF E SS I O N
,

Cran m er and Cru m well knew well the cha racter o f the c o nict
be fo re the m an d m ade prepa r ation s acc o rdingly We have n o
re co rd o f the p r eci s e circu m stances whi c h deter m ined the publ i
cati o n in 1 5 3 6 o f Taverner s tran slati o n o f the Augsbu r g C o n
fe ssio n and Apol o gy recently brought to the attenti o n o f the
Church by t h e s ch o la r ly re searches o f the late Dr B M Sch
m ucker But when i n additi o n to the c o n stan t re ference s to
thes e con fess i o n s in the negotiation s between the Engli sh an d the
Ger m an the o l o gian s and the pere m ptory ul ti m atu m o fthe Elect o r
o n the withdrawal o f the Engli s h a m bas sad o r s that only o n s uch
ba
s i s c o uld an y ag r ee m ent i n the future be h o ped f
we read
or
the speech o f Bi sh o p Fo x in the c o nventi o n he r ea fter to be no
ticed in which he gl o w s with enthus ias m o ver what the Ger m an
the o l o gian s a r e d o ing and trace the in uence o f e specially the
Ap o logy o n the Engli sh Ten Articles o f I 5 3 6 there s ee ms little
d o ubt that i t appea r ed p r i o r to the C o nv o cati o n I ts publicati o n
a fte r ward s w o uld n o t have been opp o rtune n o r l ikely to have
m et the appr o v al o f the g o vern m ent in v iew o f the m any R o
m i sh err o r s s till end o r sed with e m phas i s i n the s am e Janu s fac ed

Article s wh ich neverthele ss the Ap o l o gy m o s t s e v erely arraign s


and re futes But that it w as n o t only fo r the deliberati o n s o f
th e o l o gian s and p r ince s that thi s b o o k w as publi shed i ts very
.

12

C o ll i e r

cc

H is to ry

G re at B rita in ,

II :

3 23

P rog re s s

hVa r fo r th e Fa ith

th e

81

pr e face s hows Richard Tav e rner wh o even as a y outh at C x


fo rd had been persecuted fo r h is sym pathy with evangeli cal do c
trine had in view a s till greater range o finuence an d hoped by
the use o f the na m e o fCru mwell to enli s t the interes t o f a wide

T o th e end
circle o f Engli s h reade rs
he says
that the
e ople , fo r w h os e s ah os this ho o h zo o s co m man de d to he trans late d
p

m ay the m o re greedily dev o ur the sa m e


etc A s thi s transla
ti o n o f th e Augsburg C o n fe ss i o n h as so recently been reprinted
an d republi shed (Phil adelphia
further c o mm ent upon it
here i s needle ss
T H E C O N V O CA T I O N A T C A N T E RB URY
,

We co m e no w to the fo r mulati o n o f the rs t C o n fess ion o f th e


Engli s h Church i n the S o uthern C o nv o cat ion which began its
On that day
s es s i o n s in St Paul s L o n d o n June 9 th
Hugh Lati m er Bi s h o p o f W o rce ster by the appoint m ent o f
Cran m er preach ed the O pening s er m on Lati m er as a y o uth at
Cam bridge had di stingui shed hi msel f by his zeal again s t Luth
o r h is inaugural di s c o ur s e
e ran is m and had taken as the the m e f
when in I 5 2 4 he received the degree o f B D an Exam inati o n
in which the P rae
o f the The o l o gical Opini o n s o f Melanchth o n
Rec o gnized on thi s
cepto r G e rma nia c w as s everely critici s ed
occas i o n by Bilney as a fr ank able and earnest novice wh o se
chie f err o r w as h is ign o rance o fthe subject which he handled
a private interview so o n put hi m o n the track which b r o ugh t
hi m to the las ting es tee m o f Pr o tes tanti sm as an eccentric but
g o dly fearle ss and el o quent cham pi o n o f the faith which he
once assailed
Lati m er did nothing by halves H is o pening
s er m o n which s ee ms to have c o ntinued thr o ugh two s e ssi o n s
w as a m o st s cathing denunciation o f the great body o f h is au
ference to a th o r o ugh purging o f the Church
die n c e fo r their indi f
o fEngland fro m P o ntical abu s e s an d while ad m irable as exhibit
ing th e progre ss whi c h the great preacher had m ade w as n o t calc u
lated to prepare the m i nd s o fh is h e arers for a cal m an d i mpar
,

13

H is tory

f E ngla nd I I I

57

'

The L uth e ran M

82

o ve m e n t

in

Eng land

tial con s ideration o f the great que s tion s be fore the m

The m ass says Fr o ude


had been sung The rol l o fthe
organ had died away It was the ti m e fo r the serm on and Hugh
Lati m er Bi sh o p o f Worce ster r o s e in to the pulpi t Nine tenth s
o f all th o s e eye s which were then xed on hi m w o uld ha v e gli s
tened with delight c o uld they have l o o ked in s tead upon hi s

H is text w as
burning
The U nju s t Steward
A few o fh is
sentence s which
fully ju s ti fy Ranke s re m a r k that
Lati m er

O pened the war in a erce s er m on


m ay s erve as a sam ple :
What ha v e ye d o ne the se s even year s o r m o re ? What o ne
thing that the pe o ple o f Englan d hath been the better o fan hair ?
Y e have o ft sat in c o n sultati o n but w h at o n e thing is put forth
whereby Chri s t is m o re gl o ried o r el s e Ch r i s t m ade m o re holy ?
Then a fter enu m erating abu ses
Li ft up y o ur head s brethren ;
and s ee what things are to be re fo r m ed i n the Church o f Eng
land I s i t s o hard for yo u to s e e the m any abuse s i n the clergy
the m any in the laity abus e s in the c o urt o f arche s abu se s i n
the con s i s torial c o urts o f bi sh o ps in h o lidays in i m ages and
picture s and reli cs and pilgri m age s i n religiou s rites i n

m asses etc

l5
h as reached u s but the
The s er m o n
continue s Fro ude
audience the ve hundred erce vindictive m en who su ffered

un der the preachers ir o ny what they thought o f i t with what


feelings o n that su mm er day the heated cr o wd s cattered o ut o f
the cathedral di sper s ing to their dinner s am ong the tavern s
i n Fleet Street and Cheaps ide all thi s is g o ne g o ne without a
Not o ften perhap s h as an as s e m bly c o llected where
s ound

there was such heat o f pass i o n such m align ity o f hatred


Cru m well t o ok the precaution o f hi ms el f pres iding over the
H o u s e o f Bi sh o p s as vicegerent o f the King Th o ugh two Arch
bi sh o p s were pres ent they were obliged to yield to a laym an
an d when hi s dutie s in parliam ent required h is ab sence he s ent
an o ther laym an Dr William Pe t e r to te mpo rarily ll his plac e
.

1 D e m aus
15

L atim e r,

H is tory , I I I

61

pp

224

War fo r

P rog re ss of the

Fa ith

th e

83

s ide s were clearly d r awn There s ee ms t o b e no di ffer


ence in the class icati o n that has m ade :
P R O T E S T A N TS FO R TH E R E F O RM A T I O N : Th o m as Cran m er
Archbi s h o p o f Cante r bury ; Th o m as G o o drich Bi sh o p o f Ely ;
Nich o las S haxto n Bi shop o f Saru m Hugh Lati m er Bi sh o p o f
Worces ter ; Edward Fo x Bi sh o p o f Here ford ; J o hn H ilsse y
Bi s hop o f Ro ches ter William B a r l o w Bi sh o p o f St David s
H I E RAR C H I S T S A G A I N S T TH E R E FO RM A I IO N
Edward Lee
Cuth
Archbi sh o p o fY o rk ; J o hn St o ke sley Bi shop o f L o ndon
Stephen Gardiner B i sh o p o f
b ert Tun s tall Bi s hop o f Durham
Winche s ter ; Ro be rt Sherborne Bi sh o p o f C hiche s ter Ri chard
Nyx Bi sh o p o f N o rwich ; J o hn Kite Bi shop o f C arli sle
TH E S I XTY S E VE N P O I N T S
T h e two

'

While the U pper Hou s e o f the C o nv o cati o n was thu s about


in the L o wer H o use the hiera r chi s t s were
e q ually d ivided
largely i n the m aj o rity O n June 2 3 d the L o wer Hou s e acc o rd
ingly s end s the bi sh o p s a catal o gue o f err o ne o u s doctrine s which
were publicly preached i n the real m and ironically decla r es

that they are w o rthy special re fo r m ation


They c o m pri s e
16
s ixty s even i te ms which are c o m pa r ed by O ld Th o m as Fuller
to
Jere m y s basket o f gs ; th o se that are good exceeding g ood
th o s e that are bad excee ding bad Jer 2 4 :
h i s a s trange
m ixture o f truly evangelical s tate m ents with exaggerati o n s an d
fanatical ext r avagan ces o f which so m e are pe rvers i o n s tha t are
clearly traceable an d o ther s can be explained by the well kn o w n
law c o nce r ning the relati o n between e xtre m e s Wherever taught
they were the penalty necessarily to be expe cted where the at
te m pt is m ade t o s uppre ss the true c o n servati sm o f e v angeli cal
teaching We ha v e fo und man y o fthe s pecicati o ns pres enting
s tate m en t s either directly given in the Augs burg Con fe ss ion an d
Ap o l o gy o r el se such as have be en twi s te d by s ini s ter inte rpre
,

tatio n

The rs t charge that the s acram ent o f the altar is n o t to be es


tee m ed i s o nly a pervers ion o f what th ose c o n fess ions t e ach
.

Ch u rch

1123 ! o

f B rita in H :

74

The L uthe ran iMo ve m e n t in Eng lan d

84

concerning the Ro m i s h Mas s Th e seco n d concerning E x tre m e


U ncti o n correctly s tate s what is taught in the Apol o gy The
third that p r ie s ts have n o m o re authority than lai ty to adm in is
ter the Lord s Supper is a perver s i o n o f what m ay be fo un d in
the Apol o gy A r ticle XX II The fourth c o ncern ing C o n rm a
tion is probably sugges ted by the Ap o l o gy s treat m ent o f the
The s ixth c o ncerning Anti C h ri s t and the withh o lding
s ubj ect
2 80
The s eventh is
o f the cup is c o rrect (Ap o l o gy pp
the sub stance o f Art XX IV in b o th C o n fe ss ion and Ap o l o gy
The eighth is e specially i ntere s tin g in its connecti o n
It is
preached and taught that the church which is co mm only taken

fo r the church is the o ld s ynag o gue


What di f
No w co m pare the Ap o l o gy page 1 6 4 : 14 :
erence will there be between the pe o ple o f the Law an d the

Church i f the Church be an outward p o lity ?


The paragraph
continue s
An d that the church is the c o ngregati on o f g o od

m en o nly
With thi s c o m pare the Augsburg C o n fessi o n in
Ta v erner s tran slati o n :
The church is a c o ngregati o n o f

h o ly pers o n s
The ninth ite m co ncerning the Litany is o nly
a m i s repres entati o n o f what is taught i n Art XX I c o ncerning the
Invocati o n o f Saint s The tenth
that m an hath no free will
at once s ugge sts Article XVIII T h e eleventh see ms at r s t
That
s ight to be an Anabapti s ti c o r Lollard extravagance :
God never gave grace nor kn o wledge o f H o ly Scripture to any
great e state o r rich m an
yet i t is eas ily explained by what the
c o n fess i o n s in treating o fthe Freedo m o f the Will decla r e con
cerning the i m p o tence o f th o s e in the highe st s tati o n e specially
the learned o f thi s w o rld with o ut the illum inating w o rk o f the
Holy Spi r i t to attain a kn o wledge o fdivine things the s tandard
o f the s e critic s with re spect to e m inent p o s ition being that o f
wealth in s tead o f learning In the twel fth
that all religi o n s
and pr o fe ss ion s are clean c o ntrary to Ch r i s t s religi o n we n d a
di s t o rtion an d m i sapplicati o n o f Art XXVII
On M o nas ti c

The hi st o ry o f the controver s ie s c o ncern ing the Luth


V ows
eran con fe ss i o n s i n thi s country will supply man y ex am ples o f
.

P rog res s

War fo r

the

the

Fa ith

85

pe rvers ion s and m i s interpretati o n s n o less fo rced and abs urd


Were i t nece ssary we m ight in the sa m e way c o ntinue the e x am i
n ati o n o f the entire li s t and th o ugh we c o uld n ot trace all yet
we c o uld nd the m aj o ri ty either incorrectly s tating o r m i sinter
Thi s
pre tin g what is taught in the C o n fess i o n and Ap o l o gy
catalogue o falleged errors be gin s with the sacram ent s and rs t
de v o te s to the m seven pa r ag r aphs that had doubtle ss be en the
rs t and we m ay e v en say the m ain subjects o f heated and pro
l o nged debate in the U pper Hou s e and nearly tw o weeks o f the
s e ss i o n had pa sse d be fo re thi s paper fr o m the L o wer Hou s e ap
pears
D E BA T E S A M O N G TH E B I S H O P S
,

O what tugging w as there betwixt th o s e o ppos ite s ides


writes o ne i n the next century Three s peeche s o n the Pr o tes
tant s ide are e s pecially noticeable One is that o f Cran m er i n
which he urge s the c o n s ideration o f the weighty c o n tro ve r

s ie s
which he dene s as no t c o ncerned ab o ut cere m o nies o r

light t h ings
but such que sti o n s as the fo ll o wing : The di ffer
ence bet ween the Law and the G o spel h o w to receive the for
i
v e n ess o fs in s the m anner to c o m fo rt doubt ful and wavering
g
c o n s cience s the true use o f the sacram ent s jus ticati o n by faith
and n o t by any ex ope re op erato virtue o f the sacram ent s what
are t r uly g o o d w o r ks whether hu m an traditi o n s b e binding
whether c o nrm ati o n ordinati o n etc sh o uld be called sacra
8
m ent s
I f he had intended to urge the ad o pti o n o fthe Apology
h o w c o uld he have intr o duced the s ubject better o r have pre s ented
with m o r e c o rrectness an o utlin e o f the s cope o f i ts m atchle ss
d i s cu ss i o n s ?
An o ther speech w as that o f a Luthe ran s ch o lar who m Me
lan ch th o n had s ent fr o m Wittenbe rg to Cru m well i n Augus t
as the bearer O f the pre sentati o n c o py o f hi s L o ci to the
15 3 5
king with th e en d o rs e m ent that he w as a m an o f such learn
ing h o n o r an d energy that he could carry n o reco mm endati on
,

13

Ih

Se e

75

e xtract in

Ha rdw ich

A rticles ,

pp

52

sq

86

Th e L uthe ran M

o ve m e n t

Eng lan d

in

than his o w n virtue


Alexander Ale s ius (All an ) born
i n Edinburgh and C an o n o f St Andrew s had le ft h is c o unt r y
becaus e o fh is faith in 15 3 2 s t udied at Wittenberg w as the c o n
de ntial friend o f Melanchth o n and a fter 15 4 0 until h is death
in I 5 6 5 Pr o fess o r i n the U n ive r s ity o f Leipzig Cru m well in
tro duc e d hi m be fo re the bi sh o p s to a r gue the ques ti o n o f the
nu m ber o f the sacram ent s which he did with great vig o r and
learning bu t hi s pre sen ce pr o v o ked the bi sh o p s so that Cran
m er o n the gr o un d that h is li fe w as i m perilled p r evailed o n hi m
n o t to return the day a fter he had be gun h is argum ent
Ale s ius
hi msel f narrates the occurrence in a d o cu m ent pa r t o f which
9
is publi shed i n Elli s
Original Rec o r ds
The date 15 3 7
there g iven h as l ed so m e to in fer that he na rr ates the circu m
s tan ce s o fan o ther c o n ference but the err o r is as m o s t writer s
m aintain m o s t pr o bably in the year s tated H is a r gu m ent began :
Right h o n o rable an d n o ble l o rd and yo u m os t re v erend
father s an d prelates o f the church alth o ugh I c o m e unp r epared
unt o thi s di sputati o n yet tru s ting i n the aid o f Chri st which
pro m is e th t o gi v e m o uth an d wi s d o m unt o us when we be re
quired o fo ur faith I will utter m y s entence an d judgm en t o f
thi s di s putati o n And I think that m y l o rd archbi sh o p hath given
you a pr o table exh o rtati o n that ye should r s t agree o f the s ig
n i c atio n O f a s acram ent :
W h ether ye will call a sacram ent a
cere m on y i n sti tute o f C h ri s t i n the G o spel to s igni fy a speci al o r
a s in gular virtue o f the G o spel ,o r whether ye m ean that every
cere m o ny gen erally which m ay be a t o ken o r s ignicati o n o f an
h o ly thing to be a s acram ent For a fter the latter s ignicati o n
I will n o t s tick to gran t that there be s even sa c ram ent s an d m o re
2"
t o o i f ye will
When A le sius w
as proceeding to pr o ve thi s
not only fro m Scripture but by the o ld d o ctors an d by the
s cho o l writers
Bi shop Fo x interrupted hi m :
B rother
Alexander contend n o t much ab o u t the m in d an d sayings O f
the doct o rs an d s ch o o l wri te r s fo r ye kn ow that they i n man y
h igher

I I I 196 s q q
2
C o m p are w i th th i s argum e nt

19

Vo l

Apology,

2 15 .

Wa r fo r

P rog re s s of the

the

Faith

87

place s do di ffer am o ng the mselves and that they are c o ntrary to


the msel v es in al m o st eve r y article And there is n o h o pe o f any
c o nc o rd i f we m us t lean to their judg m ent in m atters o f c o ntro

ve t sy
The s pe ech o f Fo x Bi sh o p o f Here fo rd who only three
m o nths be fo re had been c o n ferring with Luther an d M e lan c h
th o n at Wi ttenberg sh o w s h o w he had been inuenced by what
he had s een and heard
Thi nk n o t that we can by any s o phi sti cal s ubtletie s s teal o ut
Ch r i s t hath
o f th e w o rld again the light which every o n e doth se e
s o lightened the w o rld at thi s ti m e that the light o f the G o s pel
hath put t o ight all m i s ty darkness an d i t will s h o rtly have the
higher hand o fall cl o ud s th o ugh we re si s t in vain never so m uch
The lay pe o ple do kn o w the H o ly Scriptu r e better than m any o f
And the Ger m an s have m ade the text o f the Bible s o plain
us
and eas y by the Hebrew and the G r eek t o ngue that no w m any
things m ay be better unde r s to o d without any gl o ss e s at all than
by all the c o mm entari es o f the D o ct o rs An d more o ver they
have so o pened their c o ntr o ver s ie s by their w r itings that wo m en
and children m ay w o nder at the blindne ss and fal seh o o d that
hath been hithert o There is n o thing so feebl e an d weak so
that i t b e tr ue but i t shall nd place and be able to s tan d again s t
all fal seho o d Truth i s th e daughter o f ti m e an d ti m e i s the
m o ther o ftr uth : an d what soever i s be s ieged o ftruth cannot long
c o ntinue an d upo n whos e s ide truth doth s tand that o ught n o t
All thing s c o n
to be th o ught tran s it o ry as that i t will ever fall
s i s t not in painted el o quence and s trength O f auth o ri ty ; f
o r the
truth i s o fso great power that i t could neither be re si sted with
w o rd s n o r be o verc o m e with any s trength but a fter sh e hath
hidden hersel f long at las t sh e putteth u p her head an d ap
,

'

'

pe are th

It i s also w o rthy o fn ote that Ales ius in the account ab o ve re


T h e rig h t n o ble L o rd Crum well di d
ferred to rep o rts al so

de fend th e pur e doctrin e o f the G o s pel hard


,

C HAPTER

TH E T E N ART I CL E S

VI

O F 15 3

Th o m as Full e r s C o mp ari s o n A rch bi sh o p L aure nc e s D is c o v e ry Th e


Th e E vi d e nc e in P ara ll e l C o l um n s
A rtic l e s o f M e l anc h th o nian O ri gin
E xp l anati o n o f Inc o ns i ste nci e s E sti m ate s o f Fo x e
R o m i s h L e av e n
L in gar d
Full e r
L aur e nc e
S t ryp e
H ar dw ick
R ank e
T racts fo r th e T i m e s
L ath bury
f
Ge ik i e
Pe rry
B l un t
S ch af
Je n
Frank l in
C an o n D i x o n s cri tici s m e x am in e d
n in gs

res ul t o f the C o nv o cation o f 15 3 6 w as the subs cription


and publicati o n o f the rs t Engli s h Con fess i o n :
Articles de
vi sed by the Kinge s H ighe st M aj es tie to s tab lysh e Ch r i sten
Q uie tn e s and U n itie am o n ge us and to avo yde contentiou s
1
o pin i o n s
It is ce r tainly a s trange m edley c o m bining the
evangelical and Ro m i sh d o ctrines i n s uch s t r ange p r o p o rti o n s
and with such startling c o ntradiction s as to vividly recall th e
Ro m an poet s gure :
I f a painter would put a hor se s neck

to a hu m an head and attach feathers to th e m e m be r s


etc
Th o m as Fuller writing a little m o re than a hund r ed yea r s a fter
2
ward s s ays
A s when two s t o ut and s turdy traveler s m eet to
gether and b o th de sire the way yet neither a r e willing to ght
fo r i t i n their passage they so s h o v e and s h o ulder o n e another
that dividing the way betwixt the m both yet neither get the
s am e
s o th o s e two o ppo s ite partie s were fain at la s t i n a drawn
battle to part the prize be tween the m neit h er o f the m being
THE

Th e y m ay b e fo und in th e A ppe n d i x to B u rn e t s H is to ry in H a rdwich s


A rti l s ; in S trype s M m ri a ls ; in Fulle r s C h u r h fli to ry ; an d in C o !
1

c e

Ch u rch H is to ry ,

II :

75

(88)

Te n A rticle s

The

15

3 6

89

con q u e ring o r conque r ed but a medley re ligion as an e x p e dient

being m ade up betwixt the m both to s alve the cred it s o fboth


We de fer m aking an es ti m ate o f thi s un ique d o cu m ent until we
have r s t exa m ined its c o ntents The Melanchtho nian origin
o f m uch that i t co n tain s w as ass erted by Arch b i sh o p Laurence in
believed had been
1 80 4 becau se o fs e v eral s entences which he
fr o m Melan chth o n s L o ci Every writer has peculiar phras es
an d every teacher xed den iti o n s which a r e necessarily repeated
in variou s connection s We pr o p o s e to s ho w that th e Ap o l o gy
fo rm ed the gr o und w o rk for the articles The Augsburg Con
3
fess io n w as al so u s ed as well as certain Article s which in Feb
s t the Anabapti s t s
Melan
chthon
prepared
again
1 3 6
ruary
5
,
One o f the paper s which Melanchtho n hi ms el f wr o te during th e
March c o n ferences (p o ss ibly the R epetitio o f I 5 3 6 which the
c o mm i ss i o n carried wi th the m to England ) m ay ha v e e m b o died
all thes e ele m ent s ; o r o ne o f the evangelical Engli s h the o l o gian s
as Bi shop Fo x m ay have prepared a d o cu m ent th o r o ughly Luth
eran in i t s character Thi s was then am ended and inte r p o lated
by Ro manizing q ualicati o n s and supple m ented by Ro m an iz ing
articles p o ss ibly by the King s o w n hand p o ss ibly by that o f hier
archical the o l o gian s w h o were s carcely their m o narch s equal o r
p o ss ibly by C ranm e r s p o licy o f surrenderi ng m uch to gai n what
he regarded m o re fo r the caus e which he repre sented until i t is
n o w o nder that its relati o n to the Apol o gy has n o t been su spected
by Engli sh writers We sub m it the evidence that h as c o n
-

v in c e d

us

The Ten Arti cle s are divided int o tw o s ecti o n s the rs t


treating o f d o ct r ines and the s ec o nd o f ce r e m o nies The Firs t
Article o n
The principal a r ti cles c o ncerning o ur faith
de
ne s the relati o n o f the Engli sh Church to the t h ree oec um enical
creed s and is p o ss ibly in the main fr o m the pen o f Melanchthon
alth o ugh we have n o t been able to trace i t m o re deni tely It
greatly re se m b le s the Int r o ducti o n to the Fi rs t Part o f the C o n
j os s io S o x o nica o f 15 5 1 and b o th m ay have a c o mm o n o rigi n
,

C orpus R efo rm ato rum

III

9 sqq

Eng la nd

Th e L uthe ra n [ Mo ve m e n t in

90

The next three articles treat o f the Sacra m ents as thi s was the
r st subj ect o f di scu ss ion i n th e C o nv o cati o n The very fact
that the nu m ber o fs acram ents is here deter m ined as three r s t
led us to s uspect the fact that the Apology w as u s ed i n its prep
arati o n i t being well kn o w n that thi s is the n um ber xed i n the
Ap o l o gy The Sacram ent o fBapti s m i s treated at con s iderable
length principally i n order to pr o ve the validity o f In fant Bap
That o n e s eventh o f the space dev o ted to d o ctrine s h o uld
tism
b e occupied wi th th e recapi tulati o n o fargu m en ts o n a s ub j e c t c o n
cerning w hich the r e w as n o di fference between the tw o s ide s
an d n o fal se cha r ge m ade in the li s t o f s ixty se ven point s e m
bracing as o ne w o uld think every conceivabl e i te m O f m isre pre
s e n tatio n will s carcely ad m i t o f any other explanation , than that
wi th which
o f the c o ntr o ve rs ie s with Anabapti s t s in Ger m any
Melanchth o n w as o ccupie d du r ing the p r es ence o f the Engli sh
ss y in Wittenberg Although Hardwi ck s ays o f the Ana
e m ba
bapti st s
Traces o f the m occur in England as ea r ly as 15
yet they could n o t have had s uch i m p o rtance as to have de
Here we nd
m ande d s uch c o n spicu o u s treat m en t at thi s ti m e
Melan chth o n s Adver sus Anab aptistas u s ed
,

AD V

A NA B A P T I s rA s 5

T EN

A RTI CL ES

acram e nt o f bapti sm w as
the re is n o s al vati o n ; th e re fo re c h i l institute d an d o r d ain e d in th e Ne w
dre n m us t b e inc o rpo rate d into th e Te s tam e nt by o ur S avi o ur J e s us
B ut if c h i l dre n C h ri s t as a th in g n e c e ss ar y fo r th e
C h ris tian C h urc h
attainm e n t o f e v e rl as ting l ife acc o r d
are to b e m em be rs o f th e C h ri st ian
C h urc h th e y m ust b e c l e an se d by th e in g to th e s ay ing o f Ch ri s t :
No
H o ly G h os t an d b ap ti s m
Th e re fo re m an can e nte r th e K ingdo m o f H e a
C h ri s t s ays : No m an can e nte r th e v e n e x c e pt h e b e bo rn o f w ate r an d
Kin gdo m o f H e av e n e x c e pt h e b e th e H o ly Gh ost
bo rn again o f w ate r an d th e H o ly
G h os t
O uts i de

o fth e

Ch ri stian

C h urch ,

Th e

I t is ce rt ain th at th e grac e o f
I t is O ffe re d un to all m e n as we ll
C h rist r e m i ss i o n o f s ins an d s al va
as infants as s u c h as h av e th e use o f
ti o n p ro m is e d in th e go s pe l be l o ng re as o n th at b y bapti s m th e y s h all
al so to ch i l d re n
h av e r e m i ss i o n o fs in s an d th e grac e
an d fav o r o f Go d

f R eform a tion p 19 7
R efo r ma to ru m 3
33

Ifistory
5

pus

or

The Te n A rticle s

15

3 6

91

T he

trac e s o f the Apology beco m e then m ore appare nt


A P OLOGY (r73 :
T E N A RTI CL ES
L at in
T h e p ro m i s e o fs al vati o n
T h e p ro m i s e o f grac e an d o fe e r
pe rtaineth al s o to l i ttl e ch i l d re n l as tin g l ife p e rtain e th no t o n ly unto
Ge rm an
T h e p ro m i se s o f grac e s uc h as h av e th e us e o f re as o n b ut
an d o f th e H o ly Gh o st be l o n g no t al so to infants inno c e nts an d ch i l

o
e
t
o
al n
th e o ld b ut to c h i l dre n
dre n
Next the Augsburg C o n fe ss ion is called int o s e rvice
T E N A RT I CLES
AUG SB U RG CO N FESS I O N (A RT
co n
u ly s in
Infants m ust n e e d s b e ch ri ste ne d
O
ri
ina
l
t
r
i
i
n
s
S
[ g
]
de m n ing an d brin gin g e te rnal de ath be ca use th e y b e bo rn in o ri gina l s in
wh ic h s in m ust n e e ds b e re m itte d ;
n o w a l so upo n a ll th at are n o t bo rn
again by ba ptis m an d th e H o ly S p iri t wh ic h cann o t b e d o n e b ut by th e s ac
ram e nt o f bapti s m wh e reb y th e y re
c e iv e th e H o ly G h os t
.

Pass ing to Article III


The Sacram ent o f Penance
which
with certain qualicati o n s t he Apol o gy all o ws as a sacram ent
altho ugh with a di ffe r en t c o ncepti o n o fP o e nite ntia which is no
l o nger Penance but Re pentance the res e mblance i s i f anything
m o re s triking
T E N A RTI CL ES
AU GSB U RG CO N E (A RT x 11:
S uch m e n wh ic h afte r bapti sm
S uch as h av e fall e n afte r bapti s m
wh e n s o e v e r
m ay n d re m i ss i o n o f s ins at wh at fall again into s in
th e y c o nv e rt th e m s e l v e s
s h a ll
ti me th e y are c o nv e rte d
w ith o ut d o ubt attain re m iss i o n o f
s in s
A P OLOGY (18 1
T h e s acram e n t o f p e rfe c t pe n
We h av e as cri be d to re pe n tanc e
th e s e tw o p arts iz C o nt ri t io n an d anc e wh ic h Ch ris t re q uire th c o n s is te th
faith I f an y o n e des ire to a dd a o fth re e p arts th at is to s ay c o nt ri
th ir d i frui ts wo rth y o f re pe ntanc e ti o n c o nfe ss i o n an d am e n d m e nt o f
i e a c h an ge o f th e e ntire l ife an d th e fo rm e r l ife an d a n e w o be d i e n t
c h aracte r fo r th e be tte r we w i ll no t re co nci l iatio n unto th e l aws an d wi ll

o fGo d w h ic h b e call e d in S cri ptur e


m ak e an y O ppo s i ti o n
w
t
h
o rth y frui ts o f pe n anc e
e
n
r
h
x
a
m
e
0
l
anc
t
n
E
h
o
s
M
e
[C f
H o w m an y
din a n d ru m
p arts O fre pe ntanc e are th e re Th e re
C o ntri tio n Fai th an d O b e
are th re e
,

v z

The hand o f the Ro m anizing e m endator is apparent i n the

As a co m
above s ubs titution o f Con fess i o n fo r Faith
.

E x a m en
M e l anc h th o nian

A l th o ugh th e

fo rmul a is

is
.

twe nty ye ars l ate r

we

cite i t

to sh o

w th at

th e

Eng land

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

92

pro m i se h e intr o duces Faith as an ele m ent o f Contrition


o f th e Ten Article s there fore is the
The
Contriti o n
Re
o f the C o n fe ss ion and Apology
pe n tan c e
,

AU GSB U RG CO N F (x i i : 3 5 )
R e p e nt anc e c o ns i ste th p ro p e rly
o fth e s e tw o p arts : O ne is c o n tri t i o n
.

T EN

A RTI CL ES

Co nt riti o n c o ns i ste th in tw o spe


c ial p arts wh ic h m us t a l w a ys b e c o n
o r te rr o rs st rick e n into th e c o n s ci e nc e
j o in e d to ge th e r an d cann o t b e d i ss e
th ro ugh th e ackn owl e dgm e nt o f s in ; v e re d ; th at is to s ay th e pe nite nt an d
c o ntrite m an m ust rst ackn o wl e dge
th e o th e r is faith wh ic h is c o nc e iv e d
by th e gos pe l o r abs o l utio n an d do th th e lthin e ss an d abo m inati o n o f h is
be l i e v e th at fo r C h ri st s s ak e s ins b e o w n s in
th e s e c o n d p art th at is

to w i t a c e rt ain fai th t rus t an d co n


fo rgiv e n
de n ce o fth e m e rc y an d goo d n e ss o f
Go d wh e re b y th e p e ni te n t m ust co n
c e ive c e rt ain h o p e an d fai th th at G o d
wi ll fo rgiv e h im h is s ins an d re pute
h im j us t i e d an d o f th e n um be r o f
,

l ct no t fo r th e wo rth in e ss o f an y
m e ri t o r wo rk d o n e b y th e pe ni te nt
b ut fo r th e o n ly m e ri ts o f th e bl oo d
an d p as s io n o f o ur S avi o ur J e s us
C h ris t
e e

A POLO GY

(181

Fe e l ing an d pe rc e ivin g in h is
C o nt ri ti o n is th e t rue te rro r o f
c o ns ci e nc e wh ic h fe e l s th at Go d is c o ns ci e nc e th at G o d is angry w i th

h im fo r th e s am e
angry w i th s in
Unto wh ic h kn o w l e dge h e is
A n d th i s c o ntrit i o n o cc urs wh e n
s in s are c e n s ur e d fro m th e
o r d o f bro ugh t b y h e aring an d c o ns i d e ring
i ll o f Go d de c l are in H is
h e n th i s is t augh t, i t is th e o f th e
Go d

l aws
d o ctrine o f th e L aw
.

A P OLO GY (183

TEN

A RTI CLES

Th i s c e rtain faith is go tte n an d


Th i s faith is n o uri sh e d th ro ugh
al so c o nrm e d an d m a d e m o re s tro ng
th e d e c l arat i o ns o f th e go s p e l an d th e
o r th e s e
are by th e apply in g o f Ch ri st s wo rds an d
us e o fth e s acram e nts ; f

pro m i s e s o f H is grac e an d fav o r co n


th e s i gn s o fth e N
e w T e st am e nt
tain e d in H is gos p e l an d th e s acra
m e nts ins titute d b y H im in th e Ne w
T e st am e nt
A P OLO GY (196
T o attain th i s c e rtain faith th e
We a l s o re t ain c o n fess i o n e spe
s e c o n d p art o f p e nanc e is n e c e ss ary
c ially o n acc o un t o f th e abs o l ut i o n

h
f
G
d
h
e
ss
e
H e re
wh ich is t e Wo r d o o t at b y i e c o nf i o n to a p ri st
[

h
d ivin e autho rity t e Po we r o f th e again in p ri e st th e h an d o f th e
Fo r th e abe o
Ke ys p ro c l ai m s c o nc e rnin g in d ivi d
e m e n d ato r is s e e n ]
T h e Po we r o fth e lutio n gi v e n b y th e p ri e s t w as in st itute d
u als
183 : 3 9 :
Ke ys a dm i ni ste rs an d p r e se nts the o f C h ri s t to a pp ly th e p ro m is e s o f

Go d s grac e an d fav o r to th e pe ni te nt
gos p e l th ro ugh abso l ut i o n
6

'

Th e Te n A rticle s

AU GSB U RG CO N E (xx v
,

15

3 6

93

t augh t th at th e y s h o ul d
Th e y o ugh t to be l i e v e th at th e
inas wo r ds o f abso l uti o n p ro n unc e d by
no t l i gh tly re gar d abs o l uti o n
th e p ri e s t b e S po k e n b y a uth o ri ty giv e n
m uch as it is G o d s v o ic e an d p o
to h im b y Ch ri st in h is go s pe l
n o un c e d b y Go d s c o m m an d
M

e n are

A P OLOGY (183
,

Th at th e y o ugh t an d m us t giv e
T h e v o ic e o f th e o n e abs o l ving
m us t b e be l i e v e d n o t o t h e rw i s e th an n o l e s s fai th an d cre d e nc e to th e s am e
th an unto
we wo ul d be l ie v e a v o ic e fro m h e a w o rds o f abs o l uti o n
Go d th e v e ry wo rd s o fGo d H i m s e l f if h e
C f A ug C o nf xx v 4 :
ve n

re q uire s faith th at w e be l i e v e th at s h o ul d s pe ak unto us o ut o f h e av e n


abs o l utio n is a v o ic e so un d ing fro m
h e av e n
There is a very skill ful co m binati o n o ftwo argu m ents whi ch by
changing the e m phas i s and re m oving the pas sages fr o m their
c o nnecti o n so m ewhat chan ge s the m eaning o f o ur Lutheran
C o n fessi o n s
T E N A RT I CL ES
A P OLOGY (2 04
A l th o ugh Ch ri s t an d h is d e ath b e
B e s i d e s th e d e ath o f Chri s t is a
f ci e n t o b l ati o n s acric e s ati s
th e s uf
o r gu i l t b ut a l so
s ati s fact i o n n o t o n ly f
fact io n an d re co m pe nc e fo r wh ic h
fo r e te rna l d e ath
G o d th e F ath e r fo rgiv e th an d re m i t
t
e th to a ll s inn e rs no t o n ly th e ir s in
12 :
2
(
We h av e al re a d y fre que n tly te s ti b ut al s o e te rna l p ain due fo r th e
e d th at r e pe ntanc e o ugh t to p ro d uc e s am e ; ye t a ll m e n t ruly p e ni te n t co n
t
ri
t
m
u t n e e d s a l so
e an d c o nfe ss e d
h
u
i
t
s
a
r
e
d
fr
i
t
an
d
w
a
t
oo
d
fr
u
s
g
goo
brin
f
o rth th e
fr
ui ts o f p e ni t e nc e
g
e
h
i
z
c
an
d
m
e
n
t
s
t
ac
mm
t
e
n
o
th e
p raye r th ank sgiving th e c o nfe ss i o n th at is to s ay p raye r fas tin gs a lms
e tc
d
e e ds
h
t
o
e
t
t
e
p
l
iv
e
o
s
h
e
o
of t
g
g
n e e d y e tc
The argum ent o f the Apol o gy c o ncerning the reward s granted
the obedience o f believers n o t as reward s o f m erit but as the
pr o m i s ed fr ee gi ft s o f G o d s l o ve is al s o dexter o usly turned to
a Ro m i s h interpre tati o n
A P OLO GY (13 3 :
T E N A RT I CL ES
E v e n w e c o nc e d e th at th e pun
B y p e nanc e an d s uc h goo d wo rk s
ishm e n ts by wh ic h w e b e c h as ti s e d are o f th e s am e w e s h all n o t o n ly o btain
m i t i gate d b y o ur p ra ye rs an d go o d e v e rl as tin g l ife b ut a l so w e s h a ll de
wo rks an d nally by o ur e ntire re se rv e re m i ss i o n o r mi ti gatio n O f th e se
p re s e nt p ains an d a f icti o n s in th is
pe ntan c e 1 C o r 11 : 3 1 J e r 15 : 19
Ze c h 1
wo rl d 1 C o r 11 : 3 1 Ze c h 1 : 3

Article IV
O f the Sacram en t o f the Altar
is very Me
lan c h th o n ian i n i ts s tyle but see m s at rs t s ight to vary

Eng la nd

The L uthe ra n [ Mo ve m e n t in

94

fr o m the Lutheran d o ctrine by m aintain ing that


und e r th e
fo r m and gure o fb r ead and wine the very s el fsam e b o dy an d
bl o o d o f o ur Sav i o ur Jesu s Chri st is verily s ubs tantially an d

really c o ntained and c o m prehended


Thu s s tated i t m ay be
rega r ded as te ac h in g i m panatio n Y e t the de v iati o n fro m the
phras e o l o gy which Melanchthon w as in the habit o f u s ing at
that ti m e be fo re i t was liable to be m i sinte r preted is c o m pari
Th us the Schwabach Articl e s o f L uther and M e
tiv e ly s lig h t
lan c h th o n an d their as so ciate s o f Oct o ber 1o th 15 th 15 2 9
fo rm ing the gr o undwo rk o f the rs t part o f the Augsburg Con
There i s truly p r es ent in the bread and
fe ss io n read (A r t X)
6
wine the body and bl o o d o f Chri s t
Melan c hthon s O pin i o n
c o nce r ning the Sacram entarian s o f Augu st I st 15 3 0 read s :
We teach that Chri s t s b o dy is truly an d really p r esen t with

the bread o r in the bread alth o ugh with the li m itati o n


We
reject the o pini o n O f thos e wh o say that the body i s con tained i n

the bread like wine i n a g o blet


We deny that the b o dy i s

l o cally pres ent i n the bread


The c o ntained an d c o m pre
hended are p o ss ibly an i nterpolation and the article i n its
original fo r m is p o ss ibly al so fr o m Melanchthon It does n o t
teach tran subs tantiati o n as s o m e have in ferred

I n Article V
O f Justi cation Archbi sh o p Lau r ence foun d
the s entence by whic h he c o nnected the Article s with M e lan ch
thon s L o ci
M E LA N C H TH O N S LOC I
J usticati o n s ign i e th re m iss io n
o f s in s an d th e r e c o nci l iat i o n o r ac
c e ptatio n o f a p e rso n u nto e te rna l
l ife
(C R xx i ;
T E N A RT I CL ES
A P OLO GY ( 109
h re mi SS I O D
Imtl c atlo n S gm e f
S inc e j us t icat i o n is r e c o nci l iat i o n
o f5 9 5 a
o ur ac ce ptauo n 0
r
e co n
r
u
s
ri
t
ak
e
w
e
a
e
t
i
e
d
b
y
h
s
s
s
r
C
fo
j
m I nto th e grace an d fav o r 0f
faith be caus e i t is v e r y c e rtain th at C lh atif
b y fai th a l o n e th e re miss i o n o f s in s is GO d
re c e iv e d I d 114 6 1 : We are
t
i
e d be fo re G o d b y fai th a l o n e
u
s
j
be caus e b y faith al o n e w e re c e iv e t e

m i ss i o n o fs in s an d r e c o nci l iat i o n
I
B h of C on rd (J ac o bs ) I I : 72

'

oo

Ib

co

42 ,

sq .

'

Th e

Te n A rticle s

15

3 6

95

Even the passage in the Apol o gy which s ee ms to con fo und


Jus ticati o n wi th Ren o vati o n and which nd s its explanati o n
in the fact that like the term s Regeneration Sacram ent etc
the Pr o te s tant denition had n o t as yet attained its xed fo rm as
determ ined i n the Fo r m ula o f C o nc o rd is here e m pl o yed :
A P OLOGY (96 :
T E N A RTI CLES
Th e m aking o f a ri gh te o us m an
O ur p e rfe c t r e n o vat i o n in Ch ri st
o ut o f an unri gh te o us
The c o rre sp o ndence in the deniti o n o f g o o d works is e spe
c ially m arked
A P OLO GY (85 :
T E N A RTI CLES
Go d n e c e ss ari ly r e qu ire th o fus to
T h e D e cal o gu e re q uire s n o t o n ly
b ut al s o o th e r do go o d wo rk s c o m m an d e d by H im ;
o utw ar d civi l w o rk s
v iz
an d th at n o t o n ly o ut w ar d an d civil
th in gs p l ac e d far abo v e re as o n
wo rk s b ut al s o th e inw ar d S p iri tua l
to truly fe ar G o d to t ruly l o v e Go d
an d grac e s o f th e H o ly
to t ru ly call upo n G o d to b e t ruly m o tio ns

c o nvinc e d th at Go d h e ars
G h os t ; th at is to s ay to dr e a d an d
fe ar G o d to l o v e G o d to h av e rm
co n de nc e an d trus t in Go d to in o

cate an d call upo n Go d


Thes e citation s could be readily m ultiplied ; but what have
been given are su fcien t to e s tabli s h the fact t h at the e v angelical
s tate m ent s o fthe article s were taken n o t o nly largely fr o m the Apol
o gy but al so fro m the Augs burg C o n fe ss i o n and o ther w r itings o f

Me lanchth o n
It h as been denied
says Can o n Di xon in his
3
recen t H i st o ry o fthe C hurch o f England
that there w as
any Luthe r ani sm in the Fir s t Engli s h C on fe ss ion an d certainly
it m us t n o t be forgo tten that thi s ti m e the d o ctrine s o f Germ any
were heres y i n England But with all that i s kn o wn o f Henry s
neg o tiation s wi th Ger m an princes i t s ee ms im p o ss ible to e x plain
away the plain evidence which Laurence h as b r ought to pr o v e
that the i e fo rm e d d o ctrine in fu sed int o the C o n fess i o n cam e fr o m

Germ any
And yet Archbi sh o p Laurence s in ference was
bas ed upon the evidence o f but o ne o r two s entences ! Mr
Fro ude s plea fo r Henry VIII o n the suppo sition that the de e p
the o l o gi cal reas o ning e m pl o yed i n the b o ok (which with o ut
s u fcient evidence he thinks prepared by the King s o wn hand
)
,

Vo l

I: p

4 18

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e n t in Eng la nd

96

a co m plete re futation o f the generally received o pinion o f h is


guilt in the executi o n o f one wi fe and the m arriage o f another
9
only three weeks be fo re o f c o ur se fall s to the gr o und when the
part s o fth e Article s w o rthy o f e s pecial ad m i r ati o n a r e fo und to
be the rich fr uit o f Melancht h on s lab o rs S O far as the articles
vary fr o m the Ap o logy and the o ther Melanchth o nian docu
m ents they ce r tainly do not exh ibit any di stingui s hed m eri t
Ranke app r o aches very cl o sely the true s o l uti o n o f the origin o f
the Ten Articles when he says that the rs t ve have their origin
1
in the Augsburg C o n fess i o n o r in c o mm enta r ie s o n i t
T H E R O M I S H L E AV E N

While the m ain treat m ent in The Ten Articles has be en


s hown to be fr o m Melan chthon yet a li ttle R o m i sh leaven
leaven s the who le l um p Much that is c o n ceded to the Luth
eran p o s iti o n is neutralized by o ther s tate m ents to which no
evangelical Chri stian c o uld kn o wingly s ub s cribe Scriptu r e is to
be received o nly as the holy appr o ved d o ct o rs o f the Church

e
Repentan ce is still
d o ing
do ent reat and de fen d the s am

penance
Faith can be attained i n n o o ther way than thro ugh
C o n fess i o n an d Abso luti o n The relati o n o f faith to j us ti ca
ti o n is alt o gether m i s interpreted It is placed i n the s am e cate
g o ry with p r ayer s fas tings w o rks o f charity as c o o rdinate
m ean s o fapprehending the m erits o f Chri s t While the very
language o f the Ap o l o gy is s o freel y app r o priated the m ain
p o int o f the m o s t elab o rate chapter i n t h at m atchless docu m ent
per fect charity with per fect
is directly antago nized when

faith is m ade a c o ndition o fjus ticati o n P r ayer s to the saints


is

'

we e k s m arri e d to J an e S e ym o ur in th e rs t e n
j o ym e n t as s o m e h i sto rians re quire us to b e l i e v e o f a gui l ty pl as ure pur
ch as e d b y an infam o us m urd e r d re w up w i th h is o w n h an d a bo d y o f art ic
le s i nt e re st in g as th ro w in g l i gh t up o n h is st ate o f m in d an d o f d e e p e r m o

h
h
n
a
s
t
e
r
s
t
a
u
t
o
ri
t
a
t
iv
e
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t
d
c
t
rin
in
h
n
l
ican
C
rc
me t
s
of o
e
t e A g
hu h
Fro ude s H isto ry of E ngla n d (L o n d o n e d iti o n ) I I I 6 7
1o l lis t r o
C ar dwe ll H ar e J e nnin gs an d o th e r A n
y f E ngla n d I : 15 7
glican w ri te rs c o nc de th e c o nn e c t i o n o f th e A rtlc le s w i th th e A ugs burg
C o nfe ss i o n b ut kn o w n o th in g o fits c l o s e r d e p e n d e nc e o n th e A po l o gy
9

Th e K in g, th e n th re e

'

'

T he

Te n

Article s of

15

3 6

97

and Purgatory a r e strenuous ly mai ntained The retenti o n o f


i m ages in the churches and the l o ng li s t o f cere m o nies app r oved
are less O bjecti o nable feature s as their de fence is acc o m panied
wi th injuncti o n s that the pe o ple shall be taught they have n o
p o wer to re m it s in s b ut o nly to s tir and li ft up o ur m ind s to

a d the
Go d
kneeling to and cen s ing o f i mages is fo r
bidden
E S T I M AT E S
.

The e v angelical theol o gian s o f the type o f Cran m er Fo x and


Lati m er d o ubtle ss thought that so great an advan ce had been
m ade in the acceptance o f the principles o f the Aug sburg C o n
fe ssio n that the Ro m an izing ele m ent s inte r p o lated could be al
l o wed to s tand and could even be subscribed as liable in the
presence o f the fuller light o f the truth to gradua lly die o ut
O f c o urs e such an agree m en t was do o m ed the very m o m ent i t
Opp o s ing syste m s cann o t he rec o nciled by c o m
w as S igned
pr o m i se What is truth is truth and m u s t di s engage it sel f fr o m
all c o m pr o m i s es with error Y e t we m us t n o t regard the Eng
li sh Lut heran the o l o gian s o f that peri o d m ere te m p o rizer s Men
nor do they under
do n o t bec o m e great re fo rm e r s all at o n ce
s tand the full fo rce o f concess i o n s they m ay be i nclined to m ake
in the intere s t o f peace and external har m o ny I n the begin
ning c o ntradict o ry opini o n s m ay be held by the sam e per so n i n
Luther s
h is unc o n s ci o u s ness that they are c o ntradict o ry
Ninety ve The se s are as full o f c o ntradicti o n s as the
Ten

Article s
and there fo re c o uld never have had an y perm anence
The tw o ele m ents which they c o n
as a Church C o n fess i o n
taine d had to c o m e into c o nict in which the o n e w as to be
c o nquered and expelled by the o the r
It h as been sai d that
when a m an is fo und hal f way up hill it m akes all the di fference
in j udging hi m i f we nd fr o m whi ch directi o n he has c o m e ;
and o n the sam e principle we are n o t di spo sed to hars hly c o n
de m n th o s e w h o unc o n s ci o usly s urrendered the cardinal do c
trin es o f the Re fo rm ati o n while at the sam e ti m e c o n fess ing so
m uch that i s pre c io iis The Interi m o f 15 48 has so m eti m es bee n
,

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in Eng la nd

98

com pare d with thes e article s as both be ing un fo rtunate co m pro


m i se s But th e Interi m was favored by m en wh o h ad had the
full light o f Evangelical truth an d had done prai sewo rthy se r
vice in its di ffus i o n ; it was a retr o gre ss ion by which expelled
Papacy w as again to be gradually introduced where the go s p e l

had been es tabli shed while The Ten Article s


with all their
Obj ectionable features give r o yal end o rse m en t to d o ctrines here
to fore kno w n as here s i es and s ecure their i ntr o duction in
churche s where previ o u sly they had never been heard Luther ap
pre c iate d the real condition s in v olved when a few m o nths be fore
a fter the negotiati o n s at Wittenberg had ended he wrote c o n
cerning a ffairs in England
I t is indeed true that we ought
to have patience even th o ugh everything in d o ctrine be not
realized all at o nce (as thi s h as no t occurred even am ong
,

Neverthele ss we cann o t but ad m ire the con s i s tency

of

G ardi

ner o n the other s i de i n withh o lding hi s S ignatur e h o we ver


s trongly we m ay s uspect that h is c o urs e was only a s troke o f po l
icy It is well to note so m e o f the v ari ou s e s ti m ate s placed upon
the s e article s We m u s t bear in m ind in so doing that fro m a
Luther an s tandp o int so m e O f the principles m aintained mu s t
necessarily be s een i n a far di fferent light than fr o m a Re fo r m ed
There are s o m e feature s which the latter m ight
s tandpoint
judge as Ro m an izing that we do not c o ncede as s uch however
we m ay agre e e in a j o in t c o nde m nation o f the articles o n other
subject s
,

J OH N F OX E
Wherei n alth o ugh there wer e m any
an d great i m pe r fection s an d untruths no t to be per m itted in an y
true re form ed church yet n o twiths tanding the king an d h is
c o uncil to bear with the weaklings whi ch were newly weaned
fr o m their m o ther s m ilk o f Ro m e thought i t m ight s e rve S o m e
1
what fo r the ti m e
,

11 L e

IV :
2

tte r o fAp ri l

2 0th ,

to

6 88

A cts

a nd

o n u me nts .

Vic e

C h anc e ll o r B urkh ar

Wette s
'

B riefe n ,

The Te n A rticle s of 15 3 6

99

T H OM A S

F ULL E R ( 16 6 2 )
S o m e zeal o t s o f o ur age will c o n
Such
de m n the Lao dicean te m per o f the Prote s tan t bi s h o ps
m en se e the faults o f the Re fo r m ers but n o t the di f culties o f
the Re fo r m ation Thes e Pr o tes tant bi sh o p s we re at thi s ti m e to
enc o unter with the Po pi s h clergy equal in nu mber n o t in ferior
in learning b ut far greater in p o wer an d dependencie s B e
s ide s th e gene r ality o f the pe o ple o f the land being ne s tled i n
i gn o rance and super s tition c o uld n o t o n a sudden endu r e the
extre m ity O f ab so lute Re fo rm ati o n Should our eye s b e in stan tly
p o s ted o ut o f m idnight int o n oonday certainly we s h o uld b e
blinded with the s uddenne ss and excellency o f the lus tre Na
tu r e there fo re hath wi sely pr o v ided the twilight as a bridge by
3
degrees to pas s us fr o m darkne ss to light
STR Y P E
We n d indeed m an y Popi sh err o rs
m ixed with evan gelical truths ; which m u s t eit h er be attributed
to the de fectivene ss o f o ur prelate s knowledge as yet in true re
ligio n o r being the p r inciple s and o pini o n s o f the king o r b o th
Let n o t any be o ffended herewith but let hi m r ather take n o tice
wha t a great deal o f g o spel doctrine cam e to light an d n o t o nly
but w as o wn ed and pr o pounded by auth o r ity to be believed
so
and practiced The sun o f truth was n o w but ri s ing and b r eak
ing thr o ugh the m i st s o fthat id o latry supe rs titi o n and ign o rance
that had so long prevailed in thi s nati o n and the re s t o f the
wo rld and was n o t yet advanced to its m eridian
AR C H B I S H O P L A U R E N C E
Certain a r ticle s o f religi o n
we r e drawn up and edited in th e king s nam e which were evi
5
de n tly o fa Lutheran tendency
L I N G A R D (R o m an Cath o lic 18 19 2 5 )
Thr o ugh o ut the
w o rk Henry s attach m en t to the an c ien t fai th is m o s t mani fes t
and the o nly c o ncess i o n which he m akes to the m en o f the new
l e arning is the o rder fo r the re mo val o fabu s es with perhaps th e
4
o m i ss i o n o f a few c o ntr o verted subject s
.

13

C h u rch H isto ry ,

II

76

f A rch his h op Cra n me r I :

1 M e m o ria ls o

1 B a m to n
p
1

ectu res ,

2 01

H is tory ofE ngland, V I

: 2

72

90

The L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

10 0

T RA C T S

Eng lan d

TH E T I M E S ( 183 6 )

It i s n o w un iversally ad
m itte d as an ax i o m in eccles ias tical and p o litical m atter s tha t
s udden and violent change s m u st be injuri o us ; and th o ugh o ur
o wn rev o luti o n o f o pini o n an d practice w as happily S l o w er an d
m o re care fully con s ide r ed than th o se o f o ur neighb o r s yet it w as
to o m uch inuenced by s ecular intere s t sudden extern al event s
an d the will o f individuals to carry with it any v o uche r s fo r the
per fecti o n and entiren ess o f the religi o u s syste m thence e m e rg
ing The pr o ceeding s fo r in stance o f 15 3 6 re m ind u s at o nce
o f the danger s to whi ch the church w as exp o sed and o fits pr o v
ide n tial deliverance fro m the w o r s t part o f the m ; the article s
then fram ed being acc o rding to Burnet in s everal place s c o r
1"
re c te d by the king s o wn hand
L AT H B UR v
Th o ugh m uch err o r w as retained yet
thes e article s were calculated to advance the Re fo r m ati o n fo r
they e mb o dy m an y S enti m ent s at variance with the received do c
trin es o fthe R o m i sh Church That Cr an m er w as c o ncerned i n
the preparation o f the se arti cles there is g o o d reas o n to b e
FO R

H ARD W I C K
They are the work o f a tran s iti o n
peri o d o fm en w h o had n ot lea r ned to c o nte m plate the t r uth i n
all the fulne ss o f its ha r m o nies and c o n trasts an d w h o c o nse
uently
di
d
n o t s hrink fr o m acquie s cing in acc o mm o dati o n s and
q
c o nce ss ion s whi ch to their riper under standing m ight have
They were tread ing
s ee m ed a betrayal o f a sacred tru s t
up o n g r o und with which few o f the m were as yet fam iliar and
we need n o t w o nder ifthey s o m eti m es s tu m bled o r even wh o lly
l o s t thei r way An exam ple o f thi s want o f r m ne ss m ay be
traced in the c o nduct o f Bi sh o p Lati m er
Alth o ugh o n e o f the
s er m on s which he preached at the asse m bling o f the C o nv o ca
ti o n is di s tingui shed by a reso lute assault up o n the received do c
trine o f purgat o ry he ulti m ately put h is hand to the s tate m ent
enj oining m en to pray fo r the s o ul s o f the departed in the
,

7
3

T ract

71,

[ Vistoi y

vo

III :

f th e Con vo c ation ofth e Ch urch of E nglan d p

12

The Te n A rticle s

15

3 6

10 1

ma ses and exe q uies and to give al ms to oth e r to pray


wh ereby they m ay b e relieved and holpen o f their pain
s

fo r the m

RA N KE
The rs t ve are taken fr o m the C o n ies
thes e the
s io n o f Augsbu r g o r fr o m co mm entarie s o n i t ; as to
Bi sho p o f Here fo rd [ Fo x] agreed with the t h e o logians o f Wit
tenbe r g In th e fo ll o wing articles the venerati o n even the
i n v o cati o n and n s m all part o f the exi sting cere m o nie s
is all o wed th o ugh in ter ms w h ich with all their m o derati o n
cann o t di sgui s e the rejecti o n o f th e m i n principle Despite
t h e se li m itati o n s the d o cu m ent c o ntain s a clear adopti on o f the
principles o freligious re for m as they were carried out in Ger
2"
many
B L U N T ( 18 6 8)
It will be obs erved that the clergy we r e
o r the re f
or
n o w feeling their way to a so und the o logi cal bas i s f
m ati o n o f d o ctrine
B o th s ides gave way i n s o m e partic u

lars fo r the sake o f c o m ing to a c o mm o n s tanding gr o und
S C H A FF
They are e ssentially Ro m i sh with the
Po pe le ft o ut i n the c o ld They cann o t e v en be called a co m
p r o m i s e between the adv o cates o f the o ld learning h e aded by

w
f
n
e
Ga r din er and o the
learning headed by Cran m er
G E I KI E
Like all c o m pro m i se s the Ten Article s

3
pleas ed neither S ide
P E RR Y ( 18 79)
The Ten Article s were the declaration as
to h o w far the Engli s h Chu r ch was prepa r ed t o go with the

Augs burg C o n fess i o n


J E NN I N GS
In the preparation o f the Ten Article s
the king was helped pr o bably by Cran m er an d Fo x P o licy o r
high er m o ti v es in fus ed i nto thi s fo rm ulary a s pi r i t o f conce ss i o n
s o that while i t w as a c o m pli m ent to the Prot e s tan t s i t en forced
,

9
2o
1

H is to ry
I fis to ry

f A rticle s p 5 7
o
f E ngla nd I : 15 7
o

Re
fo rm a tio n in th e C h u rch

E ngla n d

2"

Cree ds of Ch ris te n do m I : 6 11
23
E nglis h R efo rm atio n p 2 86
24
I z is to ry cfth e Ch urch of E nglci n d p
.

14 7.

44 3

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng la nd

10 2

the con s ervative party at h o m e nothing which they would


25
dee m O bjectionable
F RA N KL I N (in Church Cycl o p aedia
The h ands o f
both Gardiner and C r an m er appear in the m with not a little o f

the das h o f Henry VIII


We de fer to the las t the w o rds o f C anon Dix o n wh o s e H is
tory o f the Church o f England in t h ree la r ge o ctavo s h as
been received with high favor within that c o mm uni o n and its
af liated branches :
Fro m the beginning to the end the Engli sh C o n fe ss i o n s
which
the
s e article s were the r s t ) have b o rne the i m pre ss ion
f
o
(
fer
o f a s ettled i ntention which was s uch as cau sed the m to be di f
ent fr o m the curi o us denite and l o ngs o m e parti cularity o f the
C o ntinent They had the des i gn o f pre serving the unity o f the
Engli sh Church Thi s was the characte r i s ti c o f the nati o n and
exhibited an undeviating deter m inati o n which h as survived the
violenc e o f every age
Th o ugh he en slaved and robbed the
Church o f which he w as the Supre m e Head he had no th o ught
26
o f de s tr o ying her
Thi s is a can did acknowledgm ent and it i s worth while no t
only to s erious ly te st the as s erti o n here m ade that i t is the ai m
o f the wh o le s erie s o f Engli sh Con fe ss ion to av o id such
de
n ite particul arity as characterize s the Lutheran Con fess i o n s
but al s o i f the s tate m ent be true to n o te the price that i s paid
fo r readiness t o accept even err o r o r to subs cribe in the s am e
d o cu m ent to contradict o ry an d m utually e x c lusw e d o ctrine s i n
order thereby to e s cape fro m the calam ity o f de str o ying the
Church There is al s o an other m atter w o rthy o f s o m e thought
viz as to how i f a co mm uni o n be th e Church its clear and de
nite con fess i o n o fthe truth can des troy i t when to the truth o f
the Church s c o n fes s i o n the pr o m i se is attached that the gate s

Can any as so ciation that


o f hell s hal l not prevail again s t it P
i s in such p e ri l be the C h urch ?
on

'

25

26

E ccl sia A ngli a n a p


c

H is to ry

f th e

Ch u rch

182

f E ngla nd I :

4 11

T he

Th e re

Te n

15

3 6

10 3

is

be s ides an o ther i m portant le ss o n her e sugges ted an d


that is the fatality attending all e ffort s to m odi fy and adj us t to pe
culiat relation s o fti m e and place th e unalterabl e p rinciple s se t
forth in the Augs burg Con fe ss ion and Ap ology
,

C HAPTE R VII

B I S H O P S B OO K

THE

O F 15 3

F ai l ure o fth e T e n A rtic l e s C ranm e r an d L uth e r s C ate ch i s m Th e C o m


C ranm e r an d Fo vs S to k e s l e y
m i ss i o n to p re p are an o th e r D o c um e nt
In de bte d n e ss o fth e B oo k to L uth e r s C ate ch is ms th e A ugs burg C o n
O th e r
fe ss io n th e A p o l o gy an d L uth e r s e xpl anati o n o fth e A ve M a ria
S o urc e s
Th e K in g s A m e n dme nts an d C ranm e r s A nswe r

Article s o f 15 3 6 like all co m pro m i se s in s pired n o e n


They were to o Lutheran for the hierarchi s t s they
th usias m
were to o Ro m i s h for the Lutheran s They were to o am biguou s
for th o s e wh o se con s ciences de m anded the cle ares t an d m os t
denite an swer s to the q ues ti o n s which b y the agency o f the
H o ly Spirit m os t pro foundly m ove the heart They were to o
They were to o the o log
m eagre even where they were cleares t
i cal fo r popular use The evangeli cal leaven w as doubtle ss
a m odel o f plain in s tructi o n to be
spreadin g am o ng the people
furni s hed pas tor s was m uch needed There can be no doubt
that Cran m er during h is s tay in Ger m any in 1 5 3 1 an d 15 3 2
iirn b e rg learn ed
an d e s pecially while tarrying with O sian de r at N
to kn o w well Luther s Catechi sms and their vas t inuence ; and
the res ul t s h o ws tha t they gave an i m portant s ugges tion con cern
ing a new Con fes s ion
Early i n 15 3 7 we nd there fore a c o mm i ss i o n ass e m bled
at C ranm e r s re s id e nce co m posed m o s tly o f bi sh o ps e n
gaged in the preparati o n o fa b o o k to be pr o m ulgated by auth
o rity for the purpo s e o f m eeting the s e variou s want s
Gardiner
and St o ke sley were the leading hierarchi s ts Cran m er an d Fo x
again head e d the L uth e ran iz ing ele m ent while Lati m er al s o was
T HE

10 4

The B is hops

B ook

15

37

10 5

pr e s e nt with his p ractical an d i m pe tuous m ind ve xe d at th e labor


s pent in the di s cu ss ion o f s peculative point s o f theology which
to hi m had littl e interes t an d longing to es cape fr o m the tur
m o il by o nce m or e be co m ing rect o r o f Kings ton in s tead o f
Bi shop o f Worces ter At certain s tage s O f the w o rk e s pecially
that pertaining to the sacram en ts ques tion s were sub m i tted by
the Archbi sh o p to which each m e m ber o f the c o mm i ss ion gave
hi s an s w e rs in w riting which when gathered were u se d in the
nal fo r m ulation o f the docu m ent It w as co m pleted early in
the s u mm er an d its publication w as superintended by Bi shop

Alth o ugh generall ykn o wn as


The Bi sh o ps Book
Fo x
its

pr o per title is that o f In sti tuti o n o f a Chri s tian Man


Eras
m us had publi shed a b oo k with thi s very sa m e title i n 15 18
The Obedience o f a Christian
T yn dale s book O f 15 2 8 w as

Man
Cran m er is un iversally c o nceded to have c o ntributed
by far the m o s t part to it while Fo x also mus t hav e m uch o f the
credit fo r the content s as he was their chie f adv o cate in the
c o mm
i ss i o n Alth o ugh s till retaining so m e R o m i s h ele m ents i t
w as a great triu m ph for the Lutheran s ide e specially as all O pp o
o r the rs t ti m e S ilenced and even Gardiner added
s itio n was f
By thi s w o rk the Re fo rm ati o n was placed on
his s ignature
the l o fties t gr o und which it w as ever des tined to reach during
1
the rei gn o f Henry
It is altogether an illus tri o us m onu
m ent o f the achieve m ents o f Cran m er and h is c o lleagues again s t
th e intri gues and o pp o s i ti o n o f a party for m idable at on ce fo r

th e ir zeal nu m ber and p o wer


The very li s t O f con tents m ak e s u s s us pe ct its origin They
The Apos tles Creed
2
The Sacram ents 3 The
1
are :
Ten Co m m and m ents 4 The L o rd s Prayer 5 The Ave

Maria 6 J us ticati o n
Thi s is the fram e
7 Purgatory
w o rk o fan ex pos ition which in o rdinary type w o uld fo rm a large
v o lum e I f so m e o f its c o nten ts see m s tran ge i t is well to re
m e m be r that am ong Luther s e arlier catechetical works i s hi s
,

1L

B as

C ra n m er,

155 .

Wo rdw o rth s E cclesiastical B iography I II :

3 17

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in Eng land

10 6

B e tb iic h le in

o f 15 2 2

c o ntaining : 1 The Ten Co mmand


m e n ts 2 The Ap o s tle s Creed 3 The Lord s Prayer 4

Th e A ve [ Maria ; an d that Melanchthon s


H an db iichle in
o f 15 2 3 c o ntain s
1
The Lord s Prayer 2 The A ve M aria
Our reader s Sh o uld re m e mb e r
3 The Apo s tle s Cr e ed etc
that the angelic salutation in Luke certainly ad m i ts o f an evan
l
e
g ical explanati o n and as such is n o t to be lightly e s tee m e d
Into thi s s che m e the m aterial o f the Ten Articles whereve r
p oss ible i s intr o duced occas ion ally with Slight chan ges but ge n
e rally with verbal e xactness
The expos ition i s to a great extent
changed into the for m o f a p ers onal c o n fess ion prayer etc
a fter the m o del o f Luth e r s S mall Catechi sm What L Oh e say s
o f Luther s Catechi s m
It i s a fact which n o o n e denie s that
n o other catechi sm in the world can b e made a praye r o f but

thi s m u s t be m o died i f parts o f the B i shops B o o k are e xam


am ine d whi ch a r e a fter all nothing b ut paraphras e s o f Luther s
Catechi sm o f exqui si te beauty an d which S hould be cheri shed
Fr o ude writing entirely fro m a lit
as o f i m peri s hable worth

crary s tandp o int pr o n o unce s it


i n p o int o f language beyond
all ques ti o n the m o s t beauti ful co m po s ition that had as yet ap

pe are d in the Engli s h lan guage


For thos e wel l acquainted with the S mall Catechi sm we need
only q u o te s o m e extracts fro m thi s s econ d con fess i o n o f th e
Church o f England
I bel ieve al s o and con fess that am ong hi s other creatur e s h e
di d create an d m ake m e and di d giv e unto m e this m y so ul m y
li fe m y b o dy wi th all the m e mbers that I have great and sm all
and all the wit re as on knowledge an d under s tanding that I
have ; and nally all other o utward s ub s tance p o ss ess ion s an d

things that I have o r can have in thi s world


Thi s is n ot e x
ac tly L uther s S m all Catechi sm th o ugh the sa m e i n s ub s tance
But i t s corre spondence with Luther s Large Catechi sm i s s till
clo s er which read s (p
I believe that I a m a creatur e
o f God that is that he has giv e n and c on s tant ly p r e s e rves to m e
,

8 H is to r

f E nglan d

I I

: 22

The B is h ops

B o ok

15

37

10 7

m y body s oul an d li fe m e m ber s great and small all m y s en s es


reas o n an d under s tanding fo o d an d drink S helter an d s up port ,

wi fe and child d o m e s tics hou s e and p o sse ss ion s etc


The Bi sh o p s Bo o k c o ntinues :
An d I believe al s o and pro fess that he i s m y very God m y
Lord and m y Father and that I a m h is s ervan t an d h is own s o n
by ad o pti o n and grac e an d the right inheritor o f hi s kingd o m
and that i t pr o ceedeth and c o m eth O f hi s m ere g o o dness only
with o ut all m y des ert that I am in thi s li fe preserved and kept
fr o m danger s and perils an d that I am sus tained n o uri shed
fed cl o thed and that I have health tranquility re s t peace o r
any o ther thing necess ary fo r thi s c o rp o ral li fe I ackn o wled ge
an d c o n fess that he su ffereth and caus eth the sun the m o on th e
the fowl s
s tars the day the n ight the air the re the water
the she s the beas t s and all th e fruit s o fthe earth to s erv e m e

fo r m y pr o t and m y nece ss ity


,

With the latter s entence co m pare again Luther s Large Cate


chi sm
He cau s eth all creatures to s erve fo r the necess ities an d us es
day an d night
o f li fe sun m o o n and s tar s i n the rm am e n t
air re water earth and whatever it bea r s and pr o d uces bird

and sh beas ts g r ain an d all kind s o f pr o duce

The exp o s ition o f the Sec o n d Article o fthe Creed i s o f such


extrao rdinary beauty an d fo rce and SO happily expand s th e m o s t
preci o us s ecti o n o fo ur Catechi sm as to ju sti fy a l o ng extract
And I believe al so and pr o fe ss that Jes us Chri s t is n
o t o nly
Jes us and L o rd to all m en that believe in hi m but als o that he
i s m y Je su s m y G o d m y L o rd For whereas o fm y nature I was
b o rn in S in and i n the indignation an d di spleas u r e o f G o d and
w as the very chil d o f wrath c o nde m ned to everlas ting death
subject an d thrall to th e power o fthe devil and s in having all
the principal par ts o r portion s o f m y so ul as m y reas o n and un
de rs tan ding and m y freewill and all the o ther p o rti o n s o f m y
s oul and b o dy n o t only so des ti tuted an d dep r i v ed o f the gi fts
o f God wherewith they were rs t endowed but als o s o b lind e d
,

Eng la nd

Th e L uth e ra n [ Mo ve m e nt in

10 8

corrupted and p o i so ned with err o r i gnorance and carnal co n


c upis ce n c e t h at neither m y said p o wer s c o uld exerci s e th e na
tural fun cti o n an d o fce fo r the which they were o rdained by
G o d at the r s t creati o n n o r I by the m c o uld do o r think any
thin g which m ight be acceptable to G o d but was utterly dead to
G o d an d all g o dly thi n gs and utterly unable and in su fcient o f
m ine o w n s el f to observe the le as t part o f G o d s c o mm and m ents
and utterly inclined and ready to run headl o ng int o all kinds o fs in
and m i schie f ; I believe I s ay that I being in thi s cas e Jesu s
Chri st by su ffering m os t pain ful and sham e ful death up o n th e
c r o ss and by shedding o fh is m o s t preci o u s bl o o d and by that
glori o u s victory which he had when he de scending into hell an d
there overc o ming b o th the devil and death ro s e again the third
day fr o m death to li fe an d as cended into heaven hath n o w pac
i e d h is Father s in dignati o n t o ward s m e and hath reconciled
m e again int o hi s fav o r and that he hath l o o sed and delivere d
m e fr o m the tyranny o fdeath o f the devil and o fsin and hath
m ade m e so free fr o m t h e m that they s hall not nally hurt o r
ann o y m e
So that n o w I m ay b o ldly say and believe as
indeed I do per fectly believe that by hi s pas s i o n h is death hi s
bl o o d an d h is c o n q uering o f death O f s in and o f the devil by
hi s resurrecti o n and as cen s i o n he hath m ade a su fcient e xpi
ation o r pr o pitiati o n t o wards G o d that is t o say a s u f cient
sati s facti o n and rec o m pen se as well as f
o r m y original s in as al so
4
fo r all th e actu al s in s that ever I have c o mm itted an d that I
am s o clea r ly rid fr o m all the guilt o fm y said o e n ce s and fro m
the everl as ting pain due fo r the s am e that neither s in n o r death
n o r hell s hall be able o r have any p o wer to hurt m e o r to let m e
but that a fter thi s transis to ry li fe I S hal l as cen d into heaven
t h e r e to reign with m y Savi o ur Chri s t perpetually i n gl o ry and

felici ty
We nd al so the fo llowing am plication o f o ne o f the article s
in the Third Pa r t o f the Creed
I believe that in thi s catho lic church I an d all th e lively
,

S e e A ugshurg C o nfess io n , A rt

III :

5 f B oo /
7 726 B is /201

15

3 7

mg

quick m e m bers o fthe sam e shall c o n ti nually and fr o m ti m e


to ti m e so l o ng as we s h al l live here o n e arth o bt ai n re m i ss i o n
6
by the
an d f
o r give n e ss o f all o ur s i ns as we l l o ri gi nal as actu al
m erit s o f Chri s t s b l o o d an d pass i o n an d by the virt ue an d e f
cacy o fC hri s t s sacram e n ts i ns tituted by h im fo r that purp o s e

t as we s hall w o rthily receive the sam e


so o f
We add yet the explanati o n o f the Firs t C o mm an d m e n t
which the re ad er will do we l l to c o m pare with that o f Luther in
the Lar ge C atechi sm
T o h ave G o d is n o t to have h im as we h ave o ther o utward
thi ngs as cl o the s u po n o ur b ack o r tre as ure in o ur che s ts no r
al so to nam e h im with o ur m o uth o r to w o rshi p h im with k n eel
ing o r o ther suc h ge sture s ; but to h ave h im o ur G o d is to c o n
as t an d surely u n t o h im with
c e ive him in o ur he art s to c le ave f
heart an d to put all o ur tru s t an d c o n d e n ce in h im to se t all
o ur th o u ght an d c are u po n h im an d to han g wh o l ly o n h im tak

ing h im to be i n n itely g o o d an d m erci ful u n t o us


and

T HE

We

B IS H O PS B OO K

O TH E R

A ND T H E

LUTH E RA N

O N F E SSI O N S

n d in

the Bi sh o ps B o o k trac e s n o t o n ly o f Luther s C at


ess i o ns which were
e c h isms but al s o o f the o ther Luther an C o n f
the n ext an t No t o nly d o es it i n c o r po rate withi n i tsel f The

which are bas e d u po n the Apo l o gy and the Augs


T e n Artic l e s
burg C o n fe ssi o n but o ther passages are directly t ake n fr o m the
sam e so ur c e s

G S B URG C ON FES S IO N (Art V )


B IS H O P S BOO K
T o th e att ai n i n g o f wh i ch faith
Fo r th e o bt ai n i ng o fthi s faith th e
i
m i n i s t ry o f t e a hi ng thi s gos pe l an d it 15 als o to b no te d that C hri s t hath
i ns t i t ute d an d o rdai ne d in th e
wo rld
adm i n i s teri n g th e s ac ram e n ts w as in
F r b y th e Wo r
d and 8 0 b ut o nly tw o m eans an d i S tm m e ntS
s tit ut ed
ram e n ts as b y i ns t rum e n ts
th e H o ly whereo f th e o ne is th e m i ni s tr ati o n
o fh is wo rd an d th e o ther is th e ad
Spirit is give n w h o wo rketh faith
m i ni s trat o n o f h is s ac ram e n ts i ns ti
tute d b y him ; so that it s n o t
poss i
b le to att ai n th i s faith b ut by o n e o r
bo th o fthese tw o means
5 S e e A u sb ur
g
g C nfe ss ion Art I II 3
AU

7 716 L

I IO

P OL O G

ul/ze ran ( Mo ve m e nt

in

Eng land

a tin E n g Trans p
L
(
b el i e v e th at e th is H o ly C hurch
I t s ays C a t/z o/z c c/z urc/z , in o rde r
that w e m ay no t unde rs tan d the is c atho l i c , that i s to s ay, th at it c an
n o t b e co arc t e d o r re s trai ned w ith i n
c hurch to b e an o utw ard go v ernm en t
m e n th e l i m its o r bo nds o f an y o n e t o w n ,
o f c ert ai n n ati o ns , b ut rathe r
s c attere d thro ugho ut th e who l e wo rld ,
c it y , pro vi n c e , re gio n , o r co un try ; b ut
w h o agre e c o n c e rn i ng th e gos pel an d that it is d i s pers ed an d s pre ad un iv er
have th e s ame C hris t , th e s am e H o l y s ally thro ugh o ut all th e w ho l e wo rld
Ghos t, an d th e s am e s acramen ts
I nso m uch that in what part s o ev e r o f
th e w o rld b e it in A fri c a, A s i a, o r
A O O Y ( G e rm a n , M ue ll er , p I
E uro pe , the re m ay b e fo un d any n um

That n o o ne m ay thi nk that th e b e r o f pe o pl e , o f wh at s o rt , s tate o r


l ike any o ther o utward co nditi o n s o e v e r the y b e , whi ch do
c h urc h is
po l it y , bo un d to to thi s o r that l and , be l i e v e in o n e G o d th e Father, C re a
ki ngdo m o r ran k , as th e P o pe o f to r o f all thi n gs , an d in o n e Lo rd
R o m e wan ts to s ay ; b ut that it abide s Jes u C hri s t , h is S o n , an d in o n e H o ly
bo dy an d Ghos t, an d do als o pro fe ss and hav e
c ert ai n ly true , that that
tho s e m e n are th e true church, w h o all o ne faith , o n e h o pe an d o ne ch ar
he re an d the re in th e wo rld fro m th e it y , ac co rdi ng as it is pres cribe d in
ris i n g o f th e s un to its s e tti n g, truly ho ly s cri pture , an d do all co ns en t in
be l i e v e in C hri s t , w h o have o ne Gos th e true i n terpret ati o n o f th e s am e
s c ri pt ure , an d in th e r i gh t us e o f th e
pe l, o n e C h r i s t , o n e B apti s m an d S ac

n
a
m
n
f
ram e nt , an d are ruled by o e H o ly s acr e ts o C hr is t

'

P LG

Ghos t
It will be n o ticed that the E ngli sh paraphras e fo ll o ws the
Ger man al m o s t as cl o se l y as the Ger m an tran sl ati o n fo ll o ws the
text o fthe o ri gi nal Lati n
The expl anati o n o f the A 22: M aria sh o ws traces o f a s erm o n
6
o f Luther o f 1 5 2 3
L UTH E R
B IS HO PS B o o x
D u s ie h e s tu d ass h ie rin n e K e i n
This A ve M a ria is n o t pro perly a
G e be t so n de rn e it l L o b un d E hre pray e r as th e P aterno s ter is Ne ver
be gri ffe n is t G le ichiw ie in de n ers ten th e le ss th e chur ch hath used to ad
Wo rt e n de s Vat e r Uns e rs auch K e i n j o i n it to th e e n d o f th e P atern os ter
G e be t is t s o n dern L o b un d E hre as an hym n l aud an d prai s e part ly
G o ttes das s e r un ser Vater an d im o fo ur Lo rd an d S avi o ur Jes us C h ri s t
H i mm el s e i
fo r o ur re de m pti o n an d p artly o f th e
bl e ssed vi rgi n fo r h e r hum ble co ns en t
Eve n the Sm alc ald Article s which h ad bee n subscribe d o nly
o n Febru ary 2 2 d 1 5 3 7 in their c o m leted f
o rm bei n g but f
o ur
p
m o n ths e arlier than the E n gli s h C o n fess i o n m ay h ave bee n util
iz e d
Fo r the re se m bl an ce betwee n n o t o n ly the hi s t o ri cal po r
ti o ns o f Mel an chth o n s A ppe n d i x O n th e Po wer an d Pri macy

E rl angen E d

xv :

3 18

The B

zs /
zo

B ook

15

3 7

I I I

the P o pe
but also Luther s tre at m e n t in Part II Art IV
an d the ar gu m e n t agai ns t the Papacy in the f
o r m ul a be f
o re us
is very m arke d
The Au gsbur g C o n fess i o n the A po l o gy an d the
S m alcald Arti c les alls ee m to have bee n l ai d u n d er c o n tributi o n

The S acram e n t o fOrders


in the pre par ati o n o f the chapter o n
o u n d in the
alth o u gh a hier archical d o ctri n e pervades i t n o t f
Lutheran fo r m ul arie s
We k n o w that o n M arch sth M e lan ch
th o n s paper o n the re as o n s why the pri n ce s e st ates and citie s
essi ng the pure an d c ath o li c d o ctri n e o f the
o f the E m pire pr o f

G o spe l d ecli n e d to atte n d the C o u n cil at M an tu a w as s ign e d


that it was at o n ce publi she d and c o pies se n t to the K i ngs o f
8
i mm e d i ately transl ate d i n t o
E n gl an d and Fran ce that i t w as
9
The tr an slat o r was Miles C o verd ale
and publi she d
E ngli sh
di sti ngui she d as a tr ansl at o r o f the Bible Such was the i m po r
tan ce which the evange l ical ele m e n t o f the E n gli sh Church the n
r o m the Witte nberg
attached to everythi ng whi c h e m anated f
Faculty Eve n tho u gh Mel an chth o n s D e R cous atio ne C on

were n o t o f ci ally tr ansm itte d u n til N o ve m ber 14th as


t ilii
r o m a letter in the C o rpus q orm ato rum the
s ee m s pr o b able f
o r pr o vi n g the depe n d e n ce o f the E n gli sh the o l o gi ans
ar gu m e n t f
is in n o w ay i nvali d ate d
No r w o ul d ti m e be l o st ifspace perm itte d in a care ful e xam
in atio n o f the so urce in Luther an auth o ritie s o f m uch o f the
teachi n g o f thi s b o o k even where n o speci al fo r m ul ary h as bee n
cl osely fo l l o we d S o m eti m es i t has bee n re gar d e d as rece d i n g

The T e n Articles
s i n ce while the f
o r m er
fo ll o wi ng
fro m
of

ri ed b y H ardwi c k (H is tory of t e C/z ristian


They co n tended that th e fabri c o f th e
Cnurc/z during t/z e R fo rm ation )
P apal m o n archy w as al to ge ther h um an ; that its growth w as trac e abl e partly
to th e fav o r an d i n dul ge n c e o fth e R o m an em pe ro rs an d part ly to am biti o us
arti ce s o f th e po pe s themse l v es ; th at j us t as m e n o ri gi n ally m ade an d s an c
tio ne d it so m i ght th e y ifo c c as i o n sho uld ari s e w ithdr aw f
ro m it th e i r co n
de n c e and thus reo cc upy th e gro und o n whi ch all C hris ti an s mus t h av e

s too d an te r i o r to th e Mi ddle Ages

C o rpus R e fo rm ato rum III : 3 14


7

Th e

argum e n

is

s um m a

H ardw ick : A rticles , p 3


.

1.

Tlz e L

112

ut/z e ran

o ve m e n t

in E ng la n d

the A po l o gy give s o nly three sacr am en t s the Bi sh o ps Bo o k al


l o ws the full n um ber o fseve n cl ai m ed by the R o m an i s ts But
the Rev He nry J e nk yns wh o h as edite d the w o rks o fArchbi sh o p
Cr anm er fo u n d a m an u s cri pt in the Chapter H o us e at We stm in
s ter s h o wi n g th at thi s sup po si ti o n is err o n e o u s
I n c o n n e c ti o n
with the T e n Arti c l es a d eclarati o n h ad bee n m ad e an d si gn e d by
the evan gelic al the o l o gi ans c o n ce d i ng the nam e o fsacram e n t to
the fo ur o ther o r d i nan ces but with li m it ati o ns wh ich the ad v o cates
o f the O ld Le ar n i n g were u n willi n
t
ubli
h
I
n
the
Bi
h
s
o
s
o ps
p
g
B o o k what is e sse n ti ally thi s declar ati o n c o m es to light I ts
whi ch is directe d
argu m e n t is m ai n ly that o f the A po l o gy
e n tirely to the i m p o rt an ce o fm aki n g a di sti n cti o n betwee n rite s
i ns titute d by G o d s c o mman d in whi ch t hr o u gh a vi sible e l e
m e n t the pr o m i s e o f the gratuit o u s fo r give n ess o f s i n s is s e ale d
I f thi s d i s ti n cti o n be c o n ce d e d Me l an chth o n
an d all o ther s
m ai n tai n s that i t d o e s n o t m ake m uch d i ffere n c e wh at is calle d a
an d su gge s t s that eve n pr ayer an d al m sgivi n g an d
sacr am e n t
icti o n s m i ght be c alled sacr am e n t s pr o vi d e d the d i s ti n c ti o n b e
af
twee n the m an d wh at he re garde d the n as three sacr am e n t s be
ke pt u n i m paire d S o the B i sh o ps B o o k d eclares :
There is a
First
di ffere n ce betwee n the m an d the o ther three sacram e n t s
The se three be i ns titute d o f Chri s t Sec o n d ly They be c o m
m an de d by Chri s t to be m i n i s tered an d receive d in their o ut
ward vi s ib l e s i gn s T h irdly They have an n exe d an d e nj o i n e d
u n t o their sai d vi s ible s ign s such spiri tu al gr ace s whereby o ur
e c t l y re n ewe d re
s i ns be re m itte d an d f
o r give n an d we be per f
t
e
er
te
d
urie
d
j
us tie d so o f
as we w o rthily an d d uly t e
n
a
p
g

c e ive the sam e


T H E KI N G S A M E ND M E N T S

With o ut attem pti n g an exam i nati o n an d e nu m er ati o n o f RO


m an iz in g ele m e n t s s till ret ai n e d which are pri n ci pally th o s e o f

The T e n Arti c le s th o u gh to a c o ns i d er ab l e exte n t le ss there


is yet o ne ite m o f i n tere s t c o nn ecte d wi th its hi s t o ry th at is
w o rthy o fn o ti c e There is in th e B o d lei an Libr ary a c o py o f

The I nstituti o n
o r Bi sh o p s B o o k wi th m argi nal cri tici sms
~

z s ko
'

B oo k

15

37

I3

the han dwriti ng o f He nry VIII an d in the Library o f C o rpus


C h ri sti C o l lege at C am bri d ge the an n o tati o n s o f Cranm er up o n
these pr o po se d c o rrecti o n s o f h is s o verei gn are to be fo un d
He nry s no te s i n d i cate n o little critical ability but at the
sam e ti m e h is re al w an t o f th o r o u gh u n der s t an d i n g o r appre c i
It is h is
ati o n o f the d o ctri n e o f the G o spel as t h ere se t fo rth
mai n pur po s e to i n tr o d uce li m itati o ns an d qu alicati o ns
whereby the u n i versality o f the divi n e pr o vi s i o ns and pr o m i ses
may be m o di e d so as to i n clude if p o ss ible the c o n d iti o ns o fthe
Cr anm er sh o ws that he h as bee n a s u fcie n tly
ap pli cati o n
faith ful pu pil o f the Re fo r m ers to be able with cle ar n ess an d d e
c isio n to de c l are to h is m o narch the re al p o i n ts o f d i sc ri m i nati o n
that sh o ul d be mad e Fo r i nstan ce in the expl anati o n o f the
Firs t Article o fthe Creed wher e the Bi sh o ps B o o k says
He
is m y very G o d m y L o r d m y Father an d that I am his s ervan t

an d h is o wn s o n
He n ry pr o po se s to add as l o n g as I perse

T o thi s Cr anm er w o uld n o t


vere in his prece pts and l aws
he ar The d ecl ar ati o n he m ai n tai ns is that o f the very pure
Chri s ti an faith an d h o pe which every g o o d Chri s ti an man o u ght

It bel o ngs to the sphere he says o fspeci al faith


to pr o fess
aith which eve n d evil s h ave
The
and n o t to that o f ge ne ral f
v o ice o f true faith c l ai m s G o d as its o w n wi th o ut th e i n terp os i
ti o n o fan y such c o n d iti o n alth o u gh o f c o urs e whe n thi s c o n d i
ti o n is n o t pres e n t the pure fai th thus c o n fe ss e d is o nly in the

m o uth
He m ai n tai ns that every man
an d n o t in the he art
sh o uld exam i n e hi m s el f as to whether he actu ally h ave
the

ri ght faith and sure tru s t o f G o d s fav o r ; but this d o n e


it
s hall n o t be n ec e ssary to i nterli n e o r i n s ert in m an y pl aces
where we pr o t es t o ur pure Chri s ti an faith these w o rd s o r se n
te n c e s th at be n ewly ad d e d n am ely
I bei ng willi ng to fo ll o w
G o d s prece pts
I rejecti ng in m y will an d he art the Devil and
h is w o rks
I willi n g to retur n to G o d
I f I c o n ti nue n o t in
I f I c o n ti nue a Chri s ti an li fe
s in
Whe n the Sec o n d Ar

ti e le is re ached th at Jes u s is my L o r d
the ki ng agai n wan ts
thi s li m it ed by the claus e
I bei n g Chri sti an an d in will to fo l
in

Tke L utke ran

114

Aloo e m e nt in

Eng la nd

precepts
an d whe n i t says
I am res t o red to the light

he pr o p o ses the i ns erti o n o f Reject


an d kn o wle d ge o f G o d
b o th o fwhich
ing in m y will an d heart the D evil an d his w o rks
receive a s i m il ar answer Ther e are o ther c o rrecti o ns o f the
ki ng s h o wi n g m o r e deci d e d ly h is ess e n ti ally Ro man i stic p o s i
t i o n as fo r exam ple where he qu alies the st atem en t wh i ch to
Cranm er is so i m p o rt an t that Chri s t s s u fferi n gs were a satisfac
ti o n fo r o riginal as well as fo r all act ual si ns by a c lause li m iti n g
the actu al s i ns fo r which at o n em en t w as mad e to th o se al o n e

whi ch were c o mm i tted be fo re m y reco n cili ati o n


U n fo rtu
n ate ly C ranm e r s answer sh o ws at thi s po i n t a weake n i n g s i n ce
while o p po s i n g the i ns erti o n o f the qu ali fyi ng cl ause he at the
c o n cede s th at th e pr o piti ati o n o f Chri s t canno t b e
sam e t i m e
t e r r e c o n cili ati o n
e xt e n d e d to s i ns c o mmi tt e d af
lo w h is

'

C HAPTER
TH E E

Pe titi o n

N G LIS H B I B L E S

VIII

O F 15 3

AND

15 3

Mi l es Co verdal e H is B ible o f 15 3 5

f
ro m
th e D o uche and L atyn
H is depende n c e o n th e Zii rich Trans
l ati o n Rel ati o n o f th e Ziirich Trans l ati o n to Luth er Rel ati o n to
Tyndale In uen ce o n th e A utho ri z ed Ve rs i o n H is E xpo s itio n o f Ps
H is Hy m n s fro m Luth eran
X X II a l iteral Transl ati o n fro m Luther
So urces I ll us trated by a n um be r o f E xam ples H e rfo rd s T able o f
H is The o ry o f the i r
C o v e rdale s Hym ns an d th e i r Germ an O ri gi n al s
M atthew s B ibl e o f 15 3 7 John Ro gers H is R e s i dence in
O ri gi n
W itten be rg A Lutheran P as to r Th e rs t M artyr un der M ary Wh y
h e us ed a Pseudo n ym P Pro bably pri n t e d at W itten berg
o fth e

C o n v oc atio n

o f1

53 4

'

WE leave

the di pl o m atic s ide o fthe hi st o ry o f the


E ngli sh Re fo rm ati o n and tur n to the less public sphere in whi ch
the quiet w o rk o fs ch o lars fr o m the privacy o f their stu d ies w as
mak i n g i ts el ffelt
It w as o ne o f C ran m e r s rs t e ffo rts to s ecure a c o m plete tr an s
l ati o n o f the Bible i n t o E ngli s h an d to auth o rize and pr o m o te
But in acc o r d with the well
its circul ati o n am o n g the pe o ple
k n o w n u nwilli ngne ss o fm e n to recede fr o m a fal s e po siti o n un
le ss u n d er so m e ex pe d ie n t whereby to give the appe arance o f
c o ns i ste n cy to their acti o n the C o n v o cati o n in pe titi o n i ng the
ki ng D ece mber ro th 15 3 4 th at the Bible sh o u ld be transl ated
by so m e lear n e d m e n al so as ke d th at a d e man d sh o ul d be m ad e
fo r all b o o ks o f s u specte d d o ctri n e an d that withi n three

Thi s w as fo ll o we d by th e
m o n ths they s h o ul d be surre ndere d
publi cati o n O c t o ber 4 th 1 5 3 5 o f I ke B i o/e : tlz at is th e ltm
fo r awhile

S trype

fe m o ria lr of C ra n m er, p 5 0

( 1 15 )

me

1 16

ut/z e ra n

o ve m e n t

y the O ld and Ne w

in E ng la n d

fa it/zfully t7 uns la te d
2e a n d L atyn in to E nglis h e
MDXXXV T h e
o ut of D o n e /
transl at o r w as Mi l e s C o ver d ale afterwar ds bi sh o p o f Exeter
C o ver d ale b o rn ab o ut 14 8 8 w as o n e o f the b an d o f C am bri d ge
o r pr ayer an d the s tu d y
s tude n t s wh o m we h ave s ee n m eeti n g f

Ger m an y
o f the Bible an d Luther s w o rks in the h o u s e c alle d
He h ad e n tere d the m o nas tery o f the Au gusti n i an s at C am bridge
an d there h ad c o m e u n der the i n ue n ce o f its pri o r
D r Ro bert
B ar n es so active afterw ar d s at Wi tten berg to w h o m he ever re
Whe n Dr B ar n e s was arrested
mai n ed a m o s t faith ful frie n d
in 15 2 6 C o ver d ale h ad v o lu n t arily acc o m pan ie d h im an d
helped to supp o rt h im u n d er the tri al an d whe n after h is m ar
tyrdo m in 15 4 0 h is C o n f
e sss io n at the s t ake w as m alici o u s ly as
o rw ard
sailed by J o hn St an di s h C o verd ale agai n c am e n o bly f
an d publi s hed a b o o k in vi ndicati o n o f h is d ece as e d frie n d
H e h ad e arly fo r m e d the acquai n t an ce o f Crum wel l an d e nj o yed
h is c o n d e n ce as is sh o wn by letter s which h ave bee n pres erve d
Whe n T yn dale s New
an d are pub l i shed in h is c o llected w o rks
Tes tam e n t was publi she d C o ver d ale ap pears am o ng th o s e m o s t
pr o m i n en t in its circul ati o n Fo r so m e ye ar s be fo re the rs t
publicati o n o f the Bible the preci s e re side n ce o f C o verd ale is
F o xe w h o k n ew h im wel l s t ate s that he w as fo r a
n o t kno wn
ti m e with Ty n d ale at H am bur g an d h ad assi ste d the l atter in
the tr ansl ati o n o f the Pe n tateuch Thi s state m e n t ge n er ally dis
credite d by m o der n wri ter s is ac c e pte d by Wes tc o tt The w o rk
o r ye ars
o n h is o wn tr ansl ati o n u n d o ubte d ly o ccupied h is ti m e f
Whe n the C o n v o cati o n o f D ece m ber 1 5 3 4 h ad acc o rdi n gly
pas se d the re so luti o n ab o ve give n Cru m well pr o bably i n fo r m ed
The title page
h im th at the ti m e h ad c o m e fo r its publicati o n
give s n o i n fo r m ati o n as to the pl ace where i t w as pri n ted an d
Th o s e w h o have m ad e a speci al s tudy o f the t yp o
publi she d
graphy o fbibles o f th at peri o d h ave n o he s it an cy in sayi n g th at
i t cam e fr o m the press o f Fro sc h o v e r o fZiirich the publi sher o f
a
the Ziirich B ib le N o twithstan di n g the fact that the title page ex
S oripture

T e s tam e nt

,
.

Th e co m par
iso n m ay b e m ade in th e
S e mi nary at Mt A i ry , Phi l adel phi a
2

l ibrary o fth e Lutheran Th eolo gi cal

T/z e E ng lis /z B ikle s of 15 3 5

a n d 15

37

11 7

r
ly
t
ates the de pe n d e n ce o f the transl ati o n u po n the Ge rm an
s
ess
p
an d Lati n vers i o n s rece n t writer s h ave u n d ert ake n to d e n y i t
No t o n l y the ti tle page but the Pr o l o gue to the Tran sl ati o n is

T o hel p m e herei n
say s C o ver d ale
I
agai n s t thi s the o ry
have had s u n dry tran sl ati o ns n o t o nly in Lati n b ut al so o f the
D utch i n ter preters wh o m becau s e o f their s i n gul ar gi fts an d
ol
s peci al d ili ge n ce in the Bible I h ave bee n the m o re gl ad to f
lo w fo r the m o s t part
I n the l i ght o fsuc h w o rd s by C o ve rd ale hi m s e l f C an o n We s t
H is c ritics h ave
c o tt is un d o ubte dl y n o t u nj us t whe n he says :
bee n i m po rtu nately eager to e xal t h is s ch o larshi p at the c o st o f
I f the title page said o n e w h o h ad n o t s ee n it
h is h o n es ty
ru ns s o i t c o n ta i ns a very gre at m i s r e prese n tati o n
T o an
Ex
o ther the n o ti ce appe ar s t o be a piece o f ad verti s in g t act
pe die n c y a third suppo se s le d C o ver dale to u n d errate h is la
b o rs And yet i t m ay be read ily sh o wn that the w o rd s are S im
3
n sbur g
fo ll o we d by We s tc o tt
liter
a
l
l
y
true
l
a
n
Gi
d
py
M o m bert an d o ther s, h as sh o w n the gre at d e pe n d en ce o f C o ver
Thi s is mai nly
dal e u po n the Ziiric h trans l ati o n o f the Bible
Luther s transl ati o n o f the o th er b o o ks with a tr ansl ati o n o f the
It
pr o phet s by L e o Ju d ae Zw i n gli P e llicanus an d o thers
whil e Luther s Bible was n o t
appeare d at i n terv al s 15 2 4 9
c o m plete u n til 15 3 4 the transla ti o n o fthe pr o ph ets n o t h avi n g
bee n n i she d u n til 15 3 2
C o verd ale there fo re fo l l o wed the
Ziiric h e d iti o n l ar gely in o r d er to have the be n e t o f tha t in
whi c h i t an tici pate d Luther The d irect as well as the i nd ire c t
i n ue nc e o f Luther may be trac e d Tyn d ale w as al so l ai d un
d er c o n tributi o n While s o m e k no wle d ge o f the Hebrew an d
Greek o ri gi nal is n o t d e n ied he fo ll o we d cl o sely prece d
in g tr ansl at o rs r ather th an ve n tured to u se h is o wn ju d gm e n t
.

H is tory

E nglis /z
H is O ld Tes t am e n t is

fMe

2 13

t ke n at all fro m th e o rigin al H e brew e ither


pro fess e dly o r in fac t b ut is o nly a s e co n dary trans l ati o n base d c h i e y o n th e
E adie I : 2 85
Swiss G e rman o r Ziirich B ibl e
I n e v e ry i ns t an ce

whe re he fo rs akes Tyndale h e is le d by Luth er and th e Ziiri ch B ib le Ib


,

no t , a

94

The L ut/ze ra n [ Mo ve m e nt in

1 18

Eng land

Th o u gh he is no t o ri gi n al yet he w as e n d o wed with an i ns ti n ct


o fdi s cri m i nati o n which is s carcely le ss preci o u s than o ri gi nality
o r a po pu
and a d elic acy o f e ar which is n o m ean qu alic ati o n f
5
lar trans l at o r
No li ttle o f th at in de nab le qu ality that
give s p o pul ar ch ar
m to o ur E ngli sh Bible an d h as e n deared i t to
The se m it o n es
s o m an y ge n erati o ns is o wi n g to C o verd al e
Wh at we m ean will be
in the m u s ic o fthe s tyle are his gi ft
es
appare n t to an y o n e wh o c o m pare s the Auth o rized Ver s i o n
pe c ially in the Old Te s t am e n t with the exacter tr an sl ati o ns o f
m an y o f the b o o ks which h ave bee n m ad e by s ch o l ar s an d critics
Ty n d ale gives us the rs t great o utli n e d i sti n ctly an d w o n d er
fully etched but C o ver d ale ad ded th o s e m i n uter t o uche s which
so f
te n an d h ar m o n ize it The ch aracteri stic fe ature s are T yn
d ale s in all their b o l d n ess o f fo rm an d expressi o n the m o re
d eli cate li n es an d sh ad i ngs arc the c o n tributi o n o fh is success o r
"6
b o th in h is o wn ver si o n an d in the Great Bible
T wo ye ars afterward s in 15 3 7 tw o e d iti o ns o f a repri n t o f
C o v e rdale s Bible o f 1 5 3 5 were publi she d in L o n d o n
The sam e ye ar C o ver d al e publi shed
A very excelle n t
and swete ex po s iti o n up o n the tw o an d tw e n tye P salm e o fD avi d
c alled in latyn : D omz nus regit me e t nil nl Transl ate d o ut o f
hye Alm ayn e in to E nglysh e by Myle s C o verd ale 15 3
Thi s
is a very literal tran sl ati o n o f Luther s D e r 2 3 s t P s alm auf
,

'

e ine n

A b e nd le r Tis ek

naek

de m G ratias

ausge legt, 1 5

Thi s expo s iti o n w as very likely delivere d duri n g the s tay o f the
E ngl i sh am b assad o rs at Witte nberg A s Dr B ar n e s C o v e rdale s
frie n d w as a freque n t t able gue s t o fLuther he was p o ss ibly at
the t able (file r Tise k) where thi s expl anati o n w as give n
A sti l l m o re i m p o rt an t w o rk m u st h ave bee n o ccu pyi n g him at
thi s t i m e if n o t alread y n i shed H is
G o o s tly P salm e s and
Spiritu ale S o ngs d raw n o ut o f the h o ly Scri pture is with o ut
But as i t is o n th e li st o fb o o ks pr o hibite d by He n ry VIII
date
It is
in 15 3 9 its publi cati o n is n ecessarily pri o r to t hat date

Wes t co tt pp 2 16 s q

5 E
adi e
Tlz e E ngli k B ible I :

3 02

E ng lis k B ille s

15

a nd 15

'

3 5

3 7

11

espe ci ally i n teres ti n g as furn i shi n g the begi nn i n g fo r E ngli sh


Hym no dy They are n early all readily trace able to Lutheran
We are sure that a liberal s electi o n fro m the m will be
so urce s
appreci ate d
O f Luther s K o m m H e ilige r G e is t [ {e rre G o tt
there are three translati o ns I f the readily acce ss ible re n d eri ng
by Mi ss Winkw o rth be c o ns ulte d by the E ngli sh reader he
will n o te h o w n e arly o n e o f the tran sl ati o ns o f the Si xtee n th an
tic ipate d that o f the Ni netee n th Ce n tury
.

C o me,

ho ly Spi rite m os t bl esse d Lo rde


Ful l o ur hartes n o we w i th th y grace
A n d m ak e o ur m yn de s o fo ne ac co rde
Kyn dle them w ith l o ve in e very pl ace
0 Lo rde tho u fo rge e s t o ur tre s pace
A n d c all es t th e fo l k e o fe v ery c o un tre
T o th e rygh t fayt h an d t rus te o f th y grac e
That the y m ay gev e th ank e s an d s yn ge to thee
,

Alle luya, A lle luya

ho ly lygh t m os te prin cipall


Th e wo rde o flyfe s h e w e un to us ;
A n d c aus e us to k no we Go d o v er all
Fo r o ur o w ne Father m os t grac i o us
Lo rd k e pe us fro m le m yng e nymo us
That w e m ay fo lo w e n o mas ters b ut C hris t e
H e is th e ve ritie h is wo rd s ay th thus
C aus e us to s e t in b ym o ur t rus te
O

Alle luya, Alle luya

ho ly fyre an d co n fo rth mos te swe te


P yll o ur b ertes w ith fay th an d b o ldness e
T o abi de b y th e in c o lde an d he te
C o nt e n t to s uffre fo r rygh te o us ne ss e
O Lo rd ge v e s trength to o ur WE akn e ss e
A nd sen d us he l pe e v ery ho ure
That w e m ay o verc o me all w yck e dne ss e
And b ryn ge th i s o lde Adam un der th y po wer
O

A lle luya, Alle luya

Luther s summary in vers e o f the


o t h er o f C o v e rdale s tr ans lati o ns

Ten

C o mmandm e n ts

is

Tke L ut/z e ran lo ve me nt in E ng lan d

12 0

M en s ch

l ebe n s e liglich
Un d b e i G o tt b l e ibe n ew i gl i ch
So ll t du hal te n die z ehn G e bo t
D ie uns ge be ut un s e r G o tt
Kyri e l ei s
,

w illt du

M an , wylt tho u l iv e v e rtuo usly,


A n d w ith Go d re i gn e t e rn ally ,
M an , m us t tho u k eep thes e co m
m an dm e nts te n ,
That G o d co m m anded to all m e n
Kirie lyso n

Nun freut

e ue k

fo rm

There
er al st anz as
.

is

e /z ris te n

lie oe n

bbrevi ati o n

no a

gme in

e r
by C o ver d al e

in

the fo ll o wi ng
We select se v

app a s
.

B e gl ad
A n d le t

n o w , all ye

C hr i s te n m e n ,

ayn e dly
us re o yc e un f

t b e wr itten w ith penne


That w e hav e re ce av e d o f G o d s m e rc y ;
Wh os e l o v e to wards us hath n ever e nde
H e hath do n e fo r us as a fre nde
No w le t us th ank e h im hart e ly
Th e k in dn e ss e

c ann o

I w as a prys o ne r o fth e de e ll
W ith de ath w as I al s o utterly l os t ;
M y synn e s dro v e m e dayly to h e ll;
The re i n w as I bo rn e thi s m ay I b e s t
I w as al s o in the m o n ce ryfe ;
T here w as n o vi rtue in m y lyfe
T o t ak e m y pl e as ure I s pare d n o c o s t
v

Th an Go d e te rn all h ad piti e o n m e
T o ryd m e fro m y w yck e dn e ss e
H e tho ugh t o fh is pl en teo us gre at m e rcy
A nd wo lde n o t l e av e m e co m fo rtle ss e
H e t urne d to m e h is fatherly herte
A n d wo lde I sh o ulde w i th b ym hav e part e
O f all h is cos tly rych e s
,

H e S pak e

de are be l o v e d So nn e
no w to h av e m e rc ye ;

to h is

ti m e is
Tho u m us t b e m an s re de m pc yo n
A n d l o ws e b ym fro m c aptivite
Tho u m us t h ym hel pe fro m tro ub l e o fs ynn e
Fro m payn full de ath tho u mus t b ym wynne
Th at h e m ay lyv e e tern ally
Th e

Luther s p ar aphras e

o fm edia vitee

is

cl o sely

fo ll o wed

Eli e

E ng lis h B ible s

Mitten w ir in Le be n s i nd
Mit de m T o d um fan ge n
We n s uch w i r de r H iilfe th u
D ass w i r G n ad e rl an gen ?
D as b i s t du H e rr alle i n e
Uns re ne t uns er M iss e th at
D ie d i ch H err e rz ii rn e t h at
H e i l i ge r H erre G o tt
H e i l i ge r s tark e r G o tt
H e i l i ger b arm h e rtz ige r H e il and
D u ew i ger G o tt
Lass un s n i cht v e rs i nk en
I n de s bittern To de s N o th
,

Kyrie le yso n

B IRTH

H RIS T

Kyrie lyso n

wi gen

Kyrie lys o n

C h ri s t lag in T o de s b an de n ,
Fii r unse r S iin d gege be n ,
D e r is t w i eder e rs tanden ,
Un d h at uns brach t das Le be n
D e ss w i r so ll e n frohl i ch s e i n ,

Go tt lo be n un d dankbar se i n
Un d s i ngen H all el uj a
H allel uj a

R E S URRE C T I O N
C h rift

dyed an d s u re d gre at payne


an d

w ic k e dn e ss e ;

ke

ri e
ll

e ve

th k

B ut h e is n o w
s n a a ne ,
g y
To ma
us f
u
o f gladn e ss e
L e t us all re j o ys e th e rfo re ,
A nd g
h im
an s f
or
mo
S yn ginge to h im , A lle luya
Alle luya
.

e ver

re

E s w ar e in wunderl i ch k ri eg,
D a T o d un d Le be n runge n ,
D as L e be n be h i e l t de n S i e g,
E s h at de n T o d vers chl unge n
D ie S chri f
t h at ve rk iin de t das ,
W ie e in T o d de n andern frass ,
E in S po tt aus de m T o d is t wo rden ,
.

Fo r o ur s yn ne s

'

H alle l uj a

Was cl o thed that everl as ti ng goo d

O N T HE

Th e b l ess e d s o n o f Go d o n e ly ,
I n a c ryb b e full po o re dyd lye
W ith o ure po o re esh an d o ur poo re
b lo ude ,

K yrie le is

OF C

No w b lesse d b e tho u C hri s t Jesu


Tho u art m an bo rne thi s is true
T h e an ge l s m ade a m erry n o i s e
Y e t w e hav e m o re c aus e to re j o ys e

Vaters e i ni g Ki n d,
Je tz t m an in de r Kr i ppen n dt,
I n uns er arm e s Fle i s c h un d Bl ut ,
Verk l e i de t s i c h das ew i g G ut

D es

G e lo b e t se i s t du, Jes u C hri s t ,


D ass du M e ns ch ge bo re n bi s t
Vo n e i ner J ungfrau, das is t w ah r,
D e s fre ne t s i ch de r E nge l S chaar

K yrie le i s

T HE

ON

12 1

Kyrie le yso n

37

a n d 15

35

I t do th o ure hartes s o re gre ve truly


That w e h av e o fe n de d th e
O Lo rd Go d m o s t h o ly
O Lo rd G o d m o s t m ygh tie
O ho ly an d m r c i ful S avi o r
Tho u m os t wo rthy G o d e tern al ]
S ufit e us no t at o ur l as te ho ure
Fo r any de ath fro m th e to fall

15

I n th e m ydde st o f o ur lyvynge ,
D e ath e c o mpas e th us ro unde abo ut
Wh o s h ulde us no w s uco ur b rynge ,
By who s e grace w e m aye co m e o ut ?
E v e n , th o u, Lo rde J e s u, al o ne

I t w as

m arv el o us great th ynge ,

de ath with death dyd


fm t ;
Fo r th e o ne de ath gat th e w yn nyn ge
A n d th e o the r de ath l o s t his m ygh t
H o ly S cri pt ure speak e th o f it
H o w o ne de ath ano ther wo lde b yte
T h e death o f C hri s t hath w o nn e by

To

se

ho w

rygh t

A lle luya,

The

12 2

L uthe ran /o ve me nt in

Eng land

N UN C D I M I TT IS
Mit Fri ed un d Freud ich fah r dahin W ith peace an d w ith j o yfullgladne sse
A n d w ith a m e ry harte
I n G o ttes W i ll e
Ge tro s t is t m ir m e i n H erz un d S i nn A c c e rdyn ge to thy swe te pro me sse
S an ft un d s ti ll e
Lo rde le t m e no w departe :
Wie Go tt mir verhei ss en h at
No w ge v e m e l e ave that I m ay dye ;
Fo r I wo uld b e presen t w ith th e
D e r T o d is t me i n S chl afwo rden
'

the m eter is ad o pted but C o ver d ale fo l


l o ws the F o rty Sixth Psal m m o re cl o sely th an he d o es Luther
I n E in fes te B

urg,

O ure G o d is
A go o d

defence

an d

to wre

go o d w e ape n
o ure he l pe an d s uco ure ,

arm o ure an d

H e hath been e ver


I n all th e tro ub l es that w e h av e b e n
There fo re w yl w e nev er dre de
Fo r any wo ndero us de de
By water o r by l ande
I n h i ll es o r th e se e s i de
O ure G o d h ath the m al in h is hand

in

Psal ms p araphrased by Luther there are transl ati o ns


th (A eh G o tt von Himm e l s ieh dare in the Fo ur
o f the Twel f
te e n th (E s sprich t de r Unw e z s e n M und w oh l ) Sixty s eve n th O n e
hu n dre d an d twe n ty fo urth O n e hu ndre d an d twe n ty ei ghth and
O ne hu nd red an d thirtieth
O fo ther

U NT o

woh n uns b e i
Un d l ass uns n i cht v erderben
M ach uns all e r S iin de n fre i
Un d he l f un s s e l i g s terben
G o tt

de r Vat er

T HE

Fro m th e de vel s mygh t an d powre


Kepe us in fayth ev ery ho ure ;
A n d e v e r le t us b uylde o n th e
W ith ho l e herte trus tyn ge s tedfas tly

ther dwell us b y
us n e v er do am yss e ;
Geve us grace w ith w yll to dye
A n d m ak e us re dy to th y b lyss e

G o d th e
A n d le t

Fiir de m Teufe l uns b e w ahr


H al t un s b e i fe s te m Gl aube n
Un d au f d i ch l as s un s b aue n
A us H e r e ngrun d v ertrauen

T R E NT I E

A no ther Luther an hymn writer fr o m wh o m C o verd ale dre w


w as P aul S pe ratus fr o m wh o m tw o hym ns were tak e n (E s is t das

H eil uns Ko mm e n
K irche nbuch
No 2 70 and I n G ott
n agel K irch e n L ie d III :
a
a
h
c
h
W
a
cker
e
l
i
g
3
Lawre n ce S pe n gler wh o se ac q uai ntance Cr anm er m us t have
-

Th e

B ible s

Eng lis h

15

and 15

'

35

3 7

12

while at Niirnb e rg is repres en ted by his pr i n c ipal hym n


terwar d s qu o te d in the F o r mul a o f C o n c o rd D a re/i A dam s
af
H ans S achs
Fall is t ganz ve rde rb t
(Kirche nbuch N O
ur n i shes a hym n ( Wo e/z auf G ottes Name W ack e rnagel
al so f
III :
Jus tus J o nas p ar aphr as e o f Psal m 1 2 4 fo u n d in
Agric o l a appears in
Kireh e nbue h NO 1 71 is al s o fo l l o wed
an d
[ e h ruf z u dir H e rr fe s a C h ris t (Kirche n buch NO
D ecius in A lle in Gott in de r H oh s e i E h r
O ne o fthe m o s t i n teres ti ng transl ati o ns is that O f a Re fo rma
ti o n hym n o f u n certai n autho r shi p but c o m p o se d be fo re the
D iet o f Augsburg 0 H e rre G o tt D ein gottlick Wo rt (K irche n
fo r m ed

'

b ack ,

No

Lo rde th y go dly wo rde


H ath l o nge be ne k e pte al waye fro m us
B ut tho ro w th y grace no w in o ure dayes
Th o u h as t shewe d th e s o pl en teo us

O h e v e nly

That v ery well w e c an n o w tell


Wh at th y apo s tl es h ave written al ;
A n d no w w e s e e th y wo rde O pen ly
H ath gev en anth ye ch rist a great fall
,

I t is s o c le are as w e may h eare


NO m an b y ryght c an it deny
That m an y a ye are th y peopl e de are
H av e be en b e gyle d pe rlo us ly
,

W ith me n spi rit ual ] as w e them call


B ut n o t o f th y S pi r ite t ruly ;
Fo r m o re c arnall are no ne at al
Than m any o f these spi rites b e
,

Th ey have be ne ev er sw o rne al to gether


T h e yr o w n e l awes fo r to k epe al waye ;
B ut m e rc yfull Lo rde o f th y s we te wo rde
Th ere durs t no m an b e gyn n to s aye
,

They durs t them call great h e ritik e s


That di d co n fess it s tedfas tly ;
Fo r the y ch arged it s h uld b e h yd
A n d no t s po ke n o fo pe nly
,

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me n t in

12

Eng land

0 m e rcyfull Go d, wh ere w as th y ro d,
I n pun ysh ynge s o ch gre at t yran n y

Wh y s lept tho u the n

R e s i s t O pen ly th e
Fo r s uch

hym n se m i

k n o wynge

the s e m e n

itie ?

ver

E ngl an d w as no t yet pre pare d as


the m artyr s o f 15 40 and the six Articles were yet to s h o w
That a v o l um e c o n tai n i ng such an arraig n m e n t O f m uch that
exi ste d u n d er auth o rity in E ngl an d and with whi ch
s till
the ki n g sym pathize d sh o uld have bee n pres cribed is o nly what
c o ul d h ave bee n expected
T o recapitul ate : O f C o ve rdale s fo rty o n e hym ns twe n ty
tw o are fr o m Luther tw o fr o m S pe ratus o n e e ach fr o m S pe n
S
ach s A gric o l a Ju s tu s J o n as Decius an d Grei s er f
l
r
o ur are
e
g
well k n o wn Luther an hym ns o f u n cert ai n o ri gi n an d s eve n w e
h ave n o t bee n able to i d e n ti fy alth o u gh their e n tire s tructure

an d spirit pl ai n ly sh o w where they bel o n g


a

papal

Whe n the n the Church o f E ngl an d and her v ari o us daugh


ters cli n g so te n d erly to the P salter in the B o o k o f C o mm o n

Pr ayer an d pre fer its an i m ate d an d ryth m ic al expre ss i o ns t o


th e ack n o wle d ged m o re ac c ur ate t r an sl ati o n o f the Auth o rized
Versi o n the s ecret o f the ch ar m is fo u n d in the i n ue n ce which
the treas ures o f the rs t peri o d o fLu t heran hy mno l o gy h ad u po n
the s ty l e o fh im w h o c am e to the w o rk o f tr ansl ati n g the Psalter
with the n o te s o fso m an y o f the m as ter pi ece s o f Luther an d h is
as s o ci ate s ri n gi n g in h is e ars an d l li n g h is he art with a gl o w o f
d ev o ut feeli ng C o v e rdale s fo rty o ne hym ns were pr o bably the
No n e o f the o ri gi nal s which he tr ansl ated is
gr o wth o f ye ars
,

R e fe re n c e m ay b e m ade to th e i nteres ti ng t ables trac i ng th e o ri gi n o f


C o e rdale s en tire l i s t b y Pro f Mit chell in Th e A a demy fo r J un e 2 8 1884 ;
o r d s L it ra ry R e latio n s o
an d in H e rf
f Ge rm any a n d E ngla n d in th X VI
T h e s umm ary o fth e l atter is : Fro m
C n tu ry (C am bri dge 1886 ) pp 17 s q q
2 ;
H e ge n w alt 1 ;
th e Lati n 6 ; fro m Luther 18 ; C re ut ige r 1 ; S pe ratus
A gri co l a 1 ; M oeb anius 1 ; S achs 1 ; Spengl er 1 ; D achs te i n 1 ; G re i se r 1 ;
D e c i us 2 ; A no n ym o us 5
7

Th e E ng lis h B ib le s

15

3 5

a n d 15

3 7

12

la
ter than
The transl ati o ns o f the hym ns an d the trans
l ati o n o f the Bib l e m ay h ave pr o cee d ed c o te m p o ran e o u sl y the
fo r m er h avi n g affo r d e d a relie f fr o m the s everer w o rk o f the
latter
We are n o t thr o ugh with C o ver d ale but m us t i n terru pt the
to c o ns i d er an o ther e d iti o n o f the
n arr ative at thi s po i n t
E n gl i sh Bible an d its tr ansl at o r r api d ly fo l l o wi ng that which
h as jus t bee n n o tice d
J o h n Ro ger s b o r n ab o ut 1 5 00 w as an
o ther Alu m n u s o fC am bri d ge
b ut d o es n o t s ee m to h ave bee n
i n ue n ce d by the Pr o test an t m o ve m e n t u n til after bei n g rect o r

in L o n d o n while chapl ai n
fo r two ye ars o f Tri n ity the Le ss
to the m erch an t ad ve n turers in A n twer p he becam e i n ti m ate with
Ty nd ale The l atter havi ng bee n m artyred O c t o ber 6 th 15 3 6
Ro ger s the succee d i ng year m arried A d ri an a P ratt o r d e Wey
All autho rities agree in thi s
de n an d mo ve d to Witte n b e rg
an d s t ate th at he so th o r o u ghly m as tered the Ger m an th at he
becam e su peri n te nde n t o r pas t o r o fa chur c h at Witte nberg
to
which he m i n i s tere d fo r m an y ye ar s wi th gre at ability an d suc

cess
We c an nd n o tr ace o fsuch pas t o r ate am o n g Ger man
It m ay h ave b ee n a c hurch n e ar Witte n ber g which
auth o ritie s
"
he s erved Salig s tat es that he was o r d ai n e d at Witte n berg ;
1"
which n e c essarily i m plie s a past o ral c are O n h is tri al b e ex
pl ai n e d an d d e fe n d e d the o r d er o fservice u sed in Witte n b erg
Previ o u sly he h ad translate d an d pub l i she d in E ngli sh Me

in c o nn ecti o n with a de fen ce o f


lan ch th o n o n the I n teri m
Mel an chth o n s c o ur se the n severely cri ticize d All thes e facts
He
sh o w the sub s t an ti al truth o f the c o te m po r an e o us ac c o u n t
re mai ne d in Witte nber g o r its n ei ghb o rh o o d fr o m 15 3 7 to 15 4 7
,

L uth eran h ymn o l o gy o f 15 2 4 3 1 C o v e rdale s G oostly S o ngs


A l m os t de v o i d o f lyr i c fac ul ty h is v ers e l i m ps l abo r
is a fai r s e l e c ti o n
H e h as n o t th e goo d trans
io us ly afte r th e s ti rri ng m eas ures o f Luther
l ato r s se ns itivene ss an d e l as ti c it y o f s t yle Y e t h is v e ry s i n cerit y and s im
H e r ord
t
e
l
i
n do th e wo rk o fre ne d t as te
c ity o f
f
pp 11 15
p
9 II
: 49 1
1
II
ali
: 491
S
B rit ish R eform e rs
;
9
g
p
3

O f th e

12

The L uth e ra n lilo ve m e nt in E ng land

Retur n i n g o n the acce ss i o n o f E d war d VI in who se


rei gn he e nj o yed great i n ue n c e he was the rst o f the m artyrs
u n d er M ary h avi ng bee n bur n e d at S m ith e ld Febru ary 4th
The s t o ry o fh is fare well to h is wi fe an d eleve n children
15 5 5
whe n o n the way to m artyrd o m is wel l kno wn to re ad er s o fE n g
li sh hi s t o ry H is so n D an iel w as afterwards e d ucate d in p art
rm at Mel an chth o n s c o st and becam e a
at Witte n ber g so m e af
d i sti ngui she d d i pl o m at u n d er Quee n Elizabeth
Ro gers fell hei r to the m anus cri pts which Tyn d ale le ft at his
death I t is well k n o w n h o w dilige ntly e m pl o ye d he w as d uri n g
his i m pri s o nm e n t in c o m pleti ng h is tr an sl ati o n fr o m the Hebrew
As St Paul se n t fr o m the R o m an dun
o f the Ol d Te s t am e n t
e
n f
o r h is b o o ks an d parch m e n t s s o al so Ty n d ale h ad as ke d :
o
g
I wi sh per m i ss i o n to h ave a can d le in the eve n i n g
But
that he m ay ki n d ly perm it m e to have
ab o ve all I e n tre at
m y Hebrew Bible Hebre w gr am m ar an d Hebre w d icti o n ary

that I m ay spe n d m y ti m e with that s tudy


R o gers there fo re
t o o k the pri n te d New Test am e n t and Pe n tateuch o f Ty n d ale
r o m J o shu a to
ad de d to the m T yn dale s m an u s cri pt tr ansl ati o n f
the e nd o f 2 Chr o n icle s an d c o m pleted th e Bible by ad o pti ng
F o x e says :
He
C o ve rdale s ver si o n in wh at was l acki ng

Th o m as M atth e we
ace s an d n o tes o ut o f Luther
add ed pre f
w as give n as the nam e o f the tran sl at o r p o ss ibly becaus e he he s i
tate d to cl ai m as h is o w n wh at w as o n ly a c o m pil ati o n o r b e
c au s e the pub l i shi n g o fT yn dale s nam e w o uld h ave preve n ted its
e n d o rs em en t and circul ati o n in E n gl an d S o m e as sum e that
Th o mas M atth e w e w as the nam e o fthe perso n w h o in the b e
f
i
i
Be
o re the pri n t
n g assu m e d the nan ci al re spo ns ibility
nn
g
in g w as c o m plete the E n gli sh pri nt ers Gr aft o n an d Whitchurch
1
becam e its pr o priet o rs It w as pri n ted in 15 3 7 D r M o m bert
t an d the pl ace o f pri n ti ng
ar gue s th at the pri n ter w as H ans Lu f

Witte nber g whither R o ger s m o ved th at ye ar Thu s the rs t


auth o rized ver s i o n o f the E ngli s h Bible like its tw o pre de ces
s o r s w as pre pare d an d publi shed un der Luther an i n ue n ce s an d
au spi ce s

or

48

11

H an db ook

f E nglish

Ve rs ion s , p

176 .

C HAPTER
T H E L UT

An

HERA N

CO

MM ISSI O N

IX

To

N G LAND

o r 15 3

S i l e n ce Anxi e ty o f M el anchtho n H is l e tt er to H enry VIII


H is C riti c i s m o f th e T e n A rt i c l es
H enry seek s Renewal o f Ne go ti a
A rrangem e n ts fo r C o nfe ren ce
ti o ns
C hri s to pher M o un t at B runs w i c k
Th e Lutheran C o mm i ss i o ne rs
S ke t ch O f M yc o n ius Luth
o f 15 3 8
D e ath o f Fo x
I ts E f
fe c t o n th e Luther an M o v e
e r s l e tter to Fo x
m en t
Re cepti o n o f th e C o mm i ss i o n T h e A ugs burg C o n fess i o n D is
c usse d
Agre e m en t o n th e D o c t ri n al Arti c l e s
C o n i c t o n
A b us es
A n A gree men t I mm i nen t
H e n ry s S chemes to e nd th e C o n ference
Thei r adm o n iti o n H an ds o m e Presents
Th e C o mm iss i o n w ithdraws
Res ults X III A rti cl es o f 15 3 8
fo r I nh os pitabl e E n te rt ai nmen t
Rel ati o n to A ugsburg C o nfess i o n shown in parall e l co l um ns
i

o m no us

W H IL E the E n gli sh Bible was thus w o rki ng like leave n amo ng


the E ngli s h pe o ple the di pl o matic s ide o f the Re fo r m ati o n was
I n chapter VI we h ave traced the fo r m ul ati o n
al so pr o gress i n g
Of The T e n Arti cles o f 15 3 6 and sho wn their relati o n to th e
Augsburg C o n fess i o n and the Apo l o gy It bec o m es an i n teres t
ing subject O f i n quiry to n o te h o w the m o ve m e n t in E ngl an d
in which they o rigi nated w as regarded by the leaders o f th e R e f
I n re adi ng their c o rres po n de n ce we
o rmatio n in Ger m an y
nd that fo r a l o n g ti m e they were al m o s t e n tirely cut o ff fr o m
d irect c o mm u n i cati o n with E ngl an d G ardi ner s pl o ts to d e feat
the ad o pti o n o fthe Augsburg C o n fe ss i o n and A po l o gy c o m pre
he n ded al so the preve n ti o n o f an y c o mmu nicati o n betwee n the
E ngli sh party o fre fo rm and th o se up o n wh o s e l ab o r s and jud g
m e n t they were so d e pe nde nt
We have previ o usly re ferred to
the fact that after h is return to E ngl an d Dr B ar nes n o ti ng
the ch ange that had o ccurred wr o t e to Melan chth o n (J une
,

( 12 7)

12

Th e L

u th e ra n

[Mo ve m e n t in E ng land

thi n k O f m aki n g the vi s it to E ngl an d fo r which


the ki n g had bee n s o i m po rtunate July 3 rst o f the sam e ye ar
to
Alesius d es iri n g to s e n d a c o py o f The T e n Articles
Melan chth o n c o uld acc o m pli sh h is pur po s e o n ly by tr ansm it
ti ng it to A e pinus fr o m 15 2 9 pas t o r an d fr o m 1 5 3 2 the Luth
er an Superi n te n d e n t at H am burg w h o was o n m o st i n ti mate
terms w i th Cru m well an d as ki ng h im to have it s e n t fr o m H am

burg to Wi tte nberg


Certai nly it was no t the m o s t c o nsider ate
tre atme n t o f the acc o m pli shed auth o r fr o m who s e pe n a great

p o rti o n o f The T e n Arti cle s was derived that he c o ul d re


c e ive a c o py in n o o ther w ay th an thr o ugh such a surre ptiti o u s
chann el But t o be s ure it was the ki ng s o w n b o o k an d the

le arn e de st pri n ce in Chri sten d o m


c o ul d do wi th i t as h e saw
bes t ! Yet be fo re the Arti cl es c o ul d reach Melan chth o n the
Elect o r o f Sax o n y grew very i n dign an t at the l o n g s ile n ce
Bi sh o p Fo x w as re gard ed by so m e o f the pri n ce s an d the o l o gians
as h avi n g m o s t s h am e f
ully fal sied s i n ce his pr o m i ses were un
fullle d
We sh all se e later that in thi s i m press i o n Luther did
July 1 2 th 15 3 6 the Elect o r th o ught o f se ndi n g
n o t s h are
s o m e o n e t o E ngl an d to n d o ut wh at w as the m atter o r o f re
s
que sti n g A e pinus to i nt ercede with th o se in auth o rity there
Six weeks m o re p as sed an d o n Septe m ber I st Melan chth o n
wr o t e a letter fo r the Elect o r to He nry in which he said amo ng
o ther thi n gs :
We do n o t d o ubt that yo ur Ro yal High n ess h as learned
fr o m the Bi sh o p o fHere fo r d wha t was o ur will an d th at O f o ur
c o n fe d er ate s at the c o n feren ce at Fr an k fo rt as well as o ur di spo
We are un der the i mpres
s itio n t o war d s y o ur R o y al H igh n ess
r o m Nau m
s i o n to o th at the letter s which were s e n t Ju n e 5 th f
burg have bee n d elivered to y o ur Ro yal H igh n ess We expect
a re ply fr o m y o ur R o yal H i gh n ess o r at le as t we h o pe th at
the Bi sh o p o f Here fo rd will writ e as w e as ked in th e letter fro m
n o t to

1
2

C orpus R efo rm atoru m ,


lb

104

Se ck endorf III
,

113

III :

89

C o mm is s io n to

uth e ra n

Th e L

Eng la nd of

15

38

12

Nau mburg i n fo rm i n g us what was the w ill o f y o ur R o yal H i gh


n e ss whe n he h ad re ad th e article s co n ce rn ing do ctrin e o n w hich
,

th e

legate s

a nd

th e

Wi tte nb e rg the ologians

h ad agre e d

At l as t o n N o ve m ber 2 8th Mel anchth o n h ad received


The

an d wr o te t o Veit D ietrich
We have the
T e n Article s
A ngli can Arti cle s c o mpl ete whi ch I will have de scribe d by
C ruc ige r ; they have bee n put t o gether with the greate st c o n fu
There are i t is true s till i nterv al s t ake n fr o m m y a airs
si o n

Three days l ater


B ut I will write o f the m at an o ther ti m e
he wr o te to the sam e c o rre spo nde n t
We hear that in E ng
l an d everythi ng is fu l l o fs e d iti o ns I w o n d er that yo u h ave n o t
i nd icate d w i th wh at c o un te nan ce Dr O s iande r has re gar ded the

picture o fh is pr o phecy
,

THE

CO

MM ISSI O N

O F 15 3

He nry at l as t re spo n ded J an u ary 2 d 1 5 3 8 in a very c o n cili


H e pr ai se d the c o urs e o f h is Ger m an brethre n
ato ry s trai n
c o n cer n i n g the pr o po se d C o u n cil th o u ght th at every Chri sti an
m an m u s t ad m ire it and h o pe d that by future c o n fere n ce s with
the D ivi n e ass i s t an ce they m ay c o m e to an agree me n t an d that
the pure d o ctri n e o f Chri s t which canno t l ie hi d de n l o ng m ay be
5
di s pl aye d to the salvati o n o fall At the cl o s e o f the n ext m o n th
he s e n t Chri s t o pher M o u n t to the m eeti ng O f the League at
Bru nswick wi t h the assur an ce that he wo ul d use every e ffo rt fo r
the pr o m o ti o n an d es t abli sh m e n t o fth e pure religi o n and st at

s
m
e to s e n d the pr o m i se d e mbass y
It
I ng th at i t w as n o w the ti
w as acc o rdi n gly d eter m i n ed to accept the pr o po s iti o n an d th e
e mb assy was c o nstituted by the appo i n t m e n t o f Fr an ci s B urk
h ard Vice Ch an cell o r o fS ax o n y Ge o r ge a B o yne b urg LL D
Su peri n te nd e n t
a He ss i an n o ble m an and Frederick M yc o nius
The very
o f G o th a a s t ates m an a juri s t and a the o l o gi an
c o ns tituti o n o f the c o mm i ss i o n s h o wed that it was n o t an tici
,

trans l ato r is co m pe lled here to b e an i nterpre te r :

lb 9 192
adh uc q uidem s un t i n duc i ae
5 S
e c k e ndo rf III : 180
Th e

IO

D e m ei s

rebus

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

13 0

Eng land

dm it o f an y c o m pr o m i ses Mel an chtho n was e vi


M yco n ius ( 14 9 1 15 4 6 ) w h o
de ntly kept at h o m e i n te n ti o nally
s upplie d h is pl ace
is de scribed as a m an o f de e p spiritu ality a
fo r m er m o n k wh o s e e xperie n ce in h is se arch fo r the ass ur an c e
o rgive n e ss O fsi ns in m an y re spect s re s em ble d th at o f L u
o f the f
ther small o f s tature an d fo r years a vi cti m o f c o nsu m pti o n o f
ul e n ergy d i s ti ngui shed executive abil
s ch o l arly habits w o n d er f
i ty an d m arke d e m i n e n ce as a public spe aker with M e lan c h
th o n s c al m an d unruf e d di sp o s iti o n l o ve o f pe ace an d habits
o f i n tr o specti o n ti n ged wi th well te m pered s e n ti m e n t but wi th
o n d n ess f
o r di pl o m acy a m an deeply b e
o ut Me lan chth o n s f
l o ved by b o th Luther and Mel an chth o n w h o whe n the circu m
s t an ce s dem an ded i t o n m o re t h an o n e o ccasi o n sh o wed that h e
c o uld be a true B o an er ge s as well as the St J o hn o f th e
Luther an Re fo rm ati o n H o wever such a re pre se n t ative m ight
win the l o ve o fall with wh o m b e de alt he c o ul d be i mpli citly
relied u po n n o t to yield an h air s bre ad th as in h is i nner e xpe
o u ght o ver every p o i n t i n v o lve d in the c o n tr o
rie n c e he h ad f
e o r death hu ng u po n the m all What
v e rsy an d k n ew th at li f
better represe n tative c o uld be selected to e n c o u n ter the di sgui sed
Ro man i sm than he wh o as a y o uth s till in the t o il s o f the P a
o re Tetzel beggi n g an i n dul ge n ce u po n the
cy
h
ad s t o o d be f
a
p
gr o u n d th at to the p o o r i t m u s t be give n gratuit o usly an d whe n
fered the price by so m e O f T e tz e l s atte n d an t s re fu si n g i t with
of
the w o r d s :
No I purch as e n o fo rgive n ess I mu s t have i t

r
tuit
u
an d ch ar gi n g the i n dul ge n ce ve n d er t o h is f
ace :
sly
a
o
g
Y o u will h ave t o give an answer be fo re G o d if fo r the sak e
o fa c o uple o f pe nn ie s yo u reg ar d the salvati o n o f m y so ul o fn o

acc o u n t
L UTH E R O N B IS H O P F O X
p ated

to

Already o n M arch r1th the i ns tructi o ns o f the c o m m i ssi o n


were pre pared M ay 1 2 th Luther wr o te a letter to Bi sh o p Fo x
c o m m e n d i ng its m em bers to its ki n d rece pti o n Al as the ac
c o m pl i she d prel ate h ad d ie d fo ur d ays be fo re
With h is death
Lutheran i sm in E ngl an d received a bl o w fr o m whi ch i t n ever re
,

The L uthe ran Co mm is s io n to

Eng lan d of

15

3 8

13 1

c o vered I fth at sam e h an d wh ose chie fw o rk o ne w o uld thi nk


ce to th o se w h o
s h o uld have bee n to tr ansm it the h o li es t o f
were to be the ambas sad o rs o f the G o spel o fpe ace an d l o ve but
which so O fte n t o uched the key at wh o se s ign al the frie n d s o f a
puried church fell be ne ath the bl o ws o f the executi o n er had
ad m i n i stere d po i so n to o n e wh o se p o wer an d i n ue n c e were to o
gre at to ad m it O f h is re m o val by o rdi nary m eth o d s he c o uld n o t
h ave acc o m pli shed h is plans m o re e e c tually Wi th o ut the
v aci l lati o n o f Cranm er every m o ve m e n t whi c h the Bi sh o p o f
Here fo rd h ad m ad e s h o we d a s te ad y pr o gre ss t o ward s the i deal
p o siti o n H e had greater de pth o fcharac ter wi d er range o fex
n d m o re f
acility an d read i n e ss as an e c cle s i as tical
r
i
e
n
c
e
a
e
p
B es i d e s he had al ways access to
dipl o m at th an the archbi sh o p
the ki n g a privilege whi c h Cr an m er e nj o ye d o n ly o n rare o c
cas i o ns The letter o f Luther s h o ws in wh at e s tee m the R e
fo rm er hel d h im an d fully c o u n teract s the su spi ci o ns felt by
Mel anchth o n w h o we m u s t ack n o wle dge w as read ily deceive d
No r do Luther s letters deal in e m pty
in h is e s ti m ate o fm e n
c o m pli m e n t s Whatever he wri te s he m eans Here is h is
letter :
Grace an d peace in C hri s t o ur L o rd As the se me n o ur
frie n d s an d the le gate s o f the pri n ce s are ab o ut m aki ng a j o urn ey
to y o ur M o s t Sere n e K i n g I c o ul d n o t re frai n fr o m givi n g the m
a letter to yo u d re ad i n g e speci al ly le s t I m i ght i n cur the ch arg e
ul an d f
o rget f
ul man Fo r s i n ce in add iti o n
o fbei ng an u n gr ate f
to the m o s t agree able i n ti m acy which we e nj o ye d here yo u al so
did; m e a very grea t fav o r an d pr o te d m e by yo ur advice
agai ns t m y e n e m y the s t o n e ; i t is i m po ss ible f
o r m e to f
o rget
O fte n h as o ur c o nver sati o n bee n c o nc er n i ng yo u e spe
yo u
fairs have bee n taki ng s uch tur n s in y o ur ki n gd o m
c ially s i n ce af
th at either yo u h ave bee n u nable to s e n d us letter s o r whe n se n t
they were po ss ib l y i n terce pte d By such su ppos iti o ns we c o m
Fo r we were he s i tati n g and d re ad i n g les t
fo rte d o ur an xiety
n
m
m
ibly
thi
s
er
s
i
s
te
n
t
s
ile
ce
ight
be
a
i
f
o
e sad der
n
o
o
ss
s
s
p
p
g
calam ity agai nst the pr o gress o f the G os pel There were so m e
,

'

The L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

13 2

Eng land

i magi ned that y o ur Ki n g circum ve n ted at s o m e ti me by


ul Ro m an i st s w o uld retur n agai n i n t o fav o r with the P o pe
s ki l f
We here pr ayed and am i d h o pe an d fe ar beso ught that Sat an b e
be ate n u n d er y o ur feet Neither are we i n fo r m ed wh at is bei n g
d o n e am o n g yo u with re spect to the G o spel o r h o w But w e
h o pe o n the retur n o f thes e leg ate s to he ar a go o d re po rt c o n
cer n i ng y o ur A n g l ican Church with re spect to wh at is verily the
G o spel H o w the St ate an d Church are in Ger m an y yo u will
le ar n fully and th o r o ughly fr o m o ur repre se nt ative s The L o r d
Je sus Chri st i n cre as e in yo u an d in us b o th gr ace an d h is gi ft s to
the gl o ry O f G o d the Father A m e n My Kati e reveren tly
I n Chri s t farewell
Yo ur m o s t d ev o te d
salute s yo u

M A RT I N L UTH E R
T H E E MB A SS Y I N E N G L A ND
wh o

'

The amb assad o r s receive d a very c o r d i al recepti o n They


were h o no re d with the e m br ace o f the ki ng w h o expre ss e d h is
re
t
regret
a
t
the
a
b
s
e
n
ce
f
Mel
a
n
chth
n
but
c
a
n
d
i
d
ly
t
te
d
a
o
o
s
a
g
that there were so m e p o i n ts in the articl es o f th e Pr o testant s
whi c h he di d n o t appr o ve an d th at he th o ught th at they o u ght
to m ake the pl at fo r m s u fcie n tly br o ad th at the Fre n c h al so
The am b assad o r s h o wever were duly
m i ght be i n clu d e d
warned by the frie n d s o f th e Ev ange l ical c au s e th at he was
gre atly i n ue nc e d by bi sh o p s o pp o s e d to the G o spel an d th at

they sh o uld n o t pl ace m uch de pe n de n ce u po n h is attery Thi s


they so o n fo u n d to be o nly to o true
Three bi sh o ps and fo ur d o c t o r s O f divi n ity with Cr an m er as
m
m
re
i
d
e
n
t
o
f
the
c
o
i ss i o n were appo i n te d to re prese n t the
s
p
E ngli sh s i d e whil e D r B ar ne s was ass i gn e d b ythe ki ng a pl ace
There is per fect agree
in the c o n fere n ce o n the Luther an s i d e
The tw o par
m e n t c o n cer n i n g the fact s o f the C o n fere n ce

t ies we n t t o gether thr o ugh th e Au gu stan C o nfess i o n


The
c o ur s e O fth e d i scuss i o n w as regul ate d by th e pl an pursued in th e
.

De

We tte

L uth e r s B rie

Se ck endo rf I I I : 180
8
D i xo n s flist ry f th e

n,

: 110 s q .

Ch urch of E nglan d, Vo l II
.

p 3

The L uth e ran C om m is s io n to

Eng land of

15

3 8

33

Augsburg C o n fessi o n
The ki ng app o i n ted cert ai n bi sho p s
ere n ce and debate with the m o f
and d o ct o r s to e n ter i n t o c o n f
e ach o f the he ad s o f Chri s ti an do ctri n e c o n tai n ed in the Angu s

ti n e C o n fess i o n an d o fdiver s abu ses br o u ght i n t o the church


The y were n o t l o ng in c o m i ng to an agree me n t o n the D o ctri nal
Articles but after the se were n ishe d a d i sagree m e n t ar os e the
Lutherans i nsi s ti ng that the c o ns iderati o n o f the C o n fess i o n m u st
be n i she d and the article s o n Abus es als o i n clu d e d while the
bi sh o ps were ju s t as urge n t th at the s eve n sacr am e n t s m u s t fo r m
the next s ubject o f c o n s i d erati o n B ack O f the bi s h o ps w as the
ki ng but the Luther ans h ad the sati s facti o n o fh avi ng o n their
ee l i n g to Cru m well c o n
s i d e Cranm er w h o wr o te with n o little f
cer n i n g the c o ur s e O fh is a so ci ates The fact c o uld n o t be c o n
c e ale d tha t i t was the i n te n ti o n O f the K i n g by thi s pr o cedure to
break up the c o n fere nc e whi c h threate n ed to go to o far I t
ac tu ally began t o l o o k as th o u gh if the di s cu ss i o n s were to c o n
ti nne the wh o le Au gsburg C o n fess i o n w o uld be appr o ved Me
lan c h th o n wr o te to Bre n z o n the b as i s o fth e re po rt s re c eive d at
Witte nberg :
There is h o pe that the A ng l i c an churche s will
1
be re fo r m e d an d the d o ctri n e an d g o d ly right s res t o re d
Nevertheless i t w o u l d have bee n a seri o u s matter fr o m a p o li tical
s t an d po i n t to h ave di sm i ss e d the re pre se n t ative s o f the S malc ald
Le ague to o abru ptly S o He n ry anno u n ce d th at he hi ms el f
w o ul d u n d ert ake to answer the Luther an ar gu m e n t o n Abu se s
Cranm er al so describe s the e n tertai nm e n t fur n i she d the Luth
eran am bas sad o rs as bei n g s uch as w o ul d lead th em to des ire a
s umm o n s h o m ewar d at the e arlies t m o m e n t
As c o n ce rn yng
the O rato urs o fG e rm anye I am ad vertis e d tha t thei are very
c v ill l o d ge d where thei be :
Fo r be s i d es the M ultitude o f Ratts
dai l y and n ygh tly runn yng in their ch am bers which is n o s m al l
D isq uie tn e s the Ke c h yn s t an d eth directly agai n s t their P arl ar
where they dayly D i ne and Su pp ; and by re as o n there o f th e

H ardw i ck s

Ifis to ry

f A rticles

Co rpus R efo rm atorum ,

III :

p 70
5 87
,

T he L uthe ran [Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

34

H o us e savo re th so yll that i t o ffe n de th all M e n that c o m e i nt o


1
it
The ki ng was trii ng ; an d the am bass ad o rs were quick

e n o u gh to perceive i t
He wan ts
wri tes M yc o n ius
n o th
in g el s e th an to s it as A n tichri s t in the te m pl e o f G o d an d th at
K i ng H arry be P o pe The preci o us tre as ures the rich i n c o m e
1"
thes e are H arry s G o spel
The Bi sh o p O f
o f the Church
Here fo r d is n o l o n ger at h an d to ple ad fo r the ev an gelical
Po liti cal c o ns i d er ati o ns h ave
fai th with h is harde n e d m o n arch
Fr an c i s an d Charles V h ave c o n clu d e d a
ag ai n i n ter fere d
Ch arle s V h as s e n t a pr o po s iti o n t o the afflicted wi d
pe ace
e sh o ul d be
o wer o n the thrOn e O f E n gl an d th at h is f
o urth wi f
the E m per o r s n iece He n ry i n terpret s thi s as an i n d icati o n
th at h is po wer is actu ally fe are d by the E m per o r an d th at he
c an n o w c o pe with the P o pe with o ut b o theri n g hi m s e l f wi th the
term s o f church fell o wship which the s e o b sti nate an d narr o w
m i n d e d Luther ans w an t to i m po s e
The am b assad o rs u n d er st o o d the s i tu ati o n an d pre pare d to re
tire M yc o n ius felt his s tre ngth fai l i n g an d feared that if he
tarried m uch l o n ger in th e fo gs o f L o n d o n h is s tru ggle fo r li fe
w o u l d so o n e n d H e wr o te to Cr anm er Se ptem ber ro th
Al
th o u gh fo r the sake O fad van ci n g Chri st s gl o ry I am re ady also
fer all thi ngs ; yet s i n ce in the arti c le s an d su m m ary O f
to s u f
Chri sti an d o ctri n e we have ad van ce d s o far as to agree n o w
c o n cer n i ng the chie f; an d s i n ce as to wh at is le ft t o uchi ng
d o c t o rs
abu s es we h ave expl ai n e d the O pi n i o n o f o ur pri n ce s
churches an d O fo u rs elves b o th verbally and in writi n g an d the
d o ct o r s n o w k n o w o ur j ud gm e n t they will be able al so in o ur
ab s e n ce t o wei gh the m an d to d eter m i n e wh at they se e to be
3
ple as i ng to the d ivi n e wi l l an d u se ful to the church o f G o d
No r is the o fci al letter which they le ft in E ngl an d with o ut great
,

B urn e t
1 i e r s
P p

11

S trype

oo k

III : xl viii

D ie Ze uge n de r

R e co rd B

M e m o rials , V I

Wah rh e it

13

Vo l

III : p

44 5

Th e L

C o m m is s io n to E ng la nd

uthe ra n

15

3 8

35

i n teres t We qu o te fr o m the su m m ary o f i t which the ki n g had


pre pare d :

A fter they had rel ated wh at w as give n the m in c o mm an d


m e n t an d that they h ad c o n ferre d o f the article s o f the Chri s
ti an re l i gi o n fo r tw o m o n ths with so m e bi sh o ps and d o ct o rs o f
d ivi ni ty appo i n te d the m by the K i n g s M aje sty ; they d o ubt
n o t th at a rm an d per petu al c o n c o rd be tw ixt their pri n ce s an d
the ki ng s maje sty an d their bi sh o ps divi ne s an d s ubject s w o uld
fo ll o w in the d o ctri n e o f the g o spel to the pr ai s e o f G o d and
the rui n o f the Ro m an Anti Chri st A nd becau se they c an n o t
o re
o r the re s t o f the d i s putati o n c o n cer n i n g abu s e s be f
s t ay f
they de part they thi n k i t their duty to de c lare their s e n te n ce
which after their de parture the
o f s o m e article s o f abu s e s ;
ki ng s majes ty may t ake c are that h is bi sh o ps an d d ivi ne s c o n fer
t o gether o f They say the purity o f d o ctri n e cann o t be c o n
s erved u n le ss th o s e abu s e s be t ake n away th at ght with the
W o rd o f G o d an d have pr o duce d and m ai n tai n e d th e tyr ann y

an d i d o l atry o fthe R o man A n ti C h ri s t


Yet whe n the ti m e fo r the d epartu re o f the c o mm i ss i o n cam e the
ki ng w as pr o fus e in c o m pl i m e n ts Writi n g to the Ele c t o r h e
m o s t bl am e l es s frie n d s w h o h ave pres e n te d
style d the m h is
wi s d o m u n c o m m o n
argu m e n t s s o e m i n e n t in s o u n d le ar n i n g
can d o r and suprem e d ev o ti o n to Chri sti an go d li ne ss th at their
i n terc o urse h as bee n in the highe s t de gree char m i ng an d agree
able to us an d we e n tert ai n the we l l ass ure d h o pe th at
with
G o d s ass i s t an ce fru it an d succe ss will fo l l o w the c o u nse l s that

have bee n be gu n
The Saxo n Vi c e Chan cell o r t o o k with h im
as a m e m o ri al o fh is s u m ptu o u s e n tert ai n m e n t three h o r s e s and
Whe n a fe w weeks l ater
a c arri age pre se nte d by the ki n g
their o w n er exhibite d the m at S malcald the l ud i cr o u sn e ss o f the
wh o le pr o ce d ure w as s uch th at Luther c o ul d n o t re frai n fr o m
s o m e am u s i n g re mark s
which may be fo u n d in h is Tab l e
Talk
The subject h o wever h as its s eri o u s as well as its hu m o r o us
.

1 E

rl ange n

E d L uth e r s

Works

Vo l 6 2 , p 4 5 3
.

13

The L uthe ran [ Mo vem e nt in E ng land

ide As Secke n d o r f re marks :


The jus t judgm e n t o f G o d
15
agai ns t the h o rrible vices o f the ki n g o ught to be rec o gn ized
The failure o f the se n eg o ti ati o ns with the Germ an pri n ce s
w as o n e O f the he avies t bl o w s s u s t ai n e d by the E n gli s h Re fo rm a
ti o n d uri ng the reign o f H e n ry VIII I t b o th re m o ve d the sal
utary re strai n t hithert o i m p o sed o n the K i ng s c aprice s by an nu
wi lli ng n ess to bre ak with th o se w h o were e m b arked in the sam e
c au s e and i t al so e n li sted h is per so nal feeli ngs o n the s i d e o f the
6
te n et s he h ad so zeal o u sly pled ged hi msel f to de fe n d
T H E TH IR T E E N A R T I C L E S O F 1 3 8
5
I f the que sti o n the n be as ke d why is n o t the Church o f E ng
l an d a Luther an Church ? the t rue an swer is Becau se a wicke d
ruler i n ter fered withi n a s phere th at d i d n o t bel o n g to h im and
abruptly ter m i nate d the m e as ure s o f the true re pre s e n t ative s o f
the Church which clearly i n d i cated a read i ne ss to accept the
17
Luther an C o n fess i o ns
Thi s is sh o w n fur ther by the Article s o f 15 3 8 evide n tly dr awn
up at the C o n fere n ce an d pres erve d with o ther d o cum e n t s pe r
t ai n i ng to i t which were di s c o vere d ab o ut 183 0 by Dr J e nk yns
They h ave n o weight ex
am o n g the m an us cript s o f Cr an m er
ce pt as hi s t o rical evi d e n ce o f the facts which we are tr aci ng
h avi ng failed o f their purp o se an d n o t h avi n g received any
They were led away to s erve an i m po rt an t
fo rm al san cti o n
fte rwar d s in the prep arati o n o f the Article s o f 15 5 2
purp o s e a
thr o u gh which they c o n ti nue to l ive in the Thirty Ni n e Article s
The subject s o f the arti cle s are I O f the U n ity o f G o d an d th e
Tri n i ty o f Per so ns I I O f Ori gi nal S in III O f the T w o
Natures o f Chri st IV O f Ju s tic ati o n V O f the Church
VI O f B apti sm VII O f the Euchari st VIII O f Repe n

'

15

Vo l

"3

III :

p 180
C ranm er,
.

I : x xv
1"
I t is an unj us t s c andal o fo ur advers aries and a gross erro r in o urs e l ves
to c o m pute th e n ativit y o fo ur re l i gi o n fro m H e n ry th e E i gh th
w h o tho ugh
h e re j e c t e d th e P o pe re fuse d no t th e faith o f R o m e S i r Tho m as B ro wne s
Je nk yn

R e ligio M e dici,

Q5

The L uth e ran C o mm is s io n to E ng land

15

3 8

37

tance IX O fthe Use o fthe Sacr am e n t s X O f the Mi n i ster s


XI O f Eccles i as tical Rites XII O f Civil Af
o fthe Chur c h
fairs
XIII O f the Re surrecti o n o f B o die s an d the Fi nal
Ju d gm e n t
The re ad er m ay ju d ge fo r hi ms el f h o w cl o sely th e Augsburg
C o n fess i o n is fo ll o we d
.

G SB URG

AU

C O N FES S I O N ,

15 3 0

I
Th e churches w ith c o mm o n co n
sent am o n g us do t e ach th at th e de
c re e o fth e N i c e ne Sy no d c o n cern i n g
th e un it y o f th e d ivi ne ess e n c e an d o f
th e three pe rs o n s is tr ue an d w itho ut
to w it that
any do ubt to b e be l i e v ed
the re is o n e d ivi ne e sse nce which is
w itho ut
c all ed an d is G o d e tern al
bo dy i ndivi s ibl e o f i n n ite po we r
w i s do m go o dn e ss ; th e C re ato r an d
Pre serv er o f all thi ngs vi s ibl e an d in
vis ible ; an d that ye t there b e thre e
pers o ns o f th e s am e es s e n ce an d po w
e r w h o are al s o c o e t e rn al th e P ath
er th e S o n and th e H o ly Gho s t
A n d the y use th e n am e pers o n in
that s i gn i c atio n whi ch th e e c c l e s i as
ti cal write rs have use d it i n th is c aus e
to s i gni fy n o t a part o r q ual it y in an
o the r
b ut that wh i ch pro perly s ub
A rt

s is te th

The y co nde m n all h ere s i es whi ch


have s prung up agai ns t this arti c l e as
th e M an i che es
w h o s e t do w n tw o
pri nc i pl es
goo d an d e vi l ; in th e
s ame m ann er th e V al e nti n i ans
A ri
ans E un o m i ans M aho m e t an s and all
s uch l ik e
The y c o ndem n al so th e S am os a
tene s O ld an d n e w ; w h o when the y
e arn e s tly co n te n d th at the re is b ut o n e
perso n do c rafti ly an d w i c k edly t r i e
af
te r th e m ann e r o f Rh eto ri c i ans
abo ut th e Wo rd an d th e H o ly Gh o s t
th at th e y are n o t d is ti nc t perso ns b ut
that th e Wo rd s ign i e th a v o cal wo rd
an d th e
Spi rit a mo ti o n cre ate d in
th i ngs
,

We j udge that

th e

de cre e

f th e
un it y o f
o

ern i ng th e
th e d ivi ne e ss e n c e an d t h e thre e pe r
s o ns is t rue an d w itho ut an y do ubt to
b e be l i e v e d to w it that there is o n e
d ivi n e e ss e n ce whi ch bo th is c all e d
an d is G o d e tern al w itho ut bo dy in
d ivi s ibl e o f i n n ite po wer w is do m
goo dne ss ; th e C re at o r and Preserv e r
o f all thi n gs vi s ibl e an d i nvi s ibl e ; an d
that ye t there b e thre e pe rs o n s O f th e
s am e e ss e n ce an d po wer a n d m e ter
n al th e
Fathe r th e S o n an d th e
H o ly Gho s t
co n c

A rt

N i cene Syno d

( 5

C LES

RTI

e pers o n in
that s i gn i ati o n whi ch th e e cc l e s i as
ti c al writers hav e us e d in thi s c as e to
s i gn i f
y no t a part o r qual ity in an
b ut th at whi c h pro pe rly s ub
o th e r
A nd w e

th e

us e

n am

s is te th .

We

here s ies whi ch


h av e s prun g up agai ns t thi s arti c l e as
th e M an i che e s w h o s e t do wn tw o
pr i n c i pl e s a go o d an d an e vi l ; al so
th e Val e n ti n i ans A r i ans E uno m i ans
M aho m etans an d all s uch l ike
co n

dem n

all

We

de m n al so th e S am o s atane s
o ld an d n e w w h o whe n the y e arn
e s tly co n te nd that there is b ut o ne
perso n do c raft ly an d w i c k edly tri e
af
te r th e m ann er o f Rhe to ri c i ans
abo ut th e W o rd a n d th e H o ly Ghos t
that there are no t d is ti n c t pe rso ns b ut
that th e Wo rd s ign ie th a v o c al wo rd
an d th e S i rit a m o ti o n cre ate d in
p
t h i ngs
co n

13

Th e L

uth e ran

[ Mo ve me nt in E ng lan d

A R T 11
II
A ll m e n b e go tten after th e co mm o n
A l so th e y t e ach that after A d am s
co urs e
o f n at ure
are
bo rn w ith
fall all m e n b e go tt e n aft e r th e c o m
m o n c o urs e o f n at ure are bo r n w ith o ri gi n al s in ; that is w ith an abs e nc e
o ri gi n al
e ar o fG o d
o f th e
r i ghte o usness that
s in ; th at is w it h o ut th e f
w ith o ut trus t in h im an d w ith e sh ly o ught to b e in the m 8 o n w hi ch ac
co un t t h e y are c hi l dre n o f wrath an d
a pe tit e ; an d t h at th i s d i s e as e o r o ri gi
p
ai l in k n o w l e dge o f G o d
fe ar o f
aul t is t ruly s in co n de m n i ng an d f
n al f
bri ngi ng e tern al de ath n o w al s o upo n Go d trus t to wards Go d e tc An d
the y hav e e s hly appe tite co n i c ti ng
n o t bo rn agai n by b ap
all that are
w ith th e law o f Go d ; an d this di se as e
tism an d th e H o ly Spi r it
aul t o f o ri gi n is truly s in
or f
con
dem mi ng an d bri ngi ng etern al death
no w al s o upo n tho se w h o are n o t
bo rn agai n by b apti sm an d th e H o ly
Spi rit
Th e y c o nde m n th e P e l agi ans an d We co nde m n th e P e l agi ans an d
o th e rs w h o de n y th e f
aul t to
aul t o f o ri gi n
o th e rs w h o de n y th i s o r i gi n al f
b e s in i n de e d an d w h o s o as to le s to b e s in ; an d w h o so as to l e ss en
th e gl o ry o f th e m e r it an d be n e ts O f
s o n th e gl o ry o fth e m e r it an d be n e t s
C h ri s t argue th at m an c an s ati s fy
O f C hri s t argue th at a m an m ay b y
G o d s law by h is o w n n atural s tre n gth
th e s tre n gth o fh is o w n re as o n b e j us
w itho ut th e H o ly Spirit an d by th e
ti e d b e fo re Go d
goo d w o rk s o fre aso n b e pro n o un ced
ri ght e o us be f
o re G o d
A RT

'

Article III c o rre sp o n d s to Article III o f Au gsburg C o n fe s

do ce mus
in
s i o n exce pt in the s ec o n d w o r d where we n d
do ce nt
Art IV
O fJu s ticati o n
is m uch l o n ger
s te ad o f
than the c o rrespo n d i n g Article O f the Aug sburg C o n fess i o n
which it i n c l udes but am plie s The d e n iti o n o f the T e n

Artic l e s is i n tr o d uce d but so m o d ie d by qu al i fyi ng C l aus es


ess i o n O bj e c
as to bri ng it i n t o n e arer acc o rd wi th the C o n f
ti o n s to the Lutheran do ctri n e are al so m e t by th e fo rm ul ati o n
aith des cribe d is n o t i no per ative kn o wl
o f the s tate m e n t th at the f
e d ge o r s i m ply a kn o wledge O f the articles o f faith e tc It
V o f the Au gsburg
C l o s e s with a verb al repr o ducti o n o f Art
Art V di s cu sse s at le n gth the de n iti o n o f the
C o n fess i o n
Church in h ar m o n y wi th the Lutheran C o n fessi o n d raw i ng ma
te rial b o th fr o m the Aug sburg C o n fess i o n an d the Ap o l o gy
.

Th is v ari ati o n fro m th e Aug C o n f is derived fro m th e Apo l o gy (78 :


Th e an c i e n t de n iti o n un ders too d ari gh t e xpre ss e s th e s am e th i ng
when it s ays
O rigin al s in is th e a bse n ce qfo rigin al righ te ous n ess
13

Th e L

uth e ra n

C omm is s io n to E ng land

15

38

13

Art VI i n clu d es Art IX o f the Augsburg C o n fess i o n an d Art

I o f The T e n Artic l es o f 15 3 6 c o n cer n i ng I n fan t Bapti sm


take n as we h ave see n fr o m Melanchth o n s A dve rs us A nabap

an d add s a s ta te m e n t c o n cer n i n
tis tas
Art
g A d ult B apti sm
VII teache s the Luther an d o ctri n e o f the L o r d s Su p per in the
term s agree d u po n at Witte nberg in 15 3 6 The o n ly article o f
the R e pe titio
there fr am ed o fwhich we have an y kno wledge
is qu o te d by Secke n d o r f
.

R E P E T II

'

We

IO

(I 5

t tly be l ie ve an d teach
th at in th e s acram en t O fth e B o dy an d
Bloo d o fth e Lo rd Chris t s bo dy an d
bloo d are truly s ubs tan ti ally an d
re ally prese n t under th e fo rms o f
bread an d w i ne and that under th e
the y are truly an d c o r
s am e f
o rm s
po re ally ten dere d an d d i s tributed to

all those w h o re ce iv e th e s ac ram en t

co ns an

RTI L
C

ES

O f th e E ucharis t w e c o ns t antly
be l ie v e an d te ach that in th e s ac ra
me n t o f th e B o dy an d Bl o o d o f th e

Lo rd , C hris t s bo dy an d bl oo d are
t ruly , s ubs tan ti ally an d re ally pre s e n t
un der th e f
o rm s o f bre ad an d w i n e ,
an d that un der th e s am e f
o rm s , t h e y
are truly an d re ally ten dered an d dis
tribute d to th os e w h o re ce ive th e s ac

b
ram en t , w he the r goo d o r ad

Of

the re m ai n i n g Articles IX X and the rs t paragr aph


O f XI are sub s tan ti ally d erived f
r o m the Au gsburg C o n fess i o n
th o ugh expan d i ng the d o ctri n e gu ar d i ng i t fr o m m i sc o n ce pti o ns

an d an sweri n g o bjecti o ns
Articles VIII
O f Re pe n tan ce

an d XIII
XII
O f Civil A airs
O f the Resurrecti o n
are tre ate d at m uch gre ater le n gth but als o b e ar C l ear marks o f
the so urce whe n ce they c o me
.

'

C HAPTER

MO R E
Th e

Fir t E

N G LIS H

LUTH E RA N LI T E RA TUR E

l i h Sys tem ati c Th e o l o gy T av erner s S arce rius I ts S ign i


C o nne c ti o n be twee n M yco n ius an d S arce rius
c an c e an d P urpo s e
C o un t W i ll i am o f N as s au
S arc e rius an d th e R efo rm ati o n o f N ass au
H is E xam i nati o ns
H is Ski ll as a Te ache r
S arc e rius as an O rgan i er
R e l ati o n to Wi ll i am o f O range H e nry VI I I s del i ght with th e B oo k
Le tter o f S arce rius to H e nry T h e W ittenbe rg F acul t y
o f S arc e rius
o n H enry s S t udy o f S arce rius
C o e rdale s R e vi s i o n o f M atth e w e s
B ibl e (th e Great o r C rum w e ll s B ibl e) ; o f th e Great B ibl e
Tav erner s R e vi s i o n o f M atth e w e s B ibl e
s

ng s

W H IL E these n eg o ti ati o ns were pe n di ng (Augus t 1 2 th 15 3 8)


the rs t E ngli sh w o rk o n Sys tem atic The o l o gy appeare d in a

transl ati o n o f The C o mm o n Places o f Eras m us Sarc e rius


Eve n the Ger m an l an gu age c o ul d n o t b o as t o f a Luther an sys
te m o f the o l o gyas e arly as thi s whi ch appe are d r s t in Lati n
an d the n s o so o n af
terward s in E ngl i sh The de d icati o n to
H e n ry VIII by the tran sl at o r Richar d Taver n er s t ate s th at i t
w as tran sl ate d by o r d er o f C ru m well
No w o f l ate he hath
i m pe l led m e to transl ate i n t o E n gli s h thi s b o o k o f Eras m u s Sar

Wh at so
c e rius a tre as ure i n e s ti m able u n t o Chri s ti an m e n
ever thi s b o o k is like as by the i mpul s i o n an d c o m m an d m e n t
o fm y sai d o ld m as ter m y L o r d privy s e al I h ave tr an s l ate d i t
i n t o o ur vul gar to n gue so h is L o rd shi p hath willed m e to o e r
an d de d ic ate the sam e u n t o y o ur m o s t n o b le an d re d o ubte d M a

je sty
It is al s o s t ated that thi s tre ati s e o f Sarc e rius was pre

ferred to the
C o m m o n P l aces o f Mel an chth o n in m aki n g
the s ele c ti o n o f the w o rk to be tran sl ated becau se o n l y in thi s
they di ffer that Mel an chth o n directeth his s tyle to the u n d er
,

'

( I 4 0)

[Mo re

L uthe ran L ite rature

Eng lis h

14 1

t di ng o nly o f the learn ed pers o ns well exerci sed in Scri ptures


Thi s te m pe re th h is pe n al so to the capacity o f y o u ng s tu d e n ts o f

s cripture an d such as h ave n o t h ad m u c h exerci s e in the sam e


We se e there fo re in thi s b o o k an o ther pr o vi s i o n m ad e fo r th e
th o r o u gh re fo r m ati o n o fthe Church o f E n gl an d I t w as h o pe d
th at e n tire h arm o n y w o uld be re ache d in the c o n fe ss i o nal bas i s
ad o pte d ; th at n o t o n l y the d o ctri n al arti cle s O f the Au gsbur g
C o n fe ss i o n but al so th o s e o n abus es w o uld be receive d ; an d
th at the n s in Ce in o ther Lutheran c o u n trie s the Church Or d er s
c o nt ai n e d a s u m m ary o f d o ctri n e acc o r d i ng to which the past o r s
were to c o n fo rm their preachi ng such a pr o vi s i o n w o uld be
M yc o n ius the the o l o gi an
m ad e in thi s tran sl ati o n o fSarce rius
o fthe e m b ass y po ss ibly h ad re c o mm e n ded thi s c o ur s e to Cr an
At the birth pl ace O f Sarc e rius A nnaber g in
m e r o r Cru m well
Sax o n y M yc o n ius h ad n o t o n ly bee n e d ucate d but h ad lived fo r
ye ars as a Fran c i sc an m o n k Alth o u gh S arc e rius was te n ye ar s
y o u nger they h ad b o th atte n ded the sam e Lati n sc h o o l ; an d
tho u gh s c arcely c o te m po rary in s ch o o l the s o n O f o n e o f the
m o s t we althy an d i n ue n ti al C itize ns o f the pl ace c o ul d n o t h ave
bee n u nk n o w n to the y o u ng m o n k eve n in the d ay s o f h is sub j e c
ti o n to the Papacy Si n ce b o th were n o w active in the sam e
caus e the l o c al att ach m e n t s were no t with o ut their i n ue n c e
s an

Ju st at th at t i m e Sarc e rius w as e ngage d at the c al l o f C o u n t


Willi am father o f the great Wil l i am o f Orange St ad th o ld er o f
H o l l an d in re o r gan izi n g the chur c h in Nassau u po n an evan
He h ad bee n pre pared fo r thi s w o rk by s tu d yi ng
ge lic al b as i s
at Wi tte nber g u n d er Luther and Mel an chth o n an d by exte ns ive
experie n ce as a te acher He h ad le ft Wi tte nberg in 15 3 0 an d
fr o m 15 3 0 3 6 h ad bee n Subrect o r o f a Gy m nas i um at L iib e c k
es t abli she d in 15 3 0 by Buge n hage n wi th the exce pti o n o f se v
er al brie f i nterval s d uri ng whi c h he t aught at R o s t o ck and at
Gr atz C al le d as te acher to Nassau in 15 3 6 whe n in 15 3 8 the
ti m e h ad c o m e fo r a m o re th o r o u gh re fo r m ati o n o f that c o u ntry
he w as appo i nted Su peri n te nde n t an d at o n ce se t vi go r o us ly to
,

The L uthe ran M

14 2

me nt in

o ve

Eng land

'

The st o ry o f the pre par at o ry e o rts at re fo rm ati o n in Nassau is


exceedi ngly i n teres ti n g C o u n t Wil l i am an d h is fam ily h ad
al ways bee n o n i n ti m ate ter m s with Ch arle s V ; an d per so nal
c o n s i d er ati o n s were
there fo re an O bs tacle to h is acce ptan ce
But T e tz e l s sale o f i n d ul ge n ce s in h is
o f the purie d G o spel
re al m h ad ex c ite d h is o pp o s iti o n He h ad hear d Luther s d e
fe n ce at W o r m s with ad m irati o n ; an d o n retur n i n g h o m e h ad
o r Luther s writi n gs which Fre d
s e n t to the E le c t o r Fre d erick f
erick transm itte d with the m essage :
By G o d s hel p I will

A gai n at th e
m ake thr o u gh the se a go o d Chri s ti an o f yo u
D iet of Au gsbur g he w as i m presse d by the argu m e n t s o f the re
fo r m er s but w as so m uch u n der the i n ue n ce O f the E m per o r ,
ter the diet
o f wh o s e reti n ue h is br o ther w as a m e m ber th at af
he acce pte d a c o mm i ss i o n to Witte n berg fo r the pur po se ifpo s
r o m the Luther an c ause
s ible o f wi n n i n g the y o u ng elect o r f
But h is vi s i t to Witte nberg i nstead o f changi n g the ele c t o r
br o u ght C o u n t Willi am to a deci s i o n ; and he retur n e d in full
o r m er s
T w o evan gelical preachers Hei l
s y m pathy with the re f
m an n o f Van Cr o m b ach an d Le o nh ar d M o guer were appo i n te d
by h im to i mpo rt an t p o s iti o ns the fo r m er as h is C hapl ai n at
D ille n burg an d the l atter at Sie ge n an d e n trus te d with the w o rk

Chur c h Or d er
which appeared in 15 3 1,
O fpre pari n g a n e w
E n teri n g the S m al
an d ab o l i s he d the gr o ss er Papi s ti c al abu s e s
cald League in 15 3 4 at D i l le nbur g an d Siege n the Bran d e n burg
Niirnb e rg Or d er w as i n tr o d uce d S arc e rius call as a teacher
w as to pre pare fo r the m o re r ad i cal ch ange s to be e ffecte d in
H
i
H
e
s r s t w o rk w as to th o r o u ghly i ns truct the pas t o r s
15 8
3
w as s till the acc o m pl i she d te acher wh o re garde d it h is r s t w o rk
to drill h is n e w pupil s the clergy o f Nass au in fu n d am e n t al de
B o th at the Syn o d s which he hel d an d in h is vi s it a
n iti o ns
ti o n s the pas t o rs were th o r o u ghly e xam i n e d an d were expecte d
to s h o w their fam ili arity with the d e n iti o n s whi c h their Super
in te n de n t h ad care fully wr o u ght o ut an d publi she d fo r their use
We re ad in h is rep o rt to C o un t Willi am h o w he exam i n ed th e
pas t o r s C o n cer n i n g G o d the Tri n ity in gen eral ; the Father ;
.

o re

E ng lis h L

uthe ran

L ite rature

1 43

the So n the H o ly Gho s t the h o ly angel s ; the Wicked A n gel s ;


the Cre ati o n o fm an and h is Fal l ; the pr o m i se to the Church ;
the L aw an d its specie s ; the G o spel and its revel ati o n Faith ;
J us ticati o n an d Li fe Ever l as ti n g ; G o o d Wo rks ; the Cr o ss the
Sacram e n t s ; Prayer ; the Magi s tracy and Mi n i s ters
an d the n
exam i n e d the pe o ple to le ar n what their pas t o rs had t au ght the m
Thi s was certai n ly far m o re th o r o u gh than eve n
o n the s e t o pic s
the exce ll e n t pl an el sewhere pursue d o fatt achi ng to the Church
Order ad o pte d a s i m ple o utli n e o f d o ctri n e fo r the gui d an ce
l
Bes i d es as G e rde sius rem arks the phil o so phical
o f pas t o r s
trai n i ng o fSarc e rius re n dere d h im e speci al l y happy in h is do c
tri nal s tate m e n t s It w as there fo re o ne o f thes e b o o ks prepared
by S arce rius fo r h is C lergy that T aver n er transl ated
,

Fr o m the repri n t o fT ave rne r s transl ati o n publi she d in 15 77


whe n Willi am o f Or ange was in the m i d s t o fh is c o n ict wit h the
Duke o fAlva the pl aci d but determ i n ed feature s o f thi s skil ful
teacher and o r gan izer s tan d fo rth in an excelle n t e n gravi n g
which we nd al so preci sely re pr o d uce d in the s ec o n d v o lu m e o f
Ger d es Mi s cell an ie s U n d er neath the e ngr avi ng are the Lati n
li nes c o nn e c ti ng the w o rk o fSarc e rius in the re fo r m ati o n o f Nas
sau wi th the w o rk o f the so n o fh is p atr o n in the Netherl an ds
,

hae c e adem NASS A VI A clarum


T e fac it e t S criptis n o bi l e n o m e n b ab e s ;
R o m anum o ppugn as M AG N US G UI L I E L M US at i ll e
H ispan um F ac ti s no bi l e no m en habe ns

Q uam

c laram

fac is ,

Nassau which tho u d o s t m ake re no w ned thi s m aketh the e re


By thy wri ti ngs th o u has t a n o b l e nam e ; th o u at
n o w ne d
but the G R E A T W ILLI A M by h is d eed s hav
tac kes t the Ro m an

ing a n o ble n am e is attacki n g the S pan i ar d s


Thi s m e ans s i m pl y that the w o rk begu n by Sarce rius was no t
u nders t o o d in its ful l s ig ni c an ce u n til the gre at s tru ggl e in the
Netherlan d s o ccurre d
Wil l i am o f Or ange u n ti l h is f
te e n th ye ar w as tr ai n e d u n d er the i n ue n ce s d eter m i n ed by Sar
,

[ l s cella n e a Gro n ingi n a ,

II :

6 06

T he L

144

[ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

uthe ran

te m p o rary R o man i sm w as due to the attracti o ns O fthe


I mperi al C o urt an d the c o n d e n ce o f Ch ar l es V whe n as a
y o uth he bec am e h is p age ; but h is so un d Lutheran e arly e d u #
cati o n at le ngth gai n e d the vict o ry o ver the err o r in whi ch he was
b o u n d Neverthe l ess n o t bei ng a the o l o gi an the fo rm o f P ro
te s tan tism O f which he was the ch am pi o n in th at terric s truggle
w as th at o f C alvi n i sm
K i n g He n ry was at rst greatly d elighte d with thi s b o o k o f
I n M ar c h 1 5 3 9 in a c o n fere n ce at Fr an k fo rt to be
Sarc e rius
here after m e n ti o n e d h is am bassad o r s m e t S arc e rius an d re fer
ing to the tr an s l ati o n o f h is b o o k i n duce d h im to write a letter
It is as fo ll o ws :
to be c arrie d by the m to E n gl an d
h is

c e ri us

Gr ace an d peac e fr o m o ur L o rd Je su s Chri s t M o s t Sere ne


K i n g : Whe n a fe w d ays ago by c o m m an d o f the i l lu stri o u s
pri n c e Willi am o f Nassau m y m o s t cle m e n t l o r d I cam e to
Fr an k fo rt I fo u n d th at at the a b o d e o f Phi l i p Mel an chth o n the
am b assad o r s o f y o ur Sere n ity m e n o f high re pute b o th in do c
tri ne an d in i n tegrity o f li fe ; w h o s i n ce am o ng o ther thi n gs
they he ar d m y nam e as ke d whether I were that Er asm u s Sarce
ri us w h o h ad publi she d a m eth o d u po n the chie f articles o f
Scri pture I re plie d th at I was he The n they at o n ce be gan
t o tell m e that by the c o mm an d o f y o ur Sere n ity m y m eth o d
h ad bee n tr an sl ate d i n t o the E ngli sh l an gu age ; an d th at I am
The n they add e d th at if I w o ul d ple as e
n o w spe aki n g E ngl i s h
write to y o ur Sere n ity they w o ul d se e to i t th at m y letter w o uld
be delivere d Alth o ugh di s i n c l i n ed to fo l l o w their ad vi c e
c o n s i d eri ng m y
e
s i n ce I m e as ure d m y s el f by m y o wn ru l e i
i n ex perie n c e and am o un t o f lear n i ng i n ad equ ate to sati s fy y o ur
Sere n ity s i n ce yo u are e n d o we d with t ale n t u n excelle d in acute
n e ss an d d e pth b o th o f k n o wledge an d ju d gm e n t yet whe n I
he ar d o f the ki n d n ess o f y o ur Sere n ity t o war d s all ze al o u s fo r
an d l o ve rs o f the pure re ligi n I be gan to write in m y u n le ar ne d
s tyle c o mm e n d i n g m y s el f hu m b l y to y o ur Sere n ity
If I se e
th at m y writi n gs ple ase yo u I wi l l se e that yo u sh o rtly receive
C o mm o n P l aces m eth o dically arr an ge d so m ewhat e n
my
.

Wore

L ite rature

E ng lis lz L uth e ra n

large d, mo re

45

t o pics be i ng adde d and al so term s fo r vic es o f


which S cri pture make s m e n ti o n Si n ce als o in the real m o f y o ur
Seren ity the true reli gi o n is n o w bei ng plan te d to the gl o ry
o f G o d an d the be ne t o f m e n I will s e n d al so P os til s up o n the
G o spels fo r the L o r d s D ays an d the Fes tival s ; as well as u po n
the E pi s tles fo r the Lo rd s D ay s an d Fe s tivals de d icate d to y o ur
Sere n ity The Lo r d kee p y o ur r o yal Majes ty safe an d secure to

the gl o ry o f the G o spe l and the pe ace o f the chur c h Fran k

fo rt March ro th I 5 3 9
E RA S M US S ARC E RI US
the Witte n berg
A fe w m o n ths l ate r (Oct o be r 2 2 d
Fac ulty in a pape r to be herea fter m o re fully des cribe d d e
The Si x Article s w as act i ng
c lare d th at He n ry with re spect t o
he hi m sel fh as h ad a little b o o k
agai ns t his c o ns cie n ce be m use
o f Sarc e rius tr an slate d and pri n te d in h is o w n l an guage which
he has us e d as a prayer b o o k wherei n the matter is briey pre

s e n te d
Stead ily als o the w o rk o f Bible revi s i o n an d Bible circul ati o n
With Matthews o r Ro gers ver s i o n the E n gli sh B i
ad vance d
ble was at las t c o m plete but very u ne q ual in the m erits o f its
With re markable
and requiri n g e arly revi s i o n
several parts
That he h ad
s el fab ne gati o n C o ver dale u n d ert o o k thi s w o rk
al re ad y p re pare d a tr an sl ati o n wh o s e d e f
ect s he thus ac kno w l
e d ge d was wi th h im n o c o ns i d erati o n He was c o n te n t to make
Matthews Bible the bas i s Pari s was determin e d up o n as the
p l ace o f publicati o n an d thither he we n t with h is publi sh er
Graft o n in M ay 15 3 8 Obtai n i ng a r o yal l ice ns e fr o m the
Fre nch Ki ng the w o rk o f pri n ti n g c o n ti nued u n til Dece mber
1 7th whe n by the i n ter f
ere n ce o f the Fre nch eccles i as tics i t
w as pr o hibite d e dit o r an d publi sher c o m elle d to ee an d the
p
sheet s c o n s ca te d
S o l d h o wever fo r was t e paper i nstea d o f
bei ng bur ned the m o s t o f the m were save d ; an d the pri nti ng
was c o m plete d in A pril 1 3 9 the b o o k bei n
5
g c alle d fro m its

s ize
G R E AT B I B L E
o r C rum w e ll s Bible
( 15 X 9 i nc hes ) the

as i t o we d its o ri i n to the
Lo rd Privy Seal
C o pies were
g
,

Co rp us R eform a to rum , I II

796 ; D e

We tte

L ut h e r s B

fm

n e

2 13

The L

14 6

n t/z

em n

lo ve m e nt in

Eng la nd

ari shi o n er s c o uld alway s h av e


l
a
ced
i
n
every
church
where
p
p
acce ss t o the m an d where the pe o ple w o uld c o n greg ate in l arge
n u m ber s as suc c e ss ive read er s w o uld t ake their t ur n in read i ng
e Alm o s t every o n e w h o c o ul d
al o u d fr o m the W o rd o f Li f
c o mm an d the m e ans s o ught a c o py fo r hi m sel f
Eve n little
b o ys o cke d am o ng the re s t to hear p o rti o ns o f the H o ly Scri p
3
ture read
I n m aki n g thi s revi s i o n C o ver d ale o m itte d the po le m i cal
ace s o f R o ger s
d o ubtle ss in o r d er to m ake the
n o t es an d pre f
e d iti o n less o ffens ive to th o se i n cli ned to the o ld o rder Thi s is
The Bo o k o f C o mm o n
th e editi o n fr o m whi ch the Psalter o f

Pr ayer
w as t ake n
A gai n revi s i n g the Gre at Bible o f 15 3 9 in 15 40 (April
July an d No ve m ber ) an d in 15 4 1 (No vem ber an d an d D ece m
ber ) C o ver d ale gave the pub l i c what is k n o w n as C ran m e r s B i
ble m aki ng m an y chan ge s in h is previ o us w o rk an d in so m e

i ns tance s reverti ng to h is o l d er re n d eri n gs D r E ad ie has


reache d the c o n clu s i o n that th o ugh i t w as a d o ubl e revi si o n o f
M atthew s o f 15 3 7, the Great Bible is n o t o n ly i n feri o r as a
transl ati o n but h as i n ter sperse d thr o ugh it a great v ariety o fpar
r o m the Vulgate s o m e
aph ras tic an d supple m e n tary cl aus e s f

bei ng pre served in the Bi sh o ps


The tw o editi o ns whi ch are k n o wn as T o nstal an d H eath s are
ess to b e but o n ly C ran m e r s Bible
n o t revi s i o ns as they pr o f
with a de c eivi n g title p age The Ro m i sh po wer was in te m po
r ary sw ay but the ki n g an d the pe o ple s till deman d ed the Bible 3
he n ce thes e repr es e n t ativ es o f the hier archical p arty u nable to
preve n t the d e m an d s ad o pted thi s futile ex pe d ie n t
Pri o r h o wever to thi s an d al m o s t c o te m p o ran e o us wi th the

rs t appear an ce o f the Gre at Bible the revi si o n o f Matthews


Bible by Richar d Tavern er the lear n e d tr ansl at o r o f the Au gs

burg C o n fessi o n an d Sarc e rius


C o mm o n Pl aces
was pub
Taver n er was a very acco m pli shed Greek s ch o l ar , and
lishe d
,

S trype
T/z e

M e m oria ls qf C ra n mer, I
B ib le , I : 3 83
.

14 2 :

Wo re

E ng lis h L

ut/z e ran

L ite rature

14 7

umber o fhis change s have bee n i nc o rp o rated i n t o o ur Auth


H is accuracy in the re n d e ri n g o f the Greek
o riz e d Vers i o n
Fo r thi s w o rk he was im
article has bee n e speci al ly n o ted
pri so ne d after the d eath o fhis frie n d Crum well

an

But we mu st n o t antici pate eve n ts to o far T h e p o litical


nego ti ati o ns o f 15 3 9 hav e b e e n alr eady pas s ed o v e r
.

C HAPTER XI

FRUI T L E SS N E G O T IA T I O N S

O F 15 3

e k s M os es C o nferences at Frank fo rt A no th er C o mm is
s i o n as k ed f
or
Lutherans de c l i ne to sen d Theo l o gi ans A n E mbass y
o fC ivi l i ans
M e l an chtho n s H o pes H is l o ng l ette rs to H en ry G ar

diner in th e A s cen dan t H enry s A nswer to th e A rti cl es O n A bus es

th e Bl oo dy S tatute o f th e S i x A rti c l es
Luth er s Indi gn ati o n
Shall Mel an chtho n go to E ngl and N ego ti ati o ns c o n cern i ng A nne o f
C le v es
F i rmness o fth e E l e c to r o f S axo ry O pi ni o n o fth e W itten be rg
Facul ty Th e ir O pin i o n adverse to further Nego ti atio ns M e lan ch
tho n s Mi nute Re view o f th e S i x Arti cl e s A n E lo q ue pt Appeal

Pharao h agai n

s e

E n gli sh Ki ng so on apprehe n ded that he c o ul d n o t affo rd


to be as i n d e pe n d e n t as he i m agi n ed whe n he br o ke up th e
c o n fere n ce o f 15 3 8 after the d o ctri nal articles o f the Augs burg
C o n fess i o n h ad been receive d Phar ao h agai n seeks M o ses A
cl o u d was risi n g o n the c o n ti n e n t which s ee m e d to po rte n d that
u nless pr o m pt m eas ures be take n th e light n i n g o f the Vati can
He n ry be cam e u n eas y les t the L n
m i ght yet s trike E n gl an d
theran pri n ce s an d the E m per o r m ight re ach an agreem e n t in
the c o n fere n ce s held at Fran k fo rt o n the M ai n fr o m Febru ary to
April 15 3 9 an d that he w o uld b e le ft al o ne to o pp o s e Charles
A fo rm i d able array o f Lutheran the o l o gi ans were prese n t at
Fran k fo rt 3 am o ng the m Mel an chth o n Sp al ati n M yc o nius
Chri st o pher M o un t
Ae pin us B laure r O sian de r an d Sarce rius
an d Th o m as P ayn e l were s e n t to repre se n t the E ngl i sh cau s e
They pr o tes te d agai nst any acti o n o n the part o f the Luther an
pri n ces wi th o ut a previ o u s c o nsult ati o n with H e n ry A gai n the
pr o po s iti o n was m ad e that a c o mm i ssi o n o f the o l o gi an s be s e n t
T o thi s the pri n ces answer that i t w o ul d be us e
to E n gl an d
T HE

48)

Fruz tle s s M g o tzatz o ns of 15 3 9


'

'

149

l ess si nce there c o ul d be n o change fr o m what h ad be e n already


deci d e d in the c o n fere n ce s o f 15 3 6 at Witte nber g with Fo x
1
He ath and Bar n es 3 an d give a summ ary o f the Scri ptural ar gu
m e n t s agai ns t abu se s to aid the K i n g in c o m i ng to a c o rrect de
U n til the fo rce o fthe se be c o n cede d n o pr o vi si o n is to
c is io n
be m ade fo r n eg o ti ati o ns o n the o l o gical po i n t s T wo civili ans
h o wever were appo i n te d to c o n fer perso nally with He nry ex
pl ai n the s ituati o n an d arran ge the preli m i n aries fo r a m ilit ary
Vice
al li an ce in c as e they were attacke d by the sam e e n e m y
Chancell o r B urkhar d an d Lu d wi g a Bau m bac h were d es i gnated
fo r such s ervice an d pr o cee d ed to E n gl an d
Mel an chth o n o nc e
It see m s to h im as th o u gh h is sc he m e
th at
mo re is h o pe ful
an agree m e n t with res pect to g o dly d o ctri n e be e st abli she d
amo ng all th o s e ch urche s which c o n de m n the tyr ann y an d go d

h ad an o ther fair o ppo rtu n ity


less ness o f the Bi sh o p o fRo m e
He nry h ad spo ke n to the c o mm i ss i o n o f 15 3 8
fo r c o nsi d erati o n
in such exalte d term s o f Mel an chth o n th at the l atter n o w tre at s
the E n gl i sh m o narch to tw o l o n g letters (M arch 2 5 th A pril
3
rst)
fu l l o f th o se c o m pli m e n t s in whi ch the ki n g d eli ghte d
ully
an d which the cl ass ic al pe n o f Mel an chth o n c o ul d s o gr ac e f
m
t
o
ive
He
r
i
e
He
n
ry
s
her
o
ic
virtue
a
n
c
m
a
re
hi
a
s
s
s
d
o
s
p
p
g
Achilles Melan chth o n al as was us i n g car nal we apo ns i nstead
o r the pulli n g d o w n o f
o fth o se which are m i ghty thr o u gh G o d f
Yet h o wever ill ch o se n the weapo ns ther e is no
str o ngh o l d s
questi o n i ng the ulti m ate pur po s e o f h is letter s He is ur ge n t
that the subject o fabuses be at o n ce c o ns i d ere d
Yo ur High
ully begu n to rem o ve certai n supe rs ti
n e ss h as alre ad y succe ss f
ti o ns I as k there fo re th at the re fo rm o f the o ther abu se s be
u nd ertake n
No r is he co n te n t with ad dre ss i ng He nry He
ul i n terc o urs e with He ath three year s
no t o n ly recall s his d elight f
be fo re and write s to h im but al so se nds a l o ng c o mm unicati o n
,

S e cken do rf III
C
1

: 2 2

R efo rm atara m

I b pp 6 71, 6 82
I h p 6 73
.

4;

S h y/pe :

M em orials ,

I II : p

6 72

VI

15 6

The L ut/ze ran [ Mo ve me nt in E ng land

1 0

C ranm er , which

while very s evere in its c o m pl ai nts o f th e


E n gli sh bi sh o p s be ars tes ti m o n y to the d elity o f Cr anm er
Melan chth o n c o uld n o t have fo res ee n
C rp m w e ll an d L ati m er
fo rts w o u l d be
Si n ce the d eath o f Fo x
h o w u s ele ss all the s e e f
the i n uen ce o f G ardi n er o utweigh s that o f Cr anm er T w o
d ays c o n feren ce in C rum we ll s r es i d e n ce M ay 16 th an d 18th
sh o wed th at n o agree m e n t w as p o ss ible

to

THE

s rx A

RT IC LE S

o r 15 3

The hierarchi al ele m en t was r apidly maturi ng its b o lde st me a


s ure s which were to bri n g with the m per secuti o n an d m artyrd o m
fo r so m e o f the m o re pr o m i n e n t ch am pi o n s o f the evan gelical
The pr oject o f e n fo rci ng u n i fo r m ity in reli gi o n becam e a
faith
The l aym e n in the
a m atter o f d eliber ati o n in Parli am e n t
H o u s e o fL o r d s reli n qui shed the o o r to the bi sh o p s Cranm er
Lati m er an d S h ax to n su ppo rted feebly by He ath held fo r d ays
a dr aw n b attle with the o ther s i d e le d by G ar d i n er an d T un
s t all whe n the k in g hi ms el f e n tered the are n a an d spo ke with
Strype i n fer s
such deci s i o n th at S h ax to n al o n e re m ai n e d rm
that in thi s di scu ssi o n Cranm er was gre atly aide d by a little treati s e
6
The bill o fth e Six Article s e nfo rced be lie f
o f U rb an Re giu s
1
i
n tr ansub st an ti ati o n 3 ( 2 ) in n o n n ecess ity o f c o mm u n i o n in
( )
b o th ki n d s 3 (3 ) in the s i n ful n ess o f m arri age after e n teri ng the
pries th o o d ; (4) in the ab so lut e o bli gati o n o f v o w s o f ch as tity ;
c
acy o f priv ate m ass e s 3 (6 ) in c o m pul so ry auri c
n the e f
i
5
( )
ul ar c o n fess i o n D i sbelie f o f the r s t article h ad attached to i t
the penal ty o f de ath at the st ake 3 while the rejecti o n o f the o ther
articles h ad a gr ad ati o n o f pe naltie s att ache d with de ath as the
extre m e It h as o fte n bee n t e rm ed the bl o o d y s tatute o fthe

or
the wh ipe wi th sixe stri n gs
S ix Arti cle s
Such w as He n ry s answer to the articles o f the Au gsburg C o n

It w o ul d be di fcult
O n Abus es
says Ch arle s
fe ssio n
to u n d ers t an d h o w such a s t atute c o uld h ave p assed
Kn ight
,

S trype

C ra n m e r,

16 6

f E ngland (Amer

I Ifzs t r o
o y
'

I
,

ed

76

Fruz tle ss [ Vego ttatzo ns of 15 3 9


'

'

15 1

ifthe gr e at

b o dy o f the pe o ple had bee n i n cli ne d to a higher


s pecies o f re f
o r m ati o n th an c o ns i s ted in the de structive pri n ci pl e
which assaile d the exter nal s o f the Church Cranm er was to o
yiel d i n g and Cru mwell to o po litic to O pp o se the party which
carri e d the st atute backe d by the irre si stible fo r c e o f th e ki n g s
will The subs e rvie n t c o urtier s wh o had be c o m e im pro prie to rs
an d pr o vi d e d hal fs t arve d m o n k s to do the s ervice o f the alt ar at
the che apes t rate wer e wh o l ly i n d i ffere n t to the pri n c i pl e s
thr o ugh which the c o n ti n e n tal re fo rm er s were daily w axi ng in

Cranm er s e n d s aw ay his wi fe to av o i d the pe nalties


s tre n gth
Lati m er res i gn s his bi sh o pric A le sius e es to
o f the s t atute
Witte nber g D r Bar n e s w h o h ad bee n se n t as an am bas sado r
by the ki ng to H am burg d o e s n o t ve n t ure fo r awhile to return
.

LUTH E R S O P I N I O N

xe d as th e d ate at whi c h the statute sh o uld b e


T
nf
w
ay s be f
o rce d
i
n
be
e
o
d
o
re
Luther
th
a
n
k
t
o
s Go d
g
tha t he h as free d o ur Church fr o m the vexati o u s K i ng o f E ng
l an d w h o with the greates t d i l i ge n ce de sire d an d s o u ght alli an ce
with us an d was n o t receive d 3 u n d o ubte dl y becaus e G o d fo r
o r he h as alway s bee n in c o n
so m e s peci al pur po s e hi n dere d it f
I am gl ad th at we are free fr o m the bl as
s t an t an d v aci l l ati n g
He
w
an t s to be Head o f the Ch urch in E ngl an d with
h
m
r
e
e
p
o ut an y m e an s san cti o n e d by Chri s t w h o wi l l give the title to n o
bi sh o p h o wever pi o u s o r go d ly he may be to say n o thi n g o fan y
ki ng o r pri nce The devil is d rivi n g thi s ki ng s o th at he vexes
I am m o rtie d an d p ai n e d that Mas ter
an d m artyr s C h ri s t
P hili p M h as de d ic ated the m o s t be auti ful pre face s an d i n tr o
7
Ab o ut the sam e ti m e
duc tio n s to the m o s t r as cally fe l l o ws
we nd al so thi s es ti m ate
He is s till the sam e K i ng H arry
who m I po rtraye d in m y rs t b o o k He will i n d ee d nd h is
j ud ge H is pl ap n ever pl e as e d m e in that lz e w a nts to kill M e
8
s oul i e his fal
The
s e elo etrz ne
P ope s m y b a t to ke ep
7 E rl an e n E d L ut/
o rks L XI : 3 6
ze r s W
g
5
July

rath

w as

'

Ib p 3 04
.

The L

15 2

ut/z e ra n [ Mo ve me n t

Eng la nd

in

E ngl an d is an e n e m y to the P o pe s pers o n 3 but n o t o f


h is n ature an d d o ctri n e : he kill s o n ly th e b o d y b ut let s th e
9
so ul live
A F A I TH F U L P RI N C E
But Luther s rej o ici ng th at he an d h is c o lleagues are at l as t
d o n e with He n ry fo rever is n o t o f l o n g d ur ati o n Cru m well
w as
de feate d but h is i n ue n ce with the ki n g was n o t alt o
an d eve n duri n g that su mm e r the preli m i nary n eg o
ether
l
o
s
t
g
t iatio ns l o o k i ng t o ward s the m arri age with A n n o f Cleves th e
Elect o r s s i ster in law were be gun The Lan d gr ave o f Hesse
w as an xi o u s fo r a fav o r able c o n si d er ati o n o fthe pr o po s iti o ns m ad e
thr o u gh Chri st o pher M o u n t 3 but the Elect o r wi she d to hear
B uc e r i n terp o sed wri ti n g a l o ng letter fr o m
n o thi n g m o re
Str as burg d e s cribi n g the extre m i ties to which the frie n d s o f th e
G o spel in E ngl an d were put an d beggi ng th at Mel an chth o n
m ay be s e n t as a s peci al am b as sad o r to use h is i n ue n ce in a
pers o nal i n terview with He n ry in o r d er to c au s e a ce ssati o n
H o w c an we hel p but ad m ire the c an d o r
o f the pers ecuti o n
He h as a
o f the M agnan i m o u s Chri s ti an pri n c e in h is answer P
clear c o ns cie n ce he says th at fo r fo ur o r ve ye ar s he h as sp are d
hi msel fn o e ffo rt which m i ght aid the c au se o f reli gi o n in E ng
l an d H e h ad at a great expe nse sup po rted the Bi sh o p o f Here
fo r d at Witte n berg fo r three m o n ths an d h ad h im i ns tructed
cie n tly c o n c er n i n g the chie farticle s o f d o ctri n e The bi sh o p
su f
h ad rep o rte d everythi n g to th e ki n g w h o d i d n o t d ei gn to re
ply I n 15 3 8 a c o m mi ss i o n h ad bee n s e n t by h im to E n gl an d 3

n
all to n o pur po s e
ther
the
re
e
t
ye
r
He assure d
n
s
a
i
a
n
o
an d
p
the E ngli s h am bas sad o r that he receive d the livi n g W o r d o f
G o d acc o r d i n g to the Au gs bur g C o n fess i o n an d thu s publicly
pr o fesse d i t with o ut which there is n o true kn o wle d ge o f G o d
r o m thi s C o n fe ssi o n he w o ul d n o t recede
o r h o pe o fsalv ati o n 3 an d f
eve n th o ugh he were c o m pelled to l o se l i fe an d all that he
K i ng

of

h ad

L X : 2 17
0
Se ck e ndo rf III
9

Ih

pp

22

5 sq

Fruz tle ss IVeg o tz atz o ns of 15 3 9


'

'

THE

'

WI TT E N B E R G FA C ULTY

15 3

Oct o ber 2 2 d Luther J o nas Bu ge nh age n an d M e lanch


tho n s i gn a paper c o ncer n i n g i rth e r n e go ti ati o ns with He nry
Mel an chth o n is supp o sed to
fr o m which we give so m e extr act s
have c o m po se d it
A l th o ugh in o ur o wn per o ns we shri nk fr o m n o d anger s o r
l ab o rs 3 yet in thi s case assure d ly e n o u gh h as bee n d o n e fo r the
i ns tru c ti o n an d ad m o n iti o n o f the ki n g fo r the fo l l o wi ng re as o ns
St Paul says that we o u ght to receive the weak but let the o b
s tinate o n e go wh o he say s is c o n d e m n e d by h is o wn ju d g
m e n t i e o ne w h o publ icly s i ns agai ns t h is c o nscie n ce
On
the o ther h an d he w h o is calle d we ak will le ar n an d no t pe r
se c ute th at which he u n de rs tands but receive h o l d an d ad v an c e
i t Yet that the K i ng o fE ngl an d is acti n g agai nst c o ns cie n ce
erre d fr o m thi s viz : H e k no ws that o ur do ctri n e
can be i n f
c o n cer n i ng the use o fthe wh o le sacram e n t C o n fe ss i o n and the
M arri age o f Pr ie sts is true o r at le as t th at i t is n o t c o n tr ary to
G o d s W o rd No w he says in h is Articles and in his Edict that
Thi s he says
so m e o f the s e po i n t s are c o n tr ary to G o d s L aw
un d o ubte d ly agai ns t h is c o ns cie n ce fo r m any writi ngs h ave c o m e
to h im writte n b o th publicly an d al so e s peci ally fo r h im which
he h as re ad He hi m se l fhas h ad a little b o o k o fSarc e rius trans
late d and pri n ted in h is o wn l an gu age which he has us ed as a
We nu
prayer b o o k wherei n the m atter is briey pres e n ted
de rstan d al so th at he hi m sel fh as s p o ke n o ther wi se o f thi s do c
tri n e an d am o n g o ther thi n gs h as sai d o f the K i n g o f Fr ance
t hat he h as d o n e wr o n g in persecuti n g it 3 fo r he u nders t an d s
Be si d es he h as m an y go d ly and
an d k n o ws that i t is right
lear n ed pre acher s as the dep o sed Bi s h o p Lati m er Cranm er an d
o ther s wh o m he h as he ard an d su e re d f
o r a peri o d
An d yet
in spite o fall thi s he c o nde mn s thi s d o ctri n e m o re severely th an
the Po pe hi m s el f We there fo re apprehe n d that thi s ki ng is o f
s uch a m in d as doe s n o t s eek G o d s gl o ry but as he decl ared to
th e Vice Chan cel l o r w an ts to do o n ly wh at ple as e s hi msel f
whereby he s h o ws that he d o es n o t regard the do ctri ne a matter
On

'

15

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

o fm o m n

Eng land

e t and th at l ike An t i o chu s an d o ther s he wan ts to es


tab lish a religi o n o fh is o wn
Sec o n dl y as it is n o w man i fe st that the ki n g 15 acti n g agai ns t
h is c o n s cie n ce we do n o t thi n k th at i t is o ur duty to i n struct
h im an ew but we o u ght to abi d e by the rule o f Paul which
te ache s that the ad ver saries s h o ul d be ad m o n i she d twi ce an d if
that do n o t he l p they s h o uld be s hu nn ed as th o s e w h o are ac t
Such ad mo n iti o n h as al read y bee n
ing agai ns t c o ns cie n ce
give n
Bes ide s we he ar that the ki ng is a s o phi st an d gl o ssat o r w h o
like s to c o l o r all thi ngs wi th h is art o fm aki ng gl o sse s But o ne
wh o h as n o de l i ght in c l e ar pl ai n truth c an e as ily twi s t m atter s
eve n th o ugh he h as to te ar h is o wn m o uth l ike the p ike whe n
t o r n by the h o o k I n Sirach 3 7 i t is writte n :
G o d d o es n o t
give grace to o n e wh o u ses S o phi stry an d he d o es n o t attai n
wi s d o m
Fo r there is n o e n d to his hy percri tici sms an d dis to r
ti o ns He n ce we cann o t c o ns tan tly be treati n g with s uch and
e speci ally as ex perie n ce sh o ws h o w o ffe ns ive thi s is to the L o r d
Si n ce the n the ki n g t akes d elight in such m aki n g o f gl o ss es we
h ave little h o pe th at he will al l o w hi msel f to be se t right Then
to o we m u s t c o ns i d er th at the m e n w h o h ave i n ue n ce with h im
have n o c o n scie n ce The Bi sh o p o f Wi n chester [ G ar d i n er] c ar
ries with h im thr o ugh o ut the c o u n try tw o u n chas te wo m e n in
m e n s apparel and yet ju d ges that the m arri age o f prie st s is
agai n s t G o d s law and is s o arr o gan t that he say s th at he will
publicly m ai n t ai n agai ns t the wh o le w o rl d that the pr o po s iti o n
By faith we are j us tie d is i n c o rrect H e is al so an extrem e
tyr an t as thi s ye ar he has had two me n bur n e d fo r n o o ther
reaso n than al o ne fo r transubst an ti ati o n 3 so that the sayi ng is
true that L o r d an d s ervan t are o f like m i n d Fr o m all thi s we
i n fer that up to thi s ti m e e no ugh h as bee n d o n e 3 as we kno w
that we h ave spo ke n faith fu l ly an d in a Chri sti an way an d h o ld
that i t is n o l o n ger o ur d uty to make further e ffo rts fo r there is
little h o pe Perhaps G o d d o e s n o t wan t h is G o spel to be mai n
taine d by a kin g wh o has such a b ad reputati o n
Y et we leave
,

Fruz tle s s M g otzatz ons of 15 3 9

'

'

15 5

it to y o ur Elect o r al Gr ace s further c o ns iderati o n as to whethe r


the atte mpt be mad e s till o n c e m o re We w o ul d al so n o t fail to
make an ex po s tul ati o n wi th the ki n g and to ad m o n i sh h im agai n
M o re is n o t o ur duty Fo r wh at Dr B uc e r p o i n ts
in writi n g
we are d o i ng by o ur
to :
G o i n t o all the w o rl d an d teach
writi ngs T o respo n d farther to a pr es e n t c al l is no t c o m
,

m ande d us

I Philip have wri tte n al so to the sam e e e c t to Cru m well an d


the Ar c hbi sh o p o f C an terbury But letters have c o m e to me
fr o m E n gl an d to the e ffect tha t the ki n g receive s m y letter s with
di spleas ure 3 an d he n ce it is to be well c o ns idere d as to whether
th o ugh I were in E ngl an d the ki n g w o uld give m e an au d ie nce
o rm er am b ass ad o r s to his
o r w o ul d n o t direct m e as he di d the f
pr o ud u nlearn e d bi sh o ps wi th wh o m to qu arrel
H o w acutely
the k i ng dispute s c o n cern i ng such m atters may be lear n e d fr o m
O fgo o d w o rks he argue s thu s :
Si n ce b ad
two argum e n t s
w o rks m erit eter nal wr ath i t m u st fo ll o w that go o d w o rk s mus t
m erit etern al salvati o n ; and thi s argu m e n t I hear he will no t
r o m h im T h e o ther c o n c e rning th e mar
su e r to be t ake n f
I f he h ave the p o wer to give an o rder
riage o fprie s ts is thi s :
that o ne as l o ng as he wan ts to be at c o urt is n o t free he has the
p o wer al so to fo rbid prie sts fr o m m arryi ng
Thi s is the very
s u perl ative o fpers pic acity 3 an d he n ce he revile s an d c o n de m ns
Whether it be po ss ible to d i spute with o n e w h o reso rt s to
us

1
such argum e n ts y o ur Gr ace m us t c o n si d er
,

AN E

L O Q UE N T A P PEA L

U n der d ate o f N o vem ber rst Mel anchth o n writes H e nry a


letter which ll s o ver twelve p ages o f the b o o k be fo re us The
a jus t i n d i gn ati o n c o l o r s every li n e
l
w
o
f
ce
t
id
o
F
r
o
n
o
a
l
l
i
m
g
ity has v an i she d and he is b o ld as o ne Speaki n g as the o racle
The Six Articles are reviewe d in d etail and their de
o fG o d
We c an qu o te o nly a fe w passages
fe c ts el abo r ately po rtr ayed
,

De

Ed L
.

We tte

uth e r s

L uth e r s B

Worhs

LV

'

rz c e n ,

V:

sq q .

2 13

sq q

; C

R III :
.

796 s q q ; E rl
.

15 6

[ Mo re

Eng lis h

L uthe ran L ite rature

bec o m i ng the m i n i ster o fan o ther s


cruelty
I am pai n ed th at the d o ctri n e o f Chri s t
is be i n g res trai n e d vici o us rites e s t ab l i she d an d lus t s s tre ngthe n ed
I hear th at m e n o f excel l e n t lear n i n g an d go dl i n e ss Lati m er
Sh ax to n Cran m er an d o ther s are held in c us t o d y 3 fo r the m I
n g Chri sti ans
m
r
y
c
ur
a
e
bec
o
i
A
n
a
lth
u
h
thi
g
bet
a
o
d
o
n
n
o
g
p
g
ter 01 m o re gl o ri o u s c o ul d happe n to the m th an to m eet de ath
in the c o n fess i o n o f such m an i fes t truth 3 yet I do n o t wi s h y o ur
Ro yal Hi gh n e ss to be s tai n e d by the bl o o d o f such m e n I do
n o t wi s h the lights o f y o ur Church t o be exti ngui shed I do n o t
wi sh such c o n ce ss i o n to b e mad e to the go d less ne ss an d ve no m o us
Phari sai c h atre d o f Chri s t s e n e m ies I do n o t wi sh pleas ure to
be affo rded to the R o man An tichri s t w h o delight s in h is heart
that yo u are t aki n g up ar m s fo r h im an d h o pe s by the aid o f the
bi sh o ps to re gai n e as ily th at po ss ess i o n fr o m wh i ch he w as drive n
by y o ur h o n o r able an d go d ly c o u ns el s H e s ees that the bi sh
o r a ti m e co m plyi n g with y o ur will but th at they are
o ps are f
j o i n e d to the R o m an p o n ti ff The R o m an po n ti ffs u n derstan d
thes e art s 3 be fo re thes e d ays they h ave m ad e their w ay o ut o f
12
m o s t severe tem pe s ts by s i n gi ng
He ar gues the n c o n cern i n g the article s o n Abu ses I n
th e decree h o w m an y thi n gs are art fu l ly se t fo rth 1
C o n fess i o n
i t says is n ece ssary an d to b e ret ai n e d
Why do e s i t n o t ex
a
n
re
ss
ly
s
a
th
t
a
cc
o
r
d
i
p
g to d ivi n e law the e n u m erati o n o f
y
fe n ces is n ecessary ? The bi sh o p s kn ew that thi s decl arati o n
of
is fal s e 3 the w o rd s there fo re are m ade ge n er al in o r d er tha t
Whe n th ey hear th at
dark n e ss m ay be d i ffu se d o ver the pe o ple
c o n fes i o n is n ece ssary they u n d er st an d that e nu m er ati o n o f
There are s i m il ar decepti o ns in the arti
fe n ce s is n ecessary
of
cle O f Private Mass e s
Eve n the begi nn i ng :
It is n ece ssary
Wh o th o u ght thus
is ab s o lutely fal se
to retai n private m ass es
fo r m o re th an fo ur hu n d red ye ar s after the Apo s tles whe n there
were n o private m as se s ? But afterwar d the so phi sm s fo ll o we d
That by the m the pe o ple m igh t receive d ivi n e c o nsolati o ns
I

am

pai n e d th at yo u
an d g o dl e ssn ess

are

C orpus R efor

a to rum

III :

806

Fruitle ss [ Vego tiations of 15 3 9

57

be n ets
Why do the y n o t add wh at these c o nso l ati o ns
The bi sh o ps do no t m e n ti o n appli cati o n
and be n et s are
m erit bec aus e they k n o w th at thes e cann o t be de fe n ded
an d
They pl ay wi th w o r d s in o rder that they m ay esc ape if appli
c ati o n be fo u n d faul t with A n d yet they wan t applicati o n
They wan t the i d o l atr o us i d e a
to be u n d ers t o o d by the pe o ple
to be c o n rm e d that fo r so m e thi s sacrice m erits re m i ss i o n o f
guilt fo r o thers an allevi ati o n o fall cal am itie s an d nally bri ngs
gai n in bus i ness and whatever the an xi ety o f m e n i m agi n es
It is a like S o phi sm whe n they say that the m arri age o f pries t s
c o n icts with d ivi n e law They are n o t i gn o ran t o f the passage
A bi sh o p m us t be the hu sban d o f o n e wi fe
He n ce
in Paul :
they kn o w that by divi n e law m arri age is all o wed But whe n
they say that to thi s a vo w h as bee n added they pl ay w ith w o rds ;
they do no t say that marri age is hi ndere d by a vo w but they ab
so lute ly lay d o wn the pr o p o s iti o n th at the m arri age o f prie st s
c o nicts with divi n e law The n what i m pude n ce an d atr o ci o us
cruelty they add whe n they o r d er m arri ages to b e di sso lved
while the sacerd o tal vo w eve n were i t v alid w o uld o nly bi n d
the m n o t to re mai n in the m i n i stry in cas e they m arried That
thi s is the o pi n i o n o fs yn o d s and c o u n cil s is m an i fes t O wicke d
bi sh o ps O i m
pude n ce o f Wi n chester [Gardi n er] wh o by thes e
decepti o ns i m agi n es that he is e s capi n g the eyes o f Chri st an d
the j ud gm e n t o fall the g o dly in the e n tire w o rl d
and

What m o re el o que n t than Mel an chth o n s c o n clus i o ns ?


Agai n I e ntre at yo u fo r the sake o f o ur L o rd Je sus C hri s t
to m o di fy an d am e n d the decree o f the bi sh o ps 3 an d in thi s
o r y o ur salv ati o n an d
serve the gl o ry o f Chri s t and h ave re gard f
th at o fthe churche s B e m o ved by the pr ayers o f m an y go dly
m e n thr o u gh o ut the wh o le w o rld w h o wi sh th at ki ngs apply
their i n ue nc e to the t rue re fo rm ati o n o f the Church an d to
e n d the G o spel L o o k u po n
ab o li s h g o d less s ervices an d to de f
th o se g o d ly me n wh o are bo u n d fo r the sak e o f the G o spel and
I f the decree be n o t ch an ge d
w h o are true m e m bers o f Chri s t
the cruelty o fthe bis h o ps will prevai l wi th o ut e nd in the Church

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in E ng land

r5 8

Fo r the devil h as them

i nst rum e n t s o fhis fury an d hatr e d


agai n s t Chri s t 3 he i m pels the m to the s l au ghter o f C hri s t s
A ll g o dly per so ns beg an d be seech yo u n o t to pre
m e m bers
fe r their g o d less an d cruel s e n te n ces an d so phi s ti cal c avil s to
I f they gai n fr o m yo u what they
o ur m o s t ju s t i n terce ss i o n
as k
G o d will u n d o ubte d ly gr an t yo u great rew ard s fo r y o ur
piety and y o ur virtue will be pr o cl ai m ed in the writi ngs an d by
the v o ice o f the go dly Fo r C hri st will judge be twee n th ose do
ing well an d i l l fo r h is church
As l o n g as liter ature shall live the m e m o ry o f thes e i m p o rt an t
When w e s erv e th e
af
fairs will be tran sm itted to p o sterity
gl o ry o f Chri st an d o ur churches are churche s o f Chri s t so m e
s hall n ever be wan ti n g w h o sh all b e able to adv o c ate a g o dly
caus e t o ad o r n wi th due prai se th o se wh o de serve i t an d to
censure cruelty Chri s t is go i n g ab o ut hu ngry thirs ty naked
b o u n d c o m pl ai n i n g o f the m ad n ess o f p o n ti ffs o f th e m o s t un
righte o us cruelty o fman y ki n gs beggi n g that the m em bers o fhis
b o dy be n o t w o u n d ed but that tru e churches be de fe n ded and
the G o spel be m ag n ied T o rec o gn ize H im to receive H im
to cheri sh h im thi s is th e duty o fa g o dly ki n g and th e w o r ship
13
mo s t pleas i n g to G o d
as

th e

13

C act us R efo rmato rum

III :

8 18

C HAP TER XII


A

Arti cl es fals e ly

LI T E RA R Y FO R G E RY

ribe d to Luther an d M el an chtho n c ircul ate d in E ngl and


in 15 3 9
S i mi l ar o r i denti c al A rti cl es in France in I 5 3 5 3 also in Ge r
man y
A ge n u
S e ck e n do ri s de t ai l ed e xam i n ati o n prese n te d in full
ine P ape r o n th e s am e to pi cs b y th e l e adin g Lutheran Theo l o gi ans in
15 40
Th e Fate o f th e S i x A rt i cl es
M e l an cht h o n
A nne o f C l ev es
write s o n ce mo re to H enry Ne go ti ati o ns in C o n te mpl ati o n A rgu

h
me n t o ft e W itte n be rg Theo l o gi an s o n A buse s
C ranm er i n ter edes
A no ther Re ac ti o n
fo r th e Ki ng
A nne repudiated F all o f C rum we ll
D r B arnes burned
as c

Luther ani sm in E n gl an d reso rted fo r its


sup press i o n no t o n ly to o pe n vi o le n ce but al o t o art s n o t un
kn o wn am o n g po litici ans o f the Ni n etee n th Ce n tury I n No
v e m b e r 1 5 3 9 the am b assad o rs o f the Elect o r o f S ax o n y to E ng
l an d se n d to their ruler a s e ries o farticles which had bee n i n d us
trio usly circul ated as the j o i n t pr o ducti o n o f Luther an d Me
lan ch th o n s i gne d M arch 15 3 9 an d expr essly r ecan ti ng any
s tate m e n ts which had bee n hithert o m ade c o n icti ng with the m
The do cum e n t had bee n use d it is st ated to preju d ice the m i n d
o r m er s
o fth e ki ng agai nst th e ap pare n t vacill ati o n o f the Re f
ere n ce to the Six Articles
an d thu s to d eterm i ne his c o urse in re f
Alr e ady in 15 3 5 Luther had c o m plai n ed th at a s i m il ar fo rged
d o cum e nt c o m po sed l ar gely o fgarbled s tate m e nt s fr o m M e lan c h
th o n s writi ngs had bee n circul ate d in France 3 and he n ce
W alch has i n ferred that the two p aper s are i d en tical Nei ther
2
wi tho ut i n teres t in this c o nne cti o n is Se cke ndo rfs di sc o very
THE

e t

op on n s

of

'

,
.

Luther s Wo rks
2
III : p 2 2 8
1
( 5 9)
1

XIX

72

16 0

The L uthe ra n [ Mo ve me nt in

Eng land

o fa s o me

what am e nde d an d i n terp o l ated tr an sl ati o n i nt o G e r


m an o fthe articles pres erved in the Archives at Wei m ar with
the i n scri pti o n that they h ad bee n s e n t fr o m the Elect o r to
Charle s V Thu s i t is pr o bable that thi s fo rgery was thrice util
iz e d viz
in Fr an ce in E n gl an d an d in Ger man y
We cann o t
h elp but ad m ire the i nge n uity o f the c o m po ser so s kill fully h as
the w o rk bee n do n e an d so cl o sely do s i n gle s t ate m e nts re ad
like express i o ns o ccas i o n ally u se d by the Witte nber gers
As n o less an E n gli sh auth o rity th an Strype in h is
Me mo
3
ri al s o f the Re fo r mati o n
h as bee n m i sled and thi s pri m ary
o r m o s t E ngli sh s tu d e n t s give s curre n cy
s o urce o f i n f
o rm ati o n f
to o ccas i o nal reiter ati o n o f the s e charge s by th o s e n o t acqu ai n ted
with the facts we give the articles in fu ll as given by Strype in
the E n gli sh o f th at ti m e t o gether wi th S e ck e ndo rfs exam i nati o n
o f e ach article s e par ately :
I We c o n fe ss th at there o ught to be a p o licy in the church
I n the which there m u st be bi sh o ps ; w h o sh all
an d a regi m e
h ave the po wer o fthe exam i n e an d o r d i nance o f the m i ni str a
ti o n o fthe sam e fo r to exerci se the juri sd icti o n o f the sam e 3
w h o s h all dili ge n tly s e e th at the church es c o mm itte d un t o the m

m ay be truly i nstructe d with pure an d s i n cere do ctri n e


Reply :
Luther an d Mel an chth o n n ever decl are d that such
Epi sc o p al o fce was n ece ssary as is e st abli shed in the R o m an
Church wi th all its po wer an d juri sd icti o n 3 n either di d they
ack n o wled ge an e sse n ti al dic tin c tio n betwee n bi s h o ps an d pas
t o rs ; as is m an i fest fr o m all their writi ngs which were n ever 1e
c alled an d es peci ally fr o m the treati s e O n the P o wer an d Jur
c o m p o sed by Mel an chth o n in the ye ar
isdic tio n o f Bi s h o p s
an d ann exed to the
1 5 3 7 at S m alc ald s ub s cribed by Luther
Articles whi ch he hi ms el f c o m p o se d They were wi l li ng h o w
ever to t o lerate bi sh o ps an d to c o m ply with the auth o rity o f
their exter nal ad m i n i str ati o n pr o vi d e d they saw to i t that th e
W o rd o fG o d w as purely preached an d abu se s bei n g re m o ve d
the sacr am e n ts be ad mi n i stered acc o r di ng to Chri st s i nstituti o n
,

5 45 s q q

A L ite rary Fo rg e r
y

16 1

II We ad m i t th at i t is g o o d an d c o nve n ie n t that in the


church there be a Bi sh o p o f Ro m e that may be ab o ve o ther
b ish o m3 w h o may gather the m t o gether to se e the e xam i nati o n
o fthe d oc tri ne an d the c o n c o r d o f such as do te ach disc re pan
ci es in the church But we ad m i t n o t the p o m p riches an d
pri d e o f the Bi sh o p o f Ro m e 3 w h o w o uld m ake re al ms subject
u n t o h im The which thi ngs do n either help no r pr o m o te the
g o spel ; bec au se the K i ngs tha t have right theret o may and are

to rule the same


Re ply :
Luther w as willi n g to e ndure the Papacy wi th ad
v an tage to the church n o t eve n by hu man law ; as is evi d e n t
Melanc hth o n in thi s m atter o f a
fr o m the S m alc ald Articles
s i ngular o pi n i o n to which n o o n e as s e n ted th o u ght that so m e
thi ng c o uld b e c o n ceded but u po n the sam e c o ndit i o n up o n

which the Epi sc o pate c o uld be ad m itted


III we c o n fess that as c o n cern i ng ch o ice o f m eats h o ly
days an d cere m o n ie s there m i ght an agree me n t be mad e eas ily

ifthere c o ul d be a c o n c o rd in the d o ctri n e o f the church an d


Fo r if ther e were a c o n c o rd
n o t s uch d is crepan ce as there is
o fd o ctri n e in the church we sh o ul d n o t thi n k re as o nable to di
vi de us fr o m the church see n [seei n g] that it is n o t p o ss ible that
the wo rld m i ght s tan d wi th o ut cere m o n ies and man s c o nstituti o ns
s ee n that all i nn o v ati o ns with o ut n ece ss ity o u ght to b e excluded 3
an d that there is n o pe ril to us I m e an in the o bse rv ati o n o f the
o r that th e d o ct ri ne
said cere m o n i es an d m e n s c o ns tituti o ns 3 f

b e purely han d le d
Re ply :
They did no t de ny that s epar ati o n was n ecessary
because o fcere m o n ie s ; but regar d e d these n o less than err o n
e o us d o ctri ne s a s uf
cie n t caus e o fs epar ati o n if they te n ded to
supers t iti o n an d i d o l atry an d the o pi n i o n o f n ecess ity were at
tac h e d to the m fr o m o bli gati o n o f c o nscie n ce an d o f m erit b e
fo re G o d with i njury to Chri s ti an an d eccles i as tical libe rty in
view o fwhich i t is law ful to change rites fo r the ad van tage an d
pr o t o f the church ; but they n ever us ed the s illy argu m e n t fr o m
th e g o vern m e n t o f th e w o rld to the g o vernme n t o f th e church

12

T he L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

16 2

Eng land

k no wi n g well what i njury was i n tr o duced i n t o th e church

thereby
IV We judge to be pr o t able th at confe ss io n an d rehearsal
Fo r t aki n g the sam e away the
o fs i n s b e m ad e in the church
d o ctri n e o f re m i ssi o n o f s i ns and o f the p o wer o f the Keys
fus cate an d t ake n away 3 s eei ng th at in the c o n fess i o n ,
s h o uld b e o f
amo n g o ther thi n g s the pe o ple o ught to be t aught whe n ce c o m
eth the re m i ssi o n o fsi ns Pr o vided th at there be h o n est fas h
io n to i ns truct the per so ns th at be s hrive n an d th at the c o n
s cie n ces be n o t o verl aid with rig o r o u s an d exact rehe ar s al o f all

s i ns
Re ply :
Luther n ever m ai n t ai n ed the n ece ss ity o fthe e nu
m e ratio n o fsi ns o r sai d th at whe n i t was re m o ve d the d o ctri n e
fus cate ; an d there fo re did n o t
o f the re m i ss i o n o fs i ns w as o f
ce nsure o ther churche s which in a divers e m ann er ai m ed at the
sam e e n d the prep ar ati o n an d excitati o n o f the c o m m u n ican ts
in re pe n t an ce an d faith bei n g i n tr o duce d in the ste ad o fpartic u

lar c o n fess i o n
V We believe th at ju sticati o n is m ade by faith Because
there be n o w o rks whereby we m ay sati sfy o r o bt ai n re m i ss i o n
Y et n everthele ss the sam e faith th at ju stie s us o ught
o fs i ns

n o t to be idle but ad o r n e d with g o o d an d go d ly deeds


Reply :
The p article alone is cr aftily o m itted No r is
i t m o re c o rrect in de n yi n g that by certai n w o rks ju sticati o n
Fo r i t is i n d icated that there are w o rks which do
m ay o ccur
thi s v iz l o ve with whi ch they say that faith o ught to be fur
e
as so m e say
i n fo rm ed
Luther h o wever e x
n ish e d i
clu d ed charity fr o m the ac t o fju sticati o n 3 an d mai n tai ned that

i t w as no t the fo r m b n t the e ffect an d frui t o ffaith


VI We c o n fe ss th at free will h o lpe n with the H o ly Gh ost,

may do so m ewh at whe nso ever w e will withdraw fr o m s in


Reply :
It is d o ubt ful whether the fram er s o f th es e articles
u n ders t o o d them in a so u n d s e nse 3 an d agreed with the evan
l
ter
c
ver
i
l
a
s c o n cern i ng the c o o per ati o n o fm an af
e
i
c
o
n
s
n
o
so
g
as to as cribe to G o d al o n e allgl o ry with o ut the as cri pti o n o fan
y

m eri t o fo ur o wn
.

'

A L ite rar
y Fo rg e ry

16

VII We c o n fess that after the rem i ss i o n o f si ns the H o ly


Gh o s t is give n to the man 3 fr o m the which he de parteth again,

as s o o n as he c o mm itteth an
y de ad ly sin
Reply :
It sh o uld have bee n added th at by repe n tan ce the
fo rgive n ess o fs i ns and the H o ly Gh o s t can be rec o vere d in o r
d er that the here sy o f No vatus m ight n o t be i m puted to the

evangelicals as their c alum inato rs were w o n t to do


VIII We us e the fas hi o n accus t o m e d in the o ic e o f the
Fo r what sh o ul d avail a change o f c erem o n i es with o ut
n ass
n ecess ity ?
But we adm it n o t the priv ie mas ses becaus e they
have o ccasi o n o f su n d ry abu ses Becaus e there is an o pe n fair

o r m arket m ade o f celebrati o n o fm ass e s


Re ply :
They di d n o t say that they u se d the accus t o m ed
fas hi o n
e th at i n tr o duced b y abu s e
but they ai rm e d that
they e m pl o ye d a be tter o ne the c an o n which they m e n ti o n and
o rm s and rites c o n icti n g with o rth o d o x y be i ng re m o ved 3
o ther f
n o r di d they d i sappr o ve o n ly o f the traf
c in m as s es but its b e
ing re garde d a pr o pi ti at o ry sacrice
Acc o r d i ngl y they recalled
the m as s to the c o m m un i o n al o n e liberty bei ng o bs e rved in C han g
ing the rite s which fr o m the be gi nn i n g they had o b s erve d in o r
d er to av o i d s can d al o r in h o pe o fhar mo n y ; and thi s liberty

they al so afterw ard s exerc i se d


IX We believe thu s c o n cern i n g the L o r d s S upper
That
like as Chri st in h is l as t su pper di d give u n t o his d i sc i ples h is
true b o d y to b e e ate n an d drunke n 3 an d so he give s daily to us
h is di s ciples an d l o yal m e n as o fte n as we kee p the su pper ac
c o r d i ng to the fo rm c o mm an d ed A ee ipite et e o me aite etc the
true b o d y an d bl o o d to b e e ate n and d ru nk This is the m i n d
A n d so their w o r d s do
o f the three evan geli s t s and St Paul
so u n d cle arly
Where fo re away with all such err o ne o u
s i n ter
pre tatio ns as are m ad e u po n the sai d w o r d s
We be t aught th at Chri s t di d give to h is di sci ple s h is b o d y
and bl o o d u n d er b o th s pecies an d ki n d s 3 an d that
there fo re
we o u ght to o bse rve the sam e 3 as we do i n d ee d B ut becaus e
On e o fthe spe cie s hath by m e n s c o n s tituti o ns bee n fo rbi dd e n

16 4

Th e L

uth e ran [ Mo ve me n t

in E ng lan d

by the Bi sh o p o f R o m e there m i ght be a rem edy fo u n d with o u t


peri l o r d an ger ; so that he that w o uld m i ght h ave b o th speci es 3
an d th at there sh o ul d be a pr o hibiti o n m ad e th at the o n e s h o uld

i nsult agai ns t the o ther


Re ply
They sh o uld have ad ded that the d o gma o f tr an
sub st an ti ati o n w as rejected by the Ev an gelic al s with all its c o n
c ircum es t ati o n
an d ad o r ati o n o f th e
s eque n ce s o f i n clu s i o n
g
S acr am e n t It is al so fal se that c o m m u n i o n u n der b o th ki nd s o r
fere n ce to the Evan gelical s 3 but
o n e ki n d w as a m atter o f i n di f
appr o ve d o nly the f
o rm er
as pre s cribe d by i mm ut able divi n e
,

'

law

X See n [seei n g] th at it appe ar et h by the h o ly d o ct o r s


that the h o ly days an d fe as ts o fsai n t s h ave bee n accu st o m ed to b e
o b served 3 an d as we se e as yet so m e h o ly c an o ns o f th at m atter
but it appe areth n ot that there is m ad e in the sam e a m e n ti o n o f
their i nv o cati o n 3 but i t appe areth o n ly by the sam e that they be
pr o po s ed u nt o us fo r an e xam ple to le ar n to fo ll o w their live s an d
c o n vers ati o ns yet n everthele ss s ee n th at by so m e cust o m th e
i n terce ssi o n o fsai n ts o ught to be ad m itted the n there s h o ul d b e
pr ayer s m ade un t o G o d th at i t m ight like h im to he ar the m by
rm fo r a cert ai n ty th at
th e i n terces s i o n o f so m e sai n t s 3 we af
the sai nt s do c o n ti nu ally i n tercede fo r the church ; albeit the
Chri s ti an m e n o u ght to be t aught that they sh all n o t c o nvert
the sam e h o pe to the sai n t s whi ch they o u ght to h ave u n t o G o d
No r do we re gret i m age s o f Chri s t and the sai nts but o nly th e

w o rshi p s h o wn the m 3 when ce id o l atry spru n g


Re ply
They n ever afrm e d i t as a cert ai n ty o r an articl e
aith th at the sai n t s i n terce d e f
o r us ; Luther i n deed in th e
o ff
Sm alc ald Article s ad m itte d the c o njecture 3 n evertheless he
de n ied that they s h o ul d in an y w ay h e prayed to i n tercede
o r th at G o d s h o ul d be as ked t o h ave re spect t o their in te rc es

sio n
XI Al so we d am pn e n o t the m o nas tery o r li fe o f such as
be cl o se d in the C l o i ster s 3 but o nly the tru s t th at s o m e m e n have
put in the re gul ar o bs erv ati o n Als o we reject the v o ws which
.

A L ite rary Fo rg e ry

16 5

have b e e n mad e up o n s uch thi ngs as m e n canno t o bse rv e Y et


o r th e
n eve r thele ss we wi l l n o t the m o nas teries b e put d o wn f
sam e but that they b e turn ed to sch o o ls ; in whic h goo d do c
tri ne s h o ul d be taught A n d that the po pe may d i spe nse with
v o ws ; s o that i t were free fo r every m an to keep o r n o t keep
them An d s o the sam e sh o u l d b e to the quie t and tran qu ility

o fm i n d an d the v o ws s h o u l d n o t b e the s nare s o fm alice


Re pl y :
The reso rt to C l o i sters they did n o t appr o ve but
c o n d e mn ed They mai n tai ne d tha t the m o nas tic li fe c o ul d b e
t o lerate d if c o ns trai n t the o pi n i o n o f m erit i d le be ggi ng were
ab se n t an d o ther abu se s were re m o ve d an d the p o wer o f e n ter

ing the m b e free with o ut an y regard to a Papal dis pe nsati o n


XI I The n the marriage o f prie s ts s h o uld be in the P o pe s
han ds w h o m ight ad m i t the sam e ; an d the c o n cubi nate o fman y
o r we se e f
e w chas te
But if the law to
o r give n ; f
s h o ul d be f
c o n trac t s h o ul d no t have place the n fo r to avo i d slan der there
s h o ul d be n o n e ad vance d to the dig n itie s e ccle s ias tical but grav e

pe rso ns and o ffull age


Re ply :
It is appare n t that here fal se h o o d s are fabric ated
with re spect to Luther as th o u gh h e w o uld al l o w the m arri age
erred to the jud gme n t and di spe nsati o n o f
o fthe cler gy to be re f
the P o pe ; fo r thi s b e re garde d a m atter o f d ivi ne law n o t o n ly
t o fc o n
al l o we d but nece ssary to all w h o did n o t poss ess the gi f
The c auti o n al so with res pe ct to eccles i as tical d igu i
tinenc e
ties that they sh o ul d be c o n ferre d u po n n o n e but up o n m e n o f

ad van ced age w h o c o ul d b e celiba te is n o t Luther s


XIII We thi n k i t bes t to d is pute o f Purgat o ry an d pard o ns
in th e s ch o o l s rather than in the pul pit to di sput e o f the sam e
n y pr o t ; s o tha t the m arket s an d bar ai ns
ub
l
i
ly
with
o
ut
a
c
p
g
there o fs h o ul d be av o i de d Fo r we do reject in th o se thi ngs an d
o thers wherei n we do n o t agree the abu s e r ather than the thi ng
itse l f The which n evertheless ma y be di scussed an d am e nd e d

by c o u ncils l aw fully asse mble d


Re ply :
Pur gat o ry i t sel f an d the e n tire gm e n t o f P o n ti
he al i nd ulge nces Luther with h is as so c ia tes rejected as am o ng
.

'

16 6

Th e L

uth e ra n

[ Mo ve m e n t in

Eng land

ther p assages is m an i fes t in the Smalcald Artic l e s 3 an d there


fo re he d i d n o t forbi d th at they be re fute d in the s er m o n 3 fo r

he di d thi s n o t o n ly with h is v o w but al so in h is writi n gs


XIV The Zwi ngli an s an d ( E c o lampadian s have n o t yet re
b ut the s i m ple p e o pl e sh all be e as ily re
c e iv e d th o s e artic e s
duc e d an d w e trus t th at they sh all sh o rtly do c o n fo rm abl e

theret o
o

Reply : Here Zwi ngli an d the (E co lam padians are i nvidi o usly
cite d as th o u h o n ly thei r f
o ll o wer s an d n o t likewi s e the L u
g
therans reje cte d P o n tical abus es The n to o i t is fals e that th e
pe o ple were i n cli n ed to acce pt thes e c o m pr o m i ses o r that
thr o u gh se rm o ns h o pe w as o ffered the m fo r these The c o n
trary w as fo u n d al s o after the d e ath o f Luther whe n the edict
a very f
e w ad
o f Ch arle s bei n g publi shed in the ye ar 1 5 4 8
m itte d i n cru st ati o n s n o t u n like the se which were the n i n ve n ted
in E n gl an d an d alth o ugh c o m pelled by vi o le n ce to receiv e

the m n evertheless in a s h o rt ti m e rej ecte d them


,

XV Luther h ath rev o ked all the b o o ks wherei n there be


man y thi ngs c o n trary to th o s e article s an d h ath retr acte d the m
with his o w n han d s an d k no wle d ged h is faults I n M arch 3 d
MD XXX I X
Reply
Thi s is s o i m pu d e n tly fal se as n o t to be w o rthy

ut ati o n
o f re f
S o m e o f the preju d ices agai ns t Lutheran i sm in E n gl an d o n the
rt
the
m
o re pr o n o u n ce d O ppo n e n t s o f hier archi sm h ave n o t
f
o
a
p
i m pr o bably o rigi nated fr o m the fals e i mpress i o ns pr o duce d by
thi s fo r gery T o have yielded as m uch as thi s d o cu m e n t d o es
w o ul d h ave been to have give n up hal f th e battle to th e Papacy It
w as e sse n ti al ly as Secke n d o r f i nti m ates what afterwar d s w as so
It is am u si ng to
s t o utly re s i s te d by Luther ans in the I nte rim
read S trype s c o n clus i o n o f the matter
But the se s te ps to a go o d c o n c o rd betwee n the ki ng an d th e
Germ ans cam e to n o thi ng 3 the ki n g tak i ng s o m e m i s c o n ceit
he r ather in
agai ns t the D uke o f Sax o n y becau se i t w as sai d

A L ite ra ry Fo rg e ry

16

h ave h is si ster in law the Lad y An n e o f Cleves mar

ried in Ger man y than to h im


As o ppo sed to thi s we have an authe n tic d o cu m e n t o f Jan
uary 18th 15 40 in whi c h Luther Mel an chth o n J o nas Bu ge n
hage n M yc o n ius Sarc e rius B uc e r an d o ther s u n ite in s tati ng to
the E l ecto r the c o n diti o ns up o n which peace m ay be mad e with

the bish o ps
cline d

to

Si n ce the do ctri n e in all articles o f the c o n fes


s i o n as i t is u n d er st o o d an d tau ght in o ur churche s is truly and
pr o perly the s ure C h ri sti an d o ctri n e o f the H o l y G o s pe l we
neither will n o r c an make o r as se n t to an y ch an ge therei n
There fo re ifthere be a m eeti ng rs t o fall the d o ctri ne m u s t be
di scussed ; fo r ifthey be s ile n t c o n ce rn i n g thi s an d s till h o l d
their o wn and thus treat o f an exter nal hypo critical agree m e n t
o l l o w ; but they m u s t r s t c o n s ider whether
no rm u n i ty w o ul d f
thi s d o ctri n e be c o rrect and be all o we d by theirs I f perhaps
they give hee d to so m e articles an d receive the m in a m eas ure 3
and say that o ur writi ng s are n u m er o us an d d i ss i m il ar an d there
fo re certai n articles m us t be c o m po se d 3 an d al so perh aps c e n
sure s o m e so as to p atch an d chan ge the m 3 o ur ju dgm e n t is
that we do n o t all o w ne w o b scure an d u n certai n articles o r
tch
w
rk
t
o be pre pare d but decl are to the m th at the sum o f
a
o
p
o rth in the C o n f
essi o n and A po l o gy fr o m
o ur d o ctri n e is se t f
wh o se d o ctri n e we do no t thi nk o fde parti n g An d if an y o ne
h ave any fault to nd therewith as th o ugh i t were n o t s u fcie n tly
expl ai ne d o r were i n c o rrect we the n o ffer o ur selves re ady with
all dilige n ce to s h o w either by wri ti n g o r o r ally what the un
de rs tan ding is in o ur churches ; and s o to m ake answer th at
u n d o ubte d ly all reas o nabl e and G o d feari n g m e n shall be sat
"
i sed
They

say

T H E S IX A

RT I C L E S

I ts
were s o o n l os t s i ght o f exce pt as an hi st o rical l an d m ark
O per ati o n see ms to have be e n checke d in p art at leas t as early
-

Co rpus R eformato rurn ,

III :

12 9

16 3

[ Mo re

Eng lis h

uth e ran

L ite rature

C rum w e ll s s chem e s were success ful


the fo ll o wi ng ye ar
I n s pit e o f the Elect o r s pers i s te n t advice to the c o n trary becaus e
fe n d ed his rel ative s the m arri age o f He n ry
o fwhich he gre atly o f
with the Elect o r s s i ster in law A nn e o f Cleves w as arran ged
We n ee d n o t repe at the s t o ry with which re ad ers o f E n gli sh h is
t o ry are so fam ili ar o f the atteri n g p o rtrait pai n ted by Cranach
the i m patien ce o f He n ry tO welc o m e h is bri d e h is trip to the
c o as t to receive her his terrible di sappo i n tm en t h is fruitless
e n d e av o r to retr act fr o m h is e ngagemen t eve n after sh e h ad e n
te re d E n gl an d fo r her m arri age h is brut al tre at m e n t o f her h is
d iv o rce o n the gr o u n d that the ki n g [po o r i nn o cen t He n ry 1]
havi ng m arried her agai ns t h is will he h ad n o t give n a pure in

ward an d c o m plete c o ns e n t
an d her s ile n t di gn ity am i d s t all
these wr o n gs H ad the Elect o r s advi ce bee n heeded thi s m o r
ti catio n w o uld n o t have bee n i n curre d
as

T HE

LU TH E RA N U L T I MATUM

H o wever o pp o sed the Elect o r h ad bee n to the alli an ce yet


when agai ns t h is will i t was c o n clu de d he w as u nwilli ng to l o se
wo uld affo r d fo r gai n i n g an e n
any O ppo r tun ity whi ch i t
tr an ce i n t o E ng l an d o f th at pure faith o f the G o spel which h ad
been so o fte n re pelled by the ki n g He n ce c o n trary to all
fo rm er expectati o n s o f b o th st ate sm e n an d the o l o gi an s the pe n
o f Mel an chth o n w as o n ce m o re called i n t o s ervice
dui in g the
peri o d after the marri age an d be fo re the re pu d i ati o n o f Ann e
A pril 1 2 th 15 40 he wr o te a l o ng letter fo r the
o f Cleve s
Elect o r s use re ferri ng to an o ral s tatem e n t m ade by He n ry as t o
his h o pe that he m ight yet bec o m e a m em ber o f the S m alcald
League an d rem i n di n g h im that the Le ague h as n o o ther O bject
but that o f the d e fe n ce o f true d o ctri n e an d cas es c o nn ecte d

an d
if the ki n g wi shed to e n ter the Le ague fo r
therewith
o ther re as o ns than th o s e o f reli i o n th at thi s w as e n tirely at va
g

The ki n g was se
rian ce with the pri n ci ple s O f the Le ague

o r the i n f
am o u s
w hich are
S ix Articl es
v e re ly rebuked f
,

H ardw i ck s

R eformation , p

2 06 .

A L ite rary Fo rg e ry

r6 9

cribed to th e c o nspi racy an d arti ce s o fb ish o ps wh ose mi nds

are s ti l l i m bued with ve n erati o n f


As
o r R o m i s h g o d less n ess
h o wever th e executi o n O f the S ix Articles has bee n arr es ted
and the ki n g o n the o ne han d h as e xpre ss ed ag ai n h is des ire
that true d o ctri ne be pr o pagat e d in h is churche s but o n the
o ther has s tated that the Lutheran s
in so m e articles h ave ad

van c e d bey o n d b o un ds
the Elect o r h as h ad so me the o l o gians
prep are a m e m o ran du m o f the argum e n t s o n which the article s
o n abus es re s t f
o r the e speci al c o nsider ati o n O f the ki n g an d h is
the o l o gi ans A c o n fe re n ce betwee n E ngli sh and Ger man the o
lo gian s is sugges ted to be held at Guel d ers H amburg o r Bre m e n
o r an y o ther pl ace de s ig n ated by the E ngli s h ki ng
Fo r we

greatly des ire


the letter c o nti nues
tha t true an d g o dly
agree m e n t b e es tabli s hed betwe e n the An gli can an d Ger m an
Churches Such a c o nsu mmati o n w o uld b o th m agn i fy the gl o ry
O fG o d an d i nvit e o ther n ati o ns
Acc o r d i ngly in thi s matter
we pro mi se o ur aid with all o ur m ight b o th becau se o f the gl o ry
Si n ce m o re o ver we are n o w
O f G o d an d o ur o w n n ecess itie s
u n ited by a n e w bo n d o f rel ati o nship w e are e speci ally des ir o us
that thi s un i o n m ay be o f so m e ad van tage to the Church o f
Chri st and the State 3 as the se o ught to be the chie f e n d s in

view in the frie n d ships o f pri n ces


The m e m o r an dum ao
c o m pan yi ng the letter is as fo ll o ws :
Writing of the l/Vitte nherg Th eologi ans s e nt to th e K ing of

as

E ngland

MA SS

O F T HE

c o n tr o vers y c o n cer n i n g lesso ns and prayers in the


M ass Fo r s i n ce P aul al so in publi c cere m o n ies wan ted so m e
h o ly lesso ns u se ful fo r exci ti n g m i n d s to the fear o f G o d an d to
faith to be recited an d pr ayers an d thanks givi n g to be add e d
thi s cus t o m is n o t to be ab o li shed but to be dilige n tly mai n
tain e d in the Church
Fo r rs t i t is es peci ally pr o table that
in the c o m m o n ass e m bly there be prayer ; becau s e C hri s t e x
n he said :
I
f
w
o
t
re
ly
g
ve
pr
i
t
the
church
whe
s
s
m
s
es
o
a
o
p
There

is

no

C orpus R eformatorum ,

III :

1007.

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

1 70

England

hall agree o n e arth as t o uchi n g an ythi n g that they as k


i t shall be do n e fo r them o f m y Father which is in he ave n Fo r
where two o r three are gathered t o gether in m y nam e there am
I in th e m id s t o f the m
Chri st there fo re by h is m o st c o mpre
h e nsive pr o m i se i nvites us to j o i n with the Church in prayer
G o d wan t s the C hurch to b e s o b o u n d t o gether th at o n e be af
fe c te d by the n ece ss ity o f the o ther an d pr ay fo r the o ther an d
pr o m i s es that he will hear thes e prayers The publi c usage o fthe
Church in public pr ayers in the M ass an d o ther cerem o n i es
o ught t o ad m o n i sh us t o le ar n thi s an d to exerci s e s uch f
aith
Paul al so in 2 C o r I as ks that prayers b e m ade by m an y that
m an y in turn m ay th ank G o d fo r heari n g prayer an d fo r l o o k
ing up o n th e aficte d
The n the e xample o f the C hur c h is m o s t
use f
ul Fo r i t teach es man y to b e the mse lves ar o used to believ e
a
n d pray e speci ally ifin the s erm o ns the pe o ple b e ad m o n i shed
c o n cer n i ng th e pr o m i ses mad e to the Church Fo r thu s they
will u n ders t an d the e xam ples o f o thers an d the cus t o m O f th e
C hurch will pr o t the m u nt o e di catio n as Paul teaches 1 C o r
14
Thirdly the e xam ple o f the Chur c h serves to ad mo n i sh in
dividuals in regard to wh at m atters they sh o uld be c o n cer n ed
Fo r a pe o ple u
n t aught d o e s n o t un
an d what they s h o ul d as k
But there i t n o t o n ly hears that
de rstand public n ecess ities
private gi fts are to be s o ught but al so learn s that e ach o ne s h o uld
p articip ate in the public care pr ay fo r the wh o le C hufch that i t
be freed fr o m err o r s s can dals di sse ns i o ns go dless s ervices that
tru e d o ctri n e be pr o pagated th at true w o r shi p be re n dered G o d
an d we be rule d an d san ctied by the H o ly Gh o s t
It le arns
al so th at pr ayers fo r b o dily thi n gs pe ace h appy g o ver nm e n t
harve st agai ns t pes tile n c e an d like ills ple as e G o d Such pray
we h o l d
e rs ln public cere m o n ie s in the M ass an d el s ewhere
were dev o utly an d n ece ssarily i nstitute d Fo r i t is G o d s c o m
man d b o th th at we call u po n h im in all dan gers and that in
the public rit es the pe o ple be t au ght c o n cer n i ng thi s i nv o cati o n
to le arn t o believe G o d and to s eek an d ex pect aid o f G o d
But c o n cern i n g th e use o fth e sacram e n t o fthe B o dy and Bl o o d
o fyo u s

A L ite ra ry Fo rgery

71

the Lo rd in the M ass we di sappr o v e O fth ose wh o h o ld th at


the use o f the sacram e nt is a se rvic e to b e applied fo r o thers
livi n g and dead and that i t m eri ts fo r th e m the rem i ssi o n o f
F
or
uilt
pu
i
o r the w o rk wr o ught
n
shme nt an d thi s too f
a
n
d
g
th es e thi n gs are u n kno wn to the An cie nt C hurch , an d disagr ee
with the H o ly Scriptures and o bscure th e d o ctri ne o ffaith an d
pr o duce c o n de n ce in the w o rk o f ano ther B ut w he n C hri st
Thi s do in rem e mbranc e o fme h e i nsti tuted th i s sac
sai d :
r ame nt that ther e m ight b e the re th e reme mbran ce in true fai th
o fhis de ath an d o fth e b e ne ts w hich by h is de ath he has m eri ted
An d thes e be n et s are applied by th e sacram en t to th e o ne tak
ing i t whe n by thi s reme mbran ce i t e x cites faith which b e lieves
that C hri s t truly be st o ws up on us his be n ets whil e he O ffers us
s uch a tes ti m o n y that h e j o i ns us to hi msel f that h e wi shes to
keep us as h is m e mber s that h e cleanses us wi th his bl o o d Thi s
faith whereby th e be n e ts o fC hri s t are received is th e s piritu al
w o rs hip o fG o d and be caus e wit h thi s faith thanksgivi ng s h o uld
be j o i n ed , wh e reby heart s truly giv e than ks fo r th e fo rgive ness
o fs i ns an d re d e m pti o n to G o d th e Father an d o ur L o rd J esus
Chri s t th e A n cie n t Church called thi s us e o f th e sacram e nts
Euchari s t as C ypri an say s m o s t s weetly c o ncern i n g c o mm un i
can ts :
Piety divi di ng i ts el fbetwee n what is give n and what is
fo rgive n th ank s the bes t o wer O f s o abu n dan t be net
e
Piety c o ns i d ers b o th viz h o w great the magn it ud e o fthe be n e
t bes t o wed up o n us gr ac e an d li fe eternal an d o n th e o ther
han d h o w great is the magn itude o f o ur evil s i e o f s i ns and
eter nal death Arde n t th an ks givi n g there fo re ari se s whe n we
by u nspeak able cle m e n cy such s i ns are re m i tted us
se e tha t
an d bes i d es we are pres e n ted with the Ho ly Spiri t an d th e gl o ry
e ete rnal And in thi s s e nse w e h o ld that thi s m o st revered
o fli f
cere m o n y is called by th e h o ly Fathers a s acri ce w h o certai nly
di d n o t thi n k th at this w o rk whe n applied m eri ts fo r o thers the
re mi ss i o n o fguilt an d pu n i sh m e n t an d that , fo r the w o rk wr o ught
but hel d that in the us e o f the sacr am e n t faith is to be exerci sed
Si nc e ther e fo re , C hri st in
an d than ks givi ng to b e re n der e d

of

T h e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me n t in

1 72

Eng land

titut e d th e us e o f the sacram e n t th at it m ight be a c o mm un i o n


in which the sacram e n t m i ght be admi n i stere d to o ther s an d
the Church fo r a l o ng ti m e pres erve d thi s cust o m an d d i d n o t
h ave private m asse s we h o l d th at s uch rite wherei n there is a
c o mm u n i o n o fso m e is go dly and in harm o n y wi th the G o spel
The n private m asse s were w o n t to be per fo r m e d wi th the O pi n i o n
c o n c er n i n g the use O f th e sacr am e n t th at i t is n e c essary that
thi s s ervice spran g up in the Church in o r d er to be applie d to
o r the m the re m i ss i o n o f guilt and pun
o ther s so tha t i t m erit s f
Such m asse s there fo re are to be abr o gated an d in
ish m e n t
and the ins tituti o n O f
o r d er th at th ese s can d al s be re m o ved
Chri s t viz the C o mm u n i o n be celebrate d we h o l d that n o o ne
celebr ate private m as ses Fo r s i n c e
sh o uld be c o m pelle d to
P aul says that they w h o abu s e the sacram e n t are guilty O f th e
b o d y an d bl o o d o f the L o r d the greates t care m u s t be t ake n that
the g o d ly and h o ly use be rest o re d to the glo ry o f Chri s t and th e
pr o t O f the Church

KI ND S

B O TH

OF

There is n o d o ubt that the A n cie n t Church E as t an d Wes t


u sed b o th ki n ds o f the sacram e n t o f the B o dy and Bl o o d O f
Chri st viz bre ad an d wi n e Fo r Paul al so tes ties that thi s was
the cu st o m in the church o f the C o ri n thi ans an d Chri s t o n in
o r d ai n ed thi s us e n o t o n ly f
o r a p art
stitutin g the s acr am e n t
o r the wh o le Church ; an d
o f the Church viz fo r the pri es t s but f
the d ecl ar ati o n o f Jer o me an d o thers is e x tan t which s h o ws
that thi s cust o m re m ai n ed fo r a l o n g ti m e in the Church an d in
We have as certai n e d Gel as ius decl ared th at b o th
capitulo
k i n d s are t ake n 3 where fo re the rece n t pr o hibiti o n is o nly a h u
He n ce i t d o es n o t h ave the auth o rity to ch a
n ge
m an tr ad iti o n
an i ns tituti o n o f Chri st n o r are m e n to be c o m pelled be caus e
agai ns t c o n scie n ce
a cus t o m
o fa hu m an tr aditi o n to ch an ge
delive red by Chri s t and e m pl o yed in the A n cie n t Church s i n c e
it is man i fes t th at thi s u sage is l aw ful an d g o dly
,

A L ite rary Fo rg e ry
O F T HE

With re spect

MA RRI A G E

OF

1 73

P RI E S TS

virgi n ity an d c o n ti ne n ce an d m arri age w e fo l


lo w an d de fe n d the m ani fes t d ecl ar ati o n o f Paul 1 C o r VII
An d as Chri s t pr ai ses eu n uchs wh o mad e the ms elves such fo r the
Ki ngd o m o f G o d so we al so teach th at the pres erv ati o n o f vir
n m edi
a
n
s
f
l
f
r
s
n
s
i
d
w
rk
u
e
u
a
s
i
d
uity
tu
d
y
i
n
i
t
i
s
a
o
o
o
d
o
i
y
g
g
tatio n in prayer in eccle si as tical m i n i str ati o ns 3 as Paul says
that the hu sb an d c are s fo r the thi ngs which are o f the w o rld but
the u nm arrie d fo r th o se which are o f the Lo rd Fo r the hu sban d
is hi n d ere d by d o m es ti c o ccu pati o ns fr o m givi ng th at un in te r
ul fo r s tudies and public s ervices but the
rupte d atte n ti o n n ee d f
u nmarried is le ss e m pl o ye d and can apply gre ater e n ergy in
lear n i n g teachi ng and o ther fu n cti o ns 3 an d is less d i s tr acte d by
care s There fo re it is well to ch o o se an d to h ave in the Church
m i n i sters e n tirely celibate 3 and they wh o se e th at they are tted
are to be exh o rte d by their d ili ge n ce an d te m per an ce
to pre
t o f G o d bec aus e o f the ad v an tage O f the Church
s erve the gi f
c e pleases G o d an d has great
an d are to be t au ght th at thi s o f
rew ards But i nas m uch as Chri s t hi msel f tes tie s that n o t all are
t fo r perpetu al cel ibacy we h o l d that to th o s e w h o are n o t
tte d fo r cel ibacy m arri age n ei ther o u ght n o r can be pr o hibited
by a v o w o r hu m an law ; becau s e a v o w an d hu m an l aws c ann o t
B ut i t is a d ivi n e
free us fr o m a divi ne law an d a natur al ri ght
law th at every o n e w h o d o es n o t h ave the gi ft o f c o n ti n e n ce
o r n i cati o n h ave a wi f
e An d the de
sh o ul d in o rder to av o id f
o rm ably to ri ght re aso n is a ri ght o f n a
s ire f
o r m arri age c o n f
T o thi s natu ral affecti o n as it is calle d c o n cu pi s ce n ce is
ture
n o w adde d which in am e s n ature the m o re ; s o th at the n eed
The law m o re o ver
fo r m arri age as a re m edy is the greater
which pr o hibit s m arri age to pries ts is purely a hu man trad i ti o n
And further this n e w tr ad i ti o n which pr o hibit s m arri age to
pries ts an d di ss o lves c o n tr acts has n o t o ri gi nate d fr o m c o u n cil s
but fr o m the Ro man bi sh o ps al o n e Purity be fo re G o d is n o t to
po llute the c o ns cie n ce but to o bey G o d 3 where fo re an i m pure
celibacy is no t purity an d marri age s i n ce i t is san ctied by th e
to

,
.

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in

1 74

Eng land

W o rd o f G o d is purity Fo r we certai n ly k no w th at thi s ki n d


e ple as e s G o d an d i t is full o f the exerci ses o f go d li ness 3
o f li f
an d acc o r d i n gly fo r a l o n g ti m e the Church n o t o nl y in th e
E as t but als o in the Wes t had m arrie d prie s ts H i st o ry als o
testie s that thi s cus t o m w as ch ange d in S pai n an d Germ an y by
vi o le n ce The G reek churche s s till h ave m arrie d pries ts ; an d
he n ce m arri age is n o t i m purity o r a matter u nwo rthy o f the
But what ex am ple s wh at i mpurity
m i n i s ter s o f the churche s
what di sgrac e to the churches the law o f the Bi sh o p o f Ro m e
n ce the D ivi n e L aw e nj o i n s m ar
r
d
uce
d
i
s n o t O b s cure
Si
o
p
u po n tho s e w h o are n o t c o n ti n e n t we j u d ge that
riage
the po n ti cal pr o hibiti o n c o n cer n i n g celibacy is u n l aw ful and
that marri age is all o we d pries ts
.

OF

M O NA S T I C

VO

WS

There are m an y i m po rt an t reas o ns why i t is n ecessary to sup


n s e s tu d i o u s an d g o d ly m e n
rt
the
ub
l
ic
ex
e
d
e
ti
ed
a
t
s
n
o
p
p
p
fo r sacre d l iterature in o rder th at the teacher s O f the churche s
Fo r s i n ce the m o re d e stitute cann o t
m ay be d erive d the n ce
fr o m their re so urce s be ar the ex pe ns e o f s tu d ie s an d the rich
pre fer to reso rt to o ther arts whereby gre at h o n o r s and great
rewar d s are o ffere d in the s tate 3 i t is n ecessary th at the Church
r
vi
d
e
th
at s o m e be su ppo rted at the public ex pe ns e in o rder
o
p
to give atte n ti o n to sac re d lite rature an d o ther art s o f which
the Church h as n ee d U n le ss thi s were d o n e the churche s in
Thi s d uty the n is in c um
man y pl ace s w o ul d be with o ut pas t o rs
be n t u po n ki ngs an d pri n ces that they pr o vi d e that pas t o r s be
n o t l acki ng to the churche s, an d that they s u pply the ex pe ns e s
Fo r Isai ah to thi s e n d c all s ki ngs
o f te acher s an d s ch o l ars
ather s an d quee n s n urs i n g m o thers in o r d er to te ach
n ur s i ng f
that ki n gs an d s t ate s o ught to de fe n d teachers an d supply the
ex pe ns e Neither is it u nju st that they wh o se s tu d ie s are directed
by the
to the pr o t o f the Church be su pp o rted in tur n
Wh o g o eth a war fare at h is o wn
Church 3 as Paul says :
ch arges ? A ppare n tly with thi s de sign in the be gi n n i ng asse m
,

A L ite rary Fo rg e ry

1 75

were i nsti tuted in c o lleges an d m o nas teries in o rder th at


there m ight be a l ar ge nu m ber o f th o se e ng age d in sacred litera
ture fr o m wh o m teachers c o ul d be ch o se n 3 an d to thi s the l aw s
in the c o d e an d hi s t o rie s be ar wit n ess
Fo r thi s pur po s e there
fo re it is pr o t ab l e pr o vided the g o d le ss O pi n i o n s an d s e rvi ce s
be re fo r m e d , that c o lle ge s and m o nas terie s be preserve d Fo r
i t is no t e n o ugh that the yo uth w h o are to be e m pl o ye d here
ter in the go ver nm e n t o f the Church sh o ul d le ar n literature
af
but al so sh o uld be accu st o m e d by di sci pli n e an d g o d ly e x e r
ci ses to the l o ve O f cere m o n ie s an d to go d li n ess ; fo r th o se n o t
tr ai ned by s uch d i sci pli n e are m o re pr o fan e th an is expe d ien t
Bes i d e s the Church h as n eed o f lear ned an d skil ful pas t o r s But
fam ili ar c o n versati o n with m e n le ar n ed in spiritu al m atter s c o n
duce s very m uch to the stre ngthe n i ng o f d o ctri n e an d the c o n
rm i n g o f judgm e n t s Fo r with o ut such i n terc o ur se no o n e
M o re o ver if pas t o r s be alt o gether
can att ai n to so li d le ar n i ng
l acki n g to the churche s o r the pas t o rs be u n le ar n e d an d in e x
n
m
ere
tyr
o
s
wh
a
t
we
s
u
will
be
the
s
t
te
an
o
s
a
e
r
i
e
ce
d
d
o
e
d
pp
p
There will be d evas t ati o n an d barbari sm and
O f the Church ?
with l iterary pur suit s de str o yed le ar n i n g wi l l be ext i n ct Paul
pr o hibits the ch o i ce o f n o vice s becau se he k n ew that there was
ul an d experie n ce d te achers Naz ianz e n d e pl o re s
n eed o fs kil f
the cal am ity o f the Church becaus e they w h o h ad n o t previ o u sly
lear ned s udde n ly becam e d o ct o rs br o ught fo rwar d n o t by their
le arn i ng but by v o te s B as il say s that the d o ctri n e o f the e mi
w as s till re s o u n di n g in h is e ar s
ather s wh o m he he ard
nen t f
Where fo re i t is highly d es irable th at there be s uch m o nas teri es
in which d o ctri n e m ay o uri sh an d be pr o pag ate d y o uth be
pr o perly trai n ed and be pre pare d fo r the service o f the Church
in o rder that le ar ne d and w e ll traine d d o ct o r s o f the churches be
Such o n ce were the c o lleges o f bi sh o ps as is ap pare n t
had
fr o m the acc o un t s o f Am br o s e an d Au gu s ti n e an d o thers in
which learn i ng was fo r a lo n g t i m e pr o pagate d A fterwar d s
whe n in such c o lle ges the pu rs uit s O fle ar n i n g were ne glected a
great change o f d o ctri ne fo ll o wed which was o f no littl e i njury
b lage s

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me n t tu

1 76

Eng land

the C hurch There fo re with the po lity pres erved let th e


O pi n i o n o f c o l lege s an d m o nas teries be re fo r m e d let su pers titi o n
be rem o ve d let g o d less s ervices be rejecte d an d the pur suits o f
lear n i n g be re n ewe d to the pr o t o f the Chur c h Fo r we h o ld
th at the fo ll o wi n g o pi n i o ns are g o d less viz that m o nas ti c v o ws
m erit the fo r give n e ss o fs i ns an d etern al li fe o r th at they are
Chri s ti an ri ghte o u sne ss o r per fecti o n 3 an d while l aw ful v o ws are
ul as are mad e
to be o bs erve d such m o nas tic v o ws are u nl aw f
with the fal se per su as i o n th at w o rks d evi sed wi t h o ut G o d s c o m
fere n ce but a service an d m erit
m an d are n o t m atter s o f i n d i f
the re m i ss i o n O fs i ns an d etern al l i fe Thes e v o ws are i nv alid
The o bjecti o n ur ge d fr o m Paul c o n cer n i ng wi d o ws th at they
h ave m ad e v o i d their r s t faith eve n th o ugh there were v o ws
the n cann o t be acc o mm o d ate d to m o n as tic v o w s o f the se ti m es
whi ch whe n fullled wi th a g o dless o pi n i o n are n o t v o ws Fo r
they tr ans fer the gl o ry o f Chri st to hu m an O b serv ance s an d O b
faith in Chri s t an d the
s cure true w o r shi p in the Church viz
g o o d w o rks O fo n e s calli n g Fo r wh o di d n o t pre fer the O b se r
van ce s o f the m o nks to the o fce o f m agi s tr ate an d o f father ?
Fo r thes e w o rk s as pr o fan e an d u n cle an see m e d s carcely e xc u
aith w as o b s cure d becau s e they d i d n o t te ach that
sable an d f
fo rgive ne ss O fsi n s is gr atuit o usly be s t o wed fo r Chri st s sake but
A n d the res t o f th e
as cribed thi s h o n o r t o their O b serv an ce s
Church i m it ated thes e O pi n i o ns an d e xample s an d super stiti o us ly
th o ught th at w o rks are s ervices o f hum an tr ad iti o ns an d m eri t
rem i ss i o n o fs i ns an d l i fe e ter nal Si n ce h o wever the G o spel
c o n de m ns thes e O pi n i o ns m o nas tic v o ws m ad e wi th thi s pe rsua
estly u nl aw ful Bes ides n o t all are tted fo r pe r
s i o n are m an i f
pe tual c o n ti n e n ce 3 while a v o w s h o uld be c o n cer n i n g a po ss ible
m atter an d i t is evi d en t that m an y y o u ng m e n an d m ai d ens
were fo rced i n t o m o nas terie s an d to m ake v o ws be fo re the ju s t
We m u st
age ; h o w gre at the peril o f which is is n o t o bscure
there fo re all o w th o s e pre ferri ng to l ive in an o ther ki n d o f li fe
They al so do ari ght wh o leave th e
to de part fr o m m o nas terie s
m o nk s whe n they are c o m pelle d in m o nas terie s to o bs erve go d

to

A L ite ra ry Fo rg e ry

77

le ss s ervic e s as the abu se o fm as ses i ndulge n ce s and many o ther


thi ngs I fan y h o wever ad apte d to m o nas tic l i fe pre fer to live
in the s e c o l le ge s 3 iftheir O pi n i o n an d w o r shi p be re fo r m e d an d
they use o r d i nan c es as i nd i ffere n t m atters we do no t censure
the m and we j ud ge th at m an y h o ly an d excelle n t m e n with thi s
i n te n ti o n live d a go d ly li fe in m o nas terie s 3 aye i t is eve n to be
de s ire d that su c h c o l leges o f d o ct o r s and go d ly m e n exi st
am o n g wh o m the pur suit s o f Chri s ti an d o ctri n e m ay be cultiv a
te d to the c o mm o n pr o t o f the Church an d y o uths n o t o nly be
i nst ructe d in le ar ni ng but by g o d ly exerci s e s an d thi s ped ag o gy
o f rite s be accu s t o m e d to go d li n e ss yet s o th at they be n o t hel d
e n tangle d with v o ws to the peril o f c o ns cie n ce Thi s ki n d o f
l i fe be ca u se d irecte d to the pr o t o fthe Church to the instruc
t i o n and pr act i ce o f the c o n gregati o ns fr o m which d oct o rs o fthe
churches c an be t ake n is go d ly and ple as es G o d 3 fo r i t w o uld
have servi c es c o m m and ed o f G o d Fo r i t is G o d s c o m m an d
th at th o se pur po s i ng to e n ter the m i n i s try be t aught and
trai ne d 3 an d fo r thi s reaso n G o d appr o ves the pe d ag o gy o f
rites There m ay al so be c o l lege s o f n u ns where m aide ns lear n
literature an d the d o ctri n e O f go d li n e ss But y o u ng girl s w h o
des ire to m arry are n o t to be ret ai n e d in C l o i s ters n o r are any
thereafter to be bur d e ne d with v o ws Fo r the d o ctri n e O f P aul
mu s t be ret ai n e d w h o ad vi s e s vir gi ni ty in such wi s e as to be nu
7
willi ng th at sn are s b e c ast u po n c o nscie n c e s
We h ave give n thi s O pi n i o n o f the Witte nberg the o l o gi ans
that i t m ay be see n h o w the e n tire ar gu m e n t w as c o n ce n tr ated

The Article s o n Abu se s as well as to s h o w the spirit and


on
tho r o ugh n ess O f the treat m e n t Here were the po i n ts fr o m
which the Lutheran re fo rm ers c o uld n o t re c ede a h air s breadth ;
an d which at the sam e ti m e He n ry w as n o t re ad y to surre n der
The d o ctri nal article s as we h ave alread y le ar ned h ad bee n
alre ady c o n ce d ed by He n ry an d h is the o l o gians u n d er the in u
e nce o f the able pres e n t ati o ns o f M yc o n ius an d h is c o lle agues
As so o n as the article s o n Abus es w o uld be e n d o rs ed by the An
,

Ih pp
.

10 10 s q q .

1 78

Th e L uth e ran [Mo ve me nt in

l
i
g can

Eng land

uth o rities in addi ti o n to the d o ctri nal articles o f th e


Augsbur g C o n fe ss i o n a u n i o n betwee n the Luther an an d Angli
c an Church es c o uld be
c o ns ummate d ; but u n til the n s uch
th o ught s were u seless an d all e ffo rt s fo r u n i o n m u s t be directe d
t o wards the acce pt an ce o fth o se u nalterable s cri ptur al pri n ciple s
therei n se t fo rth
All thi s w as in vai n C r anm er u n der d ate o fM ay ro th tried
to ap o l o gize fo r his m o narch by rec o u n ti n g wh at gre at thi ngs
Hen ry h ad already acc o m pli she d H ad he n o t in a sh o rt ti m e
ab o li shed the su pre m acy o f the Po pe the w o r shi p o f i mages an d
m o nas teri es ? Were n o t these in them selve s l ab o r s w o rthy o f
Hercules ? The Luther an s m u st have p atie n ce All their argu
m en t s will be care fully exam i n e d but they m u s t n o t be o ffen ded
if o n so m e p o i n t s the ki n g di sse n t as he hi m s el fis a very learn ed
m an fur n i shed with the hi ghe s t critical acu m e n an d so u n dest
3
judgm en t an d be si des thi s h as the aid o fo ther le ar n ed m e n
The bre ach was so o n m ad e irre parable G ard i n er was m as ter
The re pudi ati o n o fA nn e O f Cleve s July ro th an d
o fth e eld
the fo rm al d iv o rce July 2 4th were cl o s ely c o nn ected with the
Ju n e 2 8th
arre st o f C ru m well Ju n e ro th an d his executi o n
an d the m artyrd o m at the s t ake July 3 o th o f th at m o s t pro
n o un c e d th o u gh n o t al way s judici o u s ad v o cate o f Luther an i sm
th e i n ti m ate frie n d an d t able c o m pan i o n o f Luther an d M e lan ch
th o n wh o h ad d o n e all that m o rt al c o uld to give E ng l an d the
pur e G o spel an d to m ake the An glican a Lutheran Church Dr
Ro bert B ar n es Thi s true E n gli sh Luther an faith ful eve n u n t o
death to the pri n ciples he h ad le ar n ed at Witte n ber g an d wh o se
dyi ng tes ti m o ny w as publi she d with an i n tr o ducti o n by Luther
writte n am id s t a te m pe st o f wrath agai ns t the r o yal m urderer and
with m an y tears fo r o n e wh o m he t e nd e rly l o v e d , W ill b e no ticed
in the n e x t chapter
a

Se ck endo rf,

III

61

C HAPTE R

L uT H E R s

sr

X III

R O B E RT

T ave rne r Es tim ate o fC rumwell S ke tch o f B arnes C o n


H is
H isto ry
n e ctio n w ith B ugenhagen
H is X I X Thes e s o f 15 3 1
f
H
i
I
w
it
h
L
t
her
s ef
o f th e P o pe s
u
s I n t ro duc ti o n
o rt s at l itur
5
(

H is
C o n fess i o n
at th e
C o n tro vers y w ith G ard i n e r
gic al re fo rm

by S tandi sh an d th e t e fu
s tak e
Th e att ac k upo n th e
C o nfess i o n
Luther s I n tro ducti o n to th e German
tatio n o f S tandi sh b y C o verdal e

transl ati o n o f th e C o nfess i o n


Luther s e s ti m ate o f B arnes H is

be twe en B arnes an d H enry S as tro w s Epicedian o n


co n tr as t
B arnes H enry demands satis fac ti o n

Th e Pos ti l s

of

PA RALL E L with the dipl o matic n e go ti ati o ns pr o cee ded th e


literary activi ty o fscho l ar s to pr o vi de fo r the th o r o ugh re fo rm a
ti o n o f the E ngl is h Church Thi s was no t c o n n ed to th e re
vi s i o n o ftr ansl ati o ns o fthe Bible We have alr eady see n h o w
the Augsburg C o n fess i o n an d A po l o gy the hym ns o fLuth e r an d
h is as so ci ate s and a Luther an s ys te m o f the o l o gy in Sarce rius

were transl ated an d publi shed E arly in


C o mm o n Pl aces
all O f Cru m well ano ther i m p o rtan t w o rk a
15 40 be f
o re the f
p
It
will
be
re
m
e
m
bered
th
t
i
n M arch 1 3 9
r
a
a
r
e
a
e
d
S
ce rius
p
5
wr o te to He n ry VIII fr o m Fran k fo rt o e ring to se n d h im
Po stils up o n the G o spel s fo r the L o r d s Days and the Fe sti
val s ; as well as up o n the E piste ls fo r th e Lo r d s D ays d e dic ated

The w o rk s re ferred to were either


to y o ur Sere n ity
Pos

till a in Evangeli a D o m in icalia an d


Po s till a in Evangeli a

Fe stivalia
15 3 8 o r
E x po s itio n es in E pisto las D o m i n i cales e t

Fes tiv al es o r pro b ably b o th Whe n the n e arl y in r5 40 we


n d a v o lu m e o f P o s til s appe ari n g in E ngl an d fr o m the pe n o f
Ri char d Tavern er the transl at o r o f Sarc e rius
C o mm o n
,

79)

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

1 80

Pl ace s in th e Pre face to which he di s cl ai ms all o rigi nality fo r


the m o s t o f the w o rk the i n fere n ce is very n atur ally suggested
that the b o o k c o m es fr o m Sarc e rius Taver n er s rel ati o n to i t is
thu s s t ate d :
I w as i nst an tly require d to the i n te n t the Lo rd
o rth h is l ab o rer s i n t o
o f the h arve s t m i ght by thi s m e an thrus t f
the harve s t to perus e an d rec o gn ize thi s brie f po stil which was
delivere d m e o f cert ai n go dly per so ns fo r th at purp o se an d in
te n t Which thi n g to m y little p o wer an d as the sh o rt n ess o f
ti m e w o ul d s e rve I h ave d o n e A n d such s er m o ns o r h o m ilies
as s ee m ed to w an t I h ave supp lied partly wi th m i n e o wn i n du s
try an d partly with the help o fo ther so ber m e n which be better

lear n e d th an m y sel f
Sith
S o to o in the Pre face to the sec o n d v o lum e he says :
thi s P o stil is by m e th o ugh n o t m ade yet rec o gn ize d an d in d i

ver s e pl ace s aug m en te d


The ch ange s m o d icati o ns an d ad
ditio ns to S arc e rius c ann o t be determ i n e d u nle ss the tw o b o o k s
be pl ace d s ide by s i d e As n o c o py o f Sarce rius is at h an d w e
c ann o t eve n afr m po sitively th at he is the auth o r But the e n
tire s tyle an d ch ar acter o f the P o stil s betr ay their German i c an d
Luther an o rigi n We n ee d re fer to but o n e i nstan ce where o n
the G o sp e l fo r the 2 n d Su n d ay in Adve n t we nd the se nten ce
The an cie n t s er pe n t sh all be l o o sed fo r a little ti m e that is to
Suar
al s e pr o phet s heretic s, A n ab apti s t s Sacr am e n t aries
say f

s educt o r s
ran tike spir te s
ch w arm e re i
f
en
S
G
m e rians
]
[
i
It is also p o ss ible th at the si m il ar w o rk O f An t o ny C o rvinus o fC al
e nber g m ay h ave been u se d as the b asi s
But w e retur n to the po litical cri s i s O f 15 40 an d the cat as t ro
i
s f
o reign t o o ur pur po s e t o e nter
which
i
t
br
o u ght
I
t
h
e
s
p
i n t o a d i s cu ss i o n c o n cer n i n g Crum well an d h is fall He was n o
the o l o gi an , bu t a po l itici an A gre at frie n d o fthe Luther an m o ve
m e n t there is n o evi d e n ce at h an d to pr o ve th at he re garded i t
in an y o ther li ght than as o fferi n g to E n gl an d an o p po rtu n ity
fo r asserti n g its p o wer in d ean c e o f P o pe an d E m per o r
Wh ether he real ly ac ce pte d with heart and so ul the faith o f th e
G o s pel an d kn ew in h is o wn i nner ex perie nce what the Luth
,

L uthe r s

St

R ohe rt

18 1

Re fo rm ati o n as des ig ne d rs t o fall an d ab o ve all to main


tai n an d i m part m us t be re f
erred to H im w h o w o ul d have us
ju d ge n o thi ng be fo re the ti m e
Twe n ty d ays after the executi o n o f C ru m well viz o n Jan uary
3 o th 1 5 40 o ne O f the m o s t pr o m i n e n t O f E ngli s h Lutheran s
b o re h is tes ti mo n y at the s take
Dr Ro bert B ar n es w as b o r n ab o ut 1 49 5
At C am brid ge he
was a fell o w s tu d e n t o f Mile s C o verd ale with wh o m thr o u gh o ut
h is e n tire career he live d o n terms o f i n ti m acy an d wh o m o s t
e n d e d h is m em o ry after his death C o nverte d to
e ar ne s tly de f
the evan gelical faith thr o u gh Th o m as Bil n ey he at rs t sh o we d
a f
anatical r ad icali s m havi n g o n D e c e m ber 2 4th 1 5 2 5 pre ache d
agai nst the o b se rv an ce O f the gre at church fes tivals an d unse as
o r the F o urth Su n d ay in
o nab ly re pr o duced Luther s s er m o n f
Adve n t I n a previ o us chapter we t o l d the s t o ry o f the recan tati o n
o f Lutheran i sm which in 1 5 2 6 he w as c o m pell ed to make u n d er
sam e year h o wever i t w as dis
lty
the
t
ke
The
very
f
s
a
n
a
O
e
p
c o vered th at he w as surreptiti o us ly circulati n g Bible s He b e
cam e an o bject o fsuch cl o se surveill an ce tha t in 15 2 8 he es cape d
to A n twer p where it is pr o bable tha t he w as in i n ti m ate rel a
ti o n s with R o ger s the n chapl ai n there H e spe n t the n ext
three years in German y part o f the ti m e at Witte n be r g where
he res ided in B uge nhage n s h o us e an d in o r d er to es cape de
te c tio n ass u m ed the nam e o f A n th o n i ns Am arius o r A n t o n ius
Anglus Buge nhage n bei n g in H am burg to pr o m o te the R e fo r
mati o n there in 15 2 9 pr o b ably m e t Tyn d ale livi ng the n in H am
burg and if Fo xe s s tate m e n t b e c o rrect that B arn es frie n d
C o ver d ale was with Ty n d ale at th at ti m e it agai n c o nn ects the m
Bes i d es the E ngli sh m erchan t Hu m phrey M o nmo uth in wh o se
h o use in L o n d o n Ty n dale had lived in l ater ye ar s mad e Barn es
the execut o r o fh is will
I n 15 3 1 he publi she d at Witte nber g a de fe n ce o f n i n etee n
thes es to which B uge n hage n furn i she d a pre face They were in
subs t an ce 1
Faith al o ne jus ties 2 Chri s t mad e sati s fac ti o n
n o t al o n e f
o r o rigi nal s in but f
o r all s i ns
3 The c o m man d
r

e an

,
.

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

18 2

me nt s

canno t be o b serve d fr o m o ur o wn p o wer s 4


Free will o f its o wn po wers c an do n o thi n g but s in 5 The
righte o us sin eve n in every g o o d w o rk 6 The true marks o f
the C hurch 7 T h e p o wer o f the keys depen d s up o n the W o rd
8 C o u n cils c an err
o f G o d an d n o t u po n m an s po wer
9
C o mm u n i o n m us t be ad m i n i s tered un der b o th fo r ms 10 H u
m an o rdi nan ces do n o t bi n d the c o nscie n ce
Auricul ar c o n
11
fess io n is n o t n ece ssary to salvati o n
12
It is l aw ful fo r pri est s
13
M o n ks are n o t h o lier than l ay m e n 14 Chri s
to marry
ti an fas ti ng d o e s n o t c o nsi s t in di s ti n cti o ns o fm e ats 1 5 Chri s
ti ans keep h o ly and w o rs hip G o d every day an d no t o nly o n the
U njus t Papal exc o mm u n i cati o n d o e s n o t i njure
s eve n th
16
th ose ag ai ns t wh o m i t is directed 1 7 The true b o dy o f C hri st
18
S ain ts are n o t to be in
is in the sacr am e n t o f th e alt ar
19
The err o rs O f the R o m i sh M ass are
y o ked as m e d i at o rs
e nu m erated
The sam e ye ar th e Ki n g felt th at he n eede d B arnes s ervices
in his w o rk o fre o rganizi ng the E n gli sh Church an d per su aded
H e was n o t l o n g in E n gl an d be fo re the an tago
h im to return
n i sm to G ardi n er br o ke o ut in a quarrel in which B ar n e s im pe t
As to the p o i n t oo f the dis
uo sity g ave h im the di sadvan t age
pute viz the ri ght to sue fo r debt G ardi n er s ee m s to h ave h ad
th e righ t s ide but h is re pugn an ce to the bi sh o p s c o ur s e with
re fere n ce to the G o spel was d o ubtle ss b ack o f i t I n 15 3 4 he
w as se n t by He n ry to H am burg as speci al am b as sad o r an d so ught
I n 15 3 5 and
to e f
fect an alli an ce with the Ki n g o f De n m ark
the fo ll o wi n g year he was as already st ated s ever al ti m es at
Witte nberg 0n the E ngli sh C o mm i ss i o n I n 15 3 6 he publi shed

H i s t o ry o f the Lives O f the P o pes


dedicated to He n ry
a
VIII to which Luther fur n i shed an I ntr o ducti o n
I n the I n
I n th e be gi nn i n g n o t bei n g m uch
tro duc tio n Luther says :
vers ed in Hi s t o ry I attacked the Papacy a prio ri i e fr o m th e
H o ly Scriptures No w I am w o n d er fully delighted that o thers
r o m Hi st o ry An d I thi n k
are d o i n g the sam e a pos te rio ri i e f
I amtrium phi ng s i n ce as th e light appears I u nders t an d that
of

God

uth e r s

S t R o he rt

183

hi s t o ries agree with the Scrip tures Fo r wh at I have lear ned


fr o m St Paul an d D an iel as te ac her s that the P o pe is the ad
ve rsary o f G o d an d o f all thi s hi s t o ry i n d i cates with its very
nger p o i n ti ng o ut n o t m erely ge nu s an d species but th e very
i n d ivi d ual
I n 15 3 7 he was execut o r fo r an alderm an Hu m phrey M o n
mo uth the frie n d o f Tyn d ale w h o le ft a beques t fo r the s i ngul ar
purp o s e o f payi ng fo r the pre achi ng o f thirty ser m o ns i nstead
I n 15 3 8 he becam e the r st to
o fthe sayi ng o f thirty m as s es
i ntr o duce the sayi ng o f the M ass and the re n deri ng o f the T e
The n ext year he w as o n the c o mm i ss i o n fo r
D e um in E n gli sh
the pr o secuti o n O f the A nabapti s t s H e was ch arged with hav
ing h ad so m e part in i n fo rm ati o n agai ns t Lam bert fo r de nyi n g
the d o ctri n e o f the re al pres e n ce alth o ugh thi s in n o way c o n
victs h im o f havi n g an y share in h is c o n de m nati o n and e xe cu
ti o n fo r de n yi ng transubs t an ti ati o n I n 15 3 9 he was agai n in
Germ an y as age n t fo r C ru m well in e ffecti ng the alli ance with
Anne o f Cleve s D uri ng Le n t o f 15 40 in preachi n g in St
Paul s Cr o ss Church with G ard i n er they fell i n t o c o n tr o vers y
G ar d i ner pre ache d agai nst Ju sticati o n by Faith al o n e Bar nes
whe n h is tur n to preach cam e n o t o nly attacked the Bi sh o p s
d o ctri n e but eve n i n vei ghed agai ns t h im perso nally Beggi n g
pard o n rs t priv ately which w as granted the n after aski ng par
do n publicly in the very sam e service he preached o n the evan
H
i
s
m
a
r
a
n
l
i
l
s
i
d
e
te
o
r
y
w
v
e
r
i
e
c
a
p
g
gs c an be re ad ily explai n ed
H is ar d e n t nature le d h im to ac t h as tily and ras hly an d the n
there was a seem i n g vacill ati o n tho ugh but fo r a m o m e n t to the
Be ne ath all there is a depth o f character unae c te d
o ther s i d e
by transie n t an d su perci al agi tati o ns He had to pay th e pe n
alty at S m ith e ld after the bill o fattai n d er agai ns t h im had bee n
passe d in Parli am e n t
At the s t ake he m ad e a gl o ri o u s c o n fe ssi o n o f Chri s t be fo re
m an y wit ne ss es
He b o re h is tes ti m o n y agai ns t the v ari o us P a
pal d o ctri n es e ach e nu m erated in its tur n

th e

'

Se ckendo rf I ndex
,

Anno

15 3

T he L

184

uth e ran

[ Mo ve me nt in E ng land

to be bur n ed as a heretic
c o m e hither
he said
an d yo u s h all he ar m y belie f whereby yo u s hall perceive what
err o n e o u s O pi n i o n s I h o l d G o d I t ake to rec o r d I n ever to m y
kn o wled ge t au ght any err o n e o u s d o ctri n e but o n ly th o s e thi ngs
which s cri pture le d m e u n t o an d th at in my s ermo ns I n ever
m ai n tai n e d an y err o r n either m o ved n o r g ave O ccas i o n Of an y
i nsurrecti o n Alth o u gh I have bee n sl an dere d to pre ach that
fr o n b ag which I utterly pr o te s t be fo re
o ur l ady w as but a saf
G o d that I n ever m e an t i t n o r preached it 3 but all m y s tu d y
an d di l ige n ce h ath bee n utterly to c o n f
ute allm e n
o u n d an d c o n f
o f t hat do ctri n e as are th o se w h o d e n y th at o ur S avi o ur Chri st
did t ake any e sh O f the ble sse d Virgi n M ary which sect s I d e
tes t an d abh o r A n d in thi s pl ace there have bee n burn ed so m e
av o re d n o r m ai n t ai n ed but with all dil
o f the m wh o m I n ever f
ige n c e everm o re did I s tu d y t o s e t fo rth the gl o ry o f G o d the
O be d ie n ce to o ur s o verei gn l o r d the K i n g an d the true and sin
cere religi o n o f Chri s t an d n o w hearke n to m y faith
I believe in the h o l y an d ble ssed Tri n ity three perso ns and
an d that thi s
o n e G o d th at c re ated an d m ad e all the w o rl d
ble sse d Tri n ity s e n t d o wn the s ec o n d perso n Je sus Chri s t i n t o
the w o m b o f the m o s t bless e d an d pure st Virgi n M ary An d
here he ar m y rec o r d that I do utterly c o n dem n that ab o m i nable
an d dete s t ab l e o pi n i o n which sa ith th at Chri s t t o o k n o es h O f
the Virgi n Fo r I believe that with o ut man s w ill o r p o wer h e
w as c o n ceive d o f the H o ly Gh o s t an d t o o k e s h o f her an d
that he su e re d hun ger thir st c o l d an d o ther pass i o n s o f o ur
bo d y s in exc e pte d ; ac c o r d i n g to the sayi ng o f St Peter he was
And I b e
m ad e in all thi ngs l ike to his brethre n except s in
l ieve th at h is d eath and pas s i o n was the su f cie n t r anso m fo r the
An d I believe th at thr o ugh h is d e ath he
s i ns o fall the w o rl d
o vercam e s in d e ath an d hell an d that there is n o n e o ther sati s
facti o n u n t o the Father but thi s h is death an d pass i o n o n ly
an d th at n o w o rk o fm an d i d d e s erve an ythi n g o f G o d but h is
p ass i o n as t o uchi n g o ur jus ti c ati o n Fo r I k no w the bes t w o rk
ect Fo r alth o ugh perchance
e ver I di d is i m pure an d i m per f

am

L uthe r

S t R o be rt
.

18

kno w n o thi n g o fm e ,yet do I c o n fess th at m y th o u gh t s and


c o gitati o ns are i nnu m er able 3 where fo re I beseech thee O L o rd
n o t to e n ter i n t o ju d gm e n t with m e 3 acc o r d i ng to the sayi ng
E n ter n o t i n t o jud gm e n t with thy s e r
o fthe pr o phet D avi d
v an t O L o rd 3 and in an o ther plaCe L o r d if th o u s tr aitly
Where
m ark o ur i n iquitie s w h o is able to abi d e thy ju d gm e n t
fo re I tru s t in n o go o d w o rk th at ever I di d but o n ly in the
death o f Chri st I do no t d o ubt but thr o u gh h im to i n herit the
K i ngd o m o f Heave n Take m e n o t here that I speak agai nst
go o d w o rks fo r they are to be d o n e an d verily they th at do
the m n o t shall n ever c om e i n t o the K i ngd o m o f G o d We
m us t do the m becau se they are c o mm an d e d us o f G o d to s h o w
essi o n n o t to deserve o r m eri t fo r that is
an d s e t f
o rth o ur pr o f
o nly the de ath o f Chri s t
I be lieve that there is a h o ly c h urc h and a c o m pan y O f all
the m th at do pr o fe ss Chri s t 3 and th at all that have su ffere d an d
c o n fe ss e d h is nam e are sai n ts ; an d that all they do prai se and
l aud G o d in he ave n m o re than I o r any m an s t o n gue c an ex
press and I h ave al ways spo ken revere n tly an d pr ai se d the m as
m uch as s cripture wille d m e to do
An d th at o ur l ad y I s ay
was a vir gi n i mm acul ate and un de le d an d that sh e is the m o s t
n
n
ure
virgi
th
a
t
ever
o
cre
a
te
d
a
d a vess el elect o f G o d
G
d
p

o fwh o m C hri s t s h o uld be b o r n

The n there was o n e


says F o xe
that as ked h im his

The n said he
o pi n i o n o f pr ayi n g to sai n t s
I have sai d b e
No w o fsai n ts yo u shall hear m y O pi n i o n
fo re s o m e wh at I thi n k o f the m 3 h o w th at I be l i eve they are in
he ave n with G o d and th at they are w o rthy o fall the h o no r that
Scri pture willeth the m to have But I say thr o u gh o ut all s cri p
ture we are n o t c o mm an d ed to pr ay to an y sai n ts There fo re I
n either c an n o r will pre ach u n t o yo u th at sai n t s o u ght to be
ne O f
n
a
o
a
the
h
uld
I
pre
ch
u
t
d
ctri
r
yed
u
n
t
r
n
s
a
o
o
u
o
f
o
o
3
p
y
m i n e o w n head
No twith stan d i ng whether they pr ay fo r us o r
n o that I re f
er to G o d An d if sai n ts do pr ay fo r us the n I
tru s t to pray fo r yo u wi thi n thi s hal f h o ur m as ter s heri ff and fo r
you

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

186

Eng la nd

very Chri s ti an man livi ng in the faith o f Chri s t an d dyi n g in


the sam e as a sai n t Where fo re if the d ead m ay pray fo r the

quick I will surely pr ay fo r yo u


Whe n thi s te sti m o n y o f B ar ne s at the s take was publi shed i t
w as at o n ce att acke d by a hi erarchical writer J o h n Stan d i sh to
wh o m B ar ne s O ld c o llege frie n d Miles C o ver d ale vi go r o us ly
re plied St an d i s h exam i n e s Barn es c o n fess i o n s e nte n ce b y
se n te n ce an d C o verd ale ju s t as m i n utely tre at s every s t ate m e n t
The re ply m ay be fo un d in the sec o n d v o lum e o f
o f St an d i sh
I n the
C o ve rdale s w o rks publi s he d by the Parker S o ciety
Pre face he say s :
I f D r B ar n es di ed a true Chri s ti an m an
be ye sure h is death shall be a gre ater s tr o ke to hypo cri sy
than ever h is li fe c o uld Lave bee n I fhe was fal sely accused to
the Ki ng s high ness an d s o put to death w o e shall c o m e th os e
A n d ifD r B ar n es in h is
accu s er s if they re pe n t n o t by ti m e s
heart m o uth an d d eed c o mm itted n o w o r s e thi ng t o ward the
Ki ng s high n ess th an h e c o mm itted agai ns t G o d in thes e h is
w o r d s at h is d eath he is like at the l atter day to be a judge o ver

them t h at were caus e o fh is death if they do n o t am e n d


Stan di sh c o n te m ptu o usly term ed B arn es d o ctri n e as the do c
tri n e o f the Ger m ans C o verdale is per fectly willi n g to bear
the re pr o ach an d answer s
As t o u c hi n g the Germ an s their d o ctri n e is th at when th e
they
s erv an t s o fG o d h ave d o n e all th at is c o m m an d ed the m
m ust ack n o wle d ge themselves to be u npr o table 3 to have o cca
s i o n c o n ti n u al ly to cry u n t o G o d an d to say :
0 fo rgive us
to ack n o wled ge th at in their e sh d welleth n o
o ur tre spass e s 3
ss th at th o u h they
ng 3 ye a an d to c o n f
e
delight
d
thi
o
o
in
g
g
the law o f G o d after the i nwar d man yet there is an o ther law in
their m em bers which s triveth agai n st the law o ftheir m i n d
Thi s is n o w the d o ctri n e o f the Germ ans 3 and thus tau ght al so
St Au gu sti n e
Such do ctri n e n o w th o u gh i t be appr o ved
b o th by the h o ly s cripture an d by St Au gu sti n e yet becaus e th e
German s teac h i t it m u s t n ee d s be c o nde m n ed o f yo u fo r an
I w o n der ye c o n de m n the m n o t al so fo r h o l di n g s o littl e
e rr o r

,
,

L uthe r

S t R o be rt

18 7

Po pe s chu
rch o fh is p ard o ns Of h is purg at o ry 3 fo r put
ti ng d o w n h is religi o ns h is chau n tries h is so ul m ass es an d d i
riges h is tre n tal s pil gri mage s s tati o ns etc 3 fo r m i n i s teri n g the
sacram e n ts in their m o ther t o ngue f
o r s etti n g their prie st s d aily
to pre ach the o n ly w o r d o f G o d fo r bri ngi n g n o n e w cu s t o m s
i n t o the church ; fo r av o idi ng wh o red o m an d secret ab o mi nati o n
fr o m am o n g their clergy , as well as am o n g o ther 3 fo r bri ngi ng
up their yo uth so well in the d o ctri n e o f G o d in the k n o wled ge
o f t o n gue s in o ther go o d lette rs an d h o n es t o ccup ati o ns
fo r
pr o vi d i n g s o richly fo r their p o o r n ee d y fatherless an d aged

pe o ple etc
The C o nfe ss i o n O fB ar ne s was publi shed in Germ an at Witte n
berg in the very year o fh is martyrd o m Luther s i n tr o ducti o n
is o f the highes t i n teres t
The fo ll o wi n g is the subs tan ce o fi t :
Thi s Dr R o b ert B ar n es w h o whe nwith us in his re m ark
able hu m ility w o uld n o t all o w hi m sel fto be c alle d D o ct o r called
hi msel fAn t o n iu s 3 fo r which he h ad h is reas o ns Fo r previ o u sly
he had bee n i m pri so n e d in E n gl an d by the h o ly bi sh o ps the St
Papi st s an d had e scaped wi th gre at di fculty Thi s D o ct o r I
say we k n ew very we l l and i t is an e speci al j o y t o us to he ar
that o ur go o d pi o u s t able c o m pan i o n an d gues t o f o ur h o m e
has bee n so graci o usly called u po n by G o d to she d h is bl o o d
fo r H is de ar S o n s sake an d to bec o m e a h o ly m artyr
Thanks
prai se an d gl o ry be to the Father o f o ur dear L o rd Je su s C hri s t
that He h as perm itted us to se e agai n as in the be gi nn i ng the
ti mes wherei n Chri s ti ans wh o h ave e ate n and d ru n k wi th us
are take n be f
r o m o ur eyes an d s ides to bec o m e
o re o ur eyes and f
martyr s i e to go to He ave n an d bec o m e sai n ts
Twe n ty
ye ar s ago w h o w o uld have believed that Chri s t o ur L o rd w o uld
be so n ear us and thr o ugh H is preci o us martyr s an d dear sai n ts
w o uld e at an d dri n k an d spe ak an d live at o ur t able an d ho m e
Whe n th is ho ly martyr St R o bert perceive d at l as t that
his Ki ng (by y o ur per m i ss i o n) H arry O f E ngl an d h ad bec o m e
h os tile to the P o pe he retur n e d to E nglan d in h o pes t hat he

o f th e

,
,

R e ma in s of B is h op Cove rdale , pp 3 84 86
.

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

1 88

Eng land

pl an t the G o spel in h is fatherl an d 3 and in fact h e was


ul in m aki ng a begi nn i n g T O spe ak briey it ple as e d
succe ss f
H arry o f E n gl an d to s e n d h im to us at Witte nber g c o n cern i n g
the m atri m o n i al ques ti o n o n which thirtee n u n iver s itie s h ad
give n their d eci si o n an d all h ad give n H arry the right to re pu
d i ate his Quee n C atheri n e the au n t O f the E m per o r Charle s
an d to t ake an o ther
But whe n we h ad d i sputed at gre at le n gth an d at a great
ex pe nse to H is E l ect o r al Pri n ce o f S ax o n y we fo u n d at l as t that
H arry o f E n gl an d h ad s e n t his e m b as sy n o t becau s e he wan te d
to bec o m e ev an gelic al but in o r d er that we at Witte nber g m i ght
e n d o rs e h is d iv o rce I w as there fo re d i spleas ed th at I and the
o ther the o l o gi ans h ad spe n t s o m an y weeks in u sele ss l ab o r with
the m c o ncer n i ng reli gi o u s matters an d I t o l d the m : Fo ur
p o i n ts y o ur ki n g will n o t ad m it : The two fo r ms o f the sacr a
m e n t the m arri age o f prie s t s the d o i ng away wi th the M ass
Y es
I c o n ti n ue d
we h ave spe n t
an d with M o n as ti ci sm
t o o l o n g ti m e in de ling o ur selve s whe n we o ught to h ave k n o wn
fr o m the very be gi nn i n g th at while y o ur ki n g t ake s the Po pe s
H arry there fo re is P o pe
m o n ey he ret ai ns h is g o ver nm e n t
an d the P o pe is He n ry in E n gl an d
Dr Ro bert B ar n es hi msel f o fte n t o ld m e :
My ki n g d o es
But he so l o ve d the ki ng an d h is c o u n
n o t care f
o r reli gi o n
try th at he w as re ady to e n d ure everythi ng and always was
H e alway s h ad in h is m o uth
m editati n g h o w to help E ngl an d
the w o rd s EM ! ki n g 3 as h is c o n fess i o n sh o ws that eve n u n t o
d eath he sh o wed all l o ve an d deli ty t o war d s m y ki ng a se r
vice which H arry ill d eserved H o pe deceived h im 3 fo r he was
alw ays h o pi n g t h at h is ki n g w o ul d at l as t turn o ut well
Am o n g o ther thi ngs we O fte n d i spute d why the ki n g pre
De fe nd er o f the faith
s um ed t o be ar th at ab o m i n able title :
ter C hri st Su pre m e an d I mm e d i ate Head o f the A n glican
an d af
Church
But as thi s was ge n er ally the answer : S ic vo lo s ic
j ub e o s it pro ratio ne vo luntas i t c o uld n o where be better s ee n
that Sq uire H arry w an ted to be G o d an d to do as he pleased

m ight

L uthe r

S t R o be rt
.

189

re as o n why he w as martyred is still c o n c ealed Fo r


H arry m u st be as ham ed o f hi ms el f Neverthele ss what m an y
tru stw o rthy perso ns say is like h im viz th at Dr B ar n e s (l ike
St J o hn the B apti st agai ns t Her o d ) te stied agai ns t H arry and
w o uld n o t c o nse n t to h is d i sgr ace ful d ee d in re pudiating Fr au
lei n vo n J ul i ch [Ann e o f C l eve s ] and t aki ng an o t h er Fo r
whatever Squire H arry wan t s he m ake s an arti cle o f faith b o th
But we let H arry go to h is H arries and
fo r li fe an d d e ath
with h is H arrie s where they bel o ng We o u ght to than k G o d
the Father O fall m ercies that He c an use su c h d evils and mas
ques o f d evil s in s o m as terly a w ay fo r o ur salvati o n and that o f
o r the pun i sh m e n t b o th o f the m selve s an d
all Chri sti ans an d f
o fall w h o are u nwil l i n g t o le ar n to k n o w G o d 3 as h e h as always
d o n e thr o u gh gre at tyran ts Yet as St Paul says Ro m viii all
that o ccurs an d is d o n e an d is su e re d m us t w o rk fo r go o d ;
nd
an d
o n t he o ther h a
everythi ng m u s t serve fo r evil to
th o s e w h o per secute G o d s childre n S o al so is i t with thi s in
c e n diary H arry w h o by h is wicked n e ss is d o i n g so m uch go o d
Let us pr ai s e and thank G o d 3 thi s is a blessed ti m e fo r elect
ul ti m e fo r the d evil an d the bl as phe m ers
sai n ts but a so rro w f

and e n e m ie s O f G o d to wh o m i t s h all s till be w o r se


But Luther w as n o t the o n ly o ne fr o m wh o se pe n He n ry had
to su f
fer as a pe n alty fo r thi s cri m e
A yo u n g s ch o l ar at L iib e c k
E pic e dio n M artyris Chri s ti
J o hn Sas tro w pub li she d a p o e m :

D Ro berti B ar n es A ngli
in which he c o m pare d He n ry to
Bus iri s The s e ns itive K i ng se n t a le gati o n to L iib e c k d e m an d
The C o uncil excu se d S as tro w o n the gr o u n d O f
ing re par ati o n
h is y o ut h ; but the pri n ter J o h n B alh o r n w as ban i she d and
whe n He nry was sati sed by s uch a vi nd icati o n Balh o r n was

perm itted after a fe w m o n ths to quietly retur n

T he

B ilder

a us

der D eutsch en Vergangen h eit,

vo n

G us tav Fre itag,

II :

197.

C HAPTER
C LO

Th e P arado xes

SI N G

E VE

N TS

X IV

O F H E NRv s

M el an chtho n c ircul ated in E ngl and


Im pri s o nm en t 0f P ubl ish e rs an d A rre s t o f Reade rs E n fo rcem e n t o f
th e S i x A rti c l es
P o pul ar O pi n i o n n e u tral i z es the m
T w o i rre s i s tib l e
fo r c es
T h e y o un g m e n o f th e Un iv ers iti es
T h e D i us io n o f th e B i
b le
G ardi ner s O bs tructio n i s t P o l i c y o v e rc o m e Spas m o di c E ffo rts at
P e rs e c uti o n
P l o ts agai ns t C ran m er an d th e Q ueen
Nego ti ati o ns
agai n pro os ed
T h e A ugs burg C o n fess i o n o n c e m o re
Th e E n gl i sh
p
E m b as s y o f 15 44
H en ry s Argum en t c o n ce rn i ng th e Va riata B uc e r
i n tercedes fo r H enry T h e E l e cto r o f S aXo n y i m m o v abl e H enry s
A dv an ce s repuls e d b y th e Fran k fo rt C o n v en ti o n o f 15 4 6
H is E ffo rts

w ith th e E l e cto r P al ati nate Pro po s itio n o f Th e League C hri sti an


H is D e ath
o fS mith e ld.

Tracts

RE IG N

of

W H E N D r B ar n es was bur n ed at Sm ith e ld there was an o ther


circu m s tan c e bey o n d the cul m i n ati o n o f He n ry s wicke d n e ss in
e n deav o ri ng to ge t ri d O fa tr o ubl es o m e wit n ess o fthe true faith
th at m i ght wel l attract atten ti o n Thre Pr o test an t s i n clu d i n g
Thi s
D r B ar n e s were bur n e d 3 three Papi s ts were han ge d

w as c aus e d
says the E n g l i s h Church hi s t o ri an o f the n ext c e n
tury Fuller
by the d i ffere n ce o f reli gi o ns in the ki ng s privy
c o u n cil wherei n the P o pi sh party cal led fo r the exe c uti o n o f the
Pr o tes tan t s whil s t the Pr o te st an t l o r d s in c o u n cil (O ut o f po licy
to repre ss the o thers e ager n e ss o r ifth at faile d o ut o f d e s ire t o
reve nge i t ) crie d as fast that the l aws m i ght t ake e ffect o n the
Papi s ts An d whilst n either s i d e w as able to save th o se o f h is
o wn o pi n i o n s b o th h ad po wer to de s tr o y th o s e o f the o ppo s ite
They were d ragge d o n hur dl es two an d tw o a Papi s t
party
A s tranger st an di n g by did w o n d er (as well
an d a Pr o te s t an t
he m i ght ) what religi o n the ki ng was o f h is sw o r d cutti n g o n
.

190

C los ing

Eve nts of H e n ry

R e ig n

19 1

Thus the fact is illus tr ated which is o fte n fo r


b o th s ides
go tte n th at d o ctri nal i n d i ffere n ti sm whe n i t gai ns the po wer is
jus t as relen tless an d cruel in its pers ecuti o ns as is the narr o wes t
ad here n ce to tr aditi o nal pri n ciple s
Lutheran i sm h o wever w as n o t c o m pletely cru shed and n e w
wi tn ess es were bei n g pre pare d to re pl ace th o s e w h o w h o were
m artyre d Th o u gh the s tream h ad to fo rce its w ay u n der gr o u nd
i t is des ti n ed s o o n to reappear Th o m as Wal po le w as br ave
e no ugh to transl ate i n t o E ngli s h Mel an chth o n s l o ng letter to
the ki ng n o tice d be fo re where the re ad er m ay re m ember that
Melanchth o n arr ai gns the bi sh o ps with a s everity that he r arely

u sed I ts t h o r o ugh d i s cuss i o n o f The Six Articles


which
were no w to be agai n e n fo rced m ade i t e spe c i al ly ti m ely 3 an d
an evan gelical publi sher
Richard Gr aft o n the i n ti mate frie n d
o f C o verd ale w as re ad y to assu m e the ri s k o f its public ati o n
alth o ugh in 1 5 40 he h ad spe n t s ix weeks in the T o wer o f L o n d o n
fo r publi shi n g M atthe ws Bible
Ab o ut the sam e ti m e an E ng
li sh translati o n O f o n e o f Mel an chth o n s argu m e n t s s e n t He n ry

m ad e by L o ui s B e auc h am e w as pub
O n M arri age o f Prie s t s
lish e d by H o ffe at Lei pzi g d o ubtless fo r circul ati o n i n E n gl an d
The circul ati o n o f the fo r m er is at l as t d i s co vere d by d etectives
Trans l ato r an d pub l i sher are b o th arres te d an d i m pri so n ed B e
Bl age a gr o cer s wi fe in Che pe w h o h ad
s i d es the s e
a M rs
w
tt
i
w
h
h
a
ive
n
o
tt
i
s
w
o
o
d
a
s
C
o
s
o
d
o
d
ive
c
y
rie
t
n
a
t
o
C
o
o
3
p
g
g
p
a c o py to a f
ell o w prie st Derrick and Derrick hi m sel f all are
su m m o n e d be f
o re the Privy C o u n cil an d receive a w ar n i ng c o n
cern i ng their o ffe nce

It was determ i n e d agai n to rigidly e n fo rce The S ix Articles


The Bi sh o p o f Lo n d o n B o nn er wh o u n til he r o s e to po s iti o n
had see m e d to be o n the Lutheran s i d e no w be gan th at career
u n d er Quee n Mary re ndere d h im so
o f per secuti o n which
o d i o us as the m ur d erer o fhu n dred s an d u n d er Quee n E l izabeth
jus tly se n t h im to the T o wer to spe n d the l as t te n ye ars o f his
.

II : p
a
D ixo n II :

Vo l

10 5
2

61

Th e L

19 2

[ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

uth e ran

in i m pri so nm e n t
Am o n g
do n al o n e

hu n dre d arres ts were made in L o n


the rs t br o ught to tri al was a b o y o f f
tee n Ri c hard Neki n s wh o s e c o nvi cti o n B o nn er is sai d to have
s ecure d by thre ate n i ng the jury an d w h o w as either burn e d o r
h an ged at S m ith e ld fo r partici pati ng in the heres ies o f

B ar n e s
But exce pt in thi s c as e the jurie s were i n tractable
The leave n h ad spread s o far that they w o u l d n o t c o n vict fo r
O ffe n ces ag ai ns t the Six Articles Three O f th o se arr ai gn ed were
i m pri so n e d Out s i d e O f L o n d o n there were ve executi o ns
N o thi ng h o wever c o ul d check the Re fo rm ati o n Tw o ele
m e nt s w o rki n g si l e n tly were farm i ghtier th an th e thr o n e and the
hier archi cal bi sh o ps c o m bi n ed The y o u n g m e n o f the U n iver
o r so m e ye ar s alre ad y h ad bee n pre po n d er ati n gly o n the
s i tie s f
Evangeli c al s i d e 3 the E n gli sh Bible w as m aki n g its i n ue n ce felt
th o u gh o ut the e n tire ki n gd o m I n 15 3 6 the very ye ar in which
he h ad Taver n er tr ansl ate the Augsburg C o n fess i o n an d e n
de av o re d to h ave i t appr o ved in E n gl an d Cru m we l l h ad s ecured
the i ssui ng o f the fo ll o wi ng i nju n cti o n fr o m the ki ng :
That
every parso n o r pr o priet ary o f an y pari sh church withi n the
re al m be fo re Au gu s t I s t s h o uld pr o vi d e a b o o k o f the wh o le
Bib l e b o th in Lati n and E n gli sh and lay i t in the c hair fo r
every m an that w o ul d l o o k an d read therei n 3 an d d i sc o urage n o
m an fr o m re ad i ng an y part o f the Bible either in Lati n o r E ng
li sh but r ather c o m fo rt exh o rt an d ad m o n i s h e ach m an to read
i t as the very W o r d o f G o d an d the spiritu al fo o d o f every man s

D ay after day the churche s were cr o w d ed whi l e the fe w


s o ul
better e d u c ate d o n es am o ng the pe o ple c o n ti nued to read to the
atte n tive m ulti tu d e s O f illiter ate m e n an d w o m e n ab o ut the m
Cr an m er in 15 4 2 e n d eav o re d in the C o nv o cati o n to have a
th o r o u gh revi si o n o f exi sti ng vers i o ns m ad e Whe n thi s w o rk
w as o b s tructed by G ar d i n er he d eter m i n e d to put i t in ch ar ge
r o m the tw o U n iver s ities 3 an d whe n the C o n
o fa c o m m i ss i o n f
v o cati o n s h o we d an u nwilli n gn e ss to s ubm it to thi s becaus e the
y o u n g m e n o fthe U n ivers ities were n e arly all ad vo cates o f the
Ne w Lear n i n g the Pri mate t hre aten e d to pr o r o gue the C o nvo
li fe

T wo

C los ing E ve n ts

[ {e n ry

R e ig n

1 93

cati o n Eve n the year be fo re viz in 15 4 1 i t was determ i n ed


to re m o ve i m age s fr o m the churche s and to re fo r m the Litur gy
Several attem pt s were made to revive the executi o n O f the S ix
Articles E ach ti m e a fe w m artyr s fell an d o n ce Cranm er h im
o re the C o u n cil and h is e n e m ies were
s el f w as s u mm o n e d be f
trium phi n g in anticipati o n o f their vict o ry ; but his h o l d u po n
the ki ng was still to o s tr o ng The fam o u s sc e n e o f C ran m e r s
r
d
uci
ng the ki n g s ri n g which Sh ake spe are pl ace s duri n
the
o
p
g
li fe o fA nn e B o leyn is ge n erally acce pte d as pro perly bel o ngi ng
here The ki ng s las t quee n C athari n e P arr was an ad here n t
aith and the s t o ry ru ns that sh e her s el f n ar
o f the evangel i c al f
ro wly e s cape d bei n g c arrie d by the pl o t s o f the R o m an izi n g ele
me n t to the fate o fA nn e B o ley n 3 but th at whe n the critical m o
me nt arrive d sh e had re gai n ed the gr ac e s o f her v aci l l ati ng h us
ban d Th os e w h o h ad pl o tted agai ns t her and w h o h ad c o m e to
He nry at h is appo i n t m e n t to carry o ut their sche m es wer e gl ad
t o leave preci pit ately
Near the cl o se o f the reig n we agai n nd external po litic al
c o mplicati o ns caus i n g a re o pe n i n g o fn eg o ti ati o ns with the c o n
tine ntal Luther ans an d the Luther an pri n ce s an d s tate s at that
very d ark h o ur whe n peril s were i mpe n di ng o n all S ide s i ns i sti ng
es
o nce m o re o n the c o m plete acce ptance o f the Au gsbur g C o n f
o r eve n the c o ns iderat i o n O f
s i o n as an i n di s pe nsable c o n diti o n f
an alli an ce
A N O TH E R E N G LIS H E MB A SS Y
.

The Pe ac e o f C re spy betwee n Fr an ci s I and Charles V Se p


tember 18th I 5 4 4 h ad le ft the Ki n g O f E ngl an d in an e mbar
rass i ng pre d ic am e n t As an ally o f the E m per o r he h ad an
arm y o n Fre n ch s o il which h ad rece n tly t ake n B o ul o gn e an d
with el ati o n w as press i ng its advant age s whe n Char l e s V u nder
t oo k to m ake a se par ate peace le avi ng He n ry ei ther s i n g l e
han ded to c o n duct the w ar o r to nd h is way o ut o f i t as bes t
he c o uld At the sam e ti m e the Lutheran pri n ces an d St ates
by wh o se e O o perati o n Charles V had bee n able to u nd ertake
th e Fre n ch war were t h re ate n ed by th e ne w alli an c e o f the twO
.

The L uthe ran [Moveme nt in

19 4

Eng land

u n til then at war with o n e an o ther but wh o w e re no w


re ad y to li ste n to the urge n t ap peal s o f the P o pe to tur n their arms
U n d er thes e circum st an ces th e
agai ns t the Lutheran here s y
te n faile d be fo re were o n ce agai n at
n e go ti ati o ns th at h ad so o f
te m pted W alter Bu e ler an d Chri st o pher M o un t were sen t to
Germ an y with i nstructi o ns u n d ated but believe d to h ave bee n
writte n ab o ut No vem ber 14th 15 44 ve d ays be fo r e the sum
directi n g
m o ns to the C o u n cil o f Tre n t w as i ssue d by Paul
the m to c o n fer with D uke M aurice O f S axo n y an d Philip Land
gr ave o f He ss e su gges ti n g that o vertures fo r so m e m arri age c o n
T he
n e c tio n with E n gl an d be m ad e with so m e Ge rm an pri n ce
Elect o r J o h n Fre d erick was n o t to be o verl o o ke d but He nry s
ex perie n ce in the p as t d o ubtle ss sati se d h im that fr o m that
s o urce he h ad le as t t o h o pe an d he n ce th o u gh the very he ad
o f the S m alcald Le ague h is n am e appe ar s o n ly in a sub o rdi nat e
n
s
iti
o
o
p
But i t w as i m p o ssible to m ake an y pr o gress with o ut the c o n
Acc o r d i n gly in Febru
s i d er ati o n o f the que s ti o n o f religi o n
He n ry hi m sel f write s auth o rizi n g the m to O ff
er either
ary 1 5 4 5
o fh is d au ghter s M ary an d Eli zabeth in m arri age to the D uke
O f H o l s tei n an d the n give s m o re s pecic i ns tructi o ns c o n cer n
in g an y d o ctri n al te s t s :
I n c as e the sayd L an dgr ave Sh all m ake an y m o c io n t o uch
in g the m atie rs O f reli gi o n de syrin g th at there m i ght be so m e
m e n c io n in g pe rav e n ture
acc o rd an d agree m e n t u po n the sam e
the retur n agai n fr o m he n s o f their l as t am b assadie in v ai n 3 to
th at o ur say d se rvaun ts sh all answer that ther is n o Pri n ce n o r
m an in the w o o rlde th at de syre th m o re the glo rye o f G o d an d
m e an eth m o re the true s etti n g furt h o f H is W o o r d than we do
An d to th in te n t the sam e m ay appere u n t o the m albei t i t be
true in dede th at c e rtayno f th e C o mm i ss i o n ers b e yng here to
c o mm yn uppo n m ate rs o f religio n the sam e e ntring c o n fere n ce
fur s t with c e rtayn o fo ur le ar n ed m e n an d after b e yn g ad m i tted
to c o mm u n wi th Our sel f s tO O de m o re e rn e s tly an d vehe m e n tly
uppo n th e yr C o n fe ss i o n the n to U s was th o u ght re as o nable o r

m o narch s,

Eve nts of H e nry


'

Clos ing

R e ig n

195

that the tr o wth c o uld beare l ike as syth e ns that ti me i t d o th


well appe re fo r that there be d iver se o f the sam e th inge s where
in they s t ack them fas t m o ved o n ely as sai d theret o b yc ause
th e yr pre acher s h ad se t fo urth an d taw gh t the sam e by th eyr
,

C o nfes s io n,

s aid

and no w

h ave

so

th eyr b oo hs do te s ti e, s e tfurth th e

me w h at mo re mode rate ly,


s am e .

as

The ki n g by the se l as t w o rds evi d e n tly was e n deav o ri ng to


turn to h is acc o u n t the Variata e d iti o ns O f the Au gsbur g C o n
H is argu m e n t is th at ifMel an chth o n
fe ssio n o f 1 5 40 an d 1 5 4 2
hi m s el fh ad fo u n d i t ad vi sab l e to make chan ges in the C o n fe s
s i o n thi s pr o ve d o n ly th at He n ry was ri ght in i ns i sti n g at the
C o n fere n ce O f 15 3 8 that there be so m e m o d icati o n s an d that
the c o ur s e o fthe Luther an c o mm i ss i o n ers at Lo n d o n h ad bee n
repu d i ated I t s h o ws He n ry s shrew d ne ss an d w o ul d have been
unanswerable where the Variata h ad actually bee n ad o pted
He c o n ti nues :
An d up o n thi s m an ner o f pr o ceedi n g they
departe d with o ut an y such c o n clus i o n as with sum i n di ffere n t
an d li ng m i ght h ave s uccee d e d to the as
viz
u
h
n preju d ice d
]
[
sure d c o nju n cti o n o fU s and o ur d o m i n i o ns o n b o th parte s an d
th un ive rsall w e all an d quiet o fall Chri s te n d o m e ; yet fo r as m uch
as we h avi ng o o n c o m m u n an d cert ai n e n e m ie the Bi s h o p o f
Ro m e u n t o wh o se fac c io n n o smale Pri n ces be add icte d bei n g
b o th o fus a like zele and m e an i ng fo r the right an d s i n cere se t
ti ng furth o f C o de s gl o rie an d h is h o ly w o o r d
there be n o
nati o n s in chri s te n d o m e s o like to agree as we be if the f
o rsaye d
am itie b e yng agree d uppo n f
o r that m u s t n ece ssari l y be p assed
o ut o fh an d an d n o t b e de laydfo r th e disputacio ns of th e matte rs
3
The ki n g is a
of re ligio n w hich w ill re q uire a tract of tim e
true type o fa m o d er n u n i o n i s t He ple ad s fo r u n i o n rst and
wan ts to p o s t po n e to the re m o te future any u nder stand i n g as to
the d o ctri nal relati o ns O f the p arties c o n cer ne d fo rgetti ng that
i t is o nly o n d o ctri nal gr o u n d s that the Lutherans are in dis
se n t f
r o m P o pe and E mper o r an d fo r such reaso ns are in
je o par d y
,

E nglish S tate

Rope rs

H e n ry VI I I

vo l.

pp

82

sq q .

T he L

1 96

uth e ran

[ Mo ve m e nt in

Eng la nd

There were so m e w h o regarded thi s pr o p o sal o n the p art o f

the E ngli s h Ki ng with fav o r


Great h o pe
say s S e ck e n
d o r f s ee m e d to spri ng afre sh Chri s t o pher M o u n t h ad m uch
to say c o n cer n i n g the extr ao r d i nary ki n d n e ss which He n ry
sh o wed A nn e o f Cleves s i n ce the div o rce the m ag n ice n t s tyl e
in which he supp o rted her the freque n t pre sen t s he se n t h is
c o nst an t so licitu d e fo r her he alth etc The executi o n o f Cru m
well w as charge d agai ns t the n o bles that O f Bar n e s to h is abu s iv e
ailur e o f the n eg o ti ati o ns o f
att ack up o n Bi sh o p G ardi n er the f
an s were repre s e n te d by s ti f
nd
o the f
ct
th
t
the
Luther
f
1
t
a
a
a
8
53
o bs ti nate d i sput an t s like Burkh ard an d M yco n ius i nste ad o fby
Mel an chth o n an d B uc e r B uc e r al so i n ter po sed with the plea
th at while all thi n gs were n o t right in E n gl an d yet that He n ry
w as n e arer the Luther an pri n ce s than an y o ther ki n g
S e cke n
d o r f well n o tes that he fo rget s De nmark and Swe d e n But th e
Elect o r o f S ax o n y w as agai n i mm o vable
He regarde d the
K i ng o f E ngl an d an e n e m v o f the G o spel w h o h ad n o o the r
o r m ati o n th an hi m s el fto bec o m e He ad o f the Church
aim in Re f
to which he had n o t bee n called o f G o d an d w h o m e an while
r aged tyr ann ic ally agai n s t g o d ly Chri sti ans an d live d sh am e fully

At the c o n
s eeki n g in all thi n gs o n ly h is o wn adv an t age
o rt in J an u ary 15 4 6 where there were pre s e n t
v e n tio n o f Fran k f
n o t o n ly the m e m ber s o f the S m alcald Le ague but al so the dep
utie s o f Luther an pri n ce s an d re pre s e n t ativ es O f State s n o t in
clu d ed in the Le ague as o f the Elect o r o f Brande nbur g the
Archbis h o p o f C o l o gn e the D uke o f Prus s ia Ntirnb e rg an d Ra
tisb o n He n ry s pr o p o siti o n s m e t with n o fav o r
A fe w m o n th s l ater (M ay
He n ry s e n t J o h n M as o n e to
Heidelb e r g to c o n fer with the Elect o r Fre d erick II o f the P al a
tinate wh o h ad l ately bec o m e a c o n vert t o Lutheran i sm an d
arr an ge a m arri age betwee n h is d aughter M ary an d the Elect o r s
The an swer o f the Elect o r sh o ws the
D uke P hil i p
n e phew
Ma
sam e s pirit as thr o ugh o ut i nspir e d th e Elect o r o f Sax o n y
s o n e rep o rt s :
.

111: p 5 5 2
.

Eve nts of [ ye n ry
'

C los ing

R e ig n

19 7

C o nce rni n g religi o n he hath framed his c o nscie n ce th o r


e ss io n e m Augustanam an d hath s o ac cepted the
o ughly to C o n f
r o m i t d uri n g li fe which de
sam e as he tru s teth n o t to varrye f
t erm i na ti o n he ha th n o t r as hly e n tere d i n t o but with l o n g tym e
And to say the tre w th e if he were de
an d great d eliber ati o n
te rm ine d t o s e n d e any m an u n t o yo ur M aj es tie in th o s e matters
h e w oth e th not w h e re to j j nde any s uch indife rent man as y o ur
M aj es tie s eem eth to require h is h o le pro vyn c e as w e ll the No
bles as the cle rgye and o ther s bei n g so th o r o u ghly be n t in o ne
trade
The E mpe ro ur at h is l ate bei ng at Spire w as in
hande with the m fo r the lyke an d had d fo r answer that their
do c tryn e had d o fte n ino ugh e b e n di spute d up o n and w as wel
kn o we n th ro ugh e the w o rlde an d they i n te n ded to bri n g that
mattier n o m o re in q ues tyo n wherei n by so am uc h tym e an d
5
great d eliber ati o n they were th o ro ugh lye per su aded
The Ki ng is per s is te n t A league m us t be fo r med Fr o ude
has ass erted th at he ass ure d Cran m er that he w as re ady to make
further c o n ce ssi o ns an d to t ake m e as ure s fo r a m o re r adi cal re
At any rate his ne x t pr o p o s iti o n w as fo r the fo rm ati o n
fo rm

The League Chri stian


The Luther an c o mm i ssi o n ers were
of
to select the nam es o f te n o r twelve le arn ed m e n 3 fr o m thi s
n u mber He n ry w o uld s elect o n e h al f; an d the n they with a
s i m il ar c o mm i ss i o n o f E ngli s h the o l o gi ans w o uld c o m e to a nal
The Ki ng hi m sel f was to par
s ettle m e n t o f a d o ctri nal b as i s
tic ipate in the deliberati o ns
It was to o l ate The bre aki ng
o ut o f the S m alcald w ar early in the s u m m er i n terrupte d all
n e go ti ati o ns 3 and a f
ew m o n ths l ater J anuary 2 8th 15 4 7 the
rei gn O f He n ry VIII w as at an e n d
,

S tate P apers , He n ry VI I I

vo l.

XI

pp

14 7 sq q .

C HAPTER

NE W D I FF I C UL T I E S

IN

T HE

XV

RE IGN

OF E

D WAR D

VI .

D e cl i ne o f Luth eran i s m in Germ an y T h e Resul ts o f th e B attl e o f M iih l


berg T h e Interi m M el an chtho n wavers Th e F i rm ness O fth e E lec
I n ue n c e O f th e E l ecto r in E ngl an d E dward s co n
to r o f S axo n y
Th e E l e c to r s R e ply
Th e A ugsb urg C o n fess i o n
gratutato ry Le tter
Le ague w ith th e Germ an s co n t e m pl ated John
s ti ll th e o nly B as i s
Fre deri c k to b e its H e ad D e aths o f th e Ki ng o f E ngl and and th e
E l e c to r o f S axo n y
.

de ath O f He nry VIII re m o ved the gre at b arrier th at had


The two partie s
o r m ati o n
s t o o d in the w ay o f the E n gli sh Re f
that had bee n held t o gether by his arbitrary m easures were no w
Cran m er w as free to purs ue his
to c o m e to an O pe n ru pture
All R o m i sh i n tere sts were suppresse d d uri n g the
O w n c o ur s e
rei gn o fE dw ar d VI as fr o m the Ro man C ath o lic po i n t o fview
M ary w as the ri ght ful heir and Edward a u sur per The ki ng s

u n cle th e D uke o f S o m er set


the Pr o tect o r was kn o wn as an
rie n d o f the Re fo rm ati o n 3 but he c o n cern e d hi msel f
ar d e n t f
fairs o f the ki n g d o m le av
al m o s t exclu s ively with the p o liti cal af
in g to Cranm e r the tas k o f the eccle si as t ical ad m i n i s trati o n
C o uld thi s ch an g e have bee n fo resee n at an y ti m e d uri n g the
f
1 3
n
o
o
m
recedi
eri
d
r
g
p
p
5 5 the pre d icti o n w o uld h ave bee n
m ad e th at the Church o f E ngl an d w o uld n o w at l as t bec o m e
Lutheran I fwe s eek the reaso ns why thi s ex pect ati o n was n o t
fullled we m u s t c o ns i d er rs t o fall the c o n diti o n at th at ti m e
Never was it less able to
o f the Luther an Church in Ge rm an y
To
ass ert i ts el f o r to i m press its i n ue n ce up o n th o s e with o ut
hu man eyes i t re ally s ee m e d as th o u gh it were o n the very ver ge
L o o ki n g back we can s carcely i magi n e that
o f des tructi o n
T HE

( 19 8)

[ Ve m D

i
c
u
l
t
i
e
s
i
n
h
e
R
ei n
t
i
g

E dw a rd VL

199

ly s eve n tee n ye ars h ad p as sed s i n ce the D iet o f Augsbur g so


great has bee n the fal l The tr ans iti o n h as b ee n eve n m o re
rapi d Fo r o n ly a fe w ye ars be fo re with ve o ut o fs eve n o fthe
Ger m an e l ect o rs o n the Luther an s i d e the pr o spect fo r its c o m
ple te tri um ph was ex c ee d i n gly e n c o uragi ng
He n ry V III d ied J anuary 2 8th 15 4 7 Eleve n m o n ths be fo r e
the Re fo r m ati o n h ad lo s t its gre at p ill ar whe n Luther d ie d Feb
ruary 1 8 th I 5 4 6 an d the acc o m pli she d but v acill ati n g M e lan c h
th o n succe e d e d to a po siti o n fo r whi ch h is gi fts ho wever e mi
n e nt in o ther spheres d id n o t t h im
Exter n al d angers were
rapi d ly gatheri ng The l o yalty o f the Lutheran pri n ce s O f th e
E m pire had i nd uced the m to partici pate in the war agai ns t
Fran ci s
an d af
ter they h ad c o n quered the fo e wh o se activity
had ke pt the E m per o r s han d s fr o m them he was at l as t able to
make an atte m pt to s u ppress the Lutheran heres y
T h i s m i ght
re adily h ave bee n re pel l ed if D uke Maurice o f S ax o n y in u
e n c e d by m o tive s O f pers o nal h o stility agai n s t h is c o u s i n the
Elect o r J o h n Fre d erick h ad n o t e n er geti cally thr o w n hi m sel f
upo n the s i d e O f the E mper o r eve n th o u gh pr o fe ssi n g to be true
to that faith
fo r wh o s e de s tructi o n the w ar w as w age d
April 2 4th 1 5 4 7 less than three m o n th s after the ac c ess i o n o f
E d war d VI the battle o fM h lb e rg w as fo ught and the her o ic
an d g o dl y E l ect o r n ext to Luther p erhaps the gre ate s t gure o f
the d ays o f the Re fo r m ati o n an d the head o f the S m alc ald
League wh o fo r s o m an y years had bee n i ns i sti n g o n the acce pt
an ce o f the e n tire Augsburg C o n f
e ssi o n as i n ter preted by the
A po l o gy as the c o n d i ti o n o fany further n e go ti ati o ns with E ng
lan d was t ake n pri so n er de prive d o f h is elect o r al di gn ity de
spo i l e d o fh al fh is d o m i n i o ns an d ke t in de r ad i n
p
g
g i m pri so n
m e n t fo r the n ext ve ye ars
T w o m o n ths l ater the Lan dgrave
o f He ss e m e t a s i m il ar f
Whe n Me l an chth o n hear d o f the
ate
Elect o r s de feat he at o n ce wr o te to C ruc ige r (M ay I s t) :
I
s e e that a ch an ge o f d o c tri n e an d n e w d i s tr ac ti o n s in the Church
1
w ill fo ll o w
an d e d r s t to Br unswick an d the n to N o r d b au
on

'

Corpus

orm a to rum

VI

p 53 2
.

Th e L uthe ran [Mo vem e nt in E ng land

2 00

A fter Wi tte nber g w as c aptured by the E m per o r and


n chth o n w as prevaile d up o n
l
a
ce
d
i
n
ch
a
r
e
o
f
M
a
urice
Mel
a
g
p
to retur n al th o u gh the E l ect o r J o h n Fre d erick thr o u gh h is s o ns
be so u ght h im to aid in e s tabli shi n g a n e w U n iver s ity at Je n a
t the Elect o r M aurice s excee d i ng
o f the c itie s s till le f
o ne
ki n d n e ss an d h is pre se n t s as well as h is as sur an ce s that he w as still
d ev o te d to the Luther an faith s eem to h ave al m o s t rec o n cile d
Mel an c hth o n to the ch ange d circum st an ces A m o ng the h o m es
O ffere d h im el sewhere at thi s ti m e w as o n e in E ngl an d Oct o
ber 2 5 th 1 5 4 7 he write s :
T O day I h ave answered the

B ish o p o f C an terbury wh o i n vites m e to E n gl an d


The n c am e the per secuti o ns c o nn ected with the fo rci n g o f the
Charle s V d i ssati se d with the
I nte rim u po n Lutheran pe o ple
u n c o m pr o m i s i ng spirit m an i fested by the C o u n cil o f Tre n t an d
h o pi n g s till to m ai n tai n the u n ity o f h is E m pire by a c o m pr o
m i s e m aki n g s o m e c o n ce ss i o n s to h is Lutheran subject s c au s ed a
d o cum en t (the Au gs bur g I n teri m ) to be prepare d by Agric o l a in
c o nn ecti o n with tw o R o m an C at h o li c the o l o gi ans which in e f
fe e t rei n tr o d uc e d wi th a fe w m o d i cati o n s the ab o m i n ati o n s O f
the Papacy It fo rce d hu n d re d s O fLuther an m i n i s ter s i n t o exile
an d e n t aile d the gre ate s t d i s tre ss in v ari o u s c o mm u n itie s e spe
It was duri n g thi s pe rse cu
c ially at M agd ebur g an d Au gsburg
ti o n that J o hn Bre n tz s h o wed hi m s el f such a her o in Wiirte m
ber g Eve n the Elect o r M aurice was i n di gnan t an d w o uld n o t
i t save with cert ai n res tricti o ns But thi s di d n o t
ac ce pt
preve n t Mel an chth o n fr o m a s ec o n d exile as the E m per o r d em an d
e d that b e caus e o fh is o ppo s iti o n he m us t be surre n d ere d o r b an
M auri ce d evi sed an o ther expe d ie n t in the Lei pzi g I n
ish e d
teri m whi c h w as pre po n d er ati ngly Luther an in its s t atem e n ts
but w as s o w o r d e d as to give the le as t O ffe n ce to its o ppo n e n t s
an d which e nj o i n e d the use O f a n u m ber o f cere m o n ie s
m ade
m o re accept able by an evan geli c al expl anati o n th at heret o fo re
h ad bee n re gar d ed b ad ges O f the P api s t s
Mel an chth o n was free to expre ss h is pre feren ce fo r what he
se n

Ih p 714
.

[ Ve m D g

cultie s

in the R e ig n

E dw ard VL

2 01

re gar d ed a m o re c o rrect s tatem e n t O f d o ctri n e an d pre s cripti o n


t
h
J
a
n
u
a
r
y
6
o f usage but at the sam e tim e d ecl are d
(
3
that its pre scri pti o ns
that i t m ad e n o c h an ge in the Church

were
t o l er able
an d that
i t is the better c o ur se to treat
5
fo llie s m o d er ate l y
He in n o w ay fo resaw the s t o r m
so me
which h is d i spo s iti o n to su ppress a pr o tes t w o ul d call fo rth
The Lei pzi g I n teri m fo u n d n o fav o r an yw here an d allatte m pts
It is w o rth whi l e no ti n g
to i n tr o d uce it h ad to be ab and o n e d
that the e n tire hi s t o ry o f the I n teri m s sh o w s that the c o n tr o vers y
which h ad jus t ceas ed in E n gl an d had bee n tr ansferre d to Ger
m an y 3 and th at the po licy o f yiel d i ng c ert ai n m atter s to the
Papi st s to s ecure o utward u n ity w as o n ly the re petiti o n o f the
c o urs e o fHe n ry VIII The Six Arti cle s an d the Au gsburg I n
teri m bel o n g t o gether 3 while the Lei pzig I n teri m was al so a re
ce ssi o n fr o m the pri n ci ple which de m an d ed u n co n d iti o nal sub
ess i o n as the c o n d iti o n o f u n i o n
s cri pti o n to the Au gsbur g C o n f
Jus t whe n the E ngli s h Chur c h w as re ad y fo r the e n tran ce o f the
full truth th o s e wh o were re gar d ed the re pre s e n t ative s o f Luth
I s i t w o n d er ful there fo re th at a
e ran ism the m s elve s waver
m o re rad i c al ele m e n t s o o n e n ter s by its m o re p o s itive an d de
c i d ed tes ti m o n y to t ake the pl ace o fsuch u n cert ai n an d w averi n
g
Lutheran i sm
Let an y o n e w h o wh o h as the curi o sity l o o k i n t o
the C ale n d ar o f St ate P aper s o fthe rei gn o f E d war d VI and he
will no te what pai ns the auth o rities in E n gl an d were the n t aki n g
o r m ed c o n cer n i n g wh at w as tran spir
to be pr o m ptly an d fully i n f
ing o n the C o n ti n e n t an d h o w the weekly an d al m o s t daily dis
m
u
tche
ch
bas sad o rs as Chri st o pher M o un t Sir J o hn
a
s
a
f
s
o
p
M as o n e and Sir Ri ch ard M o rysinne su pply n o t o n ly m o s t valu
able i n f
o rm ati o n c o n cer n i n g the eccl es i as tical c o m pl icati o n s O f
German y b ut e v e n the d et ail s o f the curre n t go ss i p o f c o urt s an d
We c an i magi n e the pai n an d c o ns tern ati o n with which
c ities
E ngli sh Lutherans l o o ke d o n the de fecti o n o f th ose fr o m wh o m
,

'

VI I

: 2

92

Ih

Ib

75

o ve m e nt

Th e L uthe ra n M

2 02

in

Eng la nd

they h ad h o ped fo r e n c o urage m e n t and s ym p athy in the better


ti m e s th at h ad n o w c o m e fo r the m in E ngl an d
O n e gre at gure h o we ver s t o o d fo rth as a beac o n light am id s t
the s t o r m O n e heart r o s e superi o r to the cri s i s The clearn ess
o f the te s ti m o n y o f the i m pri so n ed Elect o r up o n wh o m eve n
s e n te n ce o fde ath h ad bee n p assed carried with it a m o r al wei ght
that w as felt thr o ugh o ut Chri s te n d o m Su mm o n e d be fo re the
E m per o r in 15 4 8 he w as o ffered the m o st fav o r able ter m s, in c as e

he w o ul d de si s t fr o m his err o r an d sub mit to a c o u n cil


H is
I s t an d be fo re
answer is w o rthy o f everl as ti n g rem e m br an ce
y o ur I mperi al M ajes ty a p o o r pris o n er I do n o t de n y that I
have c o n fe ss ed the truth an d fo r i t h ave l o st p o sse ssi o ns an d pr o p
e an d child l an d an d pe o ple in sh o rt everythi ng that G o d
e rty wi f
h as give n m e in the w o rld
I h ave n o ti n g le ft but thi s im pris
o ued b o d y an d eve n th i s is n o t wi thi n m y p o wer but withi n th at
By the truth which I h ave c o n fe sse d I will
O f y o ur M aj e s ty
fer as a n ex am ple wh atever el se G o d an d y o ur
abi d e an d will s u f

I m peri al Maj es ty m ay i m p o se
T h e better feeli ngs O f the
E m per o r we are t o ld o vercam e h im an d he tur n e d away to
hide h is e m o ti o n Whe n the I nte rim w as publi shed an o ther
per si s te n t e ffo rt was made to s ecur e the Elect o r s s ubs cri pti o n
But he was i mm o vable
Fr o m h is y o uth he h ad bee n i nstructed
e ssi o n
acc o r d i n g t o the do ctri n e c o n tai n e d in the Augs burg C o n f
As in h is c o ns cie n ce he was c o n vi n ced o f its truth s h o uld h e
yield he c o ul d n o t sh o w hi ms el f grate ful fo r such di s ti n gui shed
gr ace n o r c o uld he ex pect th e i n herit an ce o f everlas ti n g li fe
which Chri s t pr o m i sed th o s e wh o wo uld c o n fess h im But if he
were to accept the I nte rim h e mus t de ny th e A ugs b urg C o nfe s
.

s io n,

w h e re by h e w o uld s in

against

G o d for time

and to e ternit

y
No thi ng c o ul d be m o r e pleas i n g to h im an d h is un wieldy b o d y
an f
th
reed
f
o r he w as c o r pule n t
o m yet the n he c o uld n o t te s
(
)
tify with a go o d c o ns cie n ce be fo re G o d s ju d gm e n t se at that he
h ad so u ght fo r n o c o m fo rt o f thi s po o r te m po r al li fe but o nly
7
fo r G o d s gl o ry an d the i nheri tan ce o f l i fe e verl as ti n g
He
,

S alzgs I z isto rie des A ug C on/3

Ih

5 80

[ Ve w D

i
i cultie s in the R e ign

f Edward VI

2 03

wr o te al s o a p aper to b e pres erved as h is t es ti mo n y after his


death be gi nn i n g :
I a p o o r pri so n er in Babyl o n i an captivity
in o r d er th at every o n e m ay k n o w that with G o d s hel p I wi l l
n o t d uri n g m y li fe receive the I nte rim but will abi d e f
ai th f
ul to
the Au gsbur g C o n fess i o n and the o ther articles agreed upo n at
,

S malc ald

Whe n Maurice at l ast c o ul d n o l o nger su ppress his i n dign ati o n


at the m anner in whi c h the E m per o r h ad u sed h im as a t o o l to
d estr o y the Lutheran faith an d in which the m o s t sacre d pledge s
were w an t o n ly br o ke n he so u ght to rep air to an exte n t the
wr o n g in which fo r years he had partici pate d Fi n d i n g an ally
in the K i n g o f Fran ce he so su dd e n ly m ad e w ar th at the E m
urpri
e
r
uted
n d al m o s t c apture d at I n nspruc k in
r
o
r
s
o
a
e
s
d
p
15 5 2
w as gl ad to c o n clude the sam e ye ar the Pe ace o f Pas sau
But eve n be fo re pe ace w as fo rced the E m per o r to c o n cili ate h is
subjects liberated the Elect o r w h o n everthe l e ss
pre fe rred fo r
Whe n he nally return ed
awhile t o re m ai n with his l ate capt o r
to S ax o n y h is c o urs e bec am e a re gul ar triu m ph al pr o ce ss i o n as
the pe o ple tur n e d o ut in m as s to h o n o r o n e w h o h ad bee n greater

Everywhere
in de feat than he c o uld have bee n eve n in vict o ry
he w as e m br ace d as a fathe r o f h is c o u n try an d a
say s S alig
faith ful d e fe n d er o f th e Au gsbur g C o n fess i o n w h o thr o u gh n o
9
tro uble and sufferi ng c o uld be alie nated fr o m the truth
Me
lan c h th o n pr o m ptly wr o te a l o n g letter o f c o ngr atul ati o n
The
m e m o ry o f y o ur c o n fess i o n y o ur tr o ubles an d liberati o n is u s e ful
to the Church b o th n o w an d to po s teri ty
As tha t o f the Is rael
ites in the ery fur nace o r o f D an iel am o n g the li o ns S O also
yo ur exam ple will in m an y w ays pr o t o thers fo r the tru e kno wl
e d ge o f G o d Thi s h o no r is m uch to be pre ferre d to bl o o d y
1
vi ct o ri es an d triu m phs
The Elect o r in h is c o urte o us re ply
adm i n i s ter s a si g n ica n t rebuke whe n he i n ti mates that the gre at
the o l o gi an h ad cul pably wavere d an d decl ares h o w he had wi she d
,

8
9

Cypria n
S a lig,

H is toria de r A ug C onf , p
.

6 80

C orp us R efo rm atoru m , V I I

: 108 3

79

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

2 04

Eng land

fr o m h is

heart that n o change wh atever h ad bee n attem pted in


the d o ctri ne as se t fo rth by Luther in 15 3 7 at S malcald an d re
essi o n
c e iv e d by all pre acher s an d p as t o rs o f the Au gs bur g C o n f

We have n o d o ubt he says


th at ifsuch had bee n the c as e
the divi s i o n s an d err o r s th at have o ccurre d am o n g the teacher s
e ss i o n w o ul d with G o d s help
O f the ab o ve m e n ti o n ed C o n f
1
h ave bee n re m o ved
I n E n gl an d al s o the rele as e o f the Elect o r w as h ailed as a
The d espatches S h o w that he was
gre at vict o ry fo r the G o spel
the n regarde d as the lead er O f the Lutheran cau se Kin g E d
war d VI al so wr o te a c o ngratulato ry letter The re ply o f J o h n
Fre d erick (Au gus t 2 2 d 15 5 2 ) sh o ws that he s till h ad in m i n d
It w o uld be a gre at
h is O l d ter ms o fagree m e nt with E ngl an d
gr aticati o n to h ave the very letter 3 but in its abse n ce the ab
2
C ale n d ar o f E ngli sh State Paper s
m ust
s tract give n in the
Re tur ns th anks fo r h is M aj esty s letter fr o m Petwo rth
answer
o f 2 5 th o f July d elivered to h im by Sir Ri ch ard M o rys inn e an d
C o mm e n d s h is Majes ty s
fo r h is re ad y g o o d wi l l t o ward s him
e ffo rts o n behal fO f the G o spel reli gi o n an d urges h im to c o nti nue
the se An d whereas his M ajes ty h ad exh o rted h im to exert h im
s el f t o war d s pr o curi n g a su spe n si o n o f c o n tr o vers ie s am o n g th e
pr o fesso r s o f Pr o testan ti sm decl ares that O f all thi ngs the m o st
d i f cult is t o settle reli gi o us di ffere n c es e s peci ally at thi s ad
o u n d the
van c e d age O f the w o rl d whe n every o n e thi n ks he h as f
truth le s t the o ld ser pe n t sh o uld bite the heel o fh im w h o tram
ples o n h im Thes e di ss e nsi o ns ari s e in c o nseque n ce o f m an y
bei n g m i sle d by phil o so phical s peculati o ns an d civil wi sd o m
withdr awi n g fro m th e C o nfess ion of A ugs b urg which h ad bee n
To
appr o ved by the c o ns e n t o f the m o s t e m i n e n t the o l o gi ans
which if they h ad r mly adhered as they o ught n either th at
mo s t m i s chiev o u s Zwi ngli an sect n o r the A nab apt ists n o r the
An ti n o m i an s n o r the A d i aph o ri st s an d auth o rs o f ch an ge in re
ligio n w o uld h ave d i sturbe d as they h ave d o n e the be s t c o n
.

11 I h
13

p 1109
C ale n dar, E dward V I
.

(Fo re ign ) p

2 19.

M w D

c
u
l
i
h
i
e
t
s
i
n
t
e R e ig n
i

f Edw ard VI

20

titute d churches and i n icted a wo u n d that seems al m o s t


i n cur ab l e
Agai n it be gan to l o o k as th o ugh an A ngl o Germ an Lutheran
With J o h n Fre d erick liber ate d
alli an ce m i ght yet be m ad e
they h ad no w a le ad er wh o c o ul d be truste d e speci ally as he w as
sup po rte d by by Fran ci s Burkhar d w h o in 15 3 8 with M yc o n ius
h ad so n e arly gai n e d the vi ct o ry in the n e go ti ati o ns in L o n d o n

H e n ce we nd in the C ale n d ar O f M ay 2 5 th
the
rec o rd that c o m m i ss i o n er s app o i n ted fo r the pur po se rec o m m e n d
to the R o yal C o u n cil the fo rm ati o n o f
a le ague with the Ger

an d
mans i n clu d i ng the E m per o r
su gge s t th at f
o r the nam
ing o f the m atter J o h n Frederick is the ttes t per so n to hear o f
it r s t ; bec aus e as he cann o t but like so he is better able to
I rth e r i t th an they h avi n g a m an Fr an c i s B urkh ar d w h o h as
bee n thri ce in E ng l an d as t as any in Germ an y to han dle the

subject
But thi s was n o t to be Pr o vide n ce agai n m ysteri o u sly i nter
Wi thi n le ss than s ix weeks (July 5 th 15 5 3 ) the y o u ng
fe re d
Ki ng o f E ngl an d died an d the rei gn o f Bl o o d y M ary be gan
O n the thir d o f M arch fo ll o wi ng the her o i c Ele c t o r br o ken
d o wn by the s evere su fferi n gs thro u gh which he h ad passed was
the n o ble ar m y o f martyr s in the Church Tri
added to
Whe n Ams d o r f vi s ited h im o n h is de ath bed to re
umph an t
e ss i o n and i mpart the c o ns o lati o ns o f the G o spel
c e iv e h is c o n f
he he ar d thi s dyi ng tes ti m o n y
This I k n o w : Whether I live
I live u n t o the L o rd o r whether I die I die un t o the L o rd
Of

thi s I am certai n
s

'

I h D o m es tic S e ries
.

S alig,

I:

6 8 1.

CHAPTER XVI
CO

N FLI C T

OF

TH E O L O G I C A L
RE I GN

PA R T I E S I N
0F E

DWARD

N G LA ND D URI N G

VI

THE

de ath s o f Fo x an d B arnes Reacti o n agai ns t Tran subs t an ti ati o n


R i dl y an d H oo per Zw i ngl i ans B all i nger s In ue n c e Jo h n a Las co
Po lan us an d th e Fl e m i sh w e av e rs
P e t e r M ar
an d h is c o ngre gati o n s
H is th e o l o gi c al pos iti o n
B uc e r at C am bri dge
Was
tyr at O fo rd
h e a Luth e ran
L ds ch e r s A rgum n t
C o rre s po n de n c e b e twee n B uc e r
an d B ren t z
B uc e r o n th e R e al P res e n c e
H is D o c tri n e c o m pared
w ith that o f M art yr Sw itz e rl and fre e fro m th e de s o l ati o n s o f Sm alcald
War E ngl ish N e go ti ati o ns w ith th e R e fo rm e d C iti e s B ull i nger an d
Lady Jan e G re y C al vi n s C o rrespo nde n ce C ran me r y i e lds H is
Wh e n an d h o w h e be c am e a C al vi n i s t ? H is C ate
c o urse e xpl ai n e d
I ndi catio n o fpro ce ss o f ch ange a o rde d b y Ziirich Le tte rs
ch i s m

fe c t o fth e
Ef

I N the

l as t ch apter we n o ted h o w the cause o f Lutheran i sm in


E ngl an d w as we ake n e d by its sad c o n d iti o n o n the C o n ti n e n t at
the ti m e O f the S m alc ald War an d the I n teri m But there were
The stri cter
o ther re as o n s why i t d i d n o t gai n the as ce n d e n cy
Luther an s o fthe ty pe o f Bi sh o p Fo x an d D r B ar n es h ad de
p arted Cran m er wh o s e c o nn ecti o n with Lutheran i sm in Ger
m an y h ad be e n m ai n t ai n ed l ar gely thr o u gh h is i n ti m ate c o r
re spo nd e n c e with O s ian de r felt the weake n i n g i n ue n c e o f the
l atter s d e fecti o n o n the d o ctri n e o f Jus ticati o n eve n th o ugh
he had n o s ym pathy fo r h is rel ative s err o r 3 an d do ubtle ss was
i n ue n ced by O sian de r s i n creas i ng bittern e ss agai ns t the Wit
te nberg the o l o gi an s Me l an chth o n to wh o m he had l o o ke d fo r
o u n d at thi s ti m e u n tru stw o rthy
A reacti o n
advice w as al so f
aga i n s t R o m i sh tr ansub s t an ti ati o n h ad m an i fe s ted i t s el f fo r ye ars
in the d e n i al o f the d o ctri n e o f the re al pre se n ce o n e extre m e
vi o le n tly as s erte d i n evitably pr o d uci ng the o ther e speci ally as
,

(2 06 )

C o n ict

e o log ical

P a rtie s in E ng lan d

2 07

the leave n O fAnab aptism was to a greater o r le ss exte n t di ffused


No so o n er had the rei gn o f E d ward begu n than i c o no cl as ti c ze al
was re ad y to te ar the c ruc i x e s o ut o f churche s an d O the rwi s e
Pr o m i
to m an i fe s t fee l i ng th at h ad bee n suppre ss e d s o l o n g
ne n t le ad er s o f the E n gli sh Re fo r m ati o n h ad n o t re alized the
i m po rtan c e o f the i ssue i n v o lved c o n c er n i n g the L o r d s Su pper
L o n g be fo re thi s Ty n d ale h ad ad vi s e d Frith n o t to al l o w i t to be
Bar n e s will be h o t aga
i nst yo u My
a m atter O f d i s cu ssi o n
m i nd is that n o thi ng be put fo rth till we he ar h o w yo u h ave
I w o uld have ri ght use preache d and the pres e n ce to be
s pe d
fere n t thi n g till the m atter m i ght be re as o n ed in pe ace
an i n d i f
1
at the lei sure o f b o th partie s
As e arly as 1 5 4 5 Nich o l as
Ri dl ey afterwar d s Bi sh o p o fL o n d o n e speci al ly d i s ti n gui shed as
a pre ac her an d pr o b ably the m o s t le ar n e d d ivi n e in the E n gli sh
Church after the de ath o f Bi sh o p Fo x h ad bee n i n ue n ced by
o ne o f Zwi n gli s tre ati se s agai ns t Luther an d by the s tudy o f
Ratram nus to reject b o th the R o m an C ath o lic an d the Lutheran
J o h n H o per o r H o o per afterwar d s bi sh o p o f G lo u
do ctri n es
o rm er Ci s terci an m o n k
c e ste r an d the n bi sh o p o f W o rce s ter a f

i n fe c ted with Luther an i sm by b o o k s br o u ght fr o m Germ an y


The S ix Arti
h ad bee n drive n by the per s ecuti o n s c o n cern i n g

c l e s fr o m E ngl an d to Switzerl an d where he becam e i n ti mate


with Bulli n ger the s c h o l ar an d s ucce ss o r o f Zwi ngli rs t at B as le
terw ar d s at Ziiric h The de ath o f He n ry VIII an d ac
an d af
ce ssi o n o fEdward br o u ght h im b ac k to E ngl an d n o t o n ly as a
ze al o us ad v o cate O f Zwi ngl i an i sm but al so as an o bsti nate po le
m ic givi n g gre at tr o uble to Cran m er an d Ri d ley an d m o s t O f
e ss o r at Ox fo rd wh o dre ad e d lest
all to Peter M artyr the n Pr o f
the C o n ti ne n tal Re fo rm er s sh o uld be hel d re spo ns ible fo r h is ex
trem e p o s iti o n Alth o u gh i m pri s o n e d becaus e whe n n o m i nate d
as bi sh o p h e b o th re f
use d to we ar E pi sc o pal r o bes at c o nse c ra
ti o n an d in a tract bitterly attacke d thi s cu s t o m as o ne which he
re gar d e d a reli c o fthe Papacy he yet h ad suf cie n t i n ue n ce to
o verc o m e the o ppo s iti o n agai ns t h im and to se cure a pr o mine n t
.

e nk yn s

C ran me r

sR

e ma in s ,

I:

XX,

T he L

2 08

[ Mo ve m e n t in E ng la nd

uth e ra n

the c o u n cil s o f the E ngli s h Church He d ilige n tly


circul ate d the the o l o gical writi n gs o fh is frie n d Bu l li nger Blu n t
traces to h is i n ue n ce the o rder which Cr an m er actual ly se n t th e
to fo rbi d pl ayi n g o f o r gan s at di
D e an O f St Paul s in 1 5 5 2

vi n e s ervice s
H o o per s di spo s iti o n t o war d s Luther an i sm may
be learn ed fr o m a letter to Bulli nger (J anuary 2 5 th 1 5 4 6 ) in
whi c h he says :
The C o u n t Pal ati n e h as l ately pr o vi d ed fo r
the pre achi ng O f the G o spel thr o u gh o ut h is d o m i n i o ns : but as far
as rel ate s t o the euch ari s t he h as d e s ce n d e d as the pr o verb h as
i t fr o m the h o r s e to the ass 3 fo r he h as falle n fr o m Po pery i n t o
the d o ctri n e o f Luther wh o is in th at particul a
r m o re err o n e o u s

th an all the P api s t s


H o w bitter
(Ori gi n al Letters I
w as the prej ud i c e O f Bull i n ger agai ns t Luther an i sm m ay be
learn e d fr o m an o ther letter in the sam e c o l lecti o n (p
in
which Rich ar d H illes w ri tes c o n cer n i n g a stude n t at Str ass bur g
that Bulli n ger had writte n reque sti ng th at h is l o d gi n g be
changed si n c e Mr M arbach with wh o m he b o ar d e d w as
no t
ather o f Lewi s w o ul d like h is s o n t o h ave
o n e wi th wh o m the f

the reas o n bei n g th at M arbac h is alt o gether


an y i n ter c o ur s e

It is i n tere sti ng to n o te the an swer :


a Luther an
I fwe
c o ns i d er thi s there is no reaso n fo r y o ur frie n d Lewi s agai n to
ch an ge h is l o dgi n g 3 s i n ce he will h ave j us t such an o ther if he

s h o ul d l o d ge with an y le ar n e d m an in thi s pl ace


pl ace

With the I nte rim there were le arn e d d ivi n es gl ad to n d a


re fu ge in E ngl an d 3 an d wh o m Cr anm er w as gl ad to call to assi st
Pr o te stan t s in l ar ge n u m bers had c o n
h im in h is gre at w o rk
o m v ari o u s p o rti o ns O f the C o n ti
r
ate d in L o n d o n drive n f
r
e
g
g
I n 15 4 9 there were n o less th an fo ur th o u san d Ger m ans
n en t
there J o h n a L as c o w as m ad e Su peri n te n d e n t O f the sever al
c o n gregati o n s O f fo rei gn ers all appare n tly w o r shi ppi ng in o ne
chur c h A Las c o w as a P o li sh n o ble m an n o t an ekile but ab
r o m h is c o un try by le ave o fh is K i ng in o r der to preach
sen t f
the G o spel H e w as an i n ti m ate frie n d o f Er as m us wh o s e lib
rary he h ad ge n er o u sly purch as ed all o wi n g the o w n er the use o f
it fo r the res t o fh is li fe H e had bee n c o n verted to the Re
,

C o n ict

Tb e o log z cal P a rtie s in E ng la nd


'

20

'

i nd u c ed to dev o te hi m sel f t o the m i n i s try b y


Zwi ngli at B as ie
He was an i n ti m ate frie n d an d c o rres p o n de n t
He is des cribe d by G o ebel as in s cie n ce
o f Me l an chth o n
aith a Lutheran in cult us a Zwi ngl i an in chur c h
an Eras m i an in f

o rgan iz ati o n a C al vi n i s t as a do gm atici an l o o s e and i n d e n ite


O n the d o c tri n e o fthe L o r d s Su pper he w as ei ther C alvi n i s tic
H e su ppo rted H o o per in h is c o n tr o vers y bei ng
o r Zwi n gli an
e speci ally extre m e in h is o ppos iti o n to clerical ves t m e n ts and to
kn eeli ng at the c o mm u n i o n
There w as a c o ngregati o n o f fo rei gn ers at Gl as te n b ury in S o m
e rse ts h ire c o n s i s ti n g chiey o fwe aver s w h o h ad bee n d rive n by
the I nte rim fr o m Str ass bur g O f thi s c o n gre gati o n which do c
trinally s ee m s to have bee n in s y m pathy with a Las c o Vale ran
dus P o llan us w as pas t o r
Peter Martyr Paul Fagius an d M arti n B uc e r all fr o m Strass
burg were we l c o m e d to pr o fe ss o r shi ps o f the o l o gy M artyr at
Ox fo rd an d Fagius and B uc e r at C am bri d ge V E L osc h e r
Walch an d B udde us all m ai n tai n that up to this ti m e M artyr
3
an d a letter o fB uc e r to Bre n z whic h we
h ad been a Luther an
H o wever thi s m ay be
sh all sh o rtly qu o te s ee m s t o c o n rm it
in a public di sput ati o n at Ox fo r d in I 5 4 9 i n t o which he w as
fo rce d by Rich ard S m ythe an adv o cate o ftr ansub stan ti ati o n b e
virtually yiel d e d the d o c tri n e o f the re al prese n ce m uch to Eu

cer s di ssati s facti o n Eve n thi s B udde us expl ai ns as o n ly a


fo rm ed faith ,

an d
.

H e rz o g R

e al

E n cyclopwdie

I t h as be en o bs e rv e d by l earned m e n th at in
fer m uch fro m th e po s iti o n o f L uthe r w h i ch also
th e be gi n n i ng h e d i d n o t d i f

E ve n
pl e as e d th e E ngl i sh un ti l at l as t h e w e n t o v er to th e s i de o fC al vi n
z e l S al I I : 4
o f h is an swer to B is h o p G ardi n r o f I 5 6 2 W al ch (B z l T/
3 9)
Pre vio us ly h e w as no t al i en to th e true do c tr i n e b ut no w s e e ms to
s ays :

h
Th e C al vi n is ti c
ap ro ach th e o pi n i o n o fthos e w o de n y th e re al pre s en ce
p
B urche r to B ull i nger
e l em e n t in E n gl an d regarde d h im in th e s am e l i gh t
Th
A
r
chbi sh o p o f C an terb ury m o ved n o do ubt
O
ct o be r 2 9th
e
(
by th e advi c e o f Pe ter M art yr and o th er L ul era m
O r Le tte rs II 5 4 2
Vita P erri M a rty ris pe r Jos iam S i ml er in G e rde s ius M iss a l/ nc a
M ic/liar A da m : Vit a Ge rm T e l II : I 3 s q q
Grom nga n a III : 3 8 4 8
B u dde us , I s agoge ,

112 0 :

'

(I

'

Tb e L

2 10

ut/ze ran [ Mo ve m en t

in E ng lan d

te m p o r ary i n c o ns i s te ncy M artyr was the spiritual father o f


Bi sh o p Jewel wh o s e A po l o gy is al m o s t a sym b o l in the An
Jewel was M artyr s pu pil an d t o o k d o wn the
glic an church
di scuss i o n with S m ythe D rive n fr o m E ngl an d o n the ac c e ss i o n
e ss i o n
o f M ary the ch ar ge o f di sl o yalty to the Au gsburg C o n f
H is answer s h o w s h o w he
w as m ad e agai n s t h im at Str ass burg
wi shed to be re gar d e d as s ubs cribi n g to the c o n fe ss i o n while he
trie d to re ad i n t o i t a C alvi n i s tic i n ter pret ati o n Writi n g to the
Se nate
he pr o fe ssed th at he cheer fully e m br ace d the Augsbur g
C o n fe ss i o n an d whatever d o es n o t d i ffer there fr o m pro vide d it
oe co rre ctly unde rs to o d ; an d th at if there were n eed he w o uld

C o n cer n i n g the Witte nberg


m ai n t ai n the m with all h is m ight
C o n c o rd betwee n Luther an d B uc e r he re plie d that to thi s he
had n o t sub s cribe d th at i t c o uld n o t be c o n ce d e d by the W o rd
aith in par
o f G o d an d c o n s cie n ce th at th o s e des titute o f true f

taki n g o f th e sacr am e n t s receive the true b o dy o f Chri st


As
ye ar s ad v an ce d h is o ppo s iti o n to Luther an i sm i n cre as e d and in
with the K i n g
1 6 1 in n e go t i ati o n s at the C o ll o quy o f Pai ss y
5
whe n he was asked h is jud gm e n t c o n cer n i ng the
o f N avarre
Au gsburg C o n fe ss i o n he answere d that the Wo rd o f G o d s eems
to us s u fcie n t as i t cle arly c o n t ai n s all thi n gs which p ert ai n to
Fo r eve n if that C o n fess i o n be receive d re c o n c ili
salvati o n
ati o n with th e R o m an i s t s will n o t fo ll o w 3 s i n ce they p r o s crib e
5
He e n ded his li fe as Pr o fesso r at Ziirich
i t as hereti cal
Fagius was kn o wn to h ave very deci d ed Luther an sy m pathies
but was m o re di s ti n gui she d as an Old Te s t am e n t s ch o l ar than as
do gm atici an o r eccle s i as ti cal leader an d die d be fo re he c o uld
e n ter up o n h is dutie s
B uc e r h ad e n d e av o red to m edi at e betwee n Luther an i sm an d
Zwi n gli an i sm I n 15 3 6 h o wever he had c o m e t o an u n d er
the Witte nberg
s t an d i n g with Luther an d Mel an chth o n in

in whi c h the Lutheran do ctri n e o f the L o r d s S upper


C o n co r d
w as subs cribe d B uc e r re s ervi n g the n ature o f the c o mm un i o n o f
the u n w o rthy as a po i n t no t ye t s ettled in h is m i n d I n sub se
.

[ sagoge p

1 12 0.

C o n ict

o logi cal

P artie s in

Eng land

2 11

years he d o e s no t seem to hav e materially varie d fro m


this pos iti o n L dsc h e r in h is A usjf b rlic/z e H i sto ria M o tzcum
devo tes an e n tire chapter to pr o ve that altho ugh with c o ns ider
able weak n e ss he is n everthele ss to be reck o n e d am o n evan el
g
g

ical Lutherans
H ardwick pr o n o u n ces h im a m o d erate L n
ther an an d as such decide d in his o p po s iti o n to the s ch o o l o f
7
H o o per
It is certai n h o wever that the very po i n t in which
he failed at Witte n ber g in 15 3 6 c o n ti nue d to re n d er the trans i
ti o n to the C alvi n i stic do ctri ne very e as y Po ssib l y he attem pted
to re n der th e Lutheran d oc tri n e m o re accept ab l e to C alvi n i s ts
by c o n ce ssi o n s o r p o ss ibly he was n ever e n tirely in the clear as
to what w as i n v o lve d in s tate m e n ts which he m ai n t ai n e d
In
the Se n te n ti o us S ayi n gs o f M as ter M arti n B uc e r u po n th e
8
writte n while pr o fesso r at Ox fo r d
o f 15 5 0
Lo r d s Supper
there is m uch that iftake n by i ts el f w o uld se e m to be an e n tire
surre nder to C alvi n i sm e g
(2 2 ) There is n o pre se n ce o f
Chri st in the Su ppe r but o nly in the law ful use there o f an d s uch

I de n e o r
as is o b taine d a nd go tte n by fa ith o nl
y
(3
determ i n e C h ri s t s pres e n ce h o ws o ever we perceive i t either by
the sacram e nt s o r by the w o r d o f the G o spel to be o nly M e d l
taining andpe rce iving of the com mo dities w e h a ve by C h ris t b o th
G o d and man whi ch is o ur He ad rei gn i ng in heave n dwe l li n g
z
z icl
an d livi ng in us w l
pres e nce w e na ve by n o w o rl d ly m ean s
but we have i t by fait
A letter h o wever o fB uc e r to Bre n tz
apo l o gizi n g f
o r Peter M artyr s di s cu ss i o n is in
M ay 15 th
He write s as in fu l l h ar m o n y wi th Bre n tz
fere n t key
a di f
wh o se s trict Lutheran i sm h as n ever bee n que sti o n e d and as
th o u gh d i scuss i o ns were in pr o gre ss in which the Luthe ran doc
w as vi go r o u s ly assaile d an d he were bei n g o verpo were d
Thi s
With res pect to the b o o k o f D r Martyr I un
is the letter :
d o ubtedly have as m uch regret as any o ne e lse 5 but th e discus
q uen t

6
7
8
9

A acsj b rlicb e H is toria ,

II :

H istory

S trype

f R eform atio n p 2 2 0
M e m o ria ls of A rclz b is /z op Cran mer,

A ne cdota b
.

re ntia n a ,

p3
.

04

II : 5 97 sq q

Th e L uth e ran M

2 12

o m ent

in E ng land

i w as anno u n ced and the pr o p o s iti o n fo rm ul ated b e fo re I had


At m y ad vi c e he h as i n tr o d uce d m uch in
arrived in E ngl an d
h is pre face whereby he ex presse s m o re fully h is faith in th e
pr es e n ce o f Chri s t Wi th the head s o fgo vernm e n t they hav e
m uch weight wh o c o n tr act their m i n i s try withi n a narr o w sphere
an d are n o t an x i o u s ab o ut re s t o ri ng the d i s cipli n e o f the church
the vi o le n ce o f the s e has al so to cert ai n exte n t i n ue n ced thi s
While he w as with us all thi ngs were pre sen te d
frie n d o fo urs
I n wi shi n g to preve n t us fr o m in c lu
m o re c o rre c tly an d am ply
di n g in the bre ad o ur L o rd t aken fr o m Heave n an d fr o m givi n g
h im to m e n to be eate n with o ut faith which n o n e o fus i magi n e s
they fall i n t o the err o r o f i n clu d i n g h im in a xe d p lac e in H e a
o r th i s t hey are ab so lutely with o ut Scri pture te s
v e n alth o u gh f
tim o n y an d o fh is pre se n t ati o n an d pre se n c e in the Su pper they
eebly (ye a they do n o t ev e n m e n ti o n these w o r d s) th at
s pe ak s o f
they s eem to h o l d that in the Sup per n o thi ng but bread and wi ne
Our s i m ple po s iti o n as held by me n o o n e as
are di s tributed
yet h as repr o ved n o r h ave I he ar d o fan y o n e able to re fute i t
by an y rm decl ar ati o n fr o m Scriptur e Neither as yet h as an y
Their chie fargu m e n t is
The m ys
such atte m p t bee n m ade
They w o uld
te rie s o f Chri st o u ght t o be i n telligibly expl ai n ed
be c o rrect in s ayin g t his if they were to add :
T o faith n o t
They n o w assum e th at i t c an in n o way be u n der
to re as o n
s t o o d h o w Chri s t is n o w c ircu m s cribe d in a phy s i cal pl ace in
He ave n 3 an d s i n ce h e is thus in Heave n (which they assu m e n o t
o n ly with o ut an y warran t but eve n with o ut an y rm re as o n ) i t
canno t be u n d ers t o o d h o w the sam e b o dy o f Chri s t is in Heave n
When the n we say t h at in the Supper n o n e
an d in th e Su pper
they agai n say that
sh o ul d su pp o s e a l o cal pre se n ce o f Chri s t
the b o d y o f Chri s t cann o t be u n der st o o d to be an ywhere u n less
T h e sub s t an ce o f
its pre s en ce be th at o f l o cal circu m s cri pti o n
their ar gum e n t there fo re is :
Reas o n do es n o t perceive what
te
ch
c
o n cer n i n g the pre s e n t ati o n an d pres e n ce o f Chri s t in
a
u
o
y
the Sup per and he n c e i t is n o t true The Scripture passages
whi ch see m to pr o ve i t m u s t be u n d er st o o d o ther wi se
Let us
s on

Co n ict of l

P artie s in

e o log ica l

Engla n d

2 13

y fo r the m Thus far I have m e t n o true C hri stians wh o wer e

n o t e n tire ly sati sed wi th o ur s i m plicity in thi s matter


as
80 i m p o rtan t w as B uce r u n til his death in February
o n e o fthe chie fadvis er s o f Cr an m er in th e de term i n ati o n o f th e
fo rm ularie s o f thi s peri o d that we add yet the explan ati o n o f h is
i n co ns i ste nc ies give n by L dsch e r :
We m us t n o t d e n y that he
re so rte d to man y w o r ldl y c o unsel s fr o m car na l prude n c e m i ngle d
with l o ve fo r pea ce whi c h were o fgreat d amage to the Evan gel
ical Lutheran C hurch that he had to o little ze al fo r truth in the
d o ctri n e o f the L o rd s Su pper that in the s i d e ques ti o ns pe r
tai n i n g to the L o rd s Supper he was s till n o t in the clear that
he alway s had a penchant fo r s eeki ng to rec o n cile the two c o n
The b o dy o f Chri st is subs tan tially pre se n t
tradic to ries
and
The b ody o f C hri s t is n o t substan tially pre se n t
an
i m po ss ible w o rk at which n everthele ss b e labo red u n til the
cl o se o f his l i fe
Yet these p o i nt s m u s t n o t be m in gled with the

chie fques ti o n in the i n v es tigati o n o f hi s t o rical truth


It is certa i n h o wever th at the A n ti Lutheran elem e n t in E ng
lan d regarde d h im an expo n e n t o f Lutheran i sm and were
an xi o us that he s h o uld be di spl ace d as the f
o ll o wi n g sh o ws :
B uce r
a m o s t d an ger o u s re l aps e i n t o h is o ld di s eas e
Richard writes tha t there is little o r n o h o pe o fh is rec o very I n
cas e o fh is d eath E n glan d will b e happy and m o re fav o red than
all o ther c o u n trie s in havi n g bee n d elivere d in the sam e ye ar
fr o m two m e n o fm o s t per n ici o us tale n t nam ely Paul F agiu s an d

B uc e r
S o after
(Burcher to Bulli nger April 2 0th
The de ath o fB uce r affo r d s E nglan d the great
B uc e r s d e ath :
es t p o ss ible o ppo rtu n ity o f c o n c o rd
Ifyo u k no w an y o n e qual

i e d fo r s o im p o rt an t an o f
ce pray i n fo rm m e
Or
Letter
s
(
pra

in u

There were p o litic al c o ns iderati o ns which i n creas ed the


0

A irsfu b r H is to r
'

ce

r s the o l o gi c al

53
n

II

po s iti o n ,

2 6 sq
se e

m y ed iti o n

tho riti es there c ite d


O rigin al L ette rs II 6 6 2

sqq

and th e au

i n fo rm atio n c o n ce rn i ng B u

Bo o k o fC o n cord Vo l II : p

Fo r additi o n al
of

2 14

utb e ran

'

o ve m e nt

Eng lan d

in

e n ce o f the an ti Lutheran e lem e n t in the Church o f E n glan d


While Luther an i sm se e m e d to be al m o s t rui n e d by the Sm alc ald
Fr an ci s
w ar an d the I nte rim there w as pe ace in Swi tzerl an d
I held the R o m an C ath o lic can t o ns b ack fr o m su pp o rti ng
Charles V an d h o wever m uch they s ym pathize d with the E m
He n ce Ziiric h an d C c
pe ro r they were po werless to aid h im
n ev a k n e w n o thi n g o f the per s ecuti o ns th at overwhel m e d Wit
te nberg an d o ther Luther an ce n ter s The E n gl i sh c o urt so u ght
there fo re an alli an ce with the Re fo rm ed cities Thu s Oct o ber
We
2 0 th
15 4 9 E d war d VI write s to the Se nate o f Zii ric h
have u n ders t o o d by the freque n t letter s o f o ur faith ful an d b e
l o ved serv an t C hri s t o pher M o u n t b o th y o ur fav o rable di spo s i
ti o n t o war ds us an d ready i n cli nati o n to d e s erve well o fus I n
ad diti o n to which th e re is also a m utual agre e m e nt b e tw e e n us
co nce rning th e C h ri s ti an re ligi o n an d true g o d li n ess which o ught
to re n der thi s fri e n d shi p o f o urs by G o d s bless i n g yet m o re
1
i n ti mate
Th o s e hi gh in po s iti o n in th e State were al so in frequen t co r
r espo n den ce with the Re fo rm ed le ader s in Switzerl an d Bul
l i n ger w as d irecti n g the s tu d ie s o f Lad y J an e Grey Thu s July
1
12 th
5 5 1 sh e wri tes to h im in re fere n ce to her Hebrew an d
pays thi s tribute to the Swi ss the o l o gi an :
Oh h ap py m e to h e
n d an d s o wi s e a c o u n s el l o r
t
rie
o be
an
s e ss e d o fsuch a f
d
o
s
p
c o nn ecte d by ties o f i n ti m acy an d frie n d s hip with s o learn ed a
m an s o pi o u s a d i v i n e and s o i n tre pi d a cham pi o n o f true re
C alvi n was in c o rrespo n d en ce with the L o rd Pro
1
5
4
givi n g them in l o n g
an d Cr anm er
tect o r the y o u n g ki n g
There are pub l i shed
an d tedi o u s letters a gre at de al o f ad vice

Ori gi nal Letters chie fly fr o m the archive s at Ziiric h n o


in the
less than o n e hun dre d and s even ty letters written to Bulli nger
al o n e duri ng the s ix years o f Edward s reign by frie n ds in E ng
-

12

O rigin a l L e tte r:

rel ativ e to

13

Ih p 5
14 b V l
1
o
.

II : p

15

lb p 707
1 Ih
p 711
.

704

th e

E ngl i sh

Refo rmati o n

Vo l

I:

I.

C o n ict

T lz e o log ical P a rtie s in

Eng land

2 1

l an d m o s t o fwh o m were exerti ng all their po wer to tr anspl an t


thither the the o l o gy o f Switzerl an d Every c han ge and waver
ing in Cran m er th at can in any way be n o tice d is pr o m ptly and
faith fully re po rte d at he ad quarter s in Ziiric h
It is n o w o n d er the n that a man o f the te m peram e n t and dis
p o s iti o n o f Archbi sh o p Cr an m er press e d o n every s i d e grad
ually yiel d e d to C al vi n i s m ju s t as duri n g He n ry s rei gn he had
te n all o wed h is better j ud gm e n t to succu m b fo r a ti m e to
so o f
R o man izi ng te nd e n cie s H is chan ge m us t n o t e n tirely b e
as cribe d to v acill ati o n am id s t xe d pri n ci ple s
I n hi m s el fther e
e x i ste d s i mu l t an e o us ly the c o n tradict o ry po siti o ns whi c h h ad
We
n ever bee n th o r o u ghly fo u ght o ver in h is o w n ex perie n ce
wo ul d n o t questi o n h is s i n cerity ; but agai n and agai n when he
r m ly mai n t ai n ed a d o c tri n e he s ee m s n o t to have u n d ers t o o d
i t in its rel ati o ns With Fo x an d Crum well an d B ar n es to aid
h im he w as a Lutheran 3 de prived o f them he d ri fte d betwee n
the c o n icti n g ele m e n t s in h o pe o f a better day whe n he
tho ught he w o ul d be able to ac t with le ss e m barr assm e n t But

whe n thes e c am e with n e w c o m plicati o ns


he c o ns i d ered
the exchan ge fr o m the l o n g es tabli she d an d
says D r J e n k yn s
abs o lute s way of He n ry to the n e w an d u nsettle d auth o rity o f
Edwar d as a l o ss r ather than a gai n to the cau s e o f the re fo rma
ti o n He may perhaps h ave bee n m i stake n in thi s view ; the exi
b ility o f the so n m ay in truth h ave bee n n o less fav o rable to the
c o nstructi o n o fa ne w s y ste m than the o bs ti nacy o f the father to
the d e m o liti o n o f the o ld o ne But the i n fere n ce is al mo s t un
cultie s o f h is s ituati o n u n d er He n ry were
av o i dable th at the di f
7
less and u nd er E d war d greater th an is u su al l y su ppo sed
The preci s e ti m e whe n th e Archbi sh o p becam e a C alvi n i s t o n
the d o ctri ne o f the L o r d s Su pper c an n o t be accur ately deter
m i ned
H e hi m sel f s tated that it w as thr o u gh Ri dl ey s ar gu
8
Alth o u gh in th e
m e n ts that the chan ge in h is o pi n i o n began
,

I : p xl iv
13
D r R idl e y d i d co n fe r w ith m e an d b y s un dry

o ritie s o fdo c to rs drew m e q u ite f


ro m m y o pi n i o n
7

R e m a in s

fH

C ra n m e r, D

I V : 97

om o :

pe rs uas i o ns an d auth
E x a min ati on , Je nkyns

T b c L utlz e ran [ Mo ve me nt in

2 16

Eng land

the E m bden editi o n o f the de fe n ce ge n er ally as cribed


Sir J o hn Cheke tut o r to E d ward VI
to his i n ti m ate frie n d
thi s ch an ge is as s ign ed to the ye ar 15 4 6 thi s pr o bably m arks
iirnb e rg K in de rpre dzg
te n
o n ly the be gi n n i ng e speci ally as the N
i m pr o perly kn o wn as the C atechi sm o f Ju stus J o nas becau s e o f
J o nas Lati n ver s i o n whi ch he tr an sl ated in 1 5 4 8 an d which in
E ngli sh is u su ally des ig nated C ranm e r s C atechi sm n o t o n ly
teache s m o s t e m phatically the Luther an d o ctri n e but al so c o n
t ai ns ve rb atim Luther s Small C atechi sm Here the Ziirich let
ter s are o fs ervice
T
rah e ran to Bulli n ger :
All
o ur c o u n
1 4 8 Augu s t I st
5
trym e n wh o are s i n cerely fav o r able to the re s t o r ati o n o f truth
e n tertai n in all respect s like o pi n i o n s with yo u I exce pt the
f C an terbury, an d Lati m er an d a very fe w learn ed
archbi sh o p o
9
m e n bes i d e s
Augus t 1 8th J o hn ab Ulm is to Bulli nger :
He h as lately
publi shed a C atechi sm in which he n o t o n ly appr o ved that fo ul
an d s acrile gi o u s tr ansub s t an ti ati o n o fthe p api s t s in the h o ly sup
per o f o ur S avi o ur but all the dream
s o f Luth er s ee m to h im
2"
fi cie n tly well gr o u n ded pers pi cu o u s an d b o l d
suf
Oct o ber 2 9th J o hn Burcher to Bulli nger :
The arch
bi sh o p o f C an terbury m o ved n o d o ubt by the advice o f Peter
M artyr an d o ther Lutherans h as o r d ered a catechi sm o f so m e
Luther an o pi n i o n to b e tr an sl ated and publi shed in o ur lan
1
gu age Thi s little b o o k h as o ccas i o n e d n o little d is c o r d
Septem ber 2 8th T rah e ran to Bulli nger :
Lati m er has
c o m e o ver to o ur o pi nio n res pecti n g the true d o ctri n e o f the
Euchari st t o gether with th e archbi s h o p o f C an terbury an d the
2
o re s ee m ed to be Luther ans
o ther bi sh o ps wh o heret o f
No vem ber 2 7th
Eve n Cr anm er by the g o o d n e ss o f G o d
an d the i ns tru m e n tality o f that m o s t upright an d judici o us man ,

pre face

to

19

O rigin al L etters,

Ib

II :

p 3 81

lb p 6 43
9' h I :
I
p 3
21

2 2.

I: p

3 20

C o n ict o
f

The olog ical

P artie s in

Eng land

2 17

Mas ter J o h n a Las c o is in a gre at m eas ure rec o vered fr o m h is


3
danger o us lethargy
Dece m ber 2 7th H o o per to Bulli n ger :
The archbi sh o p
o f C an terbury e n tertai ns ri ght views as to the n ature o f Chri s t s
prese nce in the Supper an d is n o w very frie n dly t o wards my

s el f
Dece m ber 3 15 t T rah e ran to Bulli n ger :
The archbish o p
o f C an terbury
c o n trary to ge neral expectati o n m o st o pe nly
rmly and le ar n edly m ai n tai n ed yo ur o pi n i o n o n thi s subject I
perceive that it is all o ver w ith L uthe ranis m n o w that th o s e w h o
were c o nsidered its pri n ci pal an d al mos t o nly supp o rters have
5
alt o gether c o m e o ver to o ur s id e
,

23

4
25

1b

Ib

II : p 3 83
I : p 73
.

1b p 3 2 3
.

C HAPTER

LUTH E RAN S O URC E S


Uni fo rm it y

XVII

BO O K

O F THE

OF CO

MM O N

P RAY E R

Wo rshi p in th e Wes tern C hur ch pr i or to th e Re fo rm ati o n o n ly


re l ativ e
In ue n ce o f Re fo rm ati o n o n presen t R om an O rder G ro ups
o f Lit urg
So ur c e s o f th e Ro m an Liturgy C o n fess i o n o f th e O pe n
i es
ing o fth e Re fo rm ati o n
T h e o ld E ngl i sh O rders
Th e three fo ld t as k
o rm ers o f th e Servi ce
In tro ductio n o f th e Vern acul ar D e
o fth e R e f
ve1
0pm e nt o fth e Lu theran S ervi c e
Luther s Refo rm ati o n o f th e S e r
vi ce P ri n ci pl es l aid do wn in his Fo rmula M is sae o f 15 2 3 Th e o ld
Wo rsh ip n o t to b e abo l ished S c ripture l ess o ns Serm o ns an d Hym ns to
b e in Germ an
Luther s Germ an M ass o f 15 2 6 Germ an Lati n Greek
H ebrew m ay allb e used in th e s am e servi ce if there b e tho se w h o nu
de rs tan d th e m
Trans l ati o n o f Ne w Tes tamen t o f 15 2 3 Hymns m os t ly
Fo rm ul a o f B apti sm 15 2 3 Trans l atio n o f re vi sed M ass 15 2 6
o f 15 2 4
Th e Niirnb e rg S ervi c e
B uge nh age n s o rder o f 15 2 4
V o lpre ch t
B ran den
O s ian de r s O rder o f B apti s m 15 2 9
D o e b e r s M ass 15 2 5
burg N m b e rg O rder 15 3 3 Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gne 15 43 (B uce r
I ts S o ur ces
O rder o f M o rn i ng Servi ce in
M e an ch th o n S arce rius )
Th e ten tativ e O rder o f B uce r in
three t ypi c al Lutheran Lit urgi es
th e S trassb urg Agen de o f 15 2 4
of

h o wever th o se w h o c o n tr o lled th e w o rk o f th e re o rgan i


ter m an y v acill ati o ns at l as t
z atio n o f the E n gli s h Church af
failed in a full ap preci ati o n an d c o n fess i o n o f the Luther an fai th
the result s o f the rs t gl o w o fawake n i n g l o v e fo r the G o spel in
E n gl an d an d o f ye ar s o f c o n tact an d n eg o ti ati o n wi th the lead
o rm ati o n in Germ an y h av e n o t bee n
e rs o f the Luther an Re f
with o ut fruit but hav e le ft their perm an e n t rec o rd in the gre at
eccles i as tical d o cum en t s which are the gl o ry and pride o f the
E n gli sh Church an d up o n which its very exi s ten ce depe n d s
Turn where we m ay in the hi s t o ry o r th e w o rs hi p o f the E ngli s h
C hurch and its desc e n dant s w e m eet at every s tep with wh at
I F,

2 18

L u th e ra n S o u rce s qf the B oo k

Com m on P ray e r

2 19

they o w e to t h at m e m o rable ti m e and to the i n c o m plete an d


greatly e m barrass e d w o rk o f the rs t E ngli s h Lutherans We
have already tr aced the o ri gi n o f the E n gli sh B ible to Germ an
We n o w e n ter up o n the e xam i
s o il and Luther an i n ue n ces
nati o n o f the i n ue n ce o f Luther an i sm up o n the w o rs hip o f the
E n gli sh Church
It is a gre at m i s co n ce pti o n to i m agi n e that pri o r to th e Re fo r
Uni
mati o n the w o rs hi p in the Western Church was u n i fo rm
fo rm ity o fw o rs hi p like the subjecti o n o f the churches o fthe va
The
t i o u s c o u n trie s to the se e o f Ro m e w as a gr adu al gr o wth
u n i fo rm ity in the Ro m i s h Church o f to day is in l arge m e as ure
the res ult o fthe C o u n cil o f Tre n t an d eve n n o w is n o t e n tirely
ab so lute as e g the c o n ti nu an ce o f the M o zar abi c Litur gy at
To led o in Sp ai n s till att es ts Liturgi o l o gi s ts class i fy the v ari o us
l iturgies i n t o gr o u ps and in the G all i can gr o u p trace a very de
ci d ed o rie n t al i n ue n ce so m e c o nj ecturi n g that their o rigi n was
The Ro m an Liturgy M ss o f which as far back as
at E phes u s
the Ni n th Ce n tury re m ai n re pres e n ti ng o r purp o rti ng to re pre
s e n t the Li turgy as curre n t u n der L e o I (44 0 6 1 S acrame nta

2
n L eo n ia nunz
a
s iu s
6
a
Gel
S
cr G e las ianum
riur
4
9
9
(
)
) an d
Greg o ry the Great (5 90
c o n ti n ued to pre ss its way espe
in s o m e
c ially in acc o rd an ce with the s che m es o f Greg o ry
pl aces e n tirely su pplan ti n g o ther liturgies in o thers ad o pti ng
eatures an d in s till o thers o n ly e ngrafti ng s o me
so m e o f their f
o fits o w n fe atures up o n liturgi es which i t c o uld n o t su ppl an t
He n ce at the o pe n i ng o f the Re fo rmati o n there was much c o n
Niirnb e rg an d B am berg are o n ly thirty three m iles
fu si o n
iirnb e rg Mi ssal o f 14 84 di e rs fr o m the
apart 3 an d yet the N
Bam berg Mi ssal o f 14 9 2 in the very r st G o spel lesso n that is
give n viz that fo r the Firs t Sun d ay in A d ve n t where Niirnb e rg
h ad yielded to th e prevaili n g practice o f Ro m e by s urre n d er
1 sq q
fo r Luke 2 1 : 2 5 sq q , a change which
ing M atth 2 1
a e c te d the G o spel f
o r every Su n d ay in Adve n t
T h e o ld c o n
ic t betwee n the G allican an d th e R o man Mi ssal had no t bee n
fully decided 3 and there fo re so me o f the di screp an ci es in th e
,

'

Th e L zlthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E n land


g

2 20

ervices o f Lutheran churches in vari o us l ands m ay b e trace d


back to d i screpan c ies in th e An te Re fo rmati o n s e rvices which
they u n dert o o k to re fo rm
I n E ngl an d al so whe n the Re fo r m ati o n o pe n ed the vari o us
di o ce ses had diverge n t o rders as the pro po rti o n o f R o m e o r G al
lican ele m e n t s was m o re o r less decide d The chie f o f th e s e are
the Mi ssal s acc o r d i ng to the use o f S arum (S al i sbury) Bri s t o l
Yo rk etc the fo r m er o fwhich dati ng b ack to 10 85 is the bes t
represe n tative o f liturgies o f the E ngli sh type
U p o n the bas i s o f thes e li turgies there fo re the Re fo r m ers b o th
o n the C o n ti n e n t an d in E ngl an d had alike to l ab o r in
pro vid
ing fo r the re fo r m ati o n o f public w o rship
They had a three
fo ld w o rk to per fo r m : rs t to transl ate the service which up to
thi s ti m e had bee n exclus ively Lati n 3 s e condly to c o rrect R o
m i s h err o rs by o m i ss i o n an d am e n d m e n t 3 thirdl
y to su pple m e n t
wh at w as l acki n g by rei n tr o duci ng whatever was wh o le s o m e in the
alle n i n t o d i su s e
s ervice o f the E arly Church th at h ad f
an d by
i ns erti n g whatever chan ged circum s tan ces re n dered n eed ful in
o rder to gu ard ag ai ns t prev ale n t abu s es
As l o n g as public w o rshi p was c o n gregati o nal i t h ad bee n
c o n d ucted in the l an guage o f the pe o ple 3 o n ly whe n i t ceas ed
to b e c o n gre gati o n al an d bec am e a w o rk o f the prie s t s fo r the
c o n gregati o n c o uld a l an guage u n kno wn to the pe o ple bec o m e
that o f the e n tire servi ce The d o m i nan cy o f the R o m i sh o ver
the pr o vi n ci al liturgies and the fact th at all the culture o f th e
Wes t was Lati n expl ai n h o w i t su ppl anted allo ther l an guages
Luther s o o n felt the n ecess ity o frei n tr o duci ng the ver nacul ar
We c an trace his des ire fo r it to a s tatem e n t in h is s erm o n o f
D uri ng h is ab se n ce at the Wartburg C arl
15 2 0 o n the M as s
o n h is retur n h e
s t adt h avi ng r ad i cally ch an ge d the s ervice
began to re fo rm i t u po n c o nserv ative pri n ci ples Eve n the n
he rec o gn ized the fact th at i t w as i m po ss ible at o ne s tr o ke to at
t ai n everythi ng des irable an d that the w o rk m u st be grad ually
wr o ught Thi s is s h o w n very clearly in h is
F o r m ul a o f th e

Mass o f15 2 3 wher e he begi ns by sayin g :


I hav e no t e x
s

So urce s of

L uthe ran

th e B

oo k o

C o mmo n P ray e r

2 21

changed o ld thi ngs fo r n e w always hes i tati ng b o th be cause o f


m i n d s we ak in faith wh o c o ul d n o t h e su dd e nl y freed o f wh at
is o ld an d es tabli s he d by cu st o m an d with wh o m s o rece n t and
u nus ual a m o d e o fw o rs hi ppi ng G o d c o uld n o t be i n tr o duced 3
riv o l o u s an d fas ti d i o us spirit s wh o
an d e speci al ly becaus e o f f
witho ut faith an d with o ut m i n d ru s h fo rw ard an d deli ght in
n o velty al o n e an d the n gr o w nau s e ate d with wh atever ce as es to
be n e w 3 as the l atter cl ass o fm e n give m o re tr o uble th an o ther s
in o ther m atters so in h o ly thi n gs they are m o s t tr o ub l es o m e
a d i n t o ler able alth o ugh while re ady to bur s t with wr ath I am
c o m pelled to e n d ure the m u n less willi n g to re m o ve the G o spel
itsel f fr o m the publi c But s i n ce there is n o w h o pe that the
hearts o fman y have bee n illu m i ne d and s tre ngthe ne d by the
n
s
f
m
a
n
a
n
a
s
r
ce
a
the
ubject
i
t
el
d
e
d
th
t
s
c
d
l
be
a
f
o
d
s
s
a
d
o
G
g
rem o ve d fr o m the Ki n gd o m o f Chri st s o m ethi ng m u s t be at
te mpte d in Chri s t s n am e
Fir st o f all we there fo re pro
fess th at it h as n ever bee n o ur i n te n ti o n to e n tirely ab o li s h all w o r
s hi p o f G o d but o n ly to re f
o rm th at in use which h as bee n c o r
rupte d by the w o r s t ad d iti o n s an d to de m o n s tr ate its go dly

us e
H e ask s there fo re o n ly that the Scri pture le ss o n s an d
an d that af
ser m o ns be in Ger m an
ter the Grad ual and the
Sanctus an d Agnus D e i in the C o m m u n i o n Service German
hym ns as far as p o ss ible be su n g But he re alize s the po verty
elt hi msel f so
o fthe Ger m an as yet in hym ns ; an d he n ce he f
so o n c o n s tr ai n ed to pr o vi de by his o wn pe n f
o r thi s wan t in pub
lic w o r shi p
Three ye ars l ater
in h is Ger man M as s he h as d irected
fo r
that the m o s t o f the li turgical act s shal l be in Ger man but

th e sake o f the y o uth


wi she s part o f the service s till to be in
Lati n Fo r i t m u s t n o t be fo rgo tte n that the pu pil s o f the
s ch o o l s where the L ati n w as f
aith f
ully t aught up to thr o u gh the
Gym nas i a were c o m pe l l e d to t ake their plac es in the ch o irs and
d aily at Mati n s an d Vespers to ch an t the Psal ms as well as to
,

ll tr ansl ati o n o f Luthe r s

A fu

R evie w for 1889

an d 1890 .

Form ula m ay be fo un d in

Luthe ran

Ch urch

The

2 2 2

L uth e ran lMo ve me nt in


.

Eng land

the regular Su n day s ervic es S o to o the Apo l o gy says :


We retai n the Lati n l an gu age o n acc o un t o f th o se w h o are
learn i n g an d u n d er stan d Lati n and we m i ngle with i t German
h ym n s in o rder that the pe o ple also may have so m ethi n g to
le ar n an d by which faith and fear m ay be called fo rth It has
n o where bee n writte n o r re pres e n ted th at the ac t o f he ari n g le s
so n s n o t u n d ers t o o d pr o ts m e n o r th at cerem o n ie s pr o t n o t
becau s e they te ach o r ad m o n i sh but ex ope re ope rato becau s e
they are thu s per fo r m e d o r l o o ked u po n Away with such phari

But wherever a l angu age be u n d erst o o d an d


saic o pi n i o n !
Were
e d i fy there Luther w o ul d give it a pl ace in the s ervice :
I able an d the Greek and Hebrew were as c o mm o n as th e
Lati n and h ad in the m as m uch n e m u sic and so ng as the Lati n
h as M as s w o ul d be hel d s u n g an d read o n e Su n d ay after the
o ur l an gu age s Ger man Lati n
Greek Hebrew I
o ther in all f
have n o regard fo r th o se wh o are s o d ev o ted to but o n e l angu age
o r I w o ul d like to e d ucate y o uth an d
an d d e spi s e all o ther s ; f
m e n w h o m ight be o fs ervice to Chri s t an d c o n vers e with m e n
o reig n l an d s so th at i t m ight n o t be with us as wi th the
al so in f
W alde nse s an d B o he m i an s wh o have so c o n n e d their faith to
their o wn l an gu age that they can n o t speak i n te l l i ge n tly an d
cle arly with any o n e u n til he rs t le arn their l angu age But the
H o ly Gh o s t di d n o t s o in the be gi nn i ng He d i d n o t wait nu
til the wh o le w o rl d c am e to Jeru sale m and lear n e d Hebrew
but he gave v ari o u s t o n gues fo r the m i n i stry o f the W o r d that
the Apo stles m i ght s pe ak wherever they we n t Thi s exam ple I
pre fer fo ll o wi ng 3 an d it is al s o pr o pe r that the y o uth h e prae
t iced in several l angu ages ; fo r wh o k no ws h o w G o d may use

the m in ti m e ?
Acc o rdi ngly he pr o vided fo r the s ervice in Germ an r s t o fall
by h is tran sl ati o n o f the New Tes tam e n t o f 15 2 3 3 the n by h is
hym ns the rs t o f whi c h were c o m p o s e d the sam e year an d
twe nty o ne o fthe thirty seve n which he wr o te havi n g o rigi nated
in 15 2 4 3 by h is Germ an fo rm s fo r B apti sm ( Tau/b uchle in) o f
15 2 3 3 an d h is tran sl ati o n o f th e revi se d M as ss in 1 2 6
H is
5
aid in

L uthe ran

So urces of the P ooh of Comm o n P ray e r

2 2

c o lle ague Buge n hage n was likewi se active in s i m ilar w o rk by


O n the Twe n ti eth Su n d ay afte r
h is Or d er o f Se rv ice o f 15 2 4
Tri n ity 15 2 5 the M ass was said fo r the rs t ti m e in Ge rman at
Witte n berg
Niirnb e rg wh o s e i nti mate rel ati o ns with the E ngli sh Re fo rma
ti o n becau se o f the c o nn ecti o n betwee n O s ian de r and Cr anm er
h as be e n alre ady n o tice d requ ires speci al c o ns i d er ati o n in thi s
c o nnecti o n Her e Wo l fgan g Vo lpre c h t Pri o r o fthe Au gu sti n i an
cl o i ster (d 15 2 8) o n M aunday Thurs d ay 15 2 3 ad m i n i stere d th e
c o mm u n i o n in b o th fo r ms to m e mbers o fh is o r d er and o n E as
ter 15 2 4 to three th o usan d perso ns I n 15 2 5 D o e b e r s Evan
I n 15 2 9 O sian de r publi shed an
ge lic al M ass was i n tr o duced
Order o f Bapti sm partly translated fr o m the B amber g Order
r o m Luther s Taufb iichle in I n 15 3 3 the
an d p artly t ake n f
very i mp o rtan t B rande nburg Ndrnb erg Age n d e was p ubli shed
havi ng been prep ared as we have be fo re see n by O s iande r with
the ass i st an ce o f Bre n tz an d havi ng be e n s ub m itte d to an d re
It is th e
c e ive d the e n d o r se m e n t o f the Witte n berg Faculty
m o del after which m any succee d i n g Luther an l iturgies were c o n
in the r s t r ank fo r c o nse rvati sm
s tructed h o ldi ng a pl ace
uri
ty
f
d
ctri
n e an d c o rrect ne ss o fus age
Al
t
ether
b
twee
n
o
o
o
e
g
p
Au gu sti ass erts that there were publi shed o ne
1 5 2 3 an d 1 5 5 5
hu n dred and thirty two Lutheran Age n de and K irche no r d nu n ge n
Their great variety is partly expl ai n ed by hi st o ri cal an d l o cal
i n di cate s that the Lutheran Church
rel ati o n s but at the sam e
l ays le ss e m ph as i s up o n exter nal u n i fo rm ity than u po n deli ty
The s e o rders may b e
to the c o mm o n Ev an gelical pri n ci ple
di stributed i n t o three cl asse s : 1 Th o s e pure in d o ctri n e but
o rm s
ad heri ng m o s t s trictly to the receive d R o m an f
O f thes e
M ark Bran d e n burg o f 15 40 the P falz Neuber g an d the Au s tri an
2
Tho se o f the S ax o n Lutheran ty pe
o f 15 71 are ty pe s
am o n g which Luther s F o rm ula o f the M ass is m o s t pr o m i n e nt
Am o ng the m are the Pruss i an
the v ari o us o r d e rs pre
H am burg
pared by Bu ge n h age n as Bru nswick
Mi nde n an d G ttinge n
L iib e c k
S o es t
,

'

2 2

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in

Eng land

Po m er an i a
the Bran den burg Niirnb e rg
H an o ver
Herz o g H ei n rich o f S axo n y
Meckle nbur g
etc 3 Th o se which m e d i ate betwee n the
Luther an an d the Re fo rm ed type as B uce r s in Str assburg 3 the
W urtte mber g Or d er s an d to a gre ater o r less exte n t the o rders
o f S W Ger m an y in ge n eral
O f thes e there is o n e th at exerted an e speci al i n ue n ce ab o ve
the Lit
all the re st u po n the o r d er s o f the E n gli sh Church viz
o rmati o n o f C o l o gn e o f 1 5 4 3
H e rrnann th e
urgy fo r the Re f
Archbi sho p an d Elect o r o f C o l o gn e h avi n g bec o m e a c o n vert to
the Luther an faith expected to re fo r m the churches in h is real m
an d
at h is reque s t
a
acc o rdi n g to the Luther an d o ctri n e 3
Church C o ns tituti o n with o rder s o f Servi ce was draw n up by
B uc e r an d th o r o ughly revi sed by Mel an chth o n with the aid o f
It is derived chiey fr o m the Bran de n
Sarce rius an d o thers
burg N ur nberg o r d er o f 15 3 3 an d the o rders o f Herz o g Hei n
rich o f Sax o n y pre pare d by Ju s tus J o nas in 15 3 6 an d publi shed
ter revi s i o n by C ruc ige r M yc o n ius etc in 15 3 9 and o f
af
H ess e C ass el (Kym e ns) o f 15 3 9 C are fu l ly gu ar d i n g agai ns t
an y ex plicit s t ate m e n t s o fa p o le m ical ch aracter t o war d s b o th the
Ro man i st s an d the Re fo rme d i t di d n o t m eet with the favo r o f
Luther wh o d e man d ed that bey o n d the po sitive pr es e n tati o n
o f d o ctri n e in t h e s ervice the n egative sh o uld al so be unm is
o re h ad n o t p atie n ce to re ad it
tak ab ly e x presse d and there f
th o r o ughly
The Or d er o f M o r n i n g Service (Hauptgotte s die nst) as g ive n
in these typical Lutheran liturgies is as fo ll o ws :
1 L U TH E R S G E RM A N MA SS
A Spiritu al S o ng o r Psal m in Ger man as
I will bl ess th e
1

L o r d at all ti m e s
(Ps
2
Kyrie E l ei so n t hree n o t n i ne ti m es
o l l o ws :
A
C
llect
a
s f
o
3
O G o d the Pr o tect o r o fall that tru st in Thee with o ut wh om

etc
n o thi n g is s tr o n g n o thi n g is h o ly
4 The E pi stle
Bre men

,
'

uthe ran

So urces of the

f C o mm on

o oh

P ray e r

2 2

m
an Hym n :
Nun bitten wir den H eilige r: Geist
A
Ger
5
o r so m e o ther
6 The G o spel
r
i
n
m
a
n
a
l
The
Creed
Ger
:
P
V
i
g ub e n all in e inem
7

Serm o n o n the G o spe l fo r the day


aphras e o f the L o rd s Prayer and E xh o rtatio n t o the
P
r
a
9
C o mm u ni o n
Wo rd s o f I ns ti tuti o n
10

0 L amm G ottes uns chuldig


1 1 Agn us D e i in Ger man :
12
D i stributi o n
13
C o llect
Alm i ghty G o d we than k Th ee that Th o u has re fre shed us
with thi s salutary gi ft an d we bes eech Thy m ercy graci o us ly to
aith t o ward s Th e e and in f
erven t l o ve t o wards
s tre ngt he n us in f

etc
o ne ano ther
XIV Be nedicti o n
11 B RA ND E N B URGNl
lRNB E RG
8

1.

When the pries t c o m es to the alt ar he m ay say the


,

C o n/Stee r
in E x ce l

Germ an Hymn 3 Kyrie 4 G lori a

6
ne o r m o r e c o l
The
L
etc
o r d be with yo u
O
s is
5
lects acc o r d i ng to the o ccas i o n 7 A chapter fr o m the Epi s
tles o fPaul P eter o r J o hn 8 H alleluj ah with its vers icl e o r a
G radual fr o m H o ly Scriptur e 9 A chapter fr o m the G os pels
The Creed 1 1 Se rm o n 12 E xh o rtati o n 13
10
o r Acts
Wo rd s o f I nstituti o n 14 San ctu s 15 Lo r d s Praye r 16

The Peac e o f the Lo rd e tc 1 7 D i stributi o n acc o mpan ied

b y the s i ngi n g o f the


A gnus D e i
18
Prayer o f than ks
givi ng :
Al m ighty and e verl as ti ng G o d we he artily than k

The e
etc

Al m ighty G o d we t hank Th e e
as in Luther s G erm an
Mass 19 B e ne dicamus 2 0 Be nedicti o n

Th e Lo rd bless thee
etc 3 o r
G o d be m erci ful u nt o us

etc ; o r
and bless us
G o d th e Fathe r S o n an d H o ly

G hos t bless and keep us ; o r The bl ess i ng o f Go d the Fa


2

I ntroit

or

16

2 2

T h e L uthe ran [Mo ve me nt in

ther

an d o f

an d o f

the S o n

Am e n

us all

Eng lan d

an d a

the H o ly Gh o st be

bide with

SA X O NY (H e rz og

111

H e inrich ,

I n tr o i t de te mpore 2 K yrie Elei so n


Gl o ri a in
3
Excel si s 4 Cree d ( IVir glaub e n) 5 Ser m o n 6 Salut a
ti o n 7 Surs um C o rda 8 Pre faces 7 S an ctu s 8 A dm o
o r L o r d s Pr ayer un
n itio n with Paraphr as e o f L o rd s Pr ayer
r
hr
ed
l
ne
Ad
m
n iti o n wi th W o r d s o f I ns tituti o n
a
o
o
a
a
a
s
4
p
p
I O Agnus D e i o n F es tiv al s o r
o r W o r d s o f I ns tituti o n al o n e
11
At cl o s e o f C o mm u n i o n
if there be m an y c o m m u n i can ts
Than k sgivi n g C o llect :

Al m i ghty G o d as in Luther s M ass o r A ch da lie b e r

12
Be n e d icti o n
H e rre G o tt
1

R E F O RMA T I O N

OF C

O LO G N E

Public C o n fessi o n
I will c o n fe ss m y tr ansgressi o n etc Al m i ghty an d eter nal
G o d an d F ather we c o n fe ss an d l am e n t th at we are c o n ceived
ull o fi gn o r an ce and u nbelie f o f Thy
an d b o r n in s in an d are f
divi n e W o r d 3 that we are ever i n cli n ed to all evil an d avers e to
all g o o d 3 th at we tr ansgre ss thy h o ly c o mm an d m e n t s with o ut
e n d ; and th at thereby we h ave i n curred everl as ti ng de ath an d
B ut we are s o rry an d crave
o ur c o rru pti o n ever i n creas eth
Thy grace an d hel p H ave m ercy u po n us all 0 m o s t m erci ful
G o d an d Father thr o u gh Thy S o n an d L o rd Je sus C hri s t
Gr an t u n t o us Thy H o ly Spiri t that we m ay le ar n o ur s i n s an d
th o r o u ghly l am en t an d ackn o wle d ge o ur u n ri ghte o u sn ess ;
aith acce p t Thy
an d wi th true f
gr ace and fo r give n e ss in
Chri s t o ur L o r d Thy de ar S o n 3 so that we m ay die m o re and
m o re u n t o s in an d live a n e w li fe in Thee an d m ay s erve an d
ple as e Th ee to Thy gl o ry an d the pr o t o f Thy Church Am e n
2
C o ns o latio n of th e Gospe l
He ar the C o nso l ati o n o f the G os pel : J o h n 3 : 16 3 1 T im
6
2
1 : 15 3 J o hn 3 : 3 5
3 ; Act s 10 : 4 3 3 1 J o h n
1

A bs o lutio n

So urce s of

L uth e ra n

the B

oo k

C o m m o n P ray e r

2 2

Our L o r d Jes us Chri s t hath le ft to h is Church the gre at c o nso


l ati o n in that he hath e nj o i n ed his m i n i s ters to re m it s i ns u n t o
o r their s i ns an d in f
aith an d re pe n tan ce
all th o s e wh o are so rry f
de s ire to am e n d an d hath pr o m i s e d th at u n t o all s uch their
U po n thi s gr aci o us c o m
o rgive n in He ave n
s i ns s hall b e f
m an d and c o ns o l ati o n o fo ur L o rd Jes us Chri s t I ann o u nce u n t o
or their s i ns c o n so le the m s elve s in
all th o se wh o are pe n ite n t f
o ur L o rd Chri s t an d thu s de s ire to am en d their l ive s the re m i s
wi th the assuran ce o f divi n e grace an d
s i o n o f all their s i n s
eter nal li fe thr o ugh Je sus Chri s t o ur L o r d Am e n
6 Gl o ri a in Excel s i s
The Lo rd
4 I n tr o it
7
5 K yrie

10
be with yo u
H al leluj ah Grad
8 C o llect
9 E pi s tle
12
11
G o spe l
E xpo s iti o n o f G o spel (Ser
ual o r Seque n ce
13
Ge ner al Prayer :
m o n)
Al m i ghty an d everl as ti ng G o d an d Father Th o u has t c o m
mande d us thr o ugh Thy d e ar S o n and his A po s tle s to c o m e u nt o
Thee in H is n am e an d has t pr o m i sed that whats oe ver we when
thus ss e mble d ask Thee in h is nam e Th o u wilt gr ac i o u sly gr an t 3
a
we pr ay Thee in the nam e o fThy S o n o ur L o r d Je sus Chri s t
rst that Th ou w o uld graci o u sly fo rgive us allo urs in an d m i s d ee d s

which we c o n fe s u nto Thee


e tc
Creed duri ng the s i ngi n g o f which the o fferi ngs are
14
15
War n i ng agai n s t u n w o rthy rece pti o n o f the
gathere d

Lo r d s Sup per 16
The L o r d be with yo u etc 1 7 Li ft

up y o ur he art s etc 18
Let us give thank s etc 19
It

etc 2 0 San ctu s 2 1 W o rd s


is truly m eet right an d salut ary
2 2
2
L o r d s Pr ayer
The Peac e o f the
o f I ns titu ti o n
3

L o rd etc 2 4 D i stributi o n duri ng which the A gnus D e i is

T h e Lo rd be with yo u
etc 2 6 C o llects as in
su n g
25
Bran den bur g Niirnb e rg 2 7 Be ne d icti o n as in Bran de n burg
,

Niirnb e rg

t h es e w e add B uc e r s te n t ative but s till e arlier w o rk in the


Strassbur g M ass o f 15 2 4 alth o u gh pub l i shed with o ut autho ri ty
Thi s is o f es peci al i n teres t because o f B uce r s c o nnecti o n bo th
with the Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gn e an d the Revi s i o n o f I Edward
VI
To

2 2

The L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in

Eng land

Nam e o f the Father an d o f the S o n and o f th e


H o ly Gh o st Am en 2 Kn eeli n g I sai d I will c o n fe ss m y
A n d Th o u fo r gaves t etc
I a p o o r sin
s i ns u n t o the L o rd
e ss to G o d Al m ighty that I h ave griev o u sly s i n n ed by
ne r c o nf
trangre ssio n o fh is c o m man d m e n t that I h ave d o n e m uch whic h
I sh o uld hav e le ft u n d o n e and that I h ave le ft m uch u n d o ne
which I s h o uld h ave d o n e by u nbelie f an d w an t o f co n den ce
t o w ard s G o d and by l ack o f l o ve t o ward m y n eighb o r Fo r
thi s m y guilt where o f G o d kno ws I grieve Be gr aci o u s b e
Am e n 3 Thi s is a faith ful
m erci ful to m e a p o o r s i nn er
etc Thi s I believe
an d w o rthy o f all accept ati o n
sayi n g
Help Th o u m i n e u nbelie f an d save m e Am e n 4 T he
pri es t the n says to the pe O ple : G o d be graci o us and h ave
6 K yrie Elei
m ercy up o n us all 5 The I n tr o it o r a Psal m
Salutati o n 9 C o llect o r
8
so n
7 Gl o ri a in Excel s i s
C o mm o n Pr ayer
10
Epi s tle 1 1 H alleluj ah 1 2 G o spel
1
Se rmo n 14 Ap o stle s o r Nice n e Creed
13
5 Ad m o n iti o n
16
Sursum C o rd a 1 7 Pre faces 18 San ctu s
to Pr ayer
with Be n edictus 19 Pr ayer Al m i ghty Merci ful t her
as Thy S o n o ur L o rd Je su s Chri s t h ath pr o m i sed th at wh at we as k
19
W o rd s o f I nstituti o n 2 0 H o w great
in H is Nam e etc
is Thy g o o d n ess in that Th o u n o t o nly h ath fo rgiven us o urs i ns
wi th o ut an y m eri t o f o ur o wn , but that Th o u h ath give n us as an
ass uran ce there o f the m e m o ri al o f the B o dy an d Bl o o d o f o ur
L o rd Jes u s Chri st in the bre ad an d wi n e as Th o u art w o n t to
se al o ther pr o mise s by o utw ard s ign s
There fo re we h av e n o w
great an d irre futable assuran ce o fThy gr ace an d k no w th at w e
are Thy childre n Thi n e hei rs an d c o heir s wi th Chri st an d that
we may pr ay freely as Thi n e o nly bego tte n S o n h ath t aught us
O ur Fath e r, etc
2 1
sayi n g :
L o rd D eliver us fr o m e n e m i es
r o m the d evil the w o rld and o ur o wn e sh
s ee n an d u ns ee n f
Th r o u gh Chri st o ur L o rd A m en 2 2 A gnus D e i 2 3
Lo rd J esu s Chri st Tho u S o n o f the Livi ng G o d wh o by thy
Father s will an d wi th th e w o rki n g o f the H o ly Gh o s t hath by
Th y death , br o u ght th e w o rld to li fe 3 deliver us by thi s Thy
1.

I n th e

'

L uthe ran

So urce s of the

P oo h

f C om mon P ray e r

2 2

B o dy an d B l o o d fr o m all o ur u nrighte o usness and wicke d


n ess an d gr an t tha t we m ay alway o be y Thy c o mman d m e n ts
an d n ever b e s e par ated f
r o m Thee eternally A m cn 2 4 A d
m o ni ti o n to the pr o table re m em bran ce o f Chri s t s D eath
2
5
D is tributi o n with the wo r d s al o n e o f th e E van ge lis t s o r
2 7 Than ks givi n g Hym n :
h o ly

G o tt s e i ge lo b e t un d ge b e ne de ie t
D e r un s s e l be r h at ge spe is e t
Mit se inem Fle isch e un d mit se i nem Bl ute

e t.

(Luthe r)

C H APTE R

LI TANY

T HE

Pro vi s i o n fo r th e

o r T HE

XVIII
E

N G LIS H

H URCH

di ng o f S cri pture Lesso ns in E ngl ish Intro duction o f


H o m i l ies Puri catio n o fth e M ass a gradual Pro ces s Revis i o n o fth e
Litany Th e o ld E ngl is h Litan y
Luth er s Revis i o n
an d this
C ran m e r s o f 15 44 fro m th e R e fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gn e
E arl i er R e vis i o n o f M arshall
al so f
o ll o ws Luther
fro m Luther
Luther s and M arshall s in parall e l co l um ns H ilse y s Revi s i o n o f 15 3 9
de pe nden t o n M arshall Luther s changes in th e Lit an y trans ferre d to
D r Bl unt s s i ngul ar m i s tak e
E ngl an d examin e d in de tai l
re a

wi th th e G e rman so w i th th e E ngli sh Re fo rmati o n th e


rs t st e p in re fo r m i n g the se rvi ce was to pr o vid e wh at is the
chie f p art o f the service the H o ly Scripture s in the l an gu age o f
the pe o pl e We h ave n o ted the di fculties atte n di n g the trans
l ati o n o f the B ible an d h o w i t gr adu ally o verc o m e o ppos iti o n
Fir s t we n d a pr o clam ati o n o f the Ki ng o f No vem ber 14th
n g priv at e pers o n s to buy Bible s and keep
a
ll
o
wi
1
53 9
1
the m in their h o u ses
Ei ghteen m o n th s later M ay 5 th 15 4 1
all cur at es wer e c o mman ded u n der pe n alty o f a ne o f
fo rty shilli n gs a m o n th to se t up Bibles in their church in a
c o n ve n ien t pl ace fo r th e pe o pl e to re ad I n St Paul s Lo n d o n

But in acc o r d an ce with h is vacil


s ix Bibles wer e thus pr o vi d ed
latio ns tw o years l ater th e ki n g t o o k m e as ures again to s u ppress
their circul at io n and Graft o n the publi sher was c o m m itted to
the Fleet fo r six weeks and rele as e d o nly o n c o n d iti o n that h e
w o uld n either s ell n o r i m pri nt an y m o r e Bible s till th e K i n g
And fr o m h en ce
an d clergy s h o uld agre e up o n a tr anslati o n
As

1 S tr

ype s

S trype

C ran m e r,
C ra n m e r,

III : 3 87
I : 19 1 sq

3 0)

Th e L ita ny

English

the

C h urch

Bible w as s t o ppe d duri ng the remai nde r o f Ki ng

He nry s reig n
I n 15 4 2 h o wever the C o n v o cati o n o rdered th at
o n e ch ap

ter o f the New Tes tame n t in E ngli sh sh o ul d be read e very


Su n d ay and h o li d ay s an d
whe n the Ne w Tes tam e n t w as

thr o ugh the n to begi n the Old


Pro vi s i o n was made fo r
H o m ilies at the sam e ti m e Every mo r n i n g and eve n i n g o n e
chapter o f the Ne w Te st am e n t w as to be re ad in each pari sh
Pr o vi s i o n w as al so made that all m ass b o o ks an tiph o ners
po rturs e s in the church o f E n gl an d s h o uld be c o rrected re
fo r m ed an d cas ti gated fr o m all mann er o fm e n ti o n o f the Bi sh o p
r o m all ap o cryphas feig n ed lege n ds su
o f Ro m e s nam e ; an d f
5
pe rs titio ns o rai so ns c o llect s vers icles and respo nse s
No thi n g h o wever in th e way o f liturgi cal re fo r m was e ffected
duri ng He nry s rei gn except in the Li tan y The Li tan y was
the pr o cess i o nal prayer o f the Early Church us ed e speci ally o n
o ccas i o ns o fgre at o r i m pe n d i ng cal am ity app o i n te d as e arly as
A D 4 5 0 by M ame rtus Bi sh o p o f Vie nna fo r the three d ays
be fo re As ce nsi o n D ay k n o wn as R o gati o n D ays It w as use d
ul
al so at o ther ti m e s e s pe ci ally duri n g Le n t an d h ad a p o wer f
h o ld u po n the pe o ple It w as n o t strange there fo re that in
o r i t h ad f
15 4 4 Cr an m er u n dert o o k to revi s e i t ; f
o rced i ts el f
i n to the lan gu age o f the pe o ple l o n g be fo re the Re fo rmati o n
lled h o wever with all th e ab o m i nati o ns o f the w o rs hip o f
sai n t s
I n an E n gli sh Pri m er acc o rdi ng to D r M as ke l s c o njectur e
o fab o ut 1 4 10 i t is f
o un d in a f
o rm o fwhi ch th e f
o ll o wing are
so m e o fthe petiti o ns :

fo rth th e

Lo rd H av e m erc y upo n us
C h ris t : H av e merc y upo n us
C hri s t : H e ar us
Go d th e F ather o f H e av ens : H av e mer cy upo n us
.

Ih p 194

Strype s H e n ry VI I I
.

lb p 60 1
.

I:

60 2

The L uthe ran [ Movem ent in

Eng la nd

wo rld : H av e mercy upo n us


Go d th e H o ly Gho s t : H av e m erc y upo n us
Th e H o ly Tr i n it y o f Go d : H av e mer c y upo n us
Fro m e shly des ires : Go od Lo rd del iver us
Fro m wrath an d hate an d all e vi l w i ll Go o d Lo rd de l ive r us
Fro m pe sti len ce o fpri de an d bl i n dne ss o fheart : Go o d Lo rd de liv er us
Fro m s udde n and un advi se d death : G oo d Lo rd de l iver us
Fro m lightn i ng and tem pes t : G o o d Lo rd del iver us
Fro m co v e to us ness o f v ai n gl o ry : Go o d Lo rd de l iv e r us
By th e pri vity o fth i ne ho ly i n c arnatio n
By th y ho ly n ativit y
By th y bless ed c ircum c is i o n an d B apti s m
By th y fas ti ng and m uch o ther pen an ce do i ng
By th y bl essed b uryi ng
By th y gl o ri o us ri s i ng fro m death
By th y m arv e l o us stigying to H eaven
By th e grace o f th e H o ly Ghos t th e C o mforter
I n th e ho ur o fo ur de ath

I n th e day o f doo m
They are acc o m pan ied by s uch petiti o ns as :
S t M ary : pray fo r us
H o ly V irgi n o fv irgi ns pray fo r us
S t Mi chael : pray fo r us
S t G abri el : pray fo r us
S t R aph ael : pray fo r us
All h o ly ange ls an d ar changel s : pray fo r us
All o rders o fho ly s pi r its : pr ay fo r us
S t Jo hn th e B aptis t pray fo r us
All ho ly patri archs an d pro phe ts : pray fo r us
S t Peter P aul An dre w Jo hn J ames Ph i l i p e tc

n
m
Allho ly ap o s tl es a d art yrs
G o d th e S o n,

az e nh ie r o fth e

D o wn to

S t M ary th e

Agn es Fe lic itas

E gypti an , Perpe tua, A nne , C atheri ne ,

M argare t

Agatha,

e tc .

early as 15 2 1 whe n Luther w as su mm o n ed to W o rms a


6
Litany (L itany for the G e rmans) w as ad apted at Wi tte n be rg
As

This

is fo un d in

Luth er s Wo rk s Walch s

das is t, de m iith zge r Ge b e t

de m dre ie in igen G ott,

in ein e r gew isse n b e rich mte n S tadt in

E d XV :

L ita n ei,

2 174 s q q .

fur D eutsch la na

ge h alte n
D e uts ch lan d a m A s ch e rm ittw och

The L itany of the

Eng lis h C hurch

33

praye r fo r Luther s cause I ts pe titi o ns are no t alt o


gether free fr o m th e R o m i s h le ave n and s o u n d very s tran gely :

Chri s t hear the Germans


G o d the Father in heaven h ave

m ercy up o n the Ger mans


S t Raphael pr ay fo r th e Ger

All h o ly angels and archangels pr ay fo r the Ger


man s

mans
Fr o m all evil help the Germans
Fr o m th o se
wh o c o m e to us in sheep s cl o thi n g but in w ardly are rave n i n g

w o lves help the Ger mans


Fr o m the h o rrible threats bulls

an d ban n s o f the Po pe
pro tect the G er m ans L o r d G o d
Fr o m a
ll g o dless and heretical d o ctri n e cleans e th e sch o o ls
dear Lo rd G o d
Fr o m all unspiri tual ques ti o ns pr o tect th e

the o l o gi ans dear L o rd G o d


Fr o m all evil su spici o ns agai ns t

Lutheran i sm free the m i n ds o fth e great


We Germans do

T o guard an d pr o tect M arti n L u


beseech Thee to hear us
ther th e rm pillar o fth e Chri s ti an fai th as h e will so o n e nter

W o r ms fr o m all Ve n eti an p o i so n
T o su ppo rt t hat v ali an t
German Kn ight U lrich v o n H utte n Luther s truste d frie n d in
h is go o d purp o se and re n der h im s tead fas t in th e w o rk u nder

take n fo r Luther
T o tes ti fy to the Itali ans Lo m bar ds and

A n d gr aci o us ly to he ar
Ro man s that Th o u art Lo rd G o d

us
Ger mans
The acc o mpanyi n g Psal m begi ns :
Make

has te O G o d to del iver us Germ ans


Thi s m ay be character
iz e d as a po pular adaptati o n o f th e o f Li tan y in vi o l ati o n o f
churchly tas te an d char acter Nevertheless i t i n dicated that th e
Litan y c o uld read ily be utilized in th e servic e o f the puried
faith
Be fo re M arch 13 th 15 2 9 Luther had revi sed the Litany
in b o th German an d Lati n an d i n tr o duced i t as revi s e d i n t o
the se rvice at Witte n berg He writes that the Lati n was c o m
m o uly chan ted a fter the s erm o n o n Su n d ay by the s ch o o l b o ys
H e is qu o te d as sayi ng that i t was n e xt to the L o r d s Prayer the
bes t that c o uld h e pr ayed Cr an m er fo ll o ws Luther cl o se ly
either i mm e d i ately o r thr o ugh the Li tan y in the Re fo rmati o n
o f C o l o gn e which is Luther s
Th e wh o le Lit an y very m uch
res e m bl es th at o f Hermann the re f
o rm i n g Archbi s h o p o f C o
He had be fo re h im the li tan y fo rm ed u po n th e
in t o

Th e P raye r B

oo h

I n te rle ave d, p 77
.

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in E ng lan d

34

cie n t m o del by Mel an chth o n an d B uc e r (15 43 ) fo r Her


8
B o th the writer s fr o m wh o m thes e s tate m e n ts are d e
m ann
rived h ave o verl o o ke d Luther s e arlier w o rk o fwhich Cr anm er
Dr Blu n t k n o ws
pr o bably he ar d duri n g h is ab o de in Ger m an y
o f Luther s Lit an y but thi n ks that its d ate w as 1 5 4 3
The rel ati o n o f C ranm e r s w o rk to Luther s bec o m es m an i fes t
whe n we exam i n e the mann er in whi ch the Re fo rm e d An glican
Litan y attai n ed its pr es e n t fo rm I n 15 3 5 alread y a tr ansl ati o n
or
o f the chie fp art s o f the s ervice as a priv ate atte m pt at its re f
It retai ns
m ati o n k n o wn as M arsh all s Pri m er was publi shed
With thes e o m itted
in the Li tan y the i n terce ss i o n o f sai n t s
it will be s een at a glan c e h ow cl o sely i t c o rre sp o n ds to Luth e r s
Lati n Litan y

sam

an

K yri e E l e i so n
C hri s te E l e i s o n
K y ri e E l e i s o n
C hri s te E l e i s o n
P ater de c o e lis D eus

G o d th e

Lo rd have m erc y upo n us


C hri s t hav e m er c y upo n us
Lo rd hav e merc y upo n us

arsh all, 1
53

ther

of

he avens hav e
,

m erc y upo n us
Go d th e R e dee m er o f th i s wo rld,
hav e merc y upo n us
Go d th e H o ly Ghos t , h av e m erc y
.

Fill redem pto r m undi D eus ,

Spi rite s ancte

D e us ,

M iserere n o bis

upo n us

Th e H o ly T ri ni ty in o ne G o dh e ad,
hav e m erc y upo n us
B e mer c i ful to us ,
A nd spare us , Lo rd
B e merc i ful to us
A n d de l iv er us , Lo rd
ro m all s in ,
ro m all erro r,
ro m all e vi l ,
Fro m all crafty trai n s o fth e e vi l ,
Fro m th e eminen t peri l o f s in ,
ro m th e po s e ss i o n o fde vils ,
Fro m th e s pirit o ffo rn i c ati o n,
Fro m th e de s i re o f v ai n gl o ry,
ro m th e un c leanness o f m i nd and
.

P ro pitius es to
P ar ce n o bi s , D o mine
Pro pitius es to ,
Libe ra n o s , D o mine
Ab o m n i pe c c ato ,
.

A b o m n i e rro re ,
A b o m n i m al o ,
A b ins idiis di abo li,

F
F
F

bo dy
Fro m un cl e an th o ughts
Fro m th e bl i n dness o fth e heart
,

Pro cter s H istory

f B ooh of Common

P raye r, p

17.

The L ita ny

the E ng lis h

L uth e r, 15 2 9
A subitane a e t i m pro vis a mo rte,

Fr

i e

san gu n um ,

P e r c ruce m

tuum

s udo re m

et

dde n

om

r vi ded

an d

su

unp o

death
Fro m p s ti l e nc e and fami ne
Fro m all m o rtal w ar
Fro m l i ghtn i ng and tem pe s tuo us
we athe rs
Fro m s e diti o ns an d s chi sm s
Fro m e v erl as ti n g death 3
By th e priv y m ys te ry o f th y ho ly
i n c arn ati o n
By th y ho ly n ativit y
By th y baptis m fas ti n gs an d te m p
,

P e r s an c tam n ativ itate m t uam ,


P e r b aptis m um , j e j unium e t ten ta
ago n am

15 3

35

Pe r

a rs h a ll,

A m o rt e pe rpe t ua 3
P e r m ys teri um s an c tae inc arn atio n is

tio n e s .tuas ,

A pes te e t fame ,
A be ll o e t c ae de ,
A s e ditio n e e t s im ultate ,
A ful gure e t te m pe s tatib us ,

tuae

C h urch

tatio n s ,

By th y pain ful ago n y in swe ati ng


bl o o d an d wat e r
By th e pai ns an d pass i o ns o n th y
c ross
By th y death an d b ury i ng
By th y res urrec ti o n an d as cens i o n
,

et

pass ro n e m

t uam

P e r m o rte m e t s e pulturam tuam ,


P e r re s urre ctio n e m e t as c e ns io n e m
tuam ,
Spi ritus San c ti ,
Pe r adv e ntum

Paracl e ti 3
I n o mn i

trae

te mpo re

trib ulatio nis n o s

I n o m n i tem po re fe lic itatis n os trae ,


I n ho ra m o rti s ,
I n die j u di c ii ,
Libe ra, n o s , D o mi ne
P e c c ato re s ,
T e ro gam us , aud i n os 3
Ut e ccle s iam t uam s anctam C ath o
licam regere e t gub e rnare di gneri s 3
.

Ut

cun c to s

E pis co po s , P as to res

Min is tros e c cl es i ae in s ano v e rbo


s an c ta vita s erv are di gner is 3

et
et

By th e
I n th e

c o m ng o f

th e

H o ly Ghos t ;

ti m e o f tribul ati o ns

I n th e ti m e o fo ur fe l i c it y ,
I n th e ho ur o f de ath,
I n th e day o fj udgm en t ;
D el iv e r us , Lo rd

We s i n ne rs
Pr ay

the e to he ar us Lo rd
That it may pl e as e thee Lo rd to
go v ern an d l e ad th y H o ly C atho l i c
C hur c h ;
That tho u v o uchs afe that o ur bish
o ps
pas to rs an d m i n i s te rs o f th y
C h uf
rc h m ay in ho ly l i f
e an d in th y
so un d an d who l e w o rd f
eed th y pe o
,

Ut

digneris ;

Ut

vi am

se c as e t o m n a s can

rrante s

v e ritatis

e t s e duc to s

reducere

in

Ut S atan am
c o n te re re

dal a t o ll ere

s ub

di gn e ri s ;

pe dib us

Ut o pe rari o s de le s
tuam mittere digneris ;

nos tris

ple ;

Th at tho u v o uchs afe th at all pe r


v ers e s e cre ts and s l ande rs m ay b e
av o i de d ;
That tho u v o uchs afe that all wh i c h
do e rr an d b e de ce iv ed m ay be re
duce d i n t o th e w ay o fv erit y ;
That tho u v o uchsafe that we may
th e de vi l w i th all h is po m ps crus h
unde r fo o t ;
That tho u v o uchs afe to se nd us
pl e n t y o f faith ful wo rk me n i n to th y
harv es t ;
,

in

me ss e m

T he L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

36

Eng land

a rsh a ll, 15 3

Ut in cre m e ntum Verbi

Th at tho u v o uchs afe Lo rd to give


Spiri tus c un ctis audie n tib us do n are th e he arers o fth y wo rd l iv e ly grac e
unders tan d it an d to wo rk there
digne ris 3
te r b y th e v irt ue o fth e H o ly Ghos t ;
af
That all ex tre me po v e rty th o u
pl e as e Lo rd to re c o m fo rt ;
Th at the y whi ch are weak in vir
Ut l apsos eri gere e t s tante s co m
tue an d s o o n o v e rco m e in t e m pt ati o n
fo rtare di gneri s ;
Ut pus illan im o s e t te n tatos c o n tho u o f th y m ercy w i l t he lp an d
s tre n gthen them ;
so l ar i e t adj uv are di gneri s 3
That tho u v o uchs afe to giv e univer
Ut re gib us e t prin c ipib us c un c tis
e
m
e t c o nco rdiam do n are dign e ris 3 s al pe ac e am o ngs t all ki ngs an d o the r
a
c
p
rul ers ;
Ut Prin c ipe m no s trum c um s ui s
Th at th o u v o uchs afe to preserv e
o ur m o s t gr ac i o us s o v ere i gn l o rd an d
prae s idib us d i ri gere e t t ueri digneris
Ki ng H enry V III h is m os t gracio us
queen A nn e all th e i r po s terity aid
e rs hel pe rs an d t rue s ubj e c ts ;
That o ur m i n i s te rs an d go verno rs
Ut M agis tratui e t pl ebi no s trae be ne
dicere e t c us to di re di gn eri s 3
may vi rt uo usly rul e th y peo pl e ;
Th at th y peo ple in alictio n o r in
Ut e lic tos e t peri c l it ant e s re s pice re
e t s al v are d i gneri s 3
peri l an d d ange r b y re w at e r o r
l and tho u w i l t v o uch s afe to de fen d
an d pres e rv e 3
That t e em i ng wo me n m ay hav e
Ut prae gn antib us e t lacte ntib us
fe lice m partum e t in cre m e ntum lar j o yful spee d in the i r l abo r ;
gi re d i gner i s ;
Th at all yo ung o rphans an d s i ck
Ut i n fan t e s e t ae gros fo ve re e t c us
to dire di gneri s ;
pe o pl e tho u pl e as e Lo rd to no uris h
an d pro vi de f
o r;
Th at all be i ng c aptive o r in pris
Ut c aptivos l ibe rare d i gn eris 3
o ns tho u w i l t s end deliv eran ce ;
Ut pupillos e t vi duas pro te ge re e t
pro ide re d i gn e r is ;
Th at un to all pe o pl e Lo rd th o u
Ut c un ctis h o mn ib us mis e re ri dj gne
w i l t s h o w thi n e i nes ti m abl e m e rcy ;
That tho u w i l t fo rgiv e all w arri o rs
Ut h os tib us pe rse c uto rib us e t c al
umniato rib us nos tris ign os c e re e t e os pe rs e c uto rs an d to co n v e rt th e m to
c o n e rte re di gn e ri s 3
grac e ;
That th e fruits Lo rd o n th e e arth
Ut fruge s terrae dare e t c o ns erv are
m ay giv e goo d i n creas e an d that tho u
digneris 3
w i l t c o ns e rv e them ;
Th at Tho u Lo rd w i l t hear o ur
Ut nos c us to di re d i gne ri s ;
T e rogam us audi n os
Praye r ;
W e pray The e to he ar us
0 th e v e ry S o n o f Go d
We pray Thee to hear us
0 Lam b o fG o d which t ak e th away
Agne D e i q ui t o ll is pe ccata m un di
th e s i n s o fth e wo rld
H av e m e rc y o n us
et

fructum

The L ita ny

the

Eng lis h

C h urch

Agne D e i e tc
Miserere e tc
,

e tc .

cata n ostra

Ve rs D o min e ,

fa c ias

Ne q ue

A ns

37

Lam b o f Go d e tc
H ave merc y o n us e tc
0 Lam b o f Go d e tc
G iv e pe ace an d res t upo n us
,

Do n a no bis pacem
C hri s te E audi nos
K yri e E le iso n
C hri s t e E le i s o n
K yrie E lei s o n A me n
P at e r nos te r e tc
,

a rsh a ll, 15 3

Agne D e i,

se cu n du m

n on

ec

0L

ord,

hea r th ou my praye r

n o bis .

s e cu n a u m

in iq u itates

Th at my ca lling m ay come

u n to th ee .

n ostras , re trib u a s n o b is .

O O m n i po te n t an d merc i ful Go d,
m is e rico rs P ater, q ui c o n tri
no n
de spic is ge m itum, e t th e Fathe r e tern al , whi ch dos t n o t
to rum
m oe re n tium n o n s pe rn is ae c tum , de spi s e us s i nners , be wail i ng w ith
fe ndi n g th e hi gh
or of
co n trite he art f
ic
ade s to pre c ib us n os tris q uas in af
tio nib us , quae j ugite r n os pre m un t, m aj e s t y , w e pray thee , by th y ho ly
c o ram te e un dim us , e as q ue cle me nte r grac e an d m e rc y , to draw us n e ar to
thee , to he ar o ur praye rs , to fo rgiv e
e xaudi , e tc
fen ces , an d to c o m fo rt us in o ur
o ur o f
i ct i o ns , e tc
af

De us

Vers P e ccavim us , D o mine , cu m


P atrib us n ostris
A n s I nj us te egi m us , in iq u itate m
fe cim us
Deus , q ui de liq ue nte s perire no n
ris , do ne c co n v e rtan tur e t viv an t ,
a
t
e
p
de bitam , q uae s um us , pe c c atis nos tris
s uspe n de v in dic tam , e t prae s ta pro pi
ti us , ne de ss im ulatio c um ule t ul ti o n
e m,
se d tua
pro pe c c atis nos tris
m is eri co rdi a sem per ab un de t
.

Luthe r adds three

co

ll e cts :

O mnipo te n s ae te rne D e us , c uj us

u
Spi rit 3
O m nipo te ns D e us , q ui

nos in t an ti s pe ric ulis co ns titutos ;

an d
Parc e , D o mi ne , parc e pe c

w as

We

h ave s in n e d w it h

ou r

fo refath

e rs .

I n iq u ity h a v e w e w rough t w ith u n


j us t living
Lo rd, Go d, whi ch dos t no t s uffer
the i r
s i n n ers to pe ri s h an d die in
wo rks , b ut rath e r w i l t that th ey shall
c o n v ert an d l iv e , w e h um bly
pray
thee to fo rgiv e us no w , whi l e w e have
ti m e an d s pace A n d give us grace
that w e do n o t abo und in s in , no r in
i ni q uity , no m o re , l es t Tho u, Lo rd, b e
wro th w ith us , e tc
.

M arshall adds o n e c o ll e ct
0 m os t h i gh an d m i ghty Lo rd

n
Go d a d Ki ng o fpe ace
e tc
fo r th e
Ki ng an d co unse llo rs e tc
.

Bi sh o p H ils e y o f Ro ches ter at the c o mm an d m e n t

o f Cru m well pre pared a


Pri m er
givi ng us the rs t o ic ial
fo rm o f the Re fo rm e d E ngli s h Litan y
It very cl osely fo ll o ws
Marsh all reduci ng the n u m ber o fsai n ts but i n clu di ng the arch
angel s apo s tles
ev an geli s ts an d a fe w m artyrs c o n fess o rs an d
virgi ns I n o ther r es pe cts th e c o rr espo n d e n ce with Lu ther o f
In

15 3

9,

Th e L uthe ran [Mo ve me n t in

38
'

15 2

while

cl o se

n o t as

in

Eng land

ge n er al c o n ti nues

The cl o s i n g

'

c o llects di e r
I n the Lit an y pre pared in 15 44 which is th at o f the B o o k
o f C o mm o n Prayer the s i m ple K yrie w as o m itted an d a begi n
n i ng m ad e with its ex pan d e d paraphr as e to w hich
m i s er able
w as add e d the d o gm atic s t ate m e n t o f the pr o ce ss i o n
s i nn er s
bei ng i nserte d in the third petiti o n The [ Ve reminis caris was
transferre d fr o m the cl o s e o f the Pe n ite n ti al Psal ms to the be gi n
The de precati o ns the m selve s are m ulti
n i n g o f the de precati o ns
plied fr o m the pre Re fo rm ati o n E ngli sh Lit an ies Luther s Lit an y

ter the R o m an fur n i shed :


Fr o m S in
Luther s Ger m an
af
Litan y o f 15 2 9 su gges te d the d o ubl e tr ansl ati o n o f I ns idiis

T
rug a nd L is t
craft s an d assau l ts
the
devil
f
a
n
as
o
d
(
)

"
5 e ve rlas tin
r
r
e
e
t
u
a
a
s
as in 1 5 3 5 the tr ansl ati o n o f
a
f
p p
g (
A m o re accur at e re n deri n g o f the Lati n o f
de n e w ige n To d)

1 5 2 9 th an th at o f M ar sh all give s
From b attle a nd murde r

Su d de n an d u n fo rs ee n death fo u n d eve n in Saru m h o wever

S udde n
while Luther s Ge rm an fo l
has bee n ch an ged i n t o
l o we d by Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gn e h as m ad e i t bb s e n s ch ne lle n

The Obsecr ati o ns almo st preci sely re pr o duce Luther s


To d

Lati n add i ng h o wever


C ircu m ci s i o n
ch angi ng T e m pta
ti o ns i n t o the s i ngul ar an d o m itti ng C o m fo rter fr o m By

T h e i n tercessi o ns are ex
the c o m i ng o f the H o ly Gh o s t
an d the o r d er is chan ged f
o r app are n t re as o n s
While
a
n
e
d
d
p
Luther s Litan y de fers prayi n g fo r te m p o r al ruler s u n til the ten th
i n terce ss i o n the Litan y o f 15 4 4 acc o rdi n g to H e n ry s prete n
o r h im be f
s i o ns as He ad o f the Church i nserts ve petiti o ns f
o re
that fo r bi sh o ps an d p as t o rs I n the A m erican B o o k o f C o m

thi s i n vers i o n h as n o t bee n changed and pr ayers


m o n Prayer
fo r te m po r al are m ad e in Epi s c o pal churche s be fo re th o s e fo r
s piritu al ruler s eve n with the as su m pti o n which the ch an ge de
cl are s n o l o n ger receive d The Bi sh o p s Prie st s and d e aco ns
B is h ofe Pfarrh e rr und K irch e n
o f the Pr ayer B o o k are the

o f Luther s Germ an
C o n cern i n g th e petiti o n
die ner
To

giv e to all thy pe o ple an i n creas e o f gr ace


Blun t says :
A
.

'

Th e L itany

the

Eng lis h

C h urch

39

beauti ful c o m bi nati o n o fthe passage ab o ut the g o o d gr o u nd wi th


I ts d ate is
J am es 1 : 2 1 an d G al 5 : 2 2
C f ho w

ever Luther (15 2 9) ab o ve


etc S o
Ut incre m e ntam Ve rb i
al so all the cl aus e s which he is u nable to tr ace to e arlier E n gli sh
Lit an ies o r Ro m an use and as si gns to 15 4 4 3 but which are
M arsh all s pr o bable m i su n
fo u n d alre ad y in the Pri m er o f 15 3 5
That
de rs tanding o fLuther s Lati n is rectied in the petiti o n
i t m ay pleas e Thee to s tre ngthe n such as do s tan d an d to c o m

i
fo rt an d hel p the we ak he arted an d to r a s e up the m th at fall
To
S o als o Luther is agai n m o re accur ately re n d ere d in the

beat d o wn Sat an u n der o ur feet


an d while n o t preci sely ye t
T o succ o ur help
far m o re n early th an in 15 3 5 in the cl aus e :

T o de fe n d an d pr o vi d e
O f the i n tercess i o n
o rt
and c o m f
fo r the fath e rless chil d re n an d wi d o ws an d all th at are d e so l ate

B l u n t says :
O n e o f the te n d eres t petiti o ns in
an d o ppress e d
the Pr ayer B o o k and full o f t o uchi n g s i gn ican ce as o ffered to
It w as pl aced
H im w h o e n tru s te d H is M o ther to H is Apo st l e
here in 1 5 44 (the w o rds bei n g clearly suggeste d by such passage s
Agai n Luther h as bee n o ver
as P s 1 4 6 : 9 ; Jer 4 9 :
l o o ke d eve n th o u gh Herm ann o f C o l o gn e is re ferre d to
Ut

S
o in the n ext peti
e : viduas p ro tege re e t pro vide re
a
il
l
o
s
pp

ti o n
ex pressi n g as the sam e auth o r says
the sam e all

c o m prehe ns ive charity Cr anm er tur n e d fr o m Mars hall to Luther


T h t i t may ple as e thee to h ave
an d tr ansl ate d liter ally :

The s a m e may be sai d o f the n ext


m ercy u po n all m e n
petiti o n
The ver sicle and c o llect th at directly fo ll o w the Lit an y are
D r Blu n t give s the fo rm o f the c o llect fr o m the
fr o m Luther
S aru m M ass in h is par allel with the E n gli sh 3 but Cr anm er fo l
lo we d Luther with all h is vari ati o ns fr o m th at text I nt o th at
c o llect Luther i nsert s o r fo ll o ws an ther text that i nsert s :
O Go d
an d the E n gli sh Lit an y re ad s
[M ise rico rs P ate r

Merci ful Father


Saru m reads : q uas pie tati tuae p ro tri bu
latio ne n os tra ofe rimus ; Luther : q uas in a z ctio nib us q ua e

j ugiter no s premunt co ram te efnndimus and the n the E ngl ish


.

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

40

L i tan y :
That we make be fo r e thee
w h e n so v e r they O ppre ss
ad ver s iti es

Eng la nd

in

tr o uble s and

us
S aru m re ad s

Luther :
E a s gue
lmplo rantes ut nos cle m e nte r respicio s ;

a
u
d
an d the n th e E n gl i sh Lit an y :
t
An d gra
cle me nte r e x

It is certai n ly very patr o n izi n g fo r D r Blu n t


c io us ly he ar us

Her m ann s an d Luther s fo rm is very like o urs


to re m ark :
But i t is still m o re sur pri s i ng to read his remark
It is so m e
what d o ubt fu l whether in the cas e o r the Lit an y o ur E ngli sh
fo r m was n o t in re ality the o ri gi nal o r th at in Herm an n s
bo o k !
Cr anm er h ad m arried
I n a fo o t n o te h e add s that
a n iece o f O sian de r w h o is said to hav e prep ared the Nurem ber g

etc C an i t be that any o ne c o uld


fo rm ul aries fo r L uth e r
thi n k o f traci n g t he liturgi c al re fo rmati o n o f the Lutheran
Church in thi s w ay to an E ngl i sh so urce ! It certai n ly IS in
v e rti n g hi st o ry I
The E n gli sh Lit an y thu s fo rmed was se t fo rth fo r publi c use
Ju n e r1th 15 4 4 With i t e n ded the w o rk o f litur gical re fo rm
in th e reign o f He n ry VIII the Pri m e r o f 15 45 exce pted which
h as s i gn i can c e o n ly as an aid to the m o r e th o r o u gh preparati o n
o r its i n ue n ce o n public wo r
o ll o w , an d n o t f
o fwh at w as to f
ship

all o ur

Intro duc ti o n to

A n n otate d B

f C ommon

ooh o

P rayer,

CHAP TER XIX


TH E C O

Th e O rde r

MMUN I O N

S E RVI C E O F

THE

N G LIS H

C H UR C

M arch 15 48 F i rs t E ho rt atio n trace d to C as se l O rde r o f 15 3 9


Seco nd fro m Vo lpre ch t o f Niirnb e rg 15 2 4 Ide a o f th e A dm o n itio n
Pray e r o fC o n fess i o n fro m th e C o l o gn e O rder
fro m th e C ass e l O rder
A bs o l uti o n co m pare d w ith that o fC o l o gn e in parall e l c o l umn s
O ri gi n
Late r C al
o fth e Fo rm ul a o fD i s tributi o n
E x pans i o n o f th i s in 15 49
vinis tic M o di c ati o n s
H i ll e s T es ti m o n y o f 15 49
of

d eath o f He n ry an d the acce ss i o n o f E d war d at length


gave C ru m well the o p po rtu n i ty to carry o ut h is pl ans o f a th o r
liturgical and do ctri nal fo rm ulas A fter
o ugh re f
o rm o f the
givi ng h is rs t atte n ti o n in l ack o fa m i n i stry pr o perly trai n ed

in purity o fdo ctri n e to the preparati o n o f H o m ilie s


to fur
n i sh the churches with so u n d preac hi n g
o f a C atechi sm
an d
fo r the i ns tructi o n o f chil dre n he be gan the re fo rm ati o n o f th e
C o mmu n i o n Se rvice Fo r thi s pur po se a c o m m i ss i o n o fbi sh o ps
asse m bled in J an uary 1 4 8 3 an d e arly in M arch the res ult s o f
5
their deliberati o ns were publi shed that the fo rm ul a m i ght b e in
tro duce d the s uccee d i n g E as ter
It was a m ere tem po rary pro
vi si o n to su pple m e n t the Lati n M ass 3 but h as le ft its i mpres s i o n
u po n the s ervi ce afterwar ds pr o vi d e d I t begi ns with an e xh o r
fati o u to be m ad e by the m i n i ster
the n ext Su n day o r h o ly
day o r at the leas t o n e day be fo re he sh all m i n i ster the c o m

mu n i o n
Thi s e x h o rtati o n is c o nstructe d after the m o d el o fthe
rs t exh o rtati o n in the Re fo r m ati o n o f C o l o g n e which in tur n
w as t ake n fr o m the C ass el Or d er o f 1
The s ec o n d exh o rt a
53 9
t io n th e third in the B o o k o fC o mm o n P ra e r w as c o n structed aft er
y
the m o d el o f the s ec o n d in the R e fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gne which
is the Niirn b e rg Exh o rtati o n o f V o lpre ch t
The n fo l
T HE

17

4 1)

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

42

Eng lan d

m an

here be an o pe n bl asphemer

an advo ute re r in m alice o r e n vy o r an y o ther n o t ab l e cri m e


etc which fo ll o ws the ide a o f the c o n clus i o n o f the C ass el Ex
h o rtati o n where the o ffe n ce s ag ai nst e ach c o mm an d m e n t are
briey e n um er ate d an d th o s e guilty o f s uch s i ns an d im pe n i
te n t are ur ged n o t to c o m e to c o m m u ni o n The pr ayer o fc o n fe s
o r ma ti o n o f C o l o gn e as
s i o n is an ad apt ati o n o f th at in the Re f
c o n t ai n ed in the o r d er give n ab o ve The
Abs o luti o n
is a
free re n deri ng o f the Re fo r m ati o n o f C o l o gn e
O ur b l e ss ed Lo rd w h o h ath l e ft
Uns e r l i eber H e rre Jes u h at se i n e r
Kirche n de n h o he n tro s t v e rl as s e n po we r to his C hurch to abso l v e pen i
t e n t s i nne rs fro m thei r s i ns an d to re
das e r s e i n e n die n e re n be fo hl e n h att
den e n w e l che ihre s iin de n s to re to th e grac e o f th e H e aven ly
all en
Fathe r s uch as t ruly bel ie v e in C hri s t
le idt s i n dt im gl aube n un d v ertraue n
e tc
un d s i c h z u bess ere n be gehre n di e
l o wed

If

warn i n g :

an y

s iin d z uv e rz e ih e n , e tc

The
c o m fo rt able w o r d s are t aken fr o m ne sam e so urce
where h o wever they prece d e the Abso luti o n
The pr ayer o f
hum ble access s ee m s to h ave bee n derive d fr o m an o ther so urce
The fo rm ul a o fdi s tributi o n ad o pts fr o m the Niirn b e rg fo rm ul a

the cl au se s
which was give n fo r thee
which was s he d fo r

thee
etc u n kn o wn to the M as s Ro m an an d Saru m This
add iti o n was in ac c o r d an ce with Luther s decl ar ati o n in the

S mall C atechi sm that the w o rd s give n an d shed fo r yo u


were bes i d e s the b o d ily e ati n g an d dri n ki n g the pri n ci pal part s
o rm ati o n
o f the S acr am e n t an d wi th th e pre s cri pti o n o f the Re f
m i n i s ters s h o u l d alway s ad m o n i sh the pe o ple
o f C o l o gn e th at
with great e ar n es t n ess to lay to he art the w o r d s give n fo r yo u

I n o ther re spect s
o r the re m isss io n o f s i n s
o r yo u f
s he d f
the fo rm ul a res em bles that o f S c h w H al (Bre n tz ) o f 15 4 3 :
The b o dy o fo ur L o rd Chri s t pres erve thee u n t o everl as ti n g
li fe The bl o o d o fo ur L o rd Chri s t cle an s e thee fr o m all thy

the E ngli s h fo r m ul a o f 15 4 8 bei ng :


The
Am e n 3
s i ns
b o d y o fo ur L o rd Je su s Chri s t which w as give n fo r thee pre
e The bl o o d o f o ur Lo r d
s erve thy b o d y u n t o everl as ti n g li f
Jes us Chri s t which was shed fo r thee pres erve thy so ul to ev e r

las ti ng li fe
.

Se rvice of the Eng lish C hurch

Th e C o mm union

43

This fo rm was ex pan d ed i n t o that o f the B o o k o f C o mm o n


Prayer o f 15 4 9 where the C o mm u n i o n Service take s the fo ll o w
ing fo rm :
C o llect fo r Purity (Fr o m S ar an d R o m Mi ssal s ) 2
1
Kyrie
4 S alut ati o n an d Re spo n s e
3 Gl o ri a in Excel s i s
5
C o llect fo r day with o n e fo r the Ki ng 6 E pi s tle 7 G o s
8 Nice n e Creed
9 Exh o rtati o n (bas e d o n V o lpre c h t s)
pe l
Passages o fScripture i ns tead o f O ffert o ry 1 1 Salutati o n
10
12
S ursum C o rd a 13 Pre face 14 Sanc
and Res po ns e
Prayer o f C o nsecr ati o n i n clu d i ng w o r d s o f institu
15
tus
ti o n (m o d e l led after Saru m and als o fo ll o wi n g in part C as sel
16
17
P ax
an d C o l o gn e ) cl o s i n g with the L o rd s Pr ayer
Chri s t o ur Paschal Lam b is o e re d up etc 18 I nvitati o n
20
C o n fess i o n (C o l o gn e )
Abso luti o n (C o l o g n e )
2 1
19
2 2
C o m fo rt able W o rd s (C o l o gne )
Pr ayer o f Hum ble Access
s tributi o n
d
n g which the Ag nu s D e i is
E
23
Di
uri
as ter n)
(
S c ri pture passage s after C o mm u n i o n 2 5 S alutati o n
2 4
su n g
Prayer o f Than ksgivi n g fr o m the Bran de nburg Niirnb e rg
26
Order
,

'

ra n de n b u rg

M im b e rg,

15 3

1st

Alm e ch tige r ew i ge r G o tt , w i r
S agen de i ner G dtlich e n m iltigk e it lo b
un d dan c k , das du uns m it de m h ayl
s am e n ays ch un d bl ut , de i ne s ayn i
ge n S un s J e s u C hri s ti , uns e rs H e rn n
e s e ys t un d ge tre n ck t h at, e tc
g p

E dw a rd,

15 49

Al m i gh t y an d e v e rl as ti ng Go d, w e
m os t h e arti ly than k th ee , fo r that th o u
h as t v o uchs afed to fee d us in the s e
ho ly M ys te ri e s , w ith th e spi ritual foo d
o f th e m o s t pre c i o us bo dy an d b l oo d
o fth y S o n , o ur S avi o ur J es us C hr i s t ,
e tc.

The i n cre as i n g i n ue n ce o f C alvi n i sm is sh o wn in 15 5 2 by the


i nserti o n o fthe T e n C o m man d me n ts pr o bably as Pr o cter sup
p o s es fr o m the fo r m ul a o fP o llanus but havi ng the prece d e n t o f
the Lutheran O rd er o fFran k fo rt 15 3 0 an d the change o f the
wo r d s o f d i s tributi o n i n t o Take an d e at thi s in re m e m br an ce
that Chri s t d ie d fo r thee an d feed o n h im in thy heart by faith

with than ksgivi ng


D ri n k thi s in re m e m br an ce th at Chri s t s

bl o o d w as s hed fo r thee an d be thank ful


I n 15 5 9 b o th fo rm
ul as were c o m bi n e d I n 15 5 2 the L o r d s Prayer was trans ferred
to the po s t c o m m u n i o n s ervice an d the G lo ria in E x ce lsis pl aced
after the B rande nburg 1V
1
2rnb e rg Than ksgivi n g C o ll e ct
,

The L uthe ran [ Mo veme nt in

44

Eng land

It is c e rtai n ly n o t rem arkable th at in Jun e 15 49 fo ur d ays b e


fo re the rs t B o o k o f Edward appeared Hill es wro te to Bulli n
We h ave a
ger c o n cer n i ng the
Order o f C o mmu n i o n
u n i fo rm c o mm u n i o n o f the euchari st thr o ugh o ut the e n ti re real m
yet aft e r the mann er o f the Niirnb e rg churche s and s o m e o f the
Saxo ns The bi sh o ps and magi strates prese n t n o o bstructi o n to

the Luther ans


The m o st un Lutheran part is the C o nse c ra
t o ry Prayer where pr ayer fo r sai n t s and o ther Ro m an izi n g ele
m e n t s s till rem ai n th e fo rmula o fC o l o gne bei ng fo ll o we d o nly
in its begi nn i ng
,

O rigin al L ette rs , C X

XI

a so

in P

rocte r,

C HAPTER X X
MO RN I N G

THE

A ND

E VE

Th e An c i e n t

NING

S E RVI C E S O F T H E

N G LIS H

C HU CH

M ati n S e rvi ce Th e Lutheran Revis i o n o f th e M ati n Se rvi ce


Luther s E xpl anati o n o fits part s Th e t ypi c al Lutheran M ati n Servi ce
T h e e arl i er E ngl i sh M a
an d th at o f E dw ard V I 3 in parall e l c o l um ns
K lie fo th s E xpla
tin S ervi c e
Th e Vespe r Servi ce o f I E dward V I
I
n ati o n o f th e S t ruc t ure o fth e Lutheran M ati n an d Vespe r S ervi ces
E dward s S ubs tit uti o n o f P s al m s fo r I n tro its ac co rd i ng to L uther s
No t fo ll o wed b y th e Lutheran churches
Form ula M is s ae o f 15 2 3
Lo ss o fI n tro its b y E ngl ish Ch ur ch Th e C o lle c ts in th e Lutheran O r
ders Wh y th e E ngl ish C hurch anti c i pated th e Lutheran in re vis i o n
o fth e an c i en t C o ll e c t s
Ne w C o lle c ts G os pe l s an d E pis t l e s in th e
Mi no r Vari ati o ns expl ai ne d H o w th e E ngl ish O rders
tw o s y s tems
o ll o we d in th e
Luth
s o m e ti m es f
o ll o w L uth er where h e h as no t be e n f
eran C hurch
.

I N n o tici n g th e

l ater ch an ges in the C o mmu n i o n Se rv i ce w e


have an ti cipated the hi st o ri cal o r d er The c o mm i ss i o n which
prepared the te m po r ary o rder fo r c o mmu n i o n c o n ti nued its la
b o r s an d by the cl o s e o fthe ye ar had the e n tire b o o k ready to
be sub m itted to the K i ng by wh o m i t was laid be fo re Parli a
m e nt an d w as nally publi shed Pe n tec o s t 15 4 9 (Ju n e 9th )
The chie fm e m be rs o fthe c o m m i ss i o n bes i d es Cranm er
wer e
pr o bably Ri d ley G o o drich H o lbe ach M ay J o hn Tayl o r

H ayn es and C o x
(Pr o cter )
The Order fo r D aily M o rn i ng Pray e r
o f th e E ngli sh
Church d o es no t gr o w like the H auptgo ttes die ns t o f the Lutheran
Church e n tirely fr o m the C o m mu n i o n Se rvice o r Mass o f the
A n cie n t Church but fr o m its M ati n Service to whi ch i t appe nds
that o fthe Mass T he M ati n was the e arly se rvice be fo re day pro
v ide d no t f
o r the l aity but f
Fr o m the very
o r the cler gy alo ne
,

4 s)

Th e L uthe ran M

46

o ve me nt

in

Eng land

be gi nn i ng Luther p o i nted o ut the gr eat pr o t which w o uld b e


9
der i ved by an adj u s t m e n t o f i t to the u se s o f s ch o o l s
are n o thi n g but w o rd s o f di
Fo r M ati ns o f three lesso ns
ti ful ye a n ece ssary that the b o ys
vi n e Scri pture 3 an d i t is beau
be accust o m ed to read i n g an d he ari ng the Psal m s an d the lesso ns

o f the H o ly Scripture s
E arly ab o ut ve o r six
s ever al p salms are s u ng as at M ass 3 the n there is a s er m o n o n the
E pi s tle fo r the day chiey fo r the sak e o f d o m e s tics that they
m ay be cared fo r and he ar G o d s Wo r d s i n ce they can n o t atte n d
A fterward s there is an anti ph o n and th e
o ther pre achi n g
T e de um laudamus B e nedictus with the L o r d s Pr ayer C o llect s

an d the B e ne dicamu do mine


Thi s s i m ple s e rvice is al m o st preci sely that o f the Prayer B o o k
It is i n teresti n g to c o m pare i t with the o ld Lutheran
o f 15 49
M ati n Service give n in L ob e s Age n de
,

'

L uth e ran

E dw a rd V I

I st

[ S chl e sw i g H o l s te i n (B ugenh age n


C ree d ; L o rd s
15 4 2 ) be gi ns w ith
P r ayer
O Lo rd O pen tho u m y l i ps
A n d m y m o uth sh all e tc
-

Lo rd s Pra yer
O Lo rd o pe n th o u m y l i ps
A n d m y m o uth sh all sho w e tc
0 G o d m ak e s peed to s av e m e
O Lo rd m ak e has te to he l p m e
Gl o ri a P atri
H alle l uj ah
Ven it e P s X C V
Gl o ri a P atri

0 G o d m ak e s pe e d to ,
0 Lo rd , m ak e has te to ,
Gl o ri a P atri
'

e tc .

e tc.

H allel uj ah
Ven ite P s X C V
Gl o ri a P atri
Hym n
O s ati s fy us e arly w ith th y e tc
A n d w e w i ll b e gl ad e tc
O n e to three ps al m s
Gl o ri a P atri at e n d o fe ach
Fi rs t L C SS O D
O rdi n ar i ly fro m th e O ld T e s ta

m e n t P russ i an KO
,

C ert ai n ps al ms
Glo ri a Patri at e nd o feach
O ld T e s t ame n t Lesso n

T e D e um

T e D e um

B ene d i c ite
N ew Tes tam en t Lesso n
B e nedi ctus

Se co nd Le ss o n
B e n e di ct us
K yri e
L o rd s Prayer

or

C re e d

dire c ti o n fro m S chl es wig H o ls te i n 15 4 2 : T h e Les so ns sho uld


tak en o nly from th e B ibl e i e from the O lda n d Ne w Te s tam en ts
1

Cf

. .

be

[ Mo rn ing and

Eve n ing Se rvice s of E ng lis h

C h urch

Lo rd s Pray e r
V er s i c l es an d R e s po ns e s
S al ut ati o n an d R e s po ns e
C o ll e c t o f day fo ll o we d b y
fo r pe ac e an d fo r grace

47

Ve rs i cl e

Res po ns e
S al ut atio n and Res po nse
Sev e ral C o ll e c ts th e rs t be i ng
an d

fo r th e day

co

llect

S al utatio n an d Respo ns e
B e nedi c ti o n

Let thi s be c o m pare d with the far m o re c o m ple x M ati n Ser


vice in Bi sh o p H ilse y s Pri m er o f 15 3 9 o r He nry s o f 15 4 5 and
the d eter m i n i ng i n ue n ce o f the Lutheran liturgie s will be
appare n t
The sam e m ay be said o f the Order fo r Eve nso ng o f 15 49
We give it fo r c o m pari so n wi th the Ve sper Service fam ili ar to
m an y o fo ur re ad er s fr o m its pl ace in the C o mm o n Or d er o f the
Lutheran Church :
L o r d s Prayer 0 G o d m ake speed to save us 0 Lo rd
H al lelujah Psal ms in
G lo ria P atri
m ake h as te to hel p us
Or d er Old Tes tam e n t Less o n [ M ogrn cat Ne w Te st am e n t
L esso n [ Vnnc D imittis Sam e su ffrage s as at M ati ns C o llects
C o n cer n i ng the s tru c ture o f th e Lutheran M ati n an d Vesper
Services which have bee n thus fo ll o wed by the Chur c h o f E ng
2
l an d Klie fo th has so m e o b serv ati o ns th at m ay be o f i m po rt an ce
to o ur re ader s :
The M ati ns be gi n with an i n tr o ducti o n c o n si s ti n g o f the
D o m in e labia me a D e us in a d/uto rium an d Ve nite in which
G o d is o n the o ne han d i n v o ked to gran t h is aid agai ns t all
e nem ie s an d hi n d ran ces to the preachi ng o f h is W o r d 3 and the
c o ngre gati o n o n the o ther hand is i n vited by such pr o cl ama
ti o n an d c o n fes si o n to c all u po n the Lo rd The n fo ll o ws the
psal m o d y c o ns i s ti ng o f Psalm s 1 109 in o rder an d whe n they are
n i shed be gi nn i ng an ew While h o wever the c o n te n t s o f the
psal m s are ge ner al an d always i de n tical regard to the facts o f
fo r d s in acco rd an ce with the o rder
salv ati o n which the day af
o f the Church Ye ar is h ad by the antiph o n s which they i n clu d e
F o ll o wi ng the psal m o d y is the re ad i ng o f Scripture 3 the e n tire
Scri pture is re ad c o n ti nu o u sly but again with regard to

L itu rgisch e A bh an dlungen , VIII

179 s q q

T he L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

48

Eng land

the C hurch Ye ar th e chie f fact s o r fu nd am e n t al th o ught s c o n


tain e d in wh at is re ad bei n g always pre se n te d by th e re spo n so rie s
But after the c o n gregati o n h as bee n fe d by the W o r d o f G o d
in the tw o fo ld fo r m o fp sal m o d y an d le sso n i t all o w s the W o rd
ruit 3 an d such fruit appear s in the b ym
o rth f
o fG o d to bri n g f
The T e D e um an d the B e ne dictus o r a hy m n an d th e
n o dy
B e ne dictus o r a hy m n an d the Ath anas i an Creed are su ng 3 fo r
in s i ngi n g the Ath anas i an Creed o r Te D e um o r B e n cdictus we
m ake c o n fe ss i o n o f o ur acce pt an ce o f the salvati o n which h as
bee n he ar d fr o m the W o r d o f G o d an d bri ng the sacri ce o fth e
fruit o fo ur li ps 3 s i n ce whe n a h ym n o r the T e D e um o r the B e n
e dictus is su n
a
n
h
i
a
n
i
a
a
lv
ti
pr
i
s
e
d
n d the sacri
o
d
d
s
s
a
o
s
G
g
fere d
At the sam e ti m e thi s
c e s o f th an ksgivi n g are o f
li ym n o dy give s M ati n s the ch ar acter o f M o r n i n g W o r ship
s i n ce a m o r ni n g hy m n is n atur ally ch o s e n
But a Chri sti an n o t
o nly h as to th an k an d pr ai s e G o d 3 he n ce f
o ll o wi ng the hy m n is
the ac t o fsu ppli c ati o n 3 in the Kyrie G o d s m ercy is i m pl o red
the L o r d s Prayer the c o m m o n pr ayer o fall chil dre n o f G o d is
pr ayed and nally everythi n g is su mmarized in the C o llect
which s i n ce it is de te mpo re recurs agai n to the p arti cul ar fact
o fsalv ati o n give n in the Church Ye ar an d pres e n ted alre ad y by
the an tiph o ns o f the psal m s an d the hy mn N o thi n g the n re
m ai n s but n ally in the B e n e dicam us to i m pl o re G o d s ble ss
in g
All thi s is b o th li turgi cally an d m u s ically c o nn ected in th e
cl o ses t an d m o s t beauti ful m ann er ; betwee n the v ari o u s p arts
there as ce n d s u n t o Heave n at i n terval s (after the D e us in adj u
to rium after the Psal m s after the re spo nso ri e s after the B e ne
dictu ) t he G lo ria P atri be ari n g the wh o le as a m o r n i ng o f
feri n g
The M ati n Servi ce there fo re c an b e
to the thr o n e o f gr ace
I n tr o ducti o n Psal m o dy
s i m ply arr an ge d in the s ucce ss i o n o f

Lesso ns Hym n o d y Prayer an d C o n clu si o n


We n d preci s e l y the sam e suc c ess i o n in Ve spers The dis
ti n cti o n is c o n ned to the so m e wh at brie fer arran gem e n t o f the
i ntr o ducti o n the use o f the Ve sper (P s 1 10 15 0 ) i nstead o f the
M ati n p sal ms an d the di ffere n ce o f Hym n o dy
The l as t is
,

o rn ing a n d

Eve n ing Se rv ice s of Eng lis h C h urch

49

the mo s t i m po rt an t di s ti n cti o n betwee n Ve spers an d Mati ns as


it is give n thereby the character o fan Eve n i n g Servi c e o fP rayer
I n Ves pe rs i t is n o t the jubil an t T e D eum n o r the m o r n i ng
hy m ns but the M agnn
fcat an d the Nunc D imz ttis and eve n i ng
hym ns th at are su ng ; an d the [ Vunc dimittis is a hym n o f part
ing fo r the cl o s e o f the day as well as fo r the cl o s e o f li fe
Thus there is in Lutheran M ati n s an d Ve spers a s t ructure jus t as
It h as here j us t as xe d an
th o ugh ful as in the chie f service
o rder an d o rg an izati o n an d yet with thi s
pr o vis i o n is m ade
fo r the ri c hes t i m partati o n o f the e n tire divi n e w o rd an d th e
m o s t care ful ad apt ati o n to the peculi aritie s o f the s e as o ns and

d ays o fthe Church Ye ar


Next to the o r d ers fo r M ati ns and Eve nso ng thr o ugh o ut the

year the Litur gy o f 15 4 9 gives the v ari able p arts o f the ser vice
fo r e ach day o f the Church Ye ar
The I n tr o it s are n o t tho se o f the R o m an o r Sarurn Mi ssal s but
e n tire psal m s viz 1 Su n d ay in A d ve n t Psal m 1 2 d P s 12 0
3 d P s 4 4th P 5 5 Chri s t m as D ay At Fi rs t C o m m u n i o n P s
9 8 3 At Sec o n d C o mm u n i o n P s 8 St Ste phe n s D ay P s
2
etc
5
Thi s ch an ge w as m ade acc o rdi n g to Luther s ad vice in 15 2 3

whe n in h is Fo rmula M is s ae he writes


We w ouldpref"

a lm s
I n thi s h o wever he was n o t fo ll o we d by the Luth
s
p
eran churches ge n erally The liturgy o fS c hwab ac h H all o f 15 2 6
h o wever d irect s th at fo r the I n tr o it p sal m s be sun g
I n the
Luther an Chur c h the reten ti o n o f the I ntr o i t w as atte n d e d with
n o little d i f
fi cu l ty
It was su n g n either by the pas t o r n o r by
the pe o ple but by the ch o i r ; as an no u n c i n g to b o th the le ad i ng
th o u ght th at the Lo rd h ad fo r h is Church o n that day There
w as m uch tr o uble e n c o un tere d in its tr ansl ati o n
I n the L ati n
each I n tr o i t h ad its o wn m u s ical arr ange me n t and to such a de
gree w as the e o rt m ad e to give e ach w o r d an d sh ade o f th o u ght
its pro per t o n e th at it is i m po ss ible to s i n g the I n tr o its transla
te d in t o Germ an acc o rdi ng to the setti ng which they h ave in
Lati n
Fo r a ti m e in so m e o r d e rs the I ntr o i t o f the lead i ng
,

'

Klie fo th

L itu rgi sch e A bh an dlu ngen , V I

2 2 4.

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in

50

Eng la nd

u sed o n the Su n d ays bel o n gi n g to the peri o d o f


whi c h i t was the ce n ter thu s re n d eri ng such dii c ultie s less nu
m e ro us
B ut they all were n ally o verc o m e 3 an d the Luth
eran Service rej o i c e s in the rete n ti o n o fthe o ld I n tr o its I n th e
E ngl i sh Chur c h the s ubs ti tuti o n o f the Psal m s w as un satisfac
t o ry fo r the re as o n th at n o s eries o f Psal m s c an be u sed to
ex pre ss the preci s e th o u ght o f e ac h Su n d ay an d there fo re in the
revi s i o n o f 15 5 2 they fell o ut Whe atly h as s o m e jus t o bs er va

ti o ns o n the de fect cau se d by thi s su ppress i o n o f the I n tr o it s


A s wi th the I n tr o i ts so with the C o llect s the Luther an Or d ers
e n c o u n tere d peculi ar di fculties in ad apti n g the m to the revi sed
They are in the o ri gi nal s o c o n de n se d and s o m uch
s ervice
te n de pe n d s up o n alliter ati o n an d o ther pe c u l i ari
o f the f
o rm o f
ties n o t re ad ily tr an sl atable that ti m e was required fo r thi s w o rk
Bes ide s thi s in a n u m ber th o u gh as Luther re marks in his Fo r
mula [ Mis s a e n o t in m o s t o f th o s e fo r Su n d ay u n evangelic al do c
tri n e h ad e n tered o fwhich they h ad to be pur ged I n the R 0
m an Church c o n tr ary to the o rder o f Greg o ry where but o ne
o ccur s three C o llect s were re ad t o gether the rs t bei n g th at o f
the day Luther i nsi s te d th at there sh o uld be o ne C o llect an d
fo r the ti m e th o u ght th at thi s i nste ad o f bei n g varied every
Su n d ay sh o ul d be m o re freque n tly repe ate d in o r d er th at the
m
a
m
e
le
by
bec
o
m
i
n
f
a
ili
a
r
with
it
m
i
ht
the
o
re
he
rtily e n
o
p p
g
g
ter i n t o its s pirit The Br an de nbur g Niirnb e rg Or d er c o n tai ns
there fo re ei ghtee n C o l lect s with o ut de signati o n o f day o ne e ach
fo r the Birth o f Chri s t the Pass i o n o f Chri s t E as ter As cens i o n
D ay Whi t sun d ay Tri n ity the C o m i n g o f G o d s Ki n gd o m the
D o i n g o f G o d s Will an d tw o P ro pace
S o o n the atte m pt
was m ad e to c o m po s e an ew C o llect s fo r e ach Su n d ay th e m o s t
n o te d bei n g th o s e o fVei t D ietrich p as t o r o fSt S e b ald s N
iirn
an d o fJ o h an n M atth e sius
ber g (Wi tte n berg
(Niirnb e rg
a rich c o llecti o n f
o rall Su n d ay s an d Fe st ival s appe ari n g al so
in the O es te rre ich unte r E ms Order o f 15 71
The Lutheran
Church w as there fo re an tici pated by the Church o f E nglan d ,
fe s tiv als was

R atio n a l I llustration qfB

f C ommon

oo h c

P rayer, p

2 05 .

[ Mo rn ing

a nd

E ve n ing

Se rv ice s of Eng lis h C h urch

51

the w o rk o fthe m o re c o m plete revi s i o n o f the o ld C o llect s


Thi s w as u n d o ubtedly o wi ng p artly to the far gre ater e as e with
which transl ati o ns o f pr ayers c o uld be mad e fr o m Lati n i n t o
E ngli sh than fr o m Lati n i n t o Germ an the Lati n elem e nt s in
the E n gli s h o e ring m uch aid 3 fo r it m u s t no t be fo r go tte n that
in d ev o ti o nal l an gu age o n ly the very s i m ples t w o r d s are all o w
able an d a s i n gle tech n i cal an d s cie n tic ter m on the o ne h an d
o r a c o ll o qui al phr as e o n the o ther w o uld m ar an e n tire C o llect
The c o m pi l e rs o f the B o o k o f 15 49 h o wever al so fo l l o wed the
e xample o fthe Luther an re fo rm ers o f the Service in s ubstituti ng
fo r the o ld C o llect s a n u m ber whi ch they either c o m po sed o r in
r o m Lutheran s o urces The n e w
s o m e c as e s pr o b ab l y d erive d f
C o llects o f 15 4 9 are th o s e fo r I II A d ve n t Sec o n d fo r Chri st
m as day Qui n q uage s i m a Ash We d n esd ay I Le n t I II p
E as ter S ts Th o m as Matthi as M ark Phi l i p and J am e s Barna
b as J o h n the B apti s t Peter J am es the A po s tle M atthew Luke
Si m o n an d J ud e and All Sai n t s D ays chan ges bei n g m ade in
tho s e fo r Sexage s i m a Su n d ay p Asce nsi o n C o n vers i o n o f St
Paul an d St B arth o l o m ew
The G o spel s an d E pi s tl es o f I E d ward VI and o f the Luth
e w v ari ati o n s
S o m e o f thes e are
e r an Or d ers exhibit o n l y a f
as e g where in the
m o re n o ticeable in the Sec o n d B o o k
Firs t B o o k pr o vi s i o n is m ad e fo r tw o c o mm u n i o n s ervices o n
C hri s t m as an d E as ter d o uble s ets o f lesso n s are give n in the
Sec o n d B o o k with o nly o n e C o mm u n i o n Service the le ss o ns fo r
the sec o n d Chri s t m as Servi ce and fo r the rs t E as ter Service are
ad o pted while the per m an e n t le sso ns in the Luther an Church
beco m e th o s e fo r rs t Chri s t m as Se rvice an d the s e c o n d E as ter
Service Th es e d i ffere n ces thu s are e n tirely th o s e o f a l ater
5
ti m e Luther in 15 2 4 gave Heb 1 1 1 2 and J o h n 1 1 1 4
ter the pr o per
o r Hi gh M ass o n Chri s t m as the D ay af
as the l ess o ns f
less o ns fo r Tit 2 1 1 15 and Luke 2 1 14 The use o f Sar um
er less o n s as tho se fo r C hri s t m as at Mi d ni ght an d
o rm
sh o ws the f
the latter as th o se fo r the third mass
in

1mEd
.

L X 111:

175

Tb e L

ullz e ra n [ li ar
/am e n!

in E ng la nd

The G o spel s an d E pi stles o f the fo ur Su n d ays in A d ve n t i n


the Luther an an d A ngli can Churches d i ffer fr o m th o s e in the R 0
m an Mi ssal the l atter o m itti n g the peric o pe o fo ur L o r d s trum
ph al e n try and the c o rresp o n d i n g epi s tle o n I A d ven t an d
tr ansferri ng thither the le sso ns fo r II Adve n t 3 an d the n transfer
in g to II A d ve n t th o s e o f III A d ve n t 3 to I II Adve n t th o s e o f
IV Adve n t 3 an d as th o s e fo r IV A d ve nt pres cribi ng Luke 3 r
sq q
fo r the G o s pel an d I C o r 4 : I sq fo r E pi s tle a m o dern
ch an ge o n the part o fRo m e c o n trary to the te sti m o n y o f the o lder
Order s S o to o e speci ally in the l atter part o f the Church Y ear
Ro m e h as m ad e m an y ch an ges in the l esso n s o f the An cien t
Church whi ch the Luther an Church h as ret ai n ed
O n the Sun d ay after Chri st m as I E d ward i n tr o d uced i nstead
o f the G o spel o f b o th the S aru m an d Luther an Or d er s the G o spel
fo r Chri s t m as eve an d the Mi d n i ght Chri st m as Se rvice M atth
I : I sq q s ervi ces fo r whi ch the E n gli s h Re fo rm ers mad e n o
pr o vi s i o n but wh o s e G o spel they dee m e d i t i mpo rt an t to retai n
6
o ne
Fo r Pal m Su n d ay Luther in 15 2 4 pres cribed tw o G o spel s
fo r the day gen erally u sed in the Luther an Church ; the o ther fo r
the M ass M atth 2 6 2 7 ad o pted by 1 E d ward an d al s o even to
the pres e n t used in m an y Lutheran churches as part o f the P as
I f we n d a d iver ge n ce o n X XV Su n d ay p
s i o n H i s t o ry
Tri n ity betwee n the le sso ns o f the two C hurche s a re fere n ce to
Luther r5 2 4 sh o ws th at th o s e pres cribed by h im are the sam e
E pi s tle : J e re m 2 3 : 5 8 3 G o spel :
as th o s e o f 1 E d ward viz
7

That is the di fferen ce is that the E ngli s h Re


J o hn 6 3 5 14

Regi s ter o f E pi s tles an d G o spel s


fo rm ers fo ll o we d Luther s
while the Lutheran Orders fo ll o wed th o se ad o pte d by Luther in
h is P o stil s

3 E rl
.

Ea

Ib p
.

LX III :

2 18.

192 .

C HAPTE R
TH E O

RD E R

Archb isho p

OF

BA PT IS M I N

XXI
T HE

N G LIS H

C HU C H

L aure n ce s Tes ti m o ny Th e E ngl i sh I ntro ductio n w ith Luth


eran S o urce s T h e R ubri cs trace d to Lutheran O rders T h e E ngl ish
B apti s m al E xho rtatio n w ith its o ri ginal in paralle l co l um ns P al m er s
d i ffi cul t y expl ai ned A prayer fro m Luther Bl unt P al m er Pro c ter
H oing s I n v e s ti gati o ns
T h e S i gn o fth e C ro ss an d ac
o n th e P rayer
ro m th e C o l o gne O rde r T h e E xo rc is m fro m L u
c o mpan yi ng wo rds f
the r P al mer o n th e Lutheran o ri gi n o fwhat fo llo ws H i s to ry o f c l os
A n A ddress fro m O s ian de r
D e v e l o pm e n t o fA ddress in
ing C o ll e c t
B randenburg Niirnb e rg C ass el W rte mb e rg and I E dward VI B ap
C o nditi o nal B apti s m
tis m in P riv ate H o uses

C O N C E R N I N G the Order fo r the Mi ni strati o n o f B apti sm Arch


bi sh o p Laure nce says :
The o f ce o fo ur o wn Church is pri n

r o m the Luther an s
Dr Bl ake n ey with like
c ipally b o rr o we d f
The address is b o rr o wed to a gre at exte n t fr o m
frank ness :
the Re fo rm ed Service o f C o l o g ne
The r st prayer is derived
I n the s electi o n
fr o m a fo r m which is attribute d to Luther
o ll o we d n o t the S aru m o f
ce
o r m ers h ave f
o f the G o spel o ur Re f
but the C o l o g n e
The c o llect is t ake n fr o m the sam e
3
etc S o Blu n t C ampi o n andB e aum o n t Warre n etc
s ervice
etc That Archbi sh o p Laure n ce is ri ght in sayi ng th at i t w as
r
nci all bo rr o we d f
o m the Luther ans will be m an i f
es t o n an
r
i
p y
p
e xam i nati o n o fthe Order o f I 5 49
,

1
2

sq q

pton L ectu res , p

am

Tb e B

ook

183

C o mm o n P

ra e r
y

in its H is to ry

an d

I n te rpretatio n , p 5 10
.

53 )

Th e L

54

[ Mo ve me nt in

ut/z e ran

Eng land

D M I N IS T RA T I O N O F P UB LI C B A PT IS M T O B E H E L D
I N T H E C H URC H
It appe areth by an cie n t wri ter s th at the S acr am en t o f B ap
tism in the o ld ti m e w as n o t c o mm o n ly m i n i s tere d but at tw o
ti m es in the ye ar at E aster an d Whi ts un ti d e at which ti m es i t

was o pe n l y m i n i stered in the pres e n ce o fall the c o n gregati o n


S e/rw H a ll (15 2 6 B re nt z ) :
I n th e rs t churches o n ly tw o ti mes

were appo i nt e d fo r B aptis m E as ter and Pen te co s t


I t is k nown th at th e an c ie nts bapti z e d o nly o n
C o logn e

n
E as ter an d P e te c o s t
B apti sm sho uld b e adm i n i s tered o n fe s
Nassau (15 3 6 S arce rius )

tiv al days be fo re th e ass em bl ed c o ngregati o n


Which cu s t o m (n o w bei n g gr o wn o ut o f use ) alth o ugh i t
c ann o t fo r man y c o nsi der ati o n s be well re s t o red agai n yet i t is
th o ught g o o d to fo ll o w the sam e as n ear as c o n ve n ie ntly may be :
Where fo re the pe o ple are to be ad m o n i she d that i t is m o s t c o n
but up o n Sun
ve nie n t th at B apti sm sh o uld n o t be m i n i s tere d
d ays and o ther h o ly d ay s whe n the m o s t nu m be r o f pe o ple m ay

c o m e t o gether
C o log ne (15 43 )
B ut s i n ce it perhaps wo uld n o t b e so s uit ab l e to
res to re s uch ti m es to the i r o ld po s iti o n H o ly B aptis m ifth e chi ldren b e
n o t s i ck ly an d there b e an xi e t y abo ut de f
erri ng it un to th e h o ly day
m us t n o t b e giv e n un ti l th e h o ly days when th e pe o pl e an d church o f

Go d are t o ge ther
C f Wiirte m o (15 5 3 b ut do ubtl ess fro m an e arl i er O rder )
Ne v
it ab l e that ex cept fro m th e n e cess ity o f
e rth e le ss w e dee m it m o re pro f
the i r we ak n ess ch i ldren sho uld b e presen ted fo r B apti s m n ot at th e ti me
when there are n o church ass e mb lie s b ut o n a S un day o r o ther fes tiv al
days o r upo n a week day where there b e pre aching o r a l arge num be r

o fpeo pl e c o m e t o ge ther
As well fo r that the c o ngreg ati o n there pres e n t m ay tes ti fy
the receivi ng o fthe m that be n ewly b aptized i n t o the nu mber
an t s
o f Chri s t s Church as al so bec au s e in the B apti sm o f I nf
every m an pre se n t may be put in re m e mbran ce o f h is o wn pro

fessio n m ade to G o d in h is B apti sm


Wh ereby the y n o t o nly do a ki n dness un to th e
S e /z w H all (15 2 6 )
c hi ld b y publ i c prayer b ut e v ery o ne is adm o nished o f h is B apti sm th at

b e dire c t his l i fe ac c o rdi ngly


O F T HE A

'

T/z e O rde r
S ax

dren

V23

B ap tis m in M e E ng lz s /z C h a ro/z

A rticle s

b ut

'

a so

Wiirte m o

draws

an d

55

Th us B apti sm is n o t o nly a s i gn to chi l

adm o n i shes adul ts


to repe n tance
Cf
.

Fo r which c aus e al so , i t is expedien t that B apti sm be m i ni s


te re d in

the E ngli sh t o n gue


I t is no t o nl y us e less b ut unreaso n abl e to b ap
S e /z w H all (15 2 6 )

tiz e in a s tran ge l an guage

B aptis m sh o uld b e mi n is tered in German


Wzi rt m o (15 3 7)
Neverthele ss (ifn eces s ity s o require ) chi ld re n o u ght at all

ti m es to be baptize d ei ther at the church o r els e at h o m e


B apti sm may as ne cess it y re quires b e admi n
S /z w H a ll 15 2 6 )
is te re d at all ti m es an d pl aces
B apti sm sho uld b e adm i n is tered o n fes tiv al days
Na s a n (15 3 6 )
be fo re th e ass em bl ed c o ngregati o n b ut dare no t b e den i ed s i c k chi l
dre n
Where there b e no t d anger o f death
where
C o l gn
B ut if th i s c ann o t b e th e chi ld shall b e b a
th e ch i l d b e n o t s i c k ly
p
Fo r w ith o ut H o ly B apti s m th e y
ti e d at any ti m e whe n bro ught

m us t n o t b e all o wed s o far as w e c o n c ern e d to de part


.

The rubric d irects that i n fo r mati o n o f the de s ire to have th e

child b aptize d be give n


o ver night o r in the m o r n i n g
while
the Re fo r m ati o n o f C o l o gn e pres cribe s that i t be give n in g o o d

ti me
The q ue s ti o n is rs t as ke d whether the child be b ap
tiz e d o r n o t evi d e n tly in o r d er th at where L ay o r No t/z taufe
have o ccurre d pare n ts m ay be preve n te d fr o m any such err o n
c o u s pr acti ce as that o fa s u pp o sed rebapti sm Such pr actice the
Pruss i an Order o f I 5 2 5 explicitly fo rbid s as a blas phe m y o fh o ly
bapti sm
He n ce the Brand e nbur g Niirnb e rg Order o f I 5 3 3 ex
The pries t shall rs t as k wh o s e the child is
plic itly st ate s :

wh at i t s h all be nam e d and whether i t have received faelztaz/fe


m
ati o n o f C o l o gn e :
B
apti sm ) an d the Re f
o
r
The
L
a
y
pas
(
t o r s s h o ul d as k whether in has te they have be fo re receive d B ap
tism o r as i t is called ge no tlz tauft s e in
Fo r if thi s h ave o c
curre d acc o rdi ng to the pr o pe r o rder th e pas t o rs sh o uld mai n

tai n the o r d er
The service begi ns wi th an Exh o rt ati o n whi ch m os t E ngli sh
,

6
5

The

ut/z e ran [ Mo ve m e n t

in E ng land

writers tr ace to the Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o g n e I t is u nw o rthy o f


Blu n t s sc h o lars hi p that he tries to res o lve the c o n n ecti o n o f the
tw o fo r m u l as i n t o a m ere s u gges ti o n
No r do es he see m to be
acqu ai n ted wi th m
o r e than the o pe n i n g s e n te n ce
The exh o rta
ti o n is o lder than the Re fo r m ati o n o f C o l o gn e I n its r s t fo r m
i t w as pre pare d by Luther in 15 2 1 w as re peate d in a n u m ber
o fthe o l d er Or d er s as the S ax o n o f 15 3 9 an d the Po m er an i an
an d w as am pli f
ie d and c o m bi n e d wi th a s i m ilar Exh o rta
o fi 5 4 2
ti o n fr o m B ran de n b urg Niirnb e rg o f I 5 3 3 in M ark Bran d e n burg
I 5 40 S c h w H all 15 43 Ott Hei n rich I 5 43 an d Re fo rm ati o n o f
C o l o g n e r5 4 3
Thi s Exh o rtati o n in the v ari o u s fo rm s in which
i t o ccurs in the Lutheran Or d ers may be fo u n d in H o ing s D u:
3
The c o m piler s o f the E ngli s h fo rm ula
S acrame nt de r Yanfe
o r m ul a be f
o re the m which
see m to h ave had Luther s o rigi nal f
they greatly c o n d e nsed
.

a t/t e r

1 E dw a rd V I
.

D e ar fri e nds in C hris t : We h e ar


dai ly o ut o f th e Wo rd o f Go d an d
l e arn b y o ur o w n e pe r i e n ce that w e
ro m th e fall o f A dam are c o n
all f
w here i n b e
c e i e d an d bo rn in s in
in g unde r th e wrath o f G o d w e m us t
h av e be en c o ndemn e d an d l o s t e t e r
n ally e x cep t w e b e de l iv e re d b y th e
o n ly be go tt e n S o n o f G o d o ur Lo rd
Jes us C hr is t
I be see ch yo u there fo re that fro m
C h r i s ti an l o v e ye e arn e s tly i n t e rc ede
fo r thi s ch i ld w ith o ur Lo rd Go d th at
b
r
i
n g it to th e L o rd J es us C hris t
e
y
or
o r it th e f
an d un ite in i m pl o r i n g f
e n e ss o fs i ns an d e n tran c e In to th e
i
g
Ki ngdo m o f G rac e an d S al v atio n

D e ar be l o v e d :

h as

o as m uc

all m e n

e iv e d
an d bo rn in s in an d th at n o m an bo rn
in s in c an e n ter i nt o th e K i n gdo m o f
Go d except h e be rege n e rate an d
bo rn ane w o f wate r an d th e H o ly
Ghos t ;
I be s e e ch yo u to c all upo n Go d th e
Fath er thro ugh o ur Lo rd J e s us C hri s t
that o f h is bo unt e o us m e rcy h e w i ll
gr an t to th es e ch i ldre n that th i n g
whi ch b y n ature the y c an n o t h av e
that is to s ay that they m ay b e bapti ed
w ith th e H o ly Ghos t an d re c e iv e d
i n to C hri s t s h o ly church an d b e
m ade l iv ely m e m be rs o fth e s am e
Pal m er says o f thi s
We can perhaps s carcely n d an y par
al lel to thi s am o ngs t the pri m itive ritu al s o fthe church exc ept in
th o s e o f the chur c he s o fG aul T he G o thic and an cien t G al l ican
litur gi es publi she d by T h o m a ius an d M ab illo n pre scribe an ad
v

be

co nc

Vo l

II

64 sqq

Tlz e O rde r

ptis m

in the E ng lz s /z C /z n rc/z
'

57

dress o r pre face o f thi s kin d at the very c o m m e n ce m e n t o f the


ce o fbapti sm
But the exam ple which he g
ive s sh o ws o n ly
of
I t is : Bel o ved brethre n let us in
a very re m o te re s e m bl an c e
the h o ly ad m i n i strati o n o f the prese n t Mys tery hu m bly beseech
o ur Al m i ghty Cre at o r an d S avi o ur w h o h as dei gn e d by h is gr ace
to i m part
to res t o re the ad o r nm e n t s o f nature l o s t by the fal l
h is virtue to thes e w ater s bo th th at the pre se n c e o f the Triu n e
M aje sty m ay as s i s t in pr o d uci n g the e ffect o f m os t h o l y rege n er

etc The re ad er wi l l se e h o w little i n ue n ce s uch an


ati o n
Exh o rtati o n co uld have h ad e ither o n Luther o r o n the E ngli s h
re fo r m er s
C o n c e rn in g th e prayer which fo ll o we d there c an be n o ques
5
ti o n that i t c o m es fr o m Luther Bl un t says :
Thi s prayer is
r o m the o ld o fce o f the E ngli s h Chur c h b ut is
n o t derive d f
an sl ate d i t i n t o Germ an
r
b
b
l
y
Luther
tr
o fgrea t an tiq uity
a
o
p
in 15 2 3 an d i t appears agai n in h is
fr o m the an c ie n t Lati n
revi s ed b apti sm al b o o k o f I 5 2 4 Fr o m the n c e i t w as trans ferred
iirn b e rg o fce and appe ar s in the C o nsult ati o n o fAr c h
to the N
T h e l atter w as transl ated i n t o
bi sh o p Her m an n ih 1 5 4 5
E ngli s h in 15 4 7 an d the prayer as i t s tan d s in th e Prayer B o o k
is al m o s t in de n tical with thi s tr an sl ati o n as give n
o f 15 4 9

i e the prayer in I E d war d Thi s prayer w as so m e


ab o ve
what abbrevi ate d in I I E d war d 15 5 2 an d there fo re al s o in
the E ngl i sh B o o k as no w k n o w n Pal m er after all h is lab o r to

fr o m which Luther tr ans l ated giv es a


nd the
o ri gi nal
prayer fr o m the G o thi c Mi ssal in which there is o ne cl au se o f
eight w o r d s s i m il ar :
O G o d wh o d i d s t san cti fy the river

J o rd an fo r th e salvati o n o f s o ul s
Pr o cter frankly says :
The r s t prayer s ee ms to have bee n o rigi nally c o m po sed by

Luther
H oin g after the mo s t th o r o ugh s e arch am o n g the M e di aeval
Age n d e h as failed to fin d a trace o f thi s prayer I ts abse n ce

O rzgz n es L z turgz e ae ,
'

'

A n n ota te d B

O n th e B

'

II :

oo k o

172

f C o m m on

ook o

f C omm on

ye r, p

ra

P raye r, p

2 18.

Tlz e L

58

utlz e ran

o e m e nt

in E ng lan d

fr o m

the R o man iz ing P r o tes t an t liturgies is al so s ig n ican t


He c o n clude s t here fo re th at alth o ugh in Luther s T anfozccklcz n
everythi n g el s e h as been tran sl ate d
the hypo the s i s
of I 5 2 3
o f Luther s auth o rs hip h as m o s t
fo u n d ati o n
Thi s excelle n t
a
r
a
yer
h
a
s
l so wi thi n the sphere o f the Lutheran Church n o t
p
m erely the m o s t exte nsive d i ffu s i o n but al so the m o s t perm an e n t
7
accept an ce an d ad o pti o n
As give n in the r s t E n gli sh Prayer B o o k i t read s
Al m ighty and everlas ti n g G o d which o f thy ju s tice did s t
de str o y by o o d s o fw ater the wh o le w o r l d fo r s in ex c ept ei ght
perso n s wh o m o f thy m ercy (the sam e ti m e ) th o u d i d s t save in
the Ark ; an d whe n th o u d i d s t dr o w n in the Re d S e a wicked
Ki n g P h ar ao with all h is ar m y yet (at the sam e ti m e) th o u d id st
lead thy pe o ple the chil d re n o f I srael safely thr o u gh the m id s t
there o f3 whereby th o u d id s t gure the w as hi ng o f thy h o ly b ap
tism 3 an d by the b apti sm o f thy well bel o ve d S o n Je su s Chri st
th o u di d s t san cti fy the o o d J o rd an an d all o ther waters to thi s
m ystical was hi ng away o fs in 3 we beseech thee (fo r thy i n n ite
m ercie s) th at th o u wilt m erci fully l o o k upo n thes e ch il d re n and
y the m with thy H o ly Gh o s t that by thi s wh o le so m e l aver
s an cti f
o f re ge n er ati o n wh at so ever s in is in the m m ay be w as he d cle an
bei ng delivered fr o m thy wr ath m ay b e re
away 3 th at they
r o m peri sh
c e iv e d i n t o the ark o f Chri s t s C hurch an d s o saved f
in g : an d bei n g ferve n t in spiri t s tead fas t in faith j o y ful thr o ugh
h o pe r o o te d in charity m ay ever s e rve thee An d nally att ai n

t o everl asti n g li fe wi th all thy h o ly an d ch o s e n pe o ple


The use o f the s i gn o f the cr o ss at thi s po i n t the m an n er in
which it w as m ad e an d al m o st the very w o r d s fo ll o w the Re fo r
The preci o us c o llect that fo l l o ws is fr o m
m ati o n o f C o l o gn e
D e us z mmo rta lc
the o ld o i c e s
0 G o d da

Al m i ghty an d i mm o rt al G o d the aid


u ns te rolicne r T ro s t

etc I n the an cie n t service i t bel o nged to


o fall th at n ee d
the o r d er fo r the B apti sm o fad ults Luther tr ans ferred i t to In
fan t B apti sm
.

'

' '

7 D as

S a cra m e n t de r Ta ufe , V o l

II : p

53

The O rde r

B ap tis m in the

Eng lis h C h urch

59

Eve n the Ex o rci sm which Luther trans ferred fr o m th e Order


fo r A d ult Bapti sm is ret ai n e d
The s i ngle s e n te nc e o f the R e f
O rm atio n o f C o l o gn e an d Bran de n bur
h
g Niirnb e rg w as n o t su f
cie n t and to i t was ad ded the s ubstan ce o f Luther s vig o r o u s
fo rm ul a o f 15 2 4 :
,

1 E dw a rd V I
.

D arum
te r,

du

M k Br.
Urth e il,
-

l e i di ger [ Ve rm ale de y
15 40
] Te ufe l erken ne
,

15

Th ere fo re tho u c urs ed


m em be r th y s e n tence e tc
,

49

i rit

Sp

te

de i n
e tc
Blun t wh o regrets its o m i ss i o n in l ater editi o ns thr o ws the
blam e u po n the h al fsce ptical G e rmanls m o fB uc e r
The G o spel re ad was in the an te Re fo r mati o n o fce s fr o m
M atth 19
1
The E n gli s h Re fo r m ers fo l l o we d the R e fo r
3 15
mati o n o f C o l o gn e which in tur n fo ll o we d Luther in substitut
ti ng Mark 10 : 13 16
8
The ad dress
Pal m er explai ns what i mm e d i ately succeed s :
o ll o w the G o s el an d term i nate the I n tr o
and c o llect s which f
p
ducti o n o fthe bapti smal o fce do n o t o ccur in the ancie n t o f
ar as I c an perceive
The
c e s o f the An cie n t Church as f
fo rm s the m selves are in part t ake n fr o m the Ritu al o f Her man n

He sh o uld have sai d that the C o llect Al m ighty


o f C o l o gn e
is a literal trans l ati o n
and everl as ti ng G o d he ave nly Father
yi n g cl au s e o f th e Lutheran Or d er bei ng su ppress e d
o n ly a qu ali f
The res t o fthe s ervice is al m o s t preci sely that o f Luther The
cl o s i ng C o l l ect which at o ne ti m e was the subject o f m uch co n
tro v e rs y in the Church o f E ngl and o rigi nal ly w as u se d in the
bapti sm o fpr o selytes in c o nn ecti o n with the chri sm that fo ll o wed
bapti sm :
Al m i ghty G o d Father o f o ur L o rd Jes us Chri s t w h o hath
re ge n er ate d thee o fwater an d the H o ly Gh o st and h ath give n
an o in te th thee with the
un t o thee re m i ss i o n o f all thy s i ns
u n cti o n o fsal v ati o n u n t o everl as ti n g li fe in the nam e o f Jesu s

Chri s t o ur Lo rd A m e n
Al m ighty G o d gran t un t o them rem i ss i o n o f all si ns se n d
.

,
.

'

II :

p 176
.

60

Th e L uthe ran M

o ve m e nt

Eng land

in

L ord up o n the m the H o ly Gh o st the C o m fo rter and giv e the m

the s pirit o fwi s d o m an d u n d er stan d i n g e tc


Luther in I 5 2 3 whe n h is revi si o n o f the o ld o rder w as as ye t
t the C o llect
o n ly te n t ative ret ai n e d th e chri sm an d there f
o re le f
in its rs t fo r m o n ly transl ati n g it
Thi s Order w as ret ai n e d by
M k Bran de n bur g 15 40 and Ott Hei n ri ch 15 43
The E ngli s h
C o mm i ss i o n retai n ed th e chri sm m o di fyi n g the fo rm o n ly by
the chan ge o f the c o n clusi o n i n t o v o uchsafe to an o i n t thee
with the u n cti o n o fh is H o ly Gh o st an d bri ng thee to the in

heritan ce o f everl as ti ng li fe
Luther h o wever in 15 2 6 h ad
o m itted the chri sm an d am e n de d the C o llect acc o r d i n gly bei n g
fo ll o we d in thi s by Br an den bur g N rnb e rg i n t o the si m pler
fo rm :
A nd w h o h ath fo rgive n thee all thy s i n s s tre n gthe n

H ad t h e m o re th o r
thee by his grace u n t o everl as ti n g li fe
o ll o wed by Cr anm er an d h is asso
o ugh Luther an revi s i o n bee n f
ci ates the s ub seque n t revi si o n in the E n gli sh Pr ayer B o o k
which h as gre atly m arre d i t m ight have bee n preve n ted
The ad dre ss to the Sp o nso r s while derived parti ally fr o m th e
Saru m an d Yo rk U s es is far m o re de pen d en t u po n the fo rm ul a

o rigi nal l y i n tr o duce d by O sian de r in 15 2 4 i n t o h is T a u


/Zuch e
r n berg Order o f
an d the n ce ad o pted by the Bran de nburg N u
The
C
a
s sel Order o f 15 3 9 s h o ws o ther po i n t s o f re se m
1
53 3
bl an ce which re ach a m o re c o m plete devel o pm en t in the Wur
te m b e rg Order o f 15 5 3
I E dw ( I
F o r as much as thi s chil d hath pr o m i s ed by
yo u h is suretie s to r e n o u n ce the devil and all h is w o rk s to b e
lieve in G o d an d to s erve h im 3 ye m ii s t re m e m ber that it is
y o ur part s an d d utie s to se e th at thi s i n fan t be t aught s o so o n as
he sh all be able to le ar n what a so le m n v o w pr o m i s e and pro fe s
An d th at he m ay k n o w the se
s i o n he hath here m ad e by yo u
the better ye sh all call up o n h im to he ar serm o ns an d ch iey
ye shall pr o vi d e that he m ay le ar n the Creed the L o r d s Pr ayer
an d the T e n C o m m an d m e n t s in th e vul gar t o n gue an d all o ther
thi ngs which a Chri s ti an o ught to kn o w and b e liev e to h is so ul s
,

'

R i chter s

K z rch e n ordn u ngen ,


''

10

The O rde r

B aptis m in the

Eng lis h

C h urch

61

health 3 and that thi s child may b e virtu o us ly bro ught up to lead a
m
n d a Chri s ti an li f
m
e ri ng always that ba ti sm
d
ly
e
re
e
b
a
o
3
g
p
d o th re prese n t u n t o us o ur pr o fess i o n which is to fo ll o w the ex
and to be m ad e like u n t o h im 3
am ple o fo ur S avi o ur Chri s t
that as he died and r o se agai n fo r us so sh o uld we wh o are b ap
tiz e d die fr o m s in an d ri s e agai n fr o m righte o us n ess 3 c o n ti n
yi ng o ur evil and c o rrupt a e c tio ns an d daily pro
ually m o d i f

c e e ding in all virtue and g o dli ne ss o f livi n g


Br an de n bur g Niirnb e rg ( I 5
I be seech yo u fr o m Chri s
ti an l o ve as to what ye have n o w d o n e in Bapti sm in the pl ace
o fthi s child that if it be de prived o fits pare n ts by de ath o r o ther
n e be f
o re i t c o m e to the use o f re aso n ye d ili ge n tly an d
m i s fo rtu
faith fully i n struct and teach it rs t the T e n C o m man d m e n ts in
o r d er that thereby i t may lear n to kn o w G o d s Will an d its s i ns ;
the n the Cree d whereby we receive gr ace the fo rgive n ess
o fs i ns an d the H o ly Gh os t ; l as tly also the L o r d s P r ayer in
o r aid to with
o rder th at it m ay call u po n G od and pr ay to h im f
e u n til G o d shall full
s t an d S at an an d to le ad a Chri s ti an li f
that which he has n o w be gun in Baptism an d it shall be eternally

saved
Ifwe n d n o thi ng in Bran de n burg Niirnb e rg c o rres p o n di n g

Re m e mberi n g etc any o n e wh o is


t o the cl o s i ng w o rd s fr o m
fam ili ar with the cl os e o f Luther s tre at m e n t o f B apti sm in h is
C atechi sm k n o ws whe n ce they are derived
The c o rre spo n di ng Wiirte m b e rg ad m o n i ti o n o ffo ur years l ater
It al m o s t preci sely
is so rich an d be auti ful th at i t is here add e d
c o rres p o nd s with the C ass el Order o f I 5 3 9 an d there fo re in its
m o s t e sse n tial features was in the hands o f the E ngli sh C o m
m i ss i o n
Ye all pare nt s an d relative s o f thi s child an d as man y as b e
here prese n t sh o uld no w ack no wledge and r egard thi s child
s i n ce H o ly Bapti sm as n o n e el se th an a ch il d o f the Al m i ghty
and a me m ber o fo ur L o rd Jes u s Chri st wh o m al s o the angels o f
G o d s se rve in n o wi se d o ubti n g that what so ever ye do th is
child whether ill o r g o o d tha t ye do G o d Hi m sel f and o ur
,

Th e L uthe ran /o ve me nt in E ng land

62

Lo rd Je su s Chri st No r sh o uld c o rt o r l ab o r be sp are d by an y


acc o r d i n g t o h is calli n g an d rel ati o n with thi s chil d t o
o ne
bri ng i t up well fo r the Lo r d and to i nstruct and te ach i t to o b
s erve all th at the L o rd h as c o m m an de d us t o be o bs erved 3 an d
acc o r d i n gly ye p are n t s rel ative s an d s po ns o r s s h o ul d s pare n o
pai ns an d have the C hil d s o so o n as i t have att ai n e d the pr o per
u l ly br o ught to the church fo r c atecheti cal i nstructi o n
aith f
age f
in o r d er th at i t m ay learn th o r o ughly wh at gre at an d in e x pre ss i
ble gi ft s h ave bee n bes t o we d an d transm itte d i t in H o ly B ap
tism an d the n in the church willi n gly an d c o r d i ally an d c o r
dially c o n fe ss and afr m fo r it s el f its faith an d in ac t and deed
re no u n ce the d evil and the w o rl d with all their w o rks an d lus t s
an d decl are th at it wi l l abi d e by the L o r d an d h is H o ly Church
in e n tire o be d ie n ce to h is H o ly G o spel live faith fu l ly to o ur L o rd
Chri s t u n t o the e n d and as a livi n g m em ber o f Chri st an d
faith ful bran ch o f Chri st s vi n e bri n g fo rth m u c h fruit to the
gl o ry o f G o d and th e adv an ce m e n t o f his H o ly Church

Am e n
Pass i n g to the Order O f the m th at be in Priv ate H o u s e s in

ti m e o f Necess ity
th e de pe n d e n ce is n o les s man i fe s t
With
e w o f the m ai n
o ut e n teri n g i n t o all the det ail s o f the s ervi ce a f
feature s m ay su fce
I Edward
They shall w ar n the m that wi th o ut great cause
and n ece ss ity they b aptize n o t childre n at h o m e in their h o u se s
An d whe n great n ee d s hall c o m pel the m so to do th at the n they
m i n i s ter o n thi s fas hi o n
Firs t let the m that be prese n t call u po n G o d fo r h is gr ace an d
fer
A n d the n o n e o f
say the L o r d s Pr ayer if the ti m e w ill s u f
the m s hall n am e the chil d an d d ip h im in water o r po ur water
up o n h im sayi n g thes e w o rd s : I baptize thee in the nam e o f
the Father an d o f the S o n an d o f the H o ly Gh o st A m e n
An d let the m n o t d o ubt but that the child so baptize d is l aw fully
cien tly baptized an d o u ght no t to be baptize d agai n in
and s u f
the church But yet n evertheless if the child which is after thi s
so rt b aptiz e d
do afterw ard s live i t is expedie n t that he b e
.

Th e O rde r

p tis m

in the

Eng lis h

C h urch

63

br o ught i nt o the church to the i n te n t that the pri es t may e x

ully b aptize d o r n o
am i n e an d try whether the chil d b e l aw f
C o mpare thi s n o w with R efo rmatio n of C o logne (15 43 o n th e
bas i s o f the Sax o n Order o f I 5 3 9 the Wtirte mb e rg o f 15 3 6 and
H amburg o f
The pas t o r s sh o ul d i nstruct the pe o ple in their s erm o ns that
they s h o ul d no t re ad ily has te n to No thtaufe u n less extrem e ne c es
s ity require that bapti sm be ad m i n i stere d an d ifso t hat they m us t
rs t cal l u po n o ur L o r d G o d pray the Lo r d s Pr ayer an d the n
baptize the chil d as Chri s t c o mm and ed h is apo stles in the nam e
o f the Father an d o f the S o n an d o f the H o ly Gh o s t n o thing
d o ubti ng th at the child I s pr o pe rly an d sui c ie n tly baptized an d
Yet
s h o ul d n o t be baptized agai n in the ch urch o r o therwi se
s uch child if i t l ive s h o ul d be br o u ght i n t o the church that th e
pas t o r m ay as k the pe o ple whether they b e certai n that the c h ild

have bee n pr o perly baptize d


,

R efo rma tio n

T h e P as to r

hall

1 E dw ard,

C o logn e ,
as k

further :

Th e

Pr i e s t

further :

Th ro ugh who m w as th is do ne P
A n d w h o w e re pre s e n t ?

By who m

Wh o

hall exam i ne the m

hi ld w as bapti ed
pres e n t whe n th e C h i ld

th e

w as

bapti z ed
Wh e th er th e y w h o b apti z e d th e
Whe the r th ey c alled upo n Go d fo r
ch i ld c all e d pro pe rly upo n th e n am e
gr ace an d s uc co ur in th at n ecess ity P
o fth e Lo rd ?
A n d b ap ti z e d th e ch i ld w ith w a
W ith what th i ng o r what m atter
they d i d bapti z e th e chi ld ?
te r
I n th e n am e o fth e Father an d o f
W ith what wo rds th e C hild w as
bapti z ed
th e S o n an d o f th e H o ly G ho s t ?
Wh e ther the y k no w that the se
Wh ether they thi nk th e ch i ld to b e
wo rds were use d ac co rd i ng to C h ri s t s l aw fully an d pe rfe c tly bapti z e d
co mm and P
I c e rti fy yo u th at in this c as e ye
No w m y dear frien ds I de cl are
that ye hav e do n e ri ght and well in hav e do ne well an d acco rdi ng un to
do i n g all this in th e N am e an d ac due o rde r co nce rn i ng th e bapti z i ng
co rd i ng to th e co mm an d o f o ur Lo rd
o f this ch i ld
Jes us C hris t
The res t o fthi s service is a re petiti o n o f what is fo u n d in the
The fo r m fo r C o n d iti o nal B ap
o rder f
o r Public Bapti sm

tism
I f th o u be n o t b aptized alre ady
etc is n o t in ac
It was
co rdan ce with th e C o l o gn e Order alth o ugh the ac t is
w as

64

Th e L uthe ran [Mo vem en t in

Eng land

pres cribed in the an cie n t o r


der s an d afterward s e n d o r se d by th e
C o un cil o f Tre n t The o ld Luther an Order s v ary The Re fo r ma
ti o n o f H ess e ( 15 2 6 ) an d H am burg ( 15 2 9) pre se n t s i t while th at
Buge n h age n) expre ssly fo rbid s it
o f Schles wi g H o l s tei n ( 1 5 4 2
C o l o gn e an d S axo n y si m ply say th at the chil d sh all be baptized
precisely as th o ugh it w e r e kn o wn to b e n o t bap tized
,

C HAPTER
T HE

RD E RS

FO R C

XXII

O N F IRMA T I O N MA RRI A G E
,

THE

SI C K

B URI A L

ISI TAT I O N

OF

Ro me s E xal tati o n o f C on rm ation to a S acrament expl ai ned C he mnitz o n


C o n rm ati o n
E x am i n ati o ns in Lutheran an d E ngl i sh O rders
C ate
T h e A ngl i c an C o ll e c t de riv e d fro m th e C o
c h is ms o f th e tw o O rders
l o gue an d C as s e l O rders T h e A ct o fC o n rmatio n an d its Wo rds Th e
T h e o ld E n gl is h O rders
M a rriage C ere m o n y
A m e n dm en ts and Ad

ditio ns fro m th e Lu the ran O rde rs


T he
V is it ati o n o f S i c k
an d

B uri al as l ikew ise m o di ed D r C ardwell s Tes ti m o n y

C O N F IR MAT I O N ,

lth o ugh no w u n iver sally pr acticed in the


Lutheran Church an d highly es tee m e d as a m o s t v al uable eccle
o r a l o ng ti m e f
ell i n t o di sre pute in the reacti o n
s ias tical rite f
fr o m the R o m i s h o vere s ti m ate o f its i m p o rt an ce an d the err o r s
Ro m e with o ut any Scri p
an d supers titi o ns c o n n ected with it
tural auth o rity urge d its n ecess ity and rai s ed i t to the pl ace o fa
Sacr am e n t 3 m ade the chri sm an e ss e nti al ifn o t the m o s t i m po r
t an t part 3 an d so e xalte d i t as to di spar age the e fcacy o f B ap
H o w th o r o ughly R o m e u n der m i n es the v alue o f B apti sm
tism
b o th by her d o ctri n e o f Pe nan ce and o f C o nr m ati o n is n o t
ge n erally u n ders t o o d B apti sm with her is the sacram e n t fo r
the be gi nn i n g o f the Chri sti an li fe 3 but its i n ue n ce is evan es
ce n t an d o ther sacram e nt s bri n g c o m fo rt to the m o re m ature
Chri s ti an The gre at e nd o f its teachi n g to th o se w h o h ave bee n
b aptized is n o t there fo re daily to retu rn to G o d s c o ve nan t in
bapti sm 3 but to s eek n e w o rdi nan ces in which a ne w c o ve nan t is
th at in B apti sm
m ad e
As Che m n i t z h as s t ate d the err o r w as
the H o ly Spiri t is give n so lely fo r re ge n erati o n but th at fo r
a

(2 6 5 )

Th e L

66

uth e ran

o ve m e n t

in E ng land

ther n ecessary gi fts he is n o t give n in B apti sm but o n ly in

C o n r m ati o n
The d i su se o f C o n r m ati o n there fo re spee d ily fo ll o wed when
there w as an e m barras sm e n t in retai n i ng i t with o ut c o n ti nui ng in
the m i n d s o f the pe o ple the fal s e e s ti m ate Nevertheless i t d id
n o t bec o m e e n tire l y o b s o lete thr o ugh o ut the Sixtee n th Ce n tury
The writer ab o ve m e n ti o n e d the greates t the o l o gi an o f the L u

ther an Chur c h in h is Re futati o n o f the C o u n cil o f Tre n t


prese n ts the Lutheran view o f C o n rm ati o n as fo ll o ws
Our
writer s h ave freque n tly sh o wn that with the u se l ess su pers titi o n s
the rite o f C o n r m ati o n
an d u ns cri ptur al trad iti o ns re m o ved
m ay be u se d after a go dly m ann er an d in har m o n y with S c rip
ture s o that they w h o have been b aptize d in i n fan cy (fo r such is
n o w the s t ate o f the Church ) whe n they have att ai n e d to ye ars
o f di s creti o n m ay d ilige n tly be i n s tructe d in a xe d an d s i m ple
catechi sm o f Church d o ctri n e A n d whe n they s ee m to have at
tain e d the ele m e n t s in a m o der ate de gree they are afterwar d s
pres e n te d to the bi sh o p an d the Church 3 an d there the child
bapt ized in i n fan cy is rs t ad m o n i s he d in a brie f and s i m ple
exh o rt ati o n c o n cern i n g h is b apti sm viz h o w why and i n t o
what he w as b aptiz e d w hat the H o ly Tri n ity c o n ferre d an d s eale d
up o n h im in H o ly B apti sm viz the c o ve nan t o f pe ace an d the
c o m pact o fgr ace 3 h o w re nu n ci ati o n o f Satan pr o fess i o n o f faith
2
The child
an d pr o m i s e o f o bedie n ce were there m ade
make s a publi c pr o fe ss i o n o fits o wn be fo re the e n tire Church 3
He is as ked c o n cer n i n g the chie f t o pi cs o f Chri sti an d o ctri n e
is m o re c o r
an d answers to e ach 3 o r if he do n o t u n der st an d
re c tly i ns tr ucted
4 He is ad m o n i shed an d by thi s pr o fes s i o n
an atic al an d pr o f
r
cl
i
th
t
he
d
i
r
o m all heathe n f
an e
ss e n t s f
m
a
a
s
o
p
o m the Wo r d
e
r
ar n es t e x h o rtati o n is add ed f
A
n
o pi n i o n s
5
and in th at
o f G o d to per s evere in the c o ve n an t o f B apti sm
d o ctri n e an d faith an d by ad van ci n g to be gradually c o n rm e d
6 Publi c pr ayer is made fo r thes e chil d re n that G o d w o uld
dei gn to g o vern preserve and c o nrm the m in thi s pr o fess i o n
o

Ex

C on cil T rid
.

I : 2 96

The O rde rs fo r C o n rm atio n , M


To

a rria

ge ,

c.

67

whi c h pr ayer the l ayi ng o n o f han d s may with o ut super


No r is the prayer vai n 3 fo r i t is bas e d o n the
stitio n be add e d
pr o m i se s c o n cer n i ng the gi ft o f pers ever an ce an d the gr ace o f
C o n r m ati o n Such rite o f C o n r m ati o n w o ul d c o n fer gre at

pr o t fo r the e di c atio n o f the y o u ng an d the e n tire Church


Alth o u gh thi s was publi she d n early thirty year s after I E d
war d i t s h o ws the es ti m ate o f C o n rm ati o n which thus far had
Eve n C o n r m ati o n by a bi sh o p o r su peri n te n d e n t is
o btai n e d
here all o we d alth o u gh in the sam e c o n necti o n the err o r o f the
C o un cil o f Tre n t is sh o w n in anathe m atizi n g all o ther than
e pi sc o pal C o n r m ati o n 3 fo r ifan y prie st o r eve n in cas e o fne
c e ss ity a l aym an m ay b aptize while o n ly a bi sh o p m ay c o n r m
C o n rm ati o n the hu man rite is elevate d ab o ve Bapti sm the d i
vi n e o r d i nan ce
The o r d er fo r C o n r m ati o n o f the E nglish b o o k agree s with
the prece d i n g Luther an Or d er s in requiri ng a kn o wle d ge o f the
Cree d the L o r d s Pr ayer an d the T e n C o mm an d m e n ts No
o n e in either c o m m u n i o n w as to be ad m itte d with o ut an e xam i
,
nati o n c o n cer n i ng the s e part s o f the C atechi sm
See Luther s
vi go r o u s l angu age in the begi nn i ng o f h is Pre face to the S mall
C atechi sm S o Bran de nburg Niirnb e rg :
Th o s e wh o n either
c an n o r will le ar n the T e n C o m m an d m e n t s Creed an d L o r d s

Pr ayer sh all n o t be ad m itted to the sacram e nt


He n ce the
m os t dili ge n t exam i nati o n is u n i fo rm ly required be fo re the r st
c o m m un i o n The Private C o n fe ss i o n the n prevale n t in the L n
theran Ch urch gave pas t o rs the O ppo rtu n ity fo r such e xam i na
ti o n an d he n ce re nd ered the de sire fo r such public rite as that
o f C o n rm ati o n le ss ur ge n t
A fterward s there cam e a ti m e whe n
Private C o n fe ssi o n had falle n i n t o di suse ; an d the n the n eed
o fs o m e such cere m o n y as C o n r m ati o n o n the eve o f the rs t
ad m i ss i o n to c o m m u n i o n ass erted it sel f and br o u ht ab o ut its
g
rest o rati o n Nevertheless as the ab o ve extr act fr o m Che mn itz ih
dicate s the public e xam i nati o n was by n o m e ans u nu su al pro
vi si o n bei ng m ade fo r i t especi ally in su c h Orders as furn i s h the
C o mm o n Pr ayer so m uch m ateri al as the C ass el Or d er o f I 5 3 9
,

Th e L uth e ran IMo vem e nt in

68

an d th e

Eng la n d

m uch

qu o ted Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gn e
Be fo re all th e
c o ngre gati o n (C assel C o l o gn e )
publi c in the church b e
fo re the pe o ple
Ott
Hei
n ri ch 1 5 43
i
the
very
l
an gu age o f
s
(
)
th o se o ld Or d er s
I E d war d plac es the exam i nati o n in charge o f the bi sh o p
C o l o gn e says that thi s w o rk w o ul d be e speci ally appr o pri ate to

the bi s h o ps ifthe d i o ceses were n o t so l ar ge


an d ass i gns it to

Vi s itat o r the p as t o r h o wever aski n g the ques ti o ns Mark


a
Bran de nburg I 5 4o ) n o twi ths t an d i n g its Ro m an izi n g reput ati o n
Si n ce than k G o d the p o pul ati o n in o ur l an d s is great
says :
e w so th at there will be to o m an y f
an d the bi s h o ps f
o r the m to
hear an d i nstruct each o ne they may c o mm it thi s to their pas
t o rs Nevertheless we thi n k it well th at whe n ever C o n r m ati o n
by the pas t o rs o ccur so m e o ne o f th o se le ar n e d h e with them to
s e e th at the p as t o r s atte n d t o i t pr o perly an d do n o t rei n tr o duc e
fo r m er abu s e s o r c arele ss n ess 3 an d the Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gn e :
It is n o t the prer o gative o f bi sh o ps so th at n o o n e el s e m ay
ad m i n i s ter i t as b apti sm which is m o re is ad m i n i stered by o rdi

n
It
n ary m i n i s ter s ye a in c as e o f n ecess ity by an y Chri sti a
that they may le arn to k n ow their
is as s ign ed to bi s h o ps o n ly

he arers an d e speci ally the y o ung pe o ple


I t w o ul d n o t be dif
cult to rec o ns truct the rs t three rubri cs o f the r s t E ngli s h b o o k
fr o m th e C o l o gn e Or d er an d the n al o n e is th o r o ughly Lutheran
The C atechi sm
in d o ctri n e alth o u gh we cann o t tr ace its o ri gi n
whi c h fo ll o ws
to be le ar n ed o f every chil d be fo re he be

br o ught to be c o n r m ed o f the bi sh o ps
we treat o f in a s e pa
r ate ch apter It is su fcie n t here to say th at C o l o gn e is agai n
fo ll o we d by the i n tr o d ucti o n o f the C atechi sm in thi s pl ace as
well as in its sub j e c t m atte r O f the tw o C o l l ect s in the r st
E ngli s h Order the r s t was the s ec o n d pr ayer in c o nn ecti o n
wi th the u n cti o n at A d ul t B apti sm in the an te re fo rm ati o n O r

der s 3 an d the s ec o nd Al m i ghty everl as ti n g G o d is c o n ceded


by m o s t E ngli sh auth o rities to be fr o m the C o l o gn e Ord e r
The prayer fr o m the Ei ghth Ce n tury o f E gbert bi sh o p o f Y o rk
whi c h Pal m er giv es as its so urce has o n ly the fai ntes t res e m
.

'

The O rde rs

or

C o n rm atio n , M

a rriag e ,

c.

69

bl an ce It is fo u n d al so in the C assel Order o f 15 3 9 and then ce


2
I n v ari o u s revi s i o ns it
h as bee n tr ac e d by H i in g to B uce r
c an with
is ge n erally fo u n d in the Luther an fo r m ul aries an d
3
c u l ty be suppl an te d by an y o ther s i n c e i t is excelle n t
di f
The ac t o f C o n rm ati o n in I Edward was acc o r d i ng to that o f
the an c ie n t fo r m :
I s ign thee w ith the si gn o f the h o ly

cr o ss
etc an d was re pl aced in II E d war d (15 5 2 ) by the
s h o p while h is h an d s res te d u o n the o n e
r
yer
s
a
i
d
by
the
bi
a
p
p
c o n rm e d :
De fe n d
Lo rd thi s child with thy he ave n ly
gr ac e that he m ay c o n ti nue thi n e fo rever an d d ai l y i n cre as e in
thy H o ly S piri t m o re an d m o re u n til he c o m e u n t o thy e ve rlas t

Thi s al so c o m es fr o m the C assel and C o l o gn e


ing ki ngd o m
Or d er s :
Re c eive the H o ly Gh o s t as thy pro te c ti o n and d e
fen ce agai nst all evil an d thy s tre n gth an d aid u n t o all go o d
fr o m the graci o us h an d o f G o d the Father S o n an d H o ly Gh o s t

Am e n
The M arri age c ere m o n y in the E ngl i sh B o o k is to a l arge
exte n t fr o m the o ld E ngli sh with very i m po rtan t add iti o ns
i n tr o d uced fr o m the Luther an Or d er s The o pe n i ng add ress
which h as bee n le ft u n c han ged in succeedi n g revi s i o n s in E ng
l an d h as bee n m uc h c o n de nse d in the Am erican e d iti o n I n
the Saru m Or d er the add ress read
B rethren w e are gath e re d to ge the r in th e s ight o fG o d an d h is angel s
ac e o f th e C h urch to j o i n t o ge th r tw o pe rs o n s
to
an d allth e s ai n t s in th e f
w it th i s m an an d this wo m an th at w h ats o e r they hav e do ne afo re ti me
hen ce fo rth th e y m ay b e o n e b o dy ye t tw o so ul s in th e fai th an d law o fG o d

Yo rk Us e ] to th e e nd they may to
to k nyt th e s e tw o b o dye s to gyde r

ge ther att ai n e te rn al l i fe
,

Thi s was c o n de n sed i n t o an i n tr o d u c ti o n


D early be l o ved fri e nds w e are gath e red to g th e r h ere in th e s i ght o f
Go d an d in th e fac e o fh is c o n gre gati o n to j o i n to ge the r th i s m an an d th i s
wo man in h o ly m at ri m o ny
The res em bl an ce to the I n tr o d ucti o n o fthe Re fo rmati o n o f
C o l o gn e fully j us tie d the rete nti o n o fth e o ld fo rm u l a It ran :
e

II
Ib

:
.

3 66 ;

Lob e

Age n de ,

II :

47

T he L uthe ran ! Mo ve m e n t in

70

ppe ar be fo re G o d o ur H e av e n ly

an d his C hurch,
e tc
Ye

Father

Eng la nd

an d

Ch ri s t

Jes us

o ur

Lo rd

What fo ll o ws is chiey a c o n d e n sati o n o f the l o ng add ress in


Schwab H all o f 15 43 n o prece d e n t fo r it be i n g fo u n d in the
It fo ll o ws the o r d er an d us es the very
o l d er E ngli s h Or d ers
l an guage o f thi s liturgy o f Bre n tz
E N G LIS H PRA Y E R B O O K (I 5 49) :
Which is an h o n o rabl e
e st ate i ns titute d o f G o d in Par ad i s e in the ti m e o f man s i nn o
s i gn i f
yi ng u n t o us the m ystical u n i o n th at is betwi xt
c e nc y
5
Chri s t an d h is Church 3 which h o ly e st ate Chri s t ad o r n ed and
b e auti e d with h is pres e n ce an d rs t m iracle th at he wr o u ght in
6
C an a o f G al ilee an d is c o m m e nde d o f St Paul to be h o n o r
able am o n g all m e n 3 an d there f
o re is n o t to
be e n terpri se d o r
7
t ake n in han d u n advi se d ly li ghtly o r w an t o n l y to sati s fy m e n s
8
c ar nal lus t s and appetite s like brute be ast s th at h ave n o u n der
s t an d i n g but revere n tl y di s creetly ad vi s e d l y s o berly an d in the
9
fe ar o f G o d
O ne c au se w as the pr o creati o n o f c hil d re n to
-

H ALL
Fo r th e M arri age e s tate h as n o t b e en devi se d

b y hum an re as o n b ut w as fo un d an d i ns titute d b y Go d h im s el fin P aradi se


5 Fro m C o ll e c t at c l o s e o f
B randen
O s ian de r s ( 15 2 6 ) an d Luther s
burg Niirn b e rg
S c h w H all
C o l o gn e
an d m o s t L n
th e ran O rde rs
Where i n th e S acram e n t o fTh y dear S o n Jes us C h ri s t an d

There is a s i m i l ar C o ll e c t in
th e C hur ch h is B r i de is s i gn i e d un t o us
S arum fro m th e G e l as i an S acram e n t ary
Wh o h as t co n s e crated th e s tate
o fm atr i m o n y to s uch an e x c e ll e n t m ys t e ry th at in it is s i gn i ed th e s acra

m e n t al un i o n an d m arr i age o fC h r i s t an d th e C hurch


5
Thi s e s t ate th e S o n o f Go d o ur Lo rd Jes us C hri s t s o
S ch w H all
h i ghly e s t e e m ed th at n o t o n ly whe n bi dde n w ith h is M o the r an d d i s c i pl e s
C ass e l (I 5
C o l o gn e
di d h e h o n o r th e m arr i age w ith h is rs t m irac l e
W
h
o al s o ho no re d an d ri chly ado rne d th e m arri age e s t ate b y h is
15 4 3 )
(

n
pres e c e
7 O s ian de r
T o th e e n d that th i s
B ran de nburg Niirn b e rg (15 3 3 )
m ay n o t b e do n e w ith o ut unde rs t an d i ng o f th e Wo rd o f G o d as do un be
4

SC HW

lie v e rs
3

n al
9

S ch w

H all (15 43 )

wan to nn e ss
Se e 4

Fo r it h as

no t

be en i ns ti tute d fo r wo rldly

o r c ar

T h e O rde rs

C o n rmatio n , M

or

(f
ro

a rria

ge ,

71

be br o u ght up in the fear o fand n urture o f the Lo rd and pr ai se


o fGo d
Sec o n dly i t w as o rd ai n e d fo r a re m e d y agai ns t s in
and to av o i d f
o r n icati o n th at s uch per so ns as be m arrie d m ight
1
live chas tely in m atri m o n y
an d kee p the m s e l ve s un de le d
1
m e m bers o f Chri s t s b o d y
Thir d ly fo r the m utu al so ciety
help and c o m fo rt that the o n e o u ght to h ave o f the o ther b o th
3
in pr o sperity an d ad vers it y
The Exh o rt ati o n th at
ifany can s h o w ju s t c au s e why they

m ay n o t l aw fully be j o i n e d t o gether let h im n o w s pe ak


is p artly ac c o r d i ng to the o lder E ngli s h Or d ers but the w o r d s

Or el s e here after fo rever h o ld h is pe ace


c o m e fr o m O si
fo ll o wed by Bran d Niirnb
I 53
an d er s Or d er s o f 1 5 2 6
(
Mark Br ande n bur g I
Ott Hei nrich ( I 5 43 ) C o l o gn e ( I
I fany o n e h ath au ght to say there o n let h im spe ak in
e tc
ti m e o r afterward be s ile n t an d re fr ai n fr o m i n ter po s i ng an y

hi n d ran ce
I n the Lutheran Or d ers h o wever thi s d ecl ar ati o n
The
is m ad e in c o n n ecti o n wi th the publi cati o n o f the b ann s
ques ti o ns ad dresse d bri d e an d gr o o m fo ll o w the Yo rk and Saru m
Orders the e arlier Luther an fo r m s bei ng m u c h brie fer alth o ugh ,
in thi s the l ater Order s o f the Sixtee n th Ce n tury m o re n e arly ap
The Luther an cu st o m ge n erally pr o vi d ed
pr o ach the E n gli sh
fo r the use o f the ri n g but with o ut an y w o r d s c o n cer n i ng the
ri n g o n the part o f th o s e bei ng m arrie d O siande r ( 15 2 6 ) fo l
,

H all : Th at therei n chi ldre n m i gh t b e bro ugh t up b y th e ir pa


rents to th e gl o ry an d k no wl edge o f Go d an d th e do c tri ne o fth e true C hri s
ti an faith m i ght b e tran sm itted fro m C hi ldren to ch i ldre n s C h i ldre n an d b e
di us e d an d m ai n t ai ne d thro ugho ut th e wo rld un t o th e Las t D ay
Fo r G o d
h as n o t c re at e d m an to l iv e a be as t ly l i fe he re o n e arth an d to c are o nly fo r

that wh i ch is e arth ly b ut th at h e m ay l e arn to k no w Go d


1
G o d h as appo i nted an d o rd ai ned m at ri m o n y th at ev ery
S ch w H all

fo rm o fun chas tit y m i gh t b e av o i de d


3
A n d be s i des Go d w i shes th e l o v e an d c o mm un io n o f h is
S ch w H all
S o n o ur Lo rd Jes us C hr i s t w ith th e C hri s ti an C hurch as h is B ri de to b e thus

k no wn an d repre sent e d
73
T h e tho ught pro bably e nters he re as S ch w H all ends w ith th e pre di c
ti o n o fth e cro ss an d th e divi ne co mfo rt under it
1

S ch w

o ve m e nt

The L uth e ran M

72

in E ng lan d

l o wed by Bran de nburg Niirnb e rg etc pres cribes that rs t th e


gr o o m s hall say after the m i n i ster :
I N t ake thee N to m y

wed d e d wi fe an d plight thee m y tr o th


an d the n the bride
al so
in the sam e w ay pli ght s her tr o th t o her we dd ed h us
b an d
We are c o m pelled here to d i spel an illusio n wh ich h as m i sled
74
so m e o f the E n gli s h writer s o n the Pr ayer B o o k
Pal m er says :
The succee d i ng rites in which the priest with a cert ai n fo rm u
l ary j o i ns their right h an d s t o gether an d afterwar d s pr o n o u n ces
the marri age to be c o m plete are perhaps peculi ar to the Church

o f E n gl an d
Blu n t
Thi s is a n o ble peculi arity o f the E ng
li sh rite th o u gh pr o bably derive d o ri gi nally fr o m Archbi sh o p

Her mann s C o nsultati o n


The hi n t thu s give n h o wever at
The se n te n ce
What
o n ce des tr o ys the i d e a o f peculi arity

is fo u n d in
G o d hath j o i n ed t o gether let n o m an put asu n der
every Luther an Order which we h ave exam i n ed fr o m O s iande r s
-

o f 15 2

6,

Was

on

e ns ch s ch e

ide n

to

G ott

the

Traub icch letn ,

uth e r s

'

o ld
15 2

Orders

to

E nglish B

We i l dan n H ans N un d G re ta N
e i n ande r ur E h e be ge h re auch die
v erspro chen un d
E i n an der
Ehe
fe n tlich fii r G o tt un d
s o l ch e s h ie Of
s e i nen G em e i n b e k e nne t darauf die
h ande un d Traur i n ge e i n an de r gege
b e n h abe n s o S pre che ich s ie e he l i ch
im N am n G o tte s de s
z us amm e n
un d de s
u n d de s S o h ne s
V aters
H e i l i ge n Ge i stes A m e n
z

ge cge t h at, s o l K e in
s e arch l o n g fo r the de c la

z us amme n

No r h ave we

r ati o n u nk n o w n
L

ooh

r
h as N an d N hav e co n
s e n t e d t o ge ther in ho ly we dl o c k an d
hav e w it ne s sed th e s am e he re be fo re
G o d an d thi s co m pan y ; an d there t o
hav e giv e n an d pl edged thei r tro th
e ither to o ther an d h av e de c l are d th e
s am e b y givi n g an d re ce i m g go ld
an d s i l v er an d b y j o i n i n g o fh an ds I
pro n o un ce th at the y b e m an and w i fe
to ge the r ; I n th e N am e o f th e Fa
the r e tc
o as m uc

cc o r d an ce with O sian de r s Order and the Lutheran Orders


in ge n er al fo ll o wi n g i t Psal m 1 2 8 w as desig nate d as the rs t
C o l o gn e give P s 1 2 7 r st an d the n P S 1 2 8
to be su n g
The E ngli s h Se rvi ce cl o ses with a l o n g Addre ss to
All ye
which be m arried o r which i n te n d to take the h o ly estat e o f
In

'

'

14

2 : 2 17

15

A n n ota te d B

f C o m m on

ook o

raye r,

70

C o n rm atio n , M

Th e O rde rs

or

a rria

e,

(5 7

73

u po n yo u which is o nly an el ab o rati o n o f the p o rti o n


Si n ce ye bo th
o f the A dd r ess in Luther s Or d er begi nn i n g
hear rs t the c o m
n o w are give n in m arri age in G o d s nam e

etc
man d o f G o d t o uchi ng thi s e s tate

Vi s itati o n o f the Sick the m o st i m p o r


I n the Or d er fo r
tan t feature derive d fr o m a Luther an so urce is the
Et
rta

ti o n
The an cie n t Exh o rtati o n fr o m th e o ld Or d ers qu o ted by
Pal m er Blu n t Pr o cter etc has li ttle m o re r es e m bl an ce to that
o fth e E n gli s h b o o k than that it is an exh o rtati o n to a s ick per
The c o m pilers o f the E n gli s h b o o k ad o pted that in the
so n
Re fo rmati o n o f C o l o gn e o rigi nal ly fo u n d in the Sax o n Or d er
reely re n deri ng it r ather fo ll o w
o f 15 3 9 c o n d e ns i n g an d very f
The tw o exh o rtati o ns begi n :
ing the th o u ght th an the w o r d s
m arri age

S a x on ,

15

3 9

E nglish ,

15

49

D early be l o ve d
D e ar fr ie n d : S i n ce o ur Lo rd
K no w this th at
Jes us C hr is t hath vis ited yo u w ith A l m i ghty Go d is th e Lo rd o ver l i fe
bo d i ly s i ck ness in o rde r that yo u m ay and death
Wh e re fo re whats o e ver
Fi rs t yo ur s i c k ness is lm o w yo u certai nly
t Go d s w i ll k n o w
tak e to he ar
that s uch bo dily s i c k ness co m e to us that it is Go d s vis itati o n A n d fo r
what c aus e s o e v e r thi s s i c k ness is s e n t
fro m Go d fo r n o o the r c aus es e tc
un to yo u e tc

The Order fo r the Buri al o f the Dead


has bee n m uch
changed in the E ngli sh b o o k s i n ce I E d war d VI Pri o r to the
sam e peri o d the Lutheran Or d ers als o have a rel atively less c o m
ature s h o wever are the sam e
d
evel
The
e
ss e n ti al f
e
o pm e n t
l
t
e
e
p
They retai n fr o m the o ld Orders :
I am the re su rrecti o n and

the li fe
Blessed
I n the m i d s t o f li fe we are in de ath

and the less o n I C o r I


are the dead that die in th e L o rd
5
The rs t C o llect :
Al m i ghty G o d we give thee
2 0 sq q

he arty th an ks which Pal m er declares to b e o fmo dern o ri gi n


The c o n cludi ng C o llect
w e n d in the Re fo rmati o n o f C o l o gn e
fo r the fo rgive n ess an d peace o f the departed is n o t fo u n d in any
Luther an auth o rities exam i n e d as i t retai ns Ro m is h err o r The
rs t C o llect n o w fo u n d in the A ngli can Order was in I E d war d
VI in the Celebrati o n o fthe H o ly C o mmu n i o n whe n there is

It o ccu rs in the burial service o f Lo we r


a b urial o fthe d e ad
Saxo ny ( I 5 8
as
O H e rr j e s u C h ris te de r da b is t de r A ufe r
:

The L uth e ran [ Mo vem en t in

74

s teh ung u.

das L e he n,

fr o m

Eng land

which i t w o uld be i n ter es ti n g

to

trac e i t to its so urce


Such was in ge n eral the Firs t B o o k o f Edward VI D r C ar d
well is right in sayi ng :
T h e n e w Liturgy w as gr eatly in
debted wherever it devi ated fr o m the an cie n t brevi aries to th e

A fter
pr o gr ess mad e u po n the c o n ti n e n t in religio u s w o rshi p
o r m ati o n o f C o l o gn e
alludi ng to its i n d ebted n e ss to the Re f
ce s i t is clear o n e xam i nati o n
he adds :
I n the Occas i o n al O f
that they were i n d ebted to the l ab o rs o fM el an chth o n an d B uc e r
iirnb e rg whi ch th o se
an d thr o ugh the m to the o lder Li turgy o f N
7
re fo rm ers were i ns tructed to fo ll o w
.

16

Th e Tzo o L iturgies

f E dw ard

VI

contraste d,

Preface ,

xv

sq .

CHAPTER XX III
TH E

S E C O ND P RA Y E R

B OO K O F

D W A RD

VI ,

R eac tio n Th e C ens ures o f B uce r an d M artyr O rders

Th e
o fP o llanus an d A L as co
C o n fe ss i o n i n tro duc e d I ts deriv ati o n
Mi s t ak e o fE ngl is h L iturgio lis ts Trac e d to B uc e r s S trass burg O rder o f
R e vis io ns o f B uce r s Fo rm ul a by C al vi n an d Zw in gl i S o urce
15 2 4
"
A bso l uti o n
Th e T e n C o mm andmen ts in
O th er c h ange s
o fth e
Th e G e neral Prayer
T h e o ri gi n al in its
th e C o mm un i o n S ervi c e
ab b re ate d f
o rm in C ass el C o l o gn e an d C al vi n s co n den s ati o n gi en in
Res ul ts o fth e Revi s i o n o f15 5 2 H ardwi ck s T e s timo n y
full

Th e C al vi n is ti c

B o o k o f 15 4 9 was fo u n d in s o m e o fits features to b e un


act o ry
A s s h o w n in the prece d i n g page s a n u m ber o f
sati s f
c au s es c o m bi n ed to i n creas e the i n ue n ce o f C al vi n i sm in E ng
l an d Cranmer hi m sel f rs t wavere d an d the n succu m be d
The rs t b o o k was to o Lutheran and be s ide s like in all such
m o ve m e n ts m uch was sugges ted by the experie n ce o f its us e
The hi s t o ry o f the revi s i o n d o es no t c o n cer n us 3 we have to do
The ge n eral fact s are we l l k no w n
o nly with the re sult s attai n ed
Cranm er w as agai n at the he ad o f the c o mm iss i o n B uc c r an d
M artyr the n Pr o fess o r s at C ambri dge an d Ox fo r d prepared
C e nsure s o f the Fir st B o o k (publi shed ab o ut J an u ary 15 5 2 )
while the Fre n ch Order o f P o llan us and the Ger man o fA Las c o
h ad al so bee n publi she d an d af
fo r d ed su gges ti o ns
C o verd ale
h ad transl ated i t i n t o Lati n fo r C alvi n s exam i nati o n
Th e n e w
b o o k thus pre pared was i ss ue d in Se pte m ber I 5 5 2
The Pre face
di sc l ai ms any very i m po rtan t ch an ges fr o m the Fir s t B o o k
The rs t di ffere n ce appe ars in the i n tr o ducti o n o f a c o n fe s
s io nal s ervice be f
The ancie n t
o re the re gul ar m o r n i n g s ervice
Orders pr o vided s uch s ervice fo r the pries t w h o w as to m i n i s ter
T HE

7s)

T h e L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng lan d

76

in

rder that be fo re c o m i ng to the h o ly m ysteries he m ight


hi ms el f privately c o n fess an d be abso lve d The public service
o f the M as s h o wever began with the I n tr o i t
an d in thi s the
L uth e ran O rde rs h ad m ade no ch an ge alth o ugh s ub s eque n tly b e
c o m i n g ge n er al e speci ally whe n private c o n fess i o n l o s t its po s iti o n
o r a c o rrespo n di n g S atur d ay eve n i n g s ervi c e w as di s us e d
The
E ngli s h auth o riti es are m u c h perplexed as to the o rigi n o f the
C o n fess i o nal Servi ce i n tr o d uce d in I 5 5 2 an d s ti l l ret ai n ed The
us ual expl an ati o n is that i t w as su gges ted by the Or d ers o f P o ll a
n us and A L as c o
The hi n t w as take n fr o m tw o b o o ks o f Ser
7
vice u se d by c o n gregati o ns o f re fugees in E n gl an d
The
7
fo r m ul a o fP o llanus h as bee n tr aced by Archbi s h o p Laure n ce to
C alvi n P o llanus h ad succee d ed C alvi n as pas t o r at Stras sburg
an d h ad the n ce e m i gr ate d with h is c o n gre gati o n to G l as t o n bury
in S o m ers et shire
The fo rm ul a is the sam e as that pres cribed
7
by C alvi n fo r th e church o f Ge n ev a in 15 4 5
I t rese m bles that
prepare d by Zwi n gli fo r Ziirich an d Ber n e in I 5
But its
I n Ju n e I 5 2 4 B uc e r wh o s e inu
so urce s are s till m o re re m o te
e n c e o n th e B o o k o f C o m m o n Pr ayer e n ter s at so m an y po i n ts
h ad prepared a Re fo rm ati o n o f the M ass which he publi she d
as his bi o gr apher B au m says with o ut the k n o wle dge o r c o nse n t
w h o in a r adi cal re acti o n agai ns t
o f the clergy o f Strass burg
5
R o m e were o pp o sed to any xed fo rm
Thi s Order w as at the
cl o s e o f the sam e year re po rted in ab str act to Luther by the
c o u n cil o f the city as in use in their churches It is here gi ve n
with th e o the rs ab o ve m e n ti o n ed
o

'

'

S TRA SS BUR G O RD E R
the Nam e o f the Father
Gho s t Am en
C o n fess u n t o G o d the Lo rd 3
In

am

Ib p 73
B aum s C apito
.

the

S o n,

an d o f

the H o ly

pton L e ctu res , p 2 09


[ Vie my e r s C o ll C on/I, p 171
B

an d o f

and

uce r,

66

fo r he is

go o d

an d

his m ercy is

Th e

Se co nd P ray e r

f Edw ard VL

oo h

77

I said I will c o n fess m y transgress i o ns u n t o


the Lo r d 3 and Th o u fo r gaves t the i n iquity o fm y s in
I a p o o r s i n ful man c o n fess u n t o G o d Al m ighty th at I have
griev o usly s i nn ed by the transgress i o n o f h is c o mm an d m e n ts
that I have d o ne m uch that I sh o ul d have le ft u ndo n e an d that
I have le ft u n d o n e m uch that I s h o ul d have d o n e by u n be l ie f
an d di s trus t o f G o d and we ak n e ss o f l o ve t o war ds m y f
ell o w
s e rv an t s and n eighb o r s ; f
I ackn o wle d ge m ys el f
o r which
as
guilty be fo re G o d I grieve Be gr aci o u s u n t o m e ; be m erci ful
u n t o m e a po o r s i nn er Am e n
Thi s is a faith ful sayi ng and w o rthy o f all acce ptati o n th at
Chri s t Je su s c am e i nt o the w o rl d to save s i nn er s o f w ho m I am
chie f Thi s I believe Lo rd hel p m y u n belie f an d save m e
Am e n
The pri es t the n says to the pe o ple : G o d be gr aci o us an d

m erci ful u n t o us all A m e n


The n c o m e the I n tr o i t and the M as s pr o per
unt o e verl as ti n g

L I N S O RD E R

CA V

Our hel p is in the Nam e o f the Lo r d wh o m ad e heave n an d


e arth A m e n
Brethre n let us e ach place hi m sel f be fo r e the Lo rd an d c o n
fe ss h is s i ns fo ll o wi ng m e in thes e w o r d s
O Lo rd G o d Eter nal an d al m i ghty Father we ack no wledge
rankly c o n fe ss be fo re Thy H o ly M ajes ty that we have been
an d f
c o n ceive d as m i ser ab l e s i nn ers and hav e bee n b o r n in i n iquity
pr o n e to wicke d n e ss us eless u n t o every go o d
an d de pravity
w o rk and that bei ng vi ci o us we do n o t ceas e to transgress Thy
h o ly c o m man d m e nts Where fo re w e w o uld receive d es tructi o n
But L o r d we s i n cerely l am e n t that
fr o m Thy jus t j udgm e n t
we h ave O e nde d Thee ; we c o n d e m n o urselves an d o ur o ffe n ce s
to relieve o ur m i sery
o r Thy gr ac e
s eeki ng in tr ue pe n ite n ce f
ul Father w o rthy
s there f
o re 0 M o s t ki n d an d m erci f
D ee m u
o r the sake o f Thy S o n o ur L o r d Jes u s Chri s t
o f Thy m ercy f
Bl o tti ng o ut all o ur o ffe n ces an d was hi ng away all o ur lth in
,

Th e L uthe ran M

78

o ve m e n t

Eng lan d

in

crease in us daily the gi fts o f Thy H o ly Spiri t s o that fr o m o ur


heart s ackn o wle d gi ng o ur i n iquity we m ay be m o re an d mo r e
di ssati sed wi th o ur se lves an d thu s be ar o u s e d to true re pe n t
an ce 3 an d m o rtifyi n g o ur s elves with all o ur s i n s m ay b rin g f
o rt h
fru it s o f ri ghte o u sn ess an d i nn o ce n cy gr ate ful u n t o Thee , Thr o ugh

Jesus Chri s t o ur Lo rd
The n fo ll o ws a Psal m There is n o ab so luti o n
The fo r m o fP o llanus ( I 5 5 1) v arie s o n ly in a fe w w o r d s but
Abso luti o n Here the Pas t o r recite s to the pe o ple in
ad d s :
the Nam e o f the Father and o f the S o n and o f the H o ly Gh o s t

a p as sage o f H o ly Scri pture c o n cer n i n g th e re m i ss i o n o fs i ns


U p o n the b as i s the n chiey o f th e Strass bur g fo rm t o gether
with that o f C alvi n an d o f the Re fo r mati o n o f C o l o gn e u sed
the E n gli sh C o n fe ssi o n al Prayer was
in the Pre parat o ry Servi c
c o ns tructe d
We have erre d an d s tray e d like l o s t s heep was
pr o b ably sugges te d by the sh o rter Prayer be fo re C o m m u n i o n

7
The Abso luti o n w as t ake n
o f the C assel an d C o l o gn e Or d ers
fr o m th at in the Pre par at o ry Servi ce o f the Re fo r mati o n o f C o
lo gn e B uc e r s e arli er an d l ater w o rk bei n g thu s c o m bi n ed
T h e o the r i m po rt an t ch an ge s in the M ati n Service were in
maki ng the j ub ilate altern ate with the B e ne dictus an d in ch ang
ing the A po s tle s Creed fr o m directly after to directly be fo r e th e
By th o s e w h o re fer to the Am erican B o o k o f C o mm o n
K) rie

Prayer thi s c an n o t be trace d s i n ce th e Am erican revi ser s h av e


urther m util ated th e O ld M ati n Servi ce by o m itti ng th e
s t i ll f
K yri e an d the L o r d s Pr ayer ; th e l atter d o ubtless because it
h ad alread y bee n u se d o ut o fits pl ace after the Ab so luti o n
I n the C o m m u n i o n Service the Kyrie di sappe ar s an d th e
Glo ria in E x ce ls is is transferre d to the Po s t C o mm u n i o n S e r
vice Th e T e n C o m man dm e n ts w e h ave s ee n ab o ve are in
Se rte d n o t s i m ply as Blu n t sugge st s af
ter the jeju n e liturgy o f
P ullain
(P o llanus) si n ce they are fo u n d in the Ro man Mass
and the Litur gy o f Fr an k f
o rt o n the M ai n e o f
G lo ry
,

D e in e

z e rstre ue te

R i ch te r s

KO p
,

S ch ci e z
'

14 1

The S e co n d P ray e r B

f Edw ard

oo h

VI

79

thee O Lo r d after the re ad i n g o f the G os pe l ; is o m itte d


The Nice n e Cree d reap pe ars as the pr o pe r Cree d fo r the C o m
T he d irecti o n that the s erm o n s hall fo ll o w the
m u n i o n Se rvice
Creed d i sap pears The A d m o n iti o n o f I E d ward is tr ans fe rre d
to a l ater pl ace ; so al s o the Salutati o n S urs um C orda an d the

wo rds :
It is m eet ri ght an d o ur b o u n d e n duty
What in

I E d war d VI is in ano ther pl ace as the C o nsecr at o ry Prayer


is n o w c han ge d i n t o a prayer fo r the Church an d rulers the
C ass el C o l o gn e Or d er be i ng m o re cl o sely fo ll o we d an d the Ro
Thi s C ass el
m an iz ing t ai n t o fthe Firs t B o o k bei n g exclu d e d
C o l o gn e prayer w as alread y o utli n e d by B uc e r in h is Str assbur g
Mass o f 15 2 4 We translate i t u nabri d ge d fr o m C ass el ( I 5 3 9)
as the f
o r m in whi c h Cranm er an d h is ass o ci ates us e d it
b e to

A l mi ght y , E v e rl as t i ng an d G rac i o us Go d and Father,

Th o u has t co mm and
e d us th ro u h T h y de ar S o n an d Lo rd Jes us C hri s t an d h is ho ly a os tl e s to
p
o re Thee in H is N am e an d h as t
asse m bl e o urs el v es be f
pro m i s e d that whatso
e v er w e thus un itedly pray Thee in H is Nam e Tho u wo ulds t grac i o us ly give
We pray Th ee th ere fo re thro ugh th e s am e T h y de ar S o n o ur o n ly S avi o ur 3
rs t th at Tho u wo ulds t grac io usly fo rgive us allo urs i ns an d o e nce s whi ch w e
here all c o n fess an d ack no wledge be fo re Th ee an d that T h y j us t wrath
whi ch b y o ur gri ev o us tran s gress i o ns w e h av e m er ited Tho u wo ulds t g m
ro m us fo r th e s ak e o fth e Bloo d an d pre c i o us S ati s fac tio n
c io us ly t urn away f
S trengthen al so T h y H o ly Spi rit w ithi n us th at
o f T h y So n o ur M e di at o r
w e m ay who lly s urren der o urs e l v e s to Th y goo d pl e as ure that n o w an d
e v e r w e m ay pray Thee in all true faith fo r o urse l ves an d o th ers an d may
ri chly o bt ai n T h y hel p an d grace
We pray The e al so es pe c i ally fo r Th y Ch urch and co ngregati o n D el iv e r
it fro m all wo l ves an d h i re l i ngs w h o deso l ate it and by th e i r c o rrupti o ns
G rant an d s us tai n go dly an d faith ful pas to rs
array thems e l v e s agai ns t Th ee
thro ugh who m all Th y s ca ttere d sheep may b e bro ught back un to Thy de ar
S o n the C h i e f She pherd an d B i sho p o fo ur so uls an d in to his true co mm u
o ld
n i o n th at there m ay b e o n e Shepherd an d o n e f
We pray Thee fo r all rul ers E mpe ro rs Ki ngs prince s an d l o rds an d e s
o r those o fo ur l an d an d th e co uns e ll o rs an d magi s trat e s o fthis c ity
ally f
c
i
e
p
G rant and i n cre as e un to the m all grace to rul e th at the y may ac kno wledge
l
an d e mbrac e C hri s t T h y S o n o ur Lo rd as O ne to who m Tho u h as t giv e n al
wer
as
i
n H e av e n an d E arth an d th at th e y m ay so go v ern the i r s ubj e cts
o
p
Th y cre at ure s an d ch i ldre n ; that w e he re an d e v erywhere may l e ad a quiet
ul life in all go dlin ess an d ho nes ty
an d pe ace f
g

The L

80

We pray T hee

uth e ran

o ve me nt

furthe r ,

Eng land

in

H o ly Father for all m e n ev e n fo r tho se es tranged


D raw un to T h y So n o ur S avi o ur all thos e w h o e e
fro m Th y Ki n gdo m
fro m H im an d thos e w ho m Tho u has t drawn to H im an d e nl i ghtene d gran t
th at the y no w m ay k n o w to n d in H im al o n e th e fo rgiv eness o f s i ns and
all goo d
S trengthen them in this k no wledge and m ak e it e v er m o re ac
tive w ithi n the m unt o all go o d wo rks
We pray The e al s o G rac i o us Go d an d Fathe r fo r all upo n who m T ho u
h as t i m po sed an y spe c i al chas tisem ent Whe ther it b e by po v e rt y exi le
s i c k ness o r an y o ther d i s tress and t ri al giv e them to re c o gn i z e T h y grac i o us
fath e rly hand co mfo rt an d de l iv er the m fro m all e vi l an d gran t that the y m ay
ac k n o w l e dge an d co ns i de r in e v ery ch as ti se m e n t th at th e y h av e des e rv e d what
is far m o re gri e v o us an d thus m ay b e turn e d th e so o n e r an d th e m o re c o m
ple te ly fro m all e vi l un to Thi ne al o n e go o d w i ll
F i n ally w e pray Thee E v erl as ti ng an d Faithful Go d an d Fathe r that as
w e are he re ass e m bl ed in Th y D ivi ne P res en c e fo r T h y H o ly W o rd P rayer
an d th e H o ly S acram e n t s e n l i gh t e n th e e y e s o fo ur un ders t an di n g an d gran t
ro m o ur
o fo urs e l v es an d f
w e m ay ack n o wl edge an d rem em be r that w e al as
p are n ts are o f su ch pe rv ers e an d c o n de m ne d n at ure that in o ur e sh an d
b l o o d w e c ann o t i nhe rit T h y Ki ngdo m o f ri ghteo us n e ss an d bl e ss edness :
that w e c an deserv e no th i n g b ut e t rn al wrath an d all m i sery ; b ut that
Tho u Grac io us Go d o ut o f th y bo undl e ss m erc y di ds t regard o ur m i sery and
co rrupti o n an d di ds t w i ll th at T h y E tern al Wo rd T h y d e ar S o n sho ulds t b e
co m e e sh an d o ur bro th e r wh e reb y e sh an d b l oo d agai n m i gh t be c o m e ho ly
an d w e poo r co n de m n ed m e n m i gh t b e re newe d an d s an c ti ed agai n thro ugh
H im unt o Th i n e i m age an d un t o all Th y divi n e w i ll an d goo d pl e as ure
There fo re h e gi v e th us to e at an d to dr i nk in his H o ly S acram en t that v ery
h o ly e sh an d bl oo d whi ch h e hath o e re d upo n th e c ro s s un to th e Fath er
fo r o ur s i n s an d whe re b y h e hath pai d th e rans o m fo r all o ur s i ns and
re co n c i l ed us un to The e in o rder that h e migh t l ive in us an d w e in h im
G ran t H e av e nly F ath e r that w e may ac
mi ght l ive a ho ly an d go dly l i fe
k no wl edge all thi s in true l ivi ng faith an d no w an d at all ti m e s m editate
th ereo n that re n o un c in g re aso n an d all w i ck ed l us ts w e m ay de vo te o ur
se l v e s e n ti re ly un t o T h y de ar S o n o ur Lo rd an d S avi o ur s e ek an d o bta i n all
h e l p an d co n so l ati o n in H im al o ne an d in H is de ath an d re s urre c ti o n ; an d
m ay no w re c e iv e h is ho ly B o dy an d Bl o o d w ith all th ank ful n e ss an d w o r
fe ri n g an d de ath H is H e av e n ly
sh i p an d pr ai s e The e b e c aus e o f H is bitter s uf
go v e rn an ce an d th e gi ft o f H i mse l f whic h h e m ak es un t o us fo r foo d an d

dri nk un to l i fe e v erl as ti n g
,

Th e pr ayer e n d s with a b rie f par aphr as e o f the L o r d s P rayer


B o th in Cas sel and C o l o gn e , there is a s h o rter fo rm o f thi s

pr yer

The

Se co nd

P ray e r B

o ok

E dw ard VI

81

M erc i ful Go d H e av e n ly Father Tho u has t pro m i sed that ifw e co m e to

gethe r in th e N am e o fT h y de ar S o n o ur Lo rd an d S a vi o ur J e s us Ch ri s t
,

e tc .

C alvi n has appr o pri ated the th o u ght s but re wr o u ght th e lan
which be gi ns :
gu age in the fo r m pre pare d fo r Ge n eva
,

H e av e nly Fathe r Tho u h as t pro m i s e d us th at Th o u wi l t


he ar th e prayers whi ch w e o ffe r The e in th e N ame o fT h y de ar S o n an d Lo rd
Jes us C hri s t ; and w e h ave l earn e d bo th o f H im and o f H is Apo stl e s that
we sho uld c o m e to ge the r in o n e pl ace an d in h is N am e th e pro m i se be i ng given
th at H e w i ll b e pres e n t w ith us to i ntercede w ith Th ee fo r us an d O bt ai n all
thi ngs wh i ch w ith o n e co ns e n t w e ask o f Thee o n E arth
F i rs t Tho u has t co mm anded us to pray fo r tho s e wh o m Tho u has t ap
i
n t e d o v e r us as rul ers an d go v ern o rs 3 the n to appro ach Th ee as s uppl i
o
p
S i n ce th e n
o r all th i ngs ne c e ss ary un t o Th y pe o pl e an d all m o rt al s
an ts f
w e hav e co m e i n to Th y pre se n c e rely i ng upo n T h y ho ly co m m an ds an d
r
i
e
s ass e m bl e d in th e N am e o f T h y S o n o ur Lo rd J e s us C hri s t w e as
m
s
o
p
G o d an d Fath e r in th e N am e o fth e
s i n c e re ly be see ch Th ee O
s uppl i an ts
o rgiv e o ur s i n s an d to t urn
S ame o ur o n ly S avi o ur an d M e d i at o r s o de i gn to f
e tc
o ur h e arts un to Th e e t h at w e m ay c all upo n
A l m i gh t y Go d,

C alvi n pres e n t s at le ngth the t o pics in the sam e o r d er as in


C ass el exce pt that he pr ays fo r rulers be fo re pr ayi ng fo r the
Church H is prayer e n ds al so with the C o n fe ss i o n o fs in o ri gi nal
Fr o m
an d the p ar aphr as e o f the Lo r d s Pr ayer
an d actu al
these so urce s there fo re the pr ayer was c o n de nse d
,

A l m i ght y

whi ch by th y h o ly apo s tl e h as t t aught us


to m ak e praye rs an d s uppl i c ati o n s an d to giv e than k s fo r all m n 3 w e h um
bly be se e ch Th e e mos t m e rc i fully to re ce iv e o ur praye rs whi ch we o ffer un to
e tc
Th y d ivi ne M aj e s t y
an d

E v e rl ivi ng Go d,

The l atter part o f the prayer in I E d war d c o n t ai n i ng the


W o r d s o fI nstituti o n is tr an sferre d to an o ther part o f the s ervice
The m o d icati o n here o f the fo r m ul a o f d i s tributi o n has bee n
n o ticed in a prece d i n g ch apter
The o nly chan ge in the Ves per Service w as in the i nserti o n o f

O L o r d o pe n th o u m y li ps etc fr o m the Mati n Service the


an d the pr o vis i o n that th e Psal m
o m i ss i o n o f the H all eluj ah
C antate D o min o (XCVIII ) m ay altern ate with the M agni cat
.

The L uthe ran [ Mo v


e m e n t in E ng land

82

the D em M is e re atur (P s XVII ) with the [ Vunc D imittzls


The Ath anas i an Cree d w as retai n e d as in I E d ward VI
I n the B apti sm al Service the Ex o rci sm w as o m itted the s ign
ter the b apti sm Lut her s C o llect ah
o f the cr o ss ch an ge d to af
b re v iate d the th an ks givi n g C o llect rewro u ght the L o rd s Pr ayer
ter the Exh o rt ati o n o m itted s ever al C o llects fr o m
an d Creed af
etc
th e fo r m er Or d er fo r C o n secrati o n o f the Fo n t i n tr o duced
I n the Buri al Se rvice pr ayers fo r the de ad were su ppre ss ed etc
d et ails i n tere sti n g in the hi st o ry o fthe B o o k but wh o s e e xam i
The res ult
ies o ut s i d e o f the s c o pe o f o ur u n dert aki n g
n ati o n 1
o f the revi s i o n w as o n the o n e h an d to re m o ve a n um ber o f R o
m an iz in g ele m e n t s but o n the o ther ; to sacrice m uch o f its
Luther an to a C alvi n i stic Spirit an d to m ake ch anges which se
rio us ly i m paire d the s ervice as an o r gan i sm

nm e r s)
Archdeac o n H ar d wick h as well said
H is
r
a
C
(
Luther an pre dil ecti o ns are al so m an i fe ste d in the fo rm ati o n
put fo rth in the m o n th
o f the Fir st Service B o o k o f E d w ar d VI
I 5 4 9 ; fo r like the c o rrespo n d i ng w o rk o f the Sax o n
o f Ju n e
Re fo r m er s o ur o w n is derived al m o st e ntirely fr o m the an cie n t
ev al Li turgie s an d in n o i n c o ns ider able d egree thr o u gh
o r medi a
th e m e d iu m o f a Luther an c o m pil ati o n it sel f b as ed u po n the
8
ce s o f Nure m berg
o l d er O f
an d

H isto ry of th e

XXXI X A

rticles ,

p 80
.

C HAPTE R
AN E

XC URS US

TY P I C A L

O N T HE

XX IV

LUTH E RA N

HI EF

S E RVI C E

E v an ge l i c al Pri n c i pl e to th e

Sphe re o f Wo rship Th e
d is ti n c tive features o f th e Luthe ran Servi ce T h e S acram e n tal an d
S ac ri c ial fac t o rs w ith respe ct to th e Ro m an th e Re fo rm e d and th e L u
theran S e rvi c e s

exam i ned Preparato ry Servi ce o f C onfess ion I ts


T H E C O M M ON S E R VI C E
T h e D ecla ration of G ra e
O ri gi n ; its S truc t ure
NO A bso l uti o n Th e
D e c l arati o n an aly ed
F i rs t A c t T H E WORD : P art I A Th e I n
T H E S E RVI C E P RO P E R
S tr uc ture Wh en
tr it Agre e m en t o f Lutheran O rders
O ri gi n
B Th e Ky rie Rel ati o n to I n tro it No C o n
an d b y who m chan ted
S i gn i c an ce o f its pl ace
C
Th e Glo ria in E x ce ls is
fe ss io n o fS in
A
Where o nly
I ts O ri gi n
P art II
Th e S alutati n
I ts S truc ture
B Th e C olle ts T h e O re m us Wh y call ed C o llec t
to b e used
S t ruc ture C Th e E pis tle T h e Ne w Tes tam ent L aw D
O ri gi n
S i gn i c an ce o fits pl ace Luther s R ul e G raduals S e
Th e H a lle luj a h
E
Th e Go p l
O ri gi n o f atte nd i n g R e s po nse s
P art
q ue n ce s e tc
III A Th e C reed Vari ati o ns in its pl ace an d its s i gni canc e as so
Luth eran O rde rs pre fer th e N i cene C reed B Th e S r
chan ged
Votum C O rtory I mprop
Th e E xpl an ati o n o fth e G o s pe l
m on
D
Ge n e ral P raye r
A nal o gy o f R o m an M ass
Em
e rly so c all e d
V ar i o us fo rms used
ph as i e s th e C hur ch as th e C o mm un i o n o f S ai nts
Luth er s Lit any gre atly e nr i ches th e an c ient Litany S tructure No t
a m ere pe n iten ti al pray e r
S e co nd A c t T H E C O M M UNI O N : T h e L utheran C o ncepti o n o fth e C o mm u
n i o n in its re l ati o n to th e Wo rd
C o m mun i o n n o t to b e separate d fro m
th e P re ach i ng Servi c e
P art I
I NTRO D UC TI O N A S a lutatio n B
S truct ure and S ign i c an c e M e an i ng o f th e
S a n tus
P refa e
C

D
E x h o rta tion
B e n edictus
O ri gi n (Vo lpre c h t Niim b e rg 15 2 5 )
Wh y re tai n e d ? Part II C O N S E C RATI O N A The
Unl it urgi c al
L ord s P ra y r
No t pro pe rly co nsec rato ry Wh y th e Lo rd s Praye r is
o fth e

( 2 83 )

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve me nt in

84

ed ? B
C
pl ac e

Words of I n stitution

Eng land

M e an i ng o f th e i r re c it ati o n in thi s
Luthe r s Expl an ati o n P art III T H E D I S
Th e P a x
A
T R I B UT I O N
Agn us D e i O ri gi n
T h e D o n a n o his ; wh e n i n tro
B D is trib utio n P rope r M e an i n g o f
duce d an d what it s i gn i e s
th e wo rds
Luther s additi o n B en edi c ti o n I s true to b e us ed ?
C o nse crati o n n o t co m pl e t e un ti l in th e D i s tr ib uti o n
Part I V P ost C o m
m un io n
A
Th e Nu n c D im ittis
I n th e o lde s t b ut n o t th e m os t O r
ders S i gn i c an ce B Wrs icle C C ollect D B e n e dica m us
T h e F i rs t P art o f Servi ce v ar i ab l e ; th e S e c o n d part xed E xc e pti o n s K l i e
fo th s C o m m e nts S i m pl e r S e rvi ces fo r vi ll ages an d c o un t ry chur ches A
t ypi c al S i m pl e Servi ce
us

tr aci n g o f the rel ati o n betwee n the Or d ers o fEdward VI


an d th o s e o f the Lutheran Church h avi n g l e d to the i n ci d e n t al
di scu ss i o n o fvari o u s details o f the l atter i t may n o t be o ut o f
p l ace to i n tr o d uce here a brie fpre se n t ati o n o f the Chie f Service
(q ptgo ttes dienst) as it h as att ai n ed a xe d fo rm where the
re fo r mati o n o f the an cie n t Orders o f publi c w o r shi p u po n the
pri n ci ples l aid d o wn by Luther and h is as s o ci ate s h as bee n c ar
ried o ut We o f c o u rs e fail to n d any fo r m so rigi dl y xe d
I n the v ari o us L u
an d u n i f
o r m ly us e d as the R o m an Order
theran c o u n tri es the applicati o n o f the sam e pri n ciple s w as m o d
i e d by v aryi ng c ircum s tan ce s as Ro m an izi n g o r Re fo rm e d in
ue n c es o r as in S o uth Wes ter n Ger m an y eve n the prejudic es
d i ffus e d by C arlst ad t t hr o u gh h is c o n n ecti o n with Strassburg
The n as eve n the pri n ci pl es themselves were
are tr ace able
m o re s tr o ngly o r m o re feebly apprehe n ded there were varyi n g
results The applicati o n an d el abo rati o n o f the evan gelical

pri n ci ple wi thi n the sphere o fw o r shi p c o uld n o t be re alized at o n e


T HE

Th is pri n c ipl e w ith i n th e S phere o f wo rshi p is th at th e publ i c wo rsh i p


do es n o t in itsel fc o n v ey th e fo rgiv enes s o f s i ns an d th e bl ess i ngs o f s al v a
ti o n Thes e are fo un d o nly in th e grac i o us as s uran ces o fth e G o spe l whi ch
aith
Th s pri nci pl e h ad to ass ert its el fagai ns t th e
are appro pri ate d o n ly b y f
R o mish erro r that th e publ i c servi ce w as an i ns tit uti o n appo i nte d by G o d di
T h e P ubl i c S e rvi ce ac c o rd i ng to th e e v ange l i
re ctly co nd iti o n i ng s al v ati o n
c al pri n c i pl e is n o t a m e ans o fgr ace as R o m e m ak e s it 3 b ut a m e an s thro ugh
whi ch th e m e ans o fgrace Wo rd and S ac ram en t are bro ught to m e n I n it
th e H o ly S pi rit co m e s to m e n as Wo rd an d S acrame n t are admi n i s te re d ;
1

E x curs us

ical L uth e ran C h ief Se rvice

the

on

85

tr o ke but o nly thr o ugh a gr adual pr o ce ss I n the c o ns iderati o n


ro m
o f a t ypical L uther an s ervice we m u s t c o ns tantly eli m i nate f
act o rs pert ai n i n g to hi s t o rical an d l o cal
an y give n Or d er s the f
relati o ns and havi n g there fo re , o n ly tr ans it o ry s i gn i can ce

We wi l l fo l l o w here
The C o mm o n Or der o f Se rvice
which
t h ree o f the Luther an Ge n er al B o d ie s in Ameri ca h ave agreed
up o n as exhibiti n g the C o nse nsus o f the pure Lutheran litur
gies o f the Sixtee n th Ce n tury
Preli m i nary h o wever to the e xam i n ati o n o f the Service i t is
i mpo rtan t to keep in m i n d a pri n ci ple m arki ng the w o rship o f
th e d i ffere n t C o n fess i o ns which D r Klie fo th h as d i s cu ss ed at
le n gth in h is L iturgi sche A bh a ndlunge n an d wh o m we s hall
I n all t rue w o rs hi p o fG o d t wo thi n gs are
mai n ly fo ll o w here
i mplie d viz G o d o ffers an d c o mm u n i cate s an d man n o t o nly
receives what G o d o ffers but als o retur ns so m ethi n g to G o d
The fo rm er is the sacr am e n tal 3 th e l atter the sacrici al ele m e n t
A sacr am e n t may in a wi d e s e nse be d e ne d as a
in w o r shi p
cere m o n y in whi ch G o d gives that which the pr o m i s e attached

theret o o e rs
Thu s Bapti sm is n o ac t o fo urs but o n e which
G o d bri ngs to us and thr o u gh which he bes t o ws u po n us the
ble ss i ngs ann o u n ce d at the i nstituti o n o fB apti sm Th e S o n o f
G o d w as n o t c o n te n t wi th pr o vi d i ng fo r us salvati o n by h is sac
ri c e o n the c r o ss 3 but he h as o r d ai n e d m e ans whereby the c f
h
cacy o fh is sacrice is applie d The L o rd s Su pper w as i ns ti

'

turn thro ugh th e H o ly Spi rit attendi ng Wo rd and S acrame nts


re ce iv e s what th e H o ly Spi rit o ffers Th e pe rfec ti o n o fth e l iturgi cal Servi ce
depe nds th erefo re upo n th e pro vi s i o n m ade fo r thi s co ns t an t re c i pro c ati o n
There
Go d givi n g an d m an re ce ivi ng l ik e th e tw o s i des o f o n e breath
c o uld b e n o s uch c o nc ep ti o n o fth e S ervi c e whe r e e v eryth i ng w as S po k en in a
l anguage n o t unde rs to o d No r co uld it o c c ur where th e do c tri ne o fth e co n
s t an t pres en e o fth e H o ly S pi rit w ith th e Wo rd an d S acram e nts w as den i e d
All q ue s ti o ns
and an i n ner Wo rd m ade th e m o re pro m i nen t an d i m po rtant
the n co ncern i ng pl aces ti mes fo rms an d bo o k s o f wo rship fall under th e
b ut in th e
c at e go ry o f adi apho ra ; th e y are o f v al ue n o t in the ms e l ves
degree th at the y pro m o te true wo rsh ip e e dic atio n fro m Wo rd an d S ac
rame nt an d i n v o c ati o n o fGo d bas ed th ereo n C f Ko e s tlin s Gesch ichte
de s C h ris tlich en Gottesdie n stes (Fre ib urg
pp 15 2 s q q
and

m e n , in

86

The L

uthe ran

[ Mo ve me nt in

Eng land

tute d n o t

that we m ight thereby bri ng an ythi n g to Chri st but


that he m i ght bri n g so m ethi ng to us S o the re ad i n g an d
preachi n g o f the W o r d bri n g with the m the very grace which
the W o rd pr o clai ms
The sacrici al ele m e n t is whe n we bri n g so m ethi n g to G o d
There are tw o fo r m s o f sacrice the pr o pi t i at o ry and the eu
U n d er the New Te s tam e n t there is but o n e pro pitia
c haris tic
t o ry sacri c e viz that o f o ur L o rd and Savi o ur Jesus Chri s t
m ad e by b o th h is active an d pass ive o bedie n ce thr o u gh o ut li fe
fere d o n ce fo r all u po n the alt ar o f the cr o ss
Eu
an d nally o f
c h aris tic sacrice s are th o s e o f pr ayer pr ai s e an d th an ksgivi n g
m ade in res p o ns e to wh at is give n us in W o rd an d sacram e nt s
I n every true ac t o f w o rshi p there is a reci pr o cati o n betwee n
the sacr am e n t al an d sacrici al ele m e n t s G o d gives thr o ugh
W o rd an d sacr am e n ts 3 an d we give back to him in prayer an d
am e n t al ele m e n t in every Service m u s t be t he
r
i
e
The
u
d
f
n
a
s
p
o re o ur f
aith can re n d er
sacram e n t al ; f
o r G o d m us t give to us be f
w o rship go o d w o rks etc He n ce the fu n dam e n t al pri n ci pl e
o f Luther an w o r shi p is that the i n d ividual Service m u s t n ever
c o nsi s t m erely o fsacrici al parts but m u s t always h ave so m e
thi n g sacram e n tal i e the appli c ati o n o f W o r d and Sacram e n t s
Fo r the sacram e n t al is the d ivi n e ad dress 3 an d the sacrici al
the hu m an answer
I n the R o m i sh w o rs hi p the sacram e n tal ele m en t was cr o wded
The M as s i ns tead o f bei n g a sacram e n t
o ut by the sacrici al
w as m ade a sacrice ; an d th at to o a p r o pi ti at o ry sacrice
By bec o m i ng a sacrice i t ceas ed to be a re al m e ans o f grace
G o d s ac t they C hanged i n t o man s w o rk M an s believi ng an d
th an k ful rece pti o n they trans fo rm ed i n t o a m erit o ri o u s transac
ti o n whereby to purch as e gr ace He n ce partici pati o n in th e
Euchari s t was re garded u n i mpo rtan t I f i t be a sacrice m ad e
S o the W o r d n ee d n o t
fo r us eve n o ur pres e n ce is u nn ec es sary
be u n d ers t o o d whe n read
Pre s e n ce at its public readi n g,
whatever the l angu age bec o m e s a pr o pi ti at o ry ac t
I n the Re fo rm ed Church the sacr am e n t al w as al so cr o wded
,

,
,

Ex curs us

on

th e

Typ ical

L uthe ra n C h ief Se rvice

87

by the sacrici al elem e n t ; but in an o ther way I n antago


the Ro m i sh pr o piti at o ry sac ri c e they m ake the
n iz ing
Service al m o s t e n tirely Euchari s tic sac ri c ial AS is well k no wn
Zwi ngl i d e n ied the reality o fm eans o f gr ace The applicati o n
r o m Spirit to
o f gr ace is c o n ceived o fas o ccurri ng i mm e d i ate l y f
The c o ns tan t pres e n ce o fthe H o ly S piri t with th e W o r d
s pirit
All l iturgical act s are express i o ns
an d S acr am e n t s is de n ied
The sacram e n ts o ffer n o thi n g fr o m
ai th al re ady wr o u ght
of f
the L o r d but the faith o r piety o f th o s e celebrati n g the m The
Wo rd do es n o t bri n g the Spirit ; but the S piri t bri ngs the Wo rd
Th r o u gh the ex po s iti o n o f the W o r d the pre acher s i m ply gives
tes ti m o n y as to his faith Believers c o m e t o gether chiey by
c o mm o n pr ayer c o n fess i o n praise than ksgivi n g etc to cxc r
ci se their faith
The Lutheran Church l ayi n g e mphas i s u po n b o th ele m e nt s
pr o vides fo r b o th thr o ugh o ut every part o f her Service They
i nter pe n etrate each o ther th e sacr am e n t al always ev o ki n g the
sac ri c ial euch ari s tic an d the sac ri c ial euch ari s tic n ever o ccur
A n d yet as we
ing except as the sacram e n t al h as preceded
s hall se e cert ai n p art s o f the Service are pre d o m i nan tly sacr a
men tal and o ther s pre d o m i nan tly sacri c i al
With thi s pri n ci ple u n d ers t o o d we pr o cee d to the pres en tati o n
o f the Service
o ut

T H E P R E PA R A TO R

S E R VI C E

e o fth e Fathe r an d o fth e S o n and o fth e H o ly Ghos t Amen


B e l o v e d in th e Lo rd ! L e t us draw n e ar w ith a true h art an d c o n fe ss
be seeching h i m in th e nam e o f o ur Lo rd
o ur S i ns un t o G o d o ur F ather
Je s us Ch ri s t to gran t us fo rgiv e ness
O ur he l p is in th e n am e o fth e Lo rd
n am

I n th e

l/Vh o m a de h e aven

id I w i ll

sa

a n d e a rth .

co n f
e ss

m y transgress i o ns

A n d th ou fo rga v est th e

i n iq u ity o

f my

un o th e

Lo rd

s in .

l i ht y Go d o ur M ak e r an d R e deem e r w e po o r s i nn e rs co n fess unto


t
t w e are b y n ature S i nful an d uncl e an an d th at w e h a e s in ne d
Where fo re w e e e fo r re fuge to
agai ns t thee b y tho ught wo rd an d de ed
A m g
h e e , th a

Th e L uthe ra n [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng lan d

88

thi ne i n n ite m e rcy s e e ki ng and i mpl o ri ng th y grace fo r th e s ak e o fo ur Lo rd


Je s us C hri s t O m os t m erc i ful G o d w h o h as t giv en thi ne o nly be go tte n S o n
to di e fo r us h av e m erc y upo n us an d fo r h is s ak e gran t us re m i ss i o n o fallo ur
s i ns ; an d by th y H o ly Sp i rit i n cre ase in us t rue k no w l e dge o fthe e an d o fth y
w i ll an d true o bedi en c e to th y wo rd to th e e n d that b y th y grace w e m ay
e
thro ugh Jes us C hri s t o ur Lo rd Am e n
co m e to e v erl as ti ng l i f
,

Thi s d o es n o t bel o n g to the Service pr o perly s o called The


Servi ce o fthe M ass d o e s n o t have i t as s uch The C ns e ns us o f
the Luther an liturgies o f the Sixtee n th Ce n tury d o e s n o t c o n tai n
it It h as its o ri gi n in the C o n te or o r P raepo ra tio z n [ Miss am said
by the o i c iating pri es t fo r hi ms el f rs t s ecretly but in c o ur se
2
o re begi nn i n g th e s ervi ce
Then ce revi se d
o f ti m e publicly be f
erred to a num
s o as to exclude the R o m an err o r s it w as tr an s f
ber but n o t the m ajo rity o f the Lutheran s ervice s Thus the
Bran de n bur g Niirn b e rg Or d er be gi ns
Whe n the prie st
c o m es to the alt ar he m ay say the C o n te o r o r whatever h is

Eve n an earlier Or d er (Stras sbur g 15 2 4)


m e d it ati o n s u gge st s
3
pres cribes it in a fo r m s i m il ar to th at here give n
The fo rm
I5
The s tructure o f the
ad o pted is th at o f Meckle n burg
C o n fess i o n is n o t m an i fes t in the E ngli s h tran sl ati o n The Ger

S h o wi n g th at i t is the
[ ch arm e r s unaige r M e ns ch
man is :
ci ati ng m i n i s ter wh o be gi ns u n der the dee p s ens e o f h is un
of
w o rthi n ess o f that which h is o i c e c o mm u n i cates (I S 6 5
The n in the s ec o n d par t o f the prayer the pe o ple j o i n o r as in
the M e c k e n b urg Or d er a s ec o n d m i n i ster There is al so pro
The rs t is a gen er al p raye r fo r Go d s
gre ss in the th o u ght
m ercy ; the s ec o n d pas si ng to wh at is m o re specic pres e n ts
the pl an o fsalvati o n with the prayer that G o d w o ul d full h is
.

'

be at ae M ari ae sempe r virgini be ato M i ch ael i


ratre s quia pe c cavi n i m i s co gitatio ne
o m n ibus s an c ti s e t v o bi s f
arch ange lo
v erbo e t o pe re M e a cul pa m e a c ulpa m e a m axi m a c ulpa Ide o pre co r
be s tam M ari am s e m pe r v irgin e m e t vos fratres o rare pro m e ad D o m i num
D e um nos trum Th en h is fe ll o w min i s tran ts co n ti nue : M is e re atur tui O m
n ipo te ns D e us c t dimiss is pe c c atis t ui s
pe rduc at te ad vit am ae ternam

7
Se e abo v e C h apter xx ii
R ichte r II :12 2
2

C o n te o r D e o O m n ipo te n ti,

E x curs us

on

the Typ ica l L uth e ra n C h ic, S e rv ice


f

89

pr o mi se s c o nn ected with that plan The s ec o n d pe titi o n has


alm o s t the f
o rce o fan abs o luti o n by his c o ngre ati o n o f the m in
g
i ster wh o has praye d the rs t pe titio n an d at the sam e ti m e j o i n s
therewith the c o ngre gati o n s prayer fo r the sam e bl ess i ng I n
the rst pe titio n a m o s t i m po rtan t ad diti o n has bee n m ad e to the
C o n te o r o f the Ro man Or d er in that Origi n al S in is i n clu d e d
an d m ad e pr o m i n e n t
The Ger man traces s in fr o m the ac t t o its
s o urce in Ori gi n al S in 3 the E n li sh be i ns with the s o urce an d
g
g
s h o ws h o w i t has devel o pe d in o utwar d m an i f
es tati o ns
.

Th e D

G ra ce

the r hath h ad m e rcy upo n us an d giv e n


H is o nly S o n to di e fo r us an d fo r H is s ak e fo rgiv e th us all o ur S i ns
To
them that be l i e v e o n H is N am e H e al so giv e th po wer to be co m e th e so ns
o fGo d an d b e s to w e th upo n th e m H is H o ly S p i rit
H e th at be l i e v e th and
is b apti z e d S hall b e s aved
G ran t th is 0 Lo rd unto us all Am e n
Alm i gh t y Go d ;

o ur h

eavenly

ecla ra tion

thi s fo r m the decl ar ati o n is fo u n d in Meckle nburg I 5 5 2


It is o fte n but i m pr o perly c alled an abs o l uti o n A n abso lu
ti o n is h o wever the i nd ividualizati o n o f the ge n eral pr o m i s e
o f the G o spel the applicati o n to the i n divi d ual o f the fo r give
Such abso luti o n can n o t be S po ke n
n e ss which is o e re d t o all
to an e n tire c o ngre gati o n o r eve n to tw o o r three pers o ns but
I n a wi d e se nse the term ge ne ral as di s ti ngui she d
o nly to o n e
But such ge n
fr o m private o r pers o nal ab so luti o n m ay b e u s e d
eral ab so luti o n o ccur s wherever the W o rd o f G o d is preac he d
Any o ther fo r m o fge n eral ab so luti o n detracts either fr o m pre ac h
ing o n the o ne han d o r fr o m the perso nal ab so luti o n o n the
The subject w as i nv o lved in co ntr o vers y at Niirnb e rg in
o ther
I 5 3 3 where Bre n tz an d O siande r o bjected to the cust o m which
6
previ o us ly o btai n ed
Bre n tz urged that i t c o uld no t be a true
ii tio n s i n ce i t is n o where re ad in Scri pture that a m ixed
ab s o l
an
o u n d u nbe lievers f
ass e m bly c o ul d be ab so lved in whic h are f
atics i m pe n ite n ts adulter e r s us urers dru n kard s m urderers an d
where no ne as ks fo r abs o luti o n ; that such abs o lutio n w o uld be
In

Fo r de tai ls
20

se e

I t liefoth ,
'

II

3 3 5 sq q

ove me n t

The L uthe ran M

90

in

Eng land

either c o nditi o nal i e I abso lv e yo u if yo u h ave repe n t anc e


an d f
aith o r u n c o n d i ti o nal i e I ab s o lve
yo u whether yo u have
o r have n o t re e n tan ce an d f
But a c o n d iti o nal abs o luti o n
ai th
p
is n o abso luti o n 3 an d an u n c o n diti o nal abso luti o n o f such ki n d

is a lie an d bl as phe m y
Luther an d the Witte nber g Faculty

tried to m e d i ate betwee n the two sides


But Bre n tz m o re co n
s iste n tly c arried o ut the Luther an pri n ciple
I n the Re fo r m ed
churches the public abso luti o n is no t o bjecti o nal s i n ce acc o r d
ing to the Re fo r m ed c o n cepti o n the ab so luti o n d o e s n o t
c o m m u n i cate that whi ch i t ann o un ce s
We h ave here there fo re n o t an abso luti o n but o nly a decl ara
ti o n o fthe Order o fSalvati o n an d its ge ner al o e r to the s i nn ers
wh o h ave c o n fess ed
A m o re ad m ir able an d th o r o ughly l o gical
s tate m e n t c o uld s c arcely be f
ram ed
.

'

God s G e n eral B e ne vo le nce H is A nte ce de nt Will

ity
f
alle n m an
H
ath h ad m ercy u po n us
a
H
or f
i
s
p
( )
i e fr o m all eter n ity as he fo resaw o ur fall
H
h
i
s pr o vi s i o n f
o r m an s rec o very
( )

A n d give n h is o n ly so n to die fo r us
(c ) The fruit s o f thi s m ercy and re d e mpti o n

All bei n g red ee med


Fo r h is sake fo rgi v eth us all o ur s i n s
by Chri st all thr o u gh Chri s t are po te n ti ally fo rgive n Ther e is
fo rgive n e ss fo r all th o ugh all do no t avail the m selve s o f i t

H is C ons eq ue nt Will
2
G o d s Spe cial B e ne vo le nce
(a ) The M an n er ; (h ) The Mean s by which th e fo r give n ess
pr o vi d e d fo r all is bes t o wed The m ann er Fai th Rege n er
The m e ans Faith B apti sm
ati o n the H o ly S pirit
ra e r that the H o ly Spirit m a
w
o
rk
thi
s
f
a
i
th
a
n
ply
P
d
a
y
y
p
3
to e ach he art the fo rgive n e ss which fo r Chri s t s sake bel o n gs
to i t
I n D db e r s M ass ( 15 2 5 ) where the o utli n e s o f thi s fo rm are
Be i t to e ach acco rdi ng to h is faith Pr ay
fo u n d i t e n d s :

I al so will do likewi se
G o d fo r m e
(L Oh e )
I

Se e

De We fte s

uth e r s

B ri y

c en ,

IV : 4 80 s q q

Ex curs us

on

the Typ ical L uth e ran Ch ief


THE

SE RVI C E P RO P E R

Se rv ice

91

id that every c o m plete Service is a m o u n tai n wi th


tw o s u mm its : The preachi n g o f the W o rd is o n e the adm in is
As Si nai is hi gher than
tratio n o f the sacr am e n t is the o ther
H o reb so the latter ri se s ab o ve the fo rm er We reach bo th by
a gr adual as ce n t
L Oh e h as

sa

Firs t A ct

Th e

Wo rd

Th e I n tro it
Part I A
The n o r m al Lutheran s ervice al
I n thi s there is c o m plete agree
w ays be gi ns with the I n tr o i t
m e n t am o n g all Lutheran Or d ers u n til the m i dd le o f the

XVII Ce n tury (Klie fo th ) the o n ly exce pt i o ns bei ng in the


es
o ccas i o n al use o f i n tr o d uct o ry hy m ns o r psal m s an d the c o n f
T o wh at h as bee n alre ad y sai d in
s io n al s ervice j us t c o ns i d ered
chapter XX we add the fo ll o wi ng :
The I n tr o i ts ap pe ar r s t in Gre go ry the Great an d in the e s
Every I n tr o it c o nsi s t s
o rm which they h ave s i n ce had
s e n tial f
An A n ti ph o n a Psal m an d the G l o ri a Patri
o f three part s :
The A n ti ph o n pres e n t s by m e ans o f a brie f passage o f Scri pture
ad i n g th o u ght o f
with
r
o m the Psal m s
the
le
f
e w excepti o ns f
a
)
(
the p articul ar day The P sal m is a brie fpassage fr o m the Psal m s
in whi ch the j o y o f the he art at wh at the A n ti ph o n an n o u n ce s
n d s ex pre ss i o n Ori gi nally an e n tire Psal m was chan te d here
Thi s u sage c an be trace d fr o m the fact th at o f the s ixty o n e
I n tr o i t s i n cluded in the appe n ded t able ftv two have as the
Psal m vers e the rs t verse o f the Psal m u s e d the i n te n ti o n ge n
Where the
o ll o w
e rally bei n g that the e n tire Psal m S h o ul d f
vers e is n o t the r s t o fa Psal m the I n tr o it as a rule has begu n
with the rs t vers e o r rs t and sec o n d v e r ses which is the n
fo ll o we d by the r es t o f the Psal m
.

Th e L uth e ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng la nd

92

T A B L E O F I N TR O I T S
A n tiph on

I S unday in A dven t
.

Ps

Zach 9 : 4
Is 3 0 : 3 0
Is 3 0 : 2 9
.

II
III
IV

M al 3

.,

Ps 6 6
IV

: 1.

P S 97 : 7, 8
P S 77 : 18

S unday
Septuages i ma
Sexage s i m a
Q ui n quages i ma
A sh Wednes day
I S unday in Le nt
II
III

PS

18 :

5, 6

P S 44 : 2 3 2 5
PS 3 1 2 , 3
PS 5 7 : 2 3 1 b

PS

Ps 4 3
Ps 2 2
.

M o nday in H o ly Week
Tue s day an d Thurs day in H W
Wednesday in H o ly Wee k
Goo d Fri day

1, 2

PS 3 5
G al 6

Ph i l

1, 2
: 14

Is 5 3
PS

10,
:

: 19, 2 1.

5, 6

o r,

Fir t Su
s

: 10.

22

15 , 16 .

Is 66

E as ter

P S 9 1 15 , 16
Ps 2 5 : 6 , 2 b ,

VI

Is 9 : 6
(PS 93 : 5 ,
(PS 8 : 1,

S un day after C hri s tmas


C i rc um c i s i o n
E piphan y
I S un day after E piph aUY

C h ri s tm as

IV

VI

a.

Phi l 4 : 4 6
I s 45 : 8

II
III

Luk e 2 4

day after E aste r

S e c o nd
Th ird
Fo urth
F i fth
As cens i o n D ay
S unday after A sc ens i o n

Pe t

PS 3 3
Ps 6 6

6
2

5, 6

6b

8: 5 b

1, 2

98

:1

A c ts

1 : 11.

PS

7 : 7, 9

5b

PS 98 : 1 a ,
I s 48 2 0

47 3
.

1.

a.

Typ ical L uthe ran C h ief

Se rvice

68
P artly fro m Jo b 12 6
P art ly e c c les i as ti cal

93

T ri n ity Sunday

IS 6
Ro m
.

F i rs t S unday after T ri n ity


Se co nd
Th i rd
Fo urth
F i fth
S i th
Se ven th
E ighth
N i nth
Tenth
E l e venth
Twel fth
Th i rte enth S un day after T ri n ity
Fo urteen th
Fi fte en th
S i xtee n th
Sev e n te e n th
E i ghtee n th

PS

36
5, 6
18 b ,

13

PS

7:

Ps

PS

2 a.

7 : 7, 9
2 8 : 8, 9
2

PS 70 : I , 2 a
PS 74 2 0 a , 2
.

Ps 84

PS

86

P S 86
.

PS

9,

3, 5

36

1 a. , 2

a.

7,

12 4 .

: 16 , 17 a

PS 3 5 : 3 b
PS 3 4 : 17
PS 4 8 : 14 3
( D an 9 : 14 b

47

48

1.

a.

54

68

:1

70

74
84

1.

:I

86

119 : 13

E c c l es

4.

86

: 1 a.

119

1.

12 2

1.

10 a.

: 1 a. , 2
:

2 a.

22 a

I,

7 1
2 8 :1

PS 4 7 I
PS 4 8 : 9 , 10
PS 5 4 : 4, 5
P s 55 : 16 , 18 a, 19 a ,
PS 6 8 : 5 b , 6 a , 3 5
.

78 :

1.

48 t

1.

Twe n tieth S unday after T rinity

19.

: 16 , 18.

1, 2

1.

13

PS

N ine teenth Sunday after Tri nit y

11 :

18

PS

li ;:g
j fi
ng

PS 5 1
Es ther

i
g:
E

h re e ( l dre

tl

Twe nty rst S unday aft Tri n it y


13 : 9 10 11
119 : 1
Twe nty s e co n d
Ps 13 0 : 3 4
13 0 : 1 2 a
Twe nt y thi rd
85 1
Je t 2 9 : 11 12 14
P S 95 6 7
Twen t y fo urth
95 : 1
T w e nty fth
P s 3 1 9 a 15 b
31 1
Twe nty S i xth
PS 5 4 : 1 2
54 : 5
Twe nty s e v e nth o r whenever l as t S unday o c c urs repe at I ntro it fo r Twenty
-

T he L uthe ran M

94

ove m e n t

in

Eng land

The I n tr o it was chan ted as th e m i n i s ter e n tered the church


S o m e d erived the nam e fr o m the fact that o ri gi nall y a P sal m
w as su n g by the ch o ir as the pe o ple e n tered
The An ti ph o n
was chan te d by the ch o ir repres e n ti n g the ch o rus o f an gel s th at
chan ted at Bethlehem o r as G e rb e rt sugges ts the ch o ru s o f Ol d
7
Te st am e n t pr o phets an d the Psal m fo r m e d the resp o ns e o f the
Co n greg ati o n
The chan ti n g o fth e I n tr o i t by the co n gre gati o n
was d ee m ed i nappr o pri ate s i n c e it is its o fce to ann o u n ce to
the c o ngregati o n what G o d has fo r i t o n that day The O pe n i n g
w o rd fo r the I n tr o it gave the n am e o f the day H e n c e C a ntate
The G lo ria P atri fo ll o ws every
R ogate j uhz la te Su n d ays
Psal m an d hen ce its p o s iti o n here after the Psal m vers e Orig
inally its fo r m w as :
Gl o ry to the Father thr o u gh the S o n in

the H o ly Gh o st o r Gl o ry to the Father in the S o n and the

H o ly Gh o s t
But fr o m the ti m e o f th e Ari an c o n tr o ver sy i t
o rm
S o al s o
A s i t w as in the begi n
as s u m ed its pre se n t f

etc w as added r s t in the E as t an d afterwar d s in the


n i ng
We s t as the C o u n cil o f Vai so n (A D 5 2 9) decl are s :
Be
caus e o f the cr afti n ess o f hereti cs m ai n t ai n i n g that the S o n o f
G o d w as no t always with the F ather but h ad begun to b e in

ti m e
B T H E KY RI E Th e gl o ry o f the divi ne g o o d n ess m an i fe sted
by what the I n tr o it h as ann o u n ce d h as bee n celebr ated in the
Gl o ri a Patri But the greater the m an i fe st ati o n o f divi n e g o o d
The Kyrie is n o t a c o n fe ss i o n
n e ss the de e p e r the hu m ili ati o n
ess i o n o f wretched n ess to be h o m e as a c o u s e
o fs in but a c o n f
l
aSts
R
om
o rgive n as l o n g as l i f
e
: 2 4
f
s in n o w f
n
o
c
u
e
e
7
q
Whe n the bli n d man cried o ut
Th o u S o n o f D avi d have

M atth 9 : 2 7 he did n o t c o n fe ss h is s i ns but


m ercy o n m e
o we al so pr ay
r
ye
d
th
t
S
hi
s i n rm ity m i ght be re m o ved
a
a
p
fo r the re m o val o f the bli n d n ess which o b s truct s fr o m us the full
li ght o fheave n ly gr ace Eve n am i d s t th e gl o ry o f Ne w Tes ta
m e n t light the s i ghi n g o f the Old Tes tam e n t pr o phet s is heard
.

'

'

Th e

ho i r as

C hurch

th e

v o i ce o fth e

C hur ch Un iv ers al ,

S ch oe b e rle in L iturgis che A us hau, p

ly

sp ci c al

2 46 .

of

th e

Ex cursus

on

p ical L uthe ran C h ief


the Ty

Se rv ice

95

O L o r d be graci o u s u n t o us ; we h ave waited fo r

thee
Fr o m the K yrie the Litany s ee m s to have o rigi n ated
(Calv o r) Acc o r d i ng to pre Re fo rm ati o n practice the K yrie is
The reaso n
so m eti m e s sai d in Greek in o ur Luther an churches
may be lear n e d fr o m that su gges te d by B o na fo r its us e in Greek
The Lati ns say the Kyrie in Greek 3
in the Ro man M ass
they al so say A m e n H alle luj ah Sab ao th an d H os anna in H e
brew perhaps to S h o w tha t there is o ne Church c o ns i s ti ng r st

He add s
o f Hebrews and Greeks and the n al so o f Lati ns
that thus the m ys terie s o f the faith are transm itte d in the three
t o n gue s in which the superscri pti o n ab o ve the cr o ss was writ t e n
r o m Au gus ti n e (E pi s t le
that jus t as by the
an d qu o tes f
ter m H o moo us io n o n e subs tan ce o f the Tri n ity is believe d by all
the faith ful so by the Kyrie E le ison the nature o f o ne G o d is b e

ul
I n pe r
s o u ght by all Lati n s an d b arb ari ans to be m erci f
fe c t h ar m o n y with thi s Bu ge n h age n says in the Bru nswick Or der
It w o uld be well that as we do n o t chan ge the H e
o f 15 3 1
H alle luj a h
H os ann a after the e xam
bre w w o r d s A me n
ple o f the H o ly A po s tles w h o alth o ugh in the Ne w Te stam e nt
they wr o te Greek di d n o t chan ge th o se w o r d s 3 s o al so we w o uld
transl ate the Kyrie E le is o n and C hris te E leis o n which are
Greek i nt o Germ an
By Greek writi ng the wh o l e Ne w
Te stam e n t has bee n pr o d uce d and we dare n o t so c o m pletely
cas t as ide everythi ng th at is Greek Y o u c an eas ily u n d ers tan d
u nless yo u o bsti nately de spi s e i t whe n yo u are o n ce t o ld that
Kyrie E le is o n m eans L o rd have m ercy an d Ch ris te E le i
Chri s t hav e m ercy
But if yo u w an t to be so ri gi d ly
son
G erman yo u m us t n o t eve n say Chri s t have m ercy but D u
G e s alhte r h ave m ercy
C The G LO RI A I N E XC E LSIS The m i n i s ter n o w c o m fo rt s th e
c o n gre gati o n He has go n e d o wn with the m i n t o th e de pths
o f their wretche d n ess an d n o w f
r o m the se de pths he l o o k s up
u n t o the hi l l s whe n ce c o m et h
and bi d s the m l o o k up with h im

their he l p
At o n ce fai th in the he art s o f the pe o ple is r o u se d
to acti o n an d tak es the w o rd fr o m G o d s lips
Firs t in th e so ng
Is 3 3
.

2 :

The L uthe ran [ Mo veme nt in E ng land

96

the an gel s they celebr ate the divi ne go o d ness The n agai n
the c o n tras t betwee n G o d s Lo ve and their d i sp o siti o n t o war d s
it awake ns withi n the G lo ria a s ec o n d Kyrie The n o n ce m o re
the tho u ght o f their o w n n eed is fo rg o tte n as the s o n g o f tri
u m ph in the three fo l d as cri pti o n o f Gl o ry to Chri s t al o n e e n d s
is with o ut d o ubt o n e o f the
the s tr ai n The
G l o ri a M aj o r
very o ldes t hy mns o f the Chri s ti an Chur c h It is s o m eti m es
th o ugh with o ut su f cie n t evide n ce as cribe d to Bi sh o p Tele s
o thers
t
o
ary
by
Hil
bi
s h o p O f P o ic tie rs
12 7
h
r
u
s
o
p
(
It is fo u n d in the
alth o ugh it is pr o b ably e arlier
r
o nd
Apo s t o lic al C o n stituti o ns
Sec
o
Third
Ce
n
tury
(
)
which su f cie n tly e st abli shes its E as ter n o ri gi n It o ccur s there
Gl o ry h e to G o d in the highes t an d
in the fo ll o wi n g fo rm
u po n e arth pe ace g o o d will am o n g m e n We prai s e Thee w e
gl o ri fy Thee we w o rship Thee by Thy great Hi gh Prie s t ; Thee
the o n ly
w h o art the true G o d w h o art the O ne U n be go tte n
Fo r Thy gre at gl o ry O L o r d an d heave nly
acce ss ible Bei n g
K i ng 0 G o d the Father Al m ighty O L o rd G o d the Father
o f Chri s t the i m m acul ate Lam b wh o t aketh away the s in o f the
w o rl d receive o ur prayer Th o u th at S ittes t u po n the cherubi m
Fo r th o u o nly art h o ly Th o u o nly art the L o rd Jes u s the Chri s t
o f the G o d o fall cre ated n ature an d o ur Ki n g by wh o m gl o ry

h o n o r an d w o r ship be to Thee
Luther says that i t n ei ther
rew
r
He
ve
n o r w as m ad e up o n e arth but cam e direct l y f
o
m
a
n
g
With the G lo ria in E x ce lsis the r st part o f the ac t o f th e
W o rd ce as e s The c o n gre gati o n h as bee n prepared fo r the
W o r d i tsel f and the n pr o cee d s to its recepti o n The sacrici al
elem en t h as thus far prevailed No w the sacram e n tal is to pre
po n d er ate
Part I I A T H E SAL UT A T I O N i n tr o duces the sacram e n tal
ad m i n i s tr ati o n o f W o rd o r
rt
the
Service
whether
i
t
be
the
f
a
o
p
Sacram e n t th at is to fo ll o w Thr o ugh h is m i n i s ter Chri s t sa
lutes us whe n ab o ut to m ake h is ab o de wi thi n us Thus the an
gel to the vir gi n Luke I 2 3
The Res po ns e fo ll o ws Ruth 2 4
The Salutati o n an d Resp o nse are n o t ho weve r ,
o r 2 T im 4 ; 2 2

of

E x curs us

on

the Typ ical L uthe ran C h ief S e rvice

97

c o n n ed to the sacram e ntal ac t AS see n in the Mati n and


Ves per Services they bel o ng to the C o llects
By thi s freque n t
repetiti o n o f thi s greeti n g and Res po ns e the b o nd s o f l o ve an d

h
u n ity betwee n pas t o r an d pe o ple are tie d an ew
L
O
e)
(
M ay the L o r d abi d e in yo u an d give e th
The m ean i n g is :
cacy to y o ur petiti o ns (D urandus) o r the pri es t says that he is
at pe ace wi th b o th cler gy an d pe o ple (D am ian us) o r the atte n
ti o n is ar o us e d to pr ayer (Ru pertus ) 3 fo r i t is n o t G o d n o r
Chri st b ut the Lo r d be with yo u s i n ce Lo rd s ign ies po wer
av an ti
C
(
) The m i n i s ter prays fo r h is pe o ple
The pe o ple pr ay fo r their m i n i ster 3 an d the n they un ite d ly pray
fo r o n e an o ther

B T H E C O LL E C T S The Let us pray


i n d i cates th at the
pe o ple are to j o i n in the pr ayer which may be d o n e either s ile n tly
A gai n we re fer to what is sai d in Chapter
o r in s ub d ue d v o ice
X X As t he C o llect is to be a pr ayer o f the pe o ple th e e arlier
Lutheran Or d ers evi d e n tly res tricte d the n u m ber in o r d er that
th o s e well kno wn to the pe o ple m i ght be u se d A s o ri gi nally in
the Gre go ri an Or d er o nly o ne C o llect w as to be u sed The
m e an i ng o fthe ter m is n o t cert ai n It is either the u n i ted o r the
c o llecte d prayer o f the e n tire c o n gregati o n the m i n i s ter h as
r
ye
d
r h is pe o pl e in the S alut at io n an d they h ave
r
ye
d
f
o
a
a
fo r
p
p
the m i n i s ter in the Res po nse o r a prayer m ad e by a c o llecte d
c o ngre gati o n o r a prayer t hat c o llects an d c o n ce n tr ate s the
th o u ght o f G o spel and E pi s tle I ts o f ce here is to pre pare the
c o n gre gati o n fo r the rece pti o n o f the speci al W o r d pert ai n i ng to
the day ann o u n ce d by the I ntr o it and n o w ab o ut to be re ad
The C o lle c ts fo r the Su n days an d chie ffes tival s are alm o st e n
tire ly o f Pre Re fo r mati o n o rigi n fr o m the Le o n i n e (44o )
Ge
an d Gre go ri an (5 9 6 ) S acr am e n t arie s
las ian
The fo ll o wi ng m ay be n o ted as L e onine : III Su nday after
E as ter IV XII and XIII after Tri n ity
Ge las ian II I II
IV Adve n t Chri st m as Eve Chri st m as D ay I Other C o l lect
IV V after
fo r A d ve n t Pal m aru m E as ter Eve E as ter D ay
V
E as ter Su nd ay after As ce ns i o n I
VI VII VIII
.

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e nt in E ng land

98

IX X XL X IV XV XVII XVII I X IX XX after


Tri n ity
G rego rian : I A d ve n t Su n d ay after Chri s t m as II
Other C o l l ect fo r Adve n t E pi ph an y I II III IV V after
E piphan y Se ptu ages i m a Sexage si m a Qui n qu a
III
ge s i ma II
IV V Su n d ays in Le n t M o n d ay Tue sd ay and We d n e sd ay in
H o ly Week Other E as ter C o llect s I after E as ter I fo r As
c e ns io n
Whitsu n day M o n d ay in Whitsu n week XVI XX I
8
XXII XXIII XXIV after Tri n ity I n c o mpari n g them wi th
the An g l ican C o llects i t m us t be re m e m bere d that after the
Thir d Su nd ay after Tri n ity the A n glican C o llects fall o ne Sun
day behi n d and th at el s ewhere as in the r s t three Su n d ays in
Adve n t the Angli cans have c o m po sed n e w C o llects while we
retai n the an cie n t C o llect s
The s tructure o f the C o llect is always the sam e It em br aces
o n e m ai n petiti o n c o ns i s t s o f but o n e s e n te n ce as k s thr o u gh the
merit s o f Chri st an d e n d s with an as cri pti o n to the H o ly Tri n
ity I ts p arts as well analyze d by E ngli s h wri ters such as Neale
are : I
I n v o cati o n
An tece d e n t Re as o n
Petiti o n [ 4
2
B e n et]
The fo urth p art is n o t always fo u n d
5 C o n clu s i o n
The c o n clus i o ns are u n i fo r m eve n whe n n o t s o d es ig nate d Ifto
the Father : Per D o m i n um n o stru m J e sum C h ristum Filium
tuu m qui tecum v iv it e t regnat in un itate Spiritus san cti D eus

per o m n i a saecul a sae culo rum 3 if to the S o n :


qui vivi s e t

e tc
That n o preju d ice
re gnas c um D e o Patre in un itate
may be sh o w n the o ther perso ns o f the G o dhead n o t ad dr ess ed

a
van ti
in the pr ayer
G
(
)
There are n o ver s icles fo r the C o llect s at thi s part o f the se r

vice The C o llect is fo ll o we d by the Am e n


to be said o r
.

Fro m

by

G e rb e rt s M

'

urato ri s

on u me n ta v ete ris

L itu rgia P o m o n a

L iturgia e A le m a n n icae ,

e t d

s upp e m n e

Tho m as A qui n as (S umm a


w h o tri e s to apply to it 1 T im 2 :
2 2
S um m aru m
Q 8 3 A rt
A lm igh ty a n d E ver
H e s ays :
I n th e C o ll e c t fo r T ri n it y S unday
1
Wh o h a st gi ven
lasting G od pert ai ns to th e r ai s i n g o fth e m i n d to G o d 3
We b ee ch Th e th at Th ou
u n to us Thy s rva n t
perta i ns to than k s givi ng ;

w ouldest h e p pert ai ns to pe titi o n ;


Th rough our L ord to s uppl i c ati o n
9

The

d is tributi o n
.

c an

be
,

trace d

as

far b ac k

as

s,

es

E x curs us

on

the

Typ ical

L uthe ra n C h ief Se rvice

99

c o ngregati o n acc o rdi ng to I C o r I 4 : 10 3 Neh 8 : 6


T H E L ESS O N S
That there are two lesso ns the Epi stle
and the G os pel is trac e able to the Service o f the s ynago gue
where o n every S abbath a lesso n fr o m the L aw an d o ne fr o m
the pr o phet s w as re ad The e n tire Pe n tateuch was d ivi d e d i n t o
s ecti o n s c o rre s po n d i n g to the weeks o f the ye ar s o th at i t w as
an nu all y re ad thr o u gh
C T H E E P IS T L E is the W o rd o f the Chri sti an L aw 3 with all
its greater de pth an d bread th as se t fo rth in the New Tes t am e n t
I n h is rs t liturgical writi ng the Fo rmu la [ Mis s a e Luther h as
n o t u n d ers t o o d thi s whe n he att ack s the s electi o ns m ad e o n the
gr o u n d that they are n o t such e pi s tle less o ns as treat o ffaith and
Chri s t
The E pi s tle whi ch is read be fo re the G o spel pertai ns to the

m i n i s try o f J o hn
(G e rb e rt M o nume nta Ve te ris L iturgia e
III : I
The Epi stle is take n so m eti m es fr o m the Ol d an d
r o m the New Tes tam e n t Fo r J o h n w as the way b e
s o m eti m es f
twee n th o se wh o prece d ed and fo l l o we d i n term e d i ate between
A po s tle s an d Pr o phets Fo r the L aw and Pr o phet s were u n til
J o hn
Wh at is the L aw as ks Ju s ti n M artyr
The G o spel
which is pr o clai m e d What is the G o spel The L aw which is
St Au gus ti n e : I n the Ol d an d Ne w Tes tam e n t s the
fullle d
thi n gs are the sam e 3 but there they are ad u mbrate d here re
vealed ; there pre gure d her e man i fes te d O n L o r d s D ays
the E pi s tle is c o n fo r m ed to the L aw fr o m the New Tes tam e n t
s i n ce n o w we are u n d er the law o fgr ace whi ch s i n ce the res ur
recti o n the L o r d s D ay repres e n ts an d whi ch n o w illu m i n es th e
wh o le w o rld The E pi s tle prece d es : 1 Bec aus e it des ignates
the o fce whi ch J o h n exerci sed be fo re Chri s t 3 fo r he we n t b e
fo re the face o f the L o rd to prepare h is ways
(Ru pert I nn o
ce n t Alex de Ales D ur an d ) 2 Becaus e the A po stl es were
o re the L o rd
s e n t tw o an d tw o be f
Bec
u
e
a
s
n
l
c
u
i
Go d
A
(
) 3
d o es n o t make the m an i fes tati o n o fh is p o wer and go o d n ess all
at o n ce ; but r s t less
an d af
terward s m o re What he spo ke
hi ms el fc o n tai ns m o re per fect man i fes tati o n than what he sp o ke
u g

h y the

s n

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo vem e nt in E ng land

00

by the Apo s tles 4 That the m i n d o f the he arers m ay advan c e


fr o m the re c e p ti o n o f what is le ss to what is gre ater an d thu s
gr ad u ally as ce n d fr o m the l o we s t to the highe s t (Walafrie d
Strab o ) (J S D uran tus D e R itihus E cc
D H alle luj ah
With the c o ns ci o us n e ss o f the fo rgive n e ss
o fs i ns i m parted by the prece d i n g part O f the Service the c o n
H avi ng in view the
gre gatio n receives eve n the L aw with j o y
G o spel whi ch is s till t o be read the L aw h as l o st its terr o r s ; it
is wri tte n in the heart Heb 8 : I o an d he n ce is greete d with

H allel uj ah
an e x ultan t
Thi s is an i nheri tan ce fr o m the Jewi sh Church and he n c e
c o m e s appr o pri ately after the Chri sti an L aw S o o fte n d o e s i t
ten
o ccur in P S 1 1 3 118 th at thi s s ecti o n o f the Psal m s is o f

c alled The Gre at H alleluj ah


It is pr o bable that the l atter
11
rti
n
f
thi
s
P
S
I
I
the
o
o
o
8) w as ch an te d by o ur L o r d as
p
(
5

hy m n at the l as t pass o ver Thus i t p o i n ts to h is sacrice I n


Rev 19 : I i t is the triu m ph an t hym n o f the h o s ts o f Heave n
He n ce i t is n o t tr an sl ated s i n ce it bel o n gs n o m o re to any par
tic ular l an gu age o f e ar th
but to the v o cabul ary o f spiritually
m i n d e d m e n an d an gel s
Thi s expl ai ns Luther s rule that i t
A lle luj ah cn im vox
m u s t n ever be o m itte d fr o m the s ervice
.

e r e tua es t e ccle s ia e , s icut

p p

to ria e ef
us

e r etua e s t

p p

m e mo ria pass io nis

e t vie

L ater Lutheran usage fo ll o wi n g that o f the e arly


Church has san cti o n ed its s u ppress i o n d uri ng the Pass i o n Seas o n
u po n the pri n ciple that Luther s rule if s trictly ap plied w o uld
fo rbi d all pe n ite n ti al service s
I n c o nn ecti o n with the H alleluj ah a pr o lic m u sical an d po e
tical gr o wth o f gr ad u al s s eque n ce s pr o s es tr acts an d hym ns
They pr o l o nged and c o m plicate d the Service Eve n
aro s e
C ar d i nal B o na mai n t ai ns that so m e very fo o li sh o n es crept
7
But the chie f o bjecti o n was the d o ctri nal i m purity by
in
which they were perv ad e d S o m e o fo ur be st hymns cam e fr o m
thi s s o urce Luther transl ated a n um ber o f the m 3 and if a pure
.

E ditio L ugdun i, 16 75 , p 2 4 1
1 P e rum L itu r ica ru m L ib ri
,
g

III :

14 1.

Ex curs us

on

the

Typical

L uthe ra n C h ief

Se rv ice

36

hymno dy o f su f cie n t exte n t c o uld have ari se n the H alleluj ah


wo ul d h ave had m o re e x te ns ive su pple m e n t th an n o w I n h is
Fo rm ula [ Mis s ae Luther speci es a fe w wh os e rete n ti o n he ap
pr o ved
E Th e G ospe l Here we nd no t o nly the s u mm it o f the
Firs t Act re ac hed but the savi n g d ee d which the day celebrates
is clearly d eclare d
It is no l o n ger the Ap o st o lic do ctri n e c o n
cer n i ng Chri s t but i t is Chri s t H i ms el f w h o is evi d e n tly se t
fo rth
We se e H im in all h is c o n crete perso nality m o ve be fo re
He n ce we ri s e in revere n t ad o r
us ; we he ar h is very w o r d s
I n fo rm er d ays m e n o fw ar u n sheathed their s w o r d s an d
ati o n
li ste n ed with drawn we apo ns read y to de fe n d the truth o f that
which was he ar d El sewhere we apo ns previ o usly in hand were
lai d d o wn in ad o r ati o n o f the Great C o n quer o r be fo re wh o s e
wo r d s all e arthly p o wer mu s t yield The i n rm l aid away their
s taf
fs an d li s te n ed wi th u n c o vered head s
I n the Ethi o pic O r
der the G o spel was i n tr o duced by the w o rd s :
Ari se and hear
the G o spel an d g o o d m essage o f o ur Lo r d and Savi o ur Jesu s

Chris t

F
Gl o ry be to Thee O Lo rd no t o nly e xpr esses the rs t
b o un d o fj o y at the very ann o u n ce m e n t o f a m es sage fr o m the
Lo rd but al so e nables the c o ngregati o n to ri se wi th o ut an y aw k
ward break in the Servi ce

Praise be to Thee O Lo rd is usual in o ur Lutheran litur


gies It is an appr o pri ate d o x o l o gy in res po ns e to th e G o spel
an d m arks the cl o s e o fthe s ec o n d p art o f the Act o f the W o rd
Th o s e wh o superci ally o bject to i t that it s o i mds as th o u gh the
pe o ple were thank ful that an e n d had c o m e to the lesso n m ay
answer whether the n the s i ngi ng o fa d o x o l o gy at the cl o s e o fthe
Se rvice w o ul d n o t m e an that the pe o ple are th an k ful that a te
Pr o fane critici sm can ri d icule an y
dio us s er m o n h as e nded
thi n g sacred
PAR T III A T H E C R E E D Thi s is i n tr o duct o ry and sub o rdi
I n a fe w Or d ers i t direct l y fo ll o ws 3 but in
n ate to the Serm o n
I n the l atter cas e its o i c e is to give a s um
mos t it precedes
,

'

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

02

Eng land

the faith as a wh o le be fo re the m i ni ster ex pand s th e p art


c o n t ai ned in the G o spel fo r the day The wh o le ho riz o n o f th e
faith s wee ps be fo re the view an d the n , the he arer s are pre pared
to e n ter the o n e li m ited p art
Where it fo ll o w s the Ser m o n as
in the Re fo r m ati o n o f C o l o gn e it is as the af r m ative answer to
the Ser m o n A n o ther ex pl anati o n is so m eti me s give n :
Th e
Creed is recite d after th e G o spel that while by the H o ly G o s
pel there is faith u n t o righte o u sn ess ; by the Cree d there m ay

be c o n fe ssi o n with th e m o uth u n t o salvati o n


(D urandus)
A fter Chri st h as spo ke n to h is pe o ple i t is pr o per fo r the m to
express their belie f the m o re arde n tly an d i n te n tly as it is writ
te n in the G o spel o fJ o h n th at they did wh o h ad he ar d the w o rd

fr o m the S am arit an w o m an
(G e rb e rt)
The Creed ge n erally pres cribed in Luther an L iturgie s is th e
Nice n e There is precede n t fo r the A po s tl es Cree d and that
to o in the e arlier Or d er s D o e b e r s ( 15 2 5 ) an d B uge nh age n s o f
the sam e ye ar ; but thi s is r are The Ap o s tle s Creed as th e
B apti sm al C o n fe ss i o n bel o ngs pr o perly to the B apti smal Servi ce
The Nice n e
an d the s ub o r d i nate weekly an d daily s ervi c es
Creed is the C o mm u n i o n C o n fess i o n and be l o n gs whe n ever thi s
is ad m i n i s tered 3 the tw o Creed s c o rrespo n di ng to the tw o Sac
Luther s m etri cal ver s i o n o f the Ni ce n e w as m o re c o m
ram e n ts
m o n an d o ccas i o nally eve n the Ath an as i an was u sed as o n Tri n
ity Su nd ay and at Ordi nati o ns The Te D eum al so was u sed
Bec au se o f its c o n fessi o nal ch ar acter the l atter was
at ti m e s

Am br o si an Au gus ti n i an Sy m b o l
so m eti m e s c alled the
B T H E S E R M O N A n u m ber o f o ur Orders pr o vi de fo r thi s

u n d er the directi o n : Ex pl anati o n o f the G o spel


The wh o le
Service is thr o w n i n t o c o n fu si o n if th at t o war d s whi ch its sever al
p art s le ad be n eglected an d s o m e o ther th an the fo c al t o pi c be
i n tr o d uced No t that w hich fOr the m o me n t is ne are s t the heart
o f the m i n i s ter n o r th at which is n e are s t the he art o f the i n di
vidual m embers but that which is so arr anged that the e n tir e
c o n ten ts o f the d ivi n e W o rd are u n fo lded an d c o m m u n i cated in
a c o m ple t e cycle will af
fo rd m os t perman e n t e di catio n and
mary

of

'

'

'

Ex curs us

r
h
p
i
c
a
l
L
u
t
e
an C h ief Se rvice
y
T

th e

on

3 03

the i n tere s t o f d ev o ut pe o ple The service o fthe m in


i ster o n the pul pit e n d s with the Votum i n te n d ed to sum m o n
the pe o ple to j o i n in the succeedi ng psal m o dy with which they
r o m the pul pit an d tak es his
are o ccu pie d while he d e sce n d s f
ar
a
l
ce
be
re
the
lt
f
o
a
p
C T H E O FF E RT O R Y Thi s is so di ffere n t fr o m the O ffe rt o ry
in the Ro m an M ass th at i t s eems s carcely pr o per to ret ai n the
ad apted
As we us e i t the re fere n ce is to psal m o d y
n am e

either to the Ser m o n o r to repe n tan ce o r to the H o ly Su pper


(C alvo r)
D T H E G E N E RA L PRA Y E R Here the anal o gy o f the Ro man
M as s h as bee n fo ll o we d The Ge n eral Prayer h as its o rigin in
the l o ng serie s o f petiti o ns attached to the Ro m an O ffert o ry
which were m o s tly c o nn ected with the w o r shi p o f sai n t s pr ayers
The Luther an C hurch go i ng b ack to a purer
fo r the d e ad etc
traditi o n and eli m i nati ng thes e elem e n ts fo u n d thi s the pr o per
pl ace to pray fo r all so rt s and c o n diti o ns o f m e n Fo r the cry
o f re pe n t an ce h as le d to the th o u ght that there are o ther s c o m
an d the sam e
rehe
d
ed
n the sam e s in the sam e re d e m pti o n
i
n
p
fo rgive n ess
ce o f the Ge n eral Prayer is there fo re to pres e n t m o s t
Th e o f
fo rcibly the Church as the c o mm u n i o n o f sai n t s where the e nd
o r m e n is th at they m ay be br o u ght to repe n t
o fall o ur pr ayer s f
aith
e xperie n ce
aith an d thr o u gh re pe n t an ce an d f
an ce and f
the full n ess o f the d ivi n e bless i ngs bo th te m p o ral and eter nal
Luther pr es e n ted as a pr o per fo rm fo r ge n eral prayer a paraphras e
an di n g its petiti o ns at le n th an d w as
o fth e L o r d s Pr ayer ex p
g
El sewhere the Li tan y
fo ll o wed in thi s by a n u m ber o f Or d ers
o r the Te D e um w as us e d o r s ever al C o llects were c o m bi n e d as
The r s t Ge n er al Pr ayer
in the Br an d e nbur g Niirnb e rg o f I 5 3 3
o f the C o m m o n Service is exce pt the rs t par agr aph in the Strass
burg Order o f 15 9 8 an d is pr o bably c o ns i d erably o l d er I n its
m ai n features it is fo u n d in the Au s tri an Or d er o f I 5 7 1
The Litany pres e n ted fo r use in man y o f the Or d e rs wher e
ther e is no c o mm un i o n was gre atly changed by Luther in his re
m ai n tai n

T he L

3 04

[ Mo ve me nt in E ng land

uth e ran

vi s i o n o f 15 2 9 as sh o wn ab o v e in C hapter XVIII H e tr ans

p o sed fr o m all s in to be fo r e all evil 3 i nserte d by thi n e


ag o n y and bl o o d y
in all ti m e o fo ur tribul at i o n in all

ti m e o fo ur pr o sperity 3 chan ged to its prese n t fo rm


to pre

etc 3 and either o ri gi nate d o r


s erve all pas t o r s an d m i n i s ters
gre atly e n l ar ge d all the i n tercess i o ns o f the sam e gr o u p I n th e
s ec o n d gr o u p o n ly the r s t i n terce ss i o n is in the R o m an M ass 3
the res t are by Luther The thir d gr o up is e n tirely by Luther

I n the fo urth he am e n ded


o m nibus b e n efa cto ribus
S O as to

read hos tib us pe rs e cuto rib us ct calum niato rib us nostris


i e
T o re pay everythi n g g o o d to o ur
where the o ld Lit an y re ad s

T o fo rgive o ur e n em ies per s e


be n e fact o rs
Luther re ad s :

Thi s is a ful l
c uto rs an d sl an d erers and to turn their he arts
Ye have heard t hat i t h ath bee n sai d by
m e n t o fthe pas sage :

The
them o fo ld etc but I say un to yo u M atth 5 2 1 s q q
pr ayer s at the cl o se o f the Lit an y he reduce d to the fo rm o f
C o llect s and greatly chan ge d Thu s exce pt at the begi n n i ng
i t is al m o s t a n e w Lit an y I ts s tructure h as bee n analyzed as
2
I nv o cati o n s 3 D e preca
fo ll o w s : I The Si m ple K yrie

ti o ns begi nn i n g fr o m
by
4 Ob s ecr ati o ns be gi n n i n g

n terce ss i o ns
I
thr
ugh
the
r
yer
o
a
f
o
r
e
n
e
in
and
p
5

an d
an
6 Su ppli cati o n s fo r frui t s o f the e arth
m ie s

8 Si m ple Kyri e
s wer to prayer
7 T h e ex pan ded K yrie
an d C o llect s
s icle s
i
t
h
e
L
r
d
I
O
Ver
I
t
s
s Pr ayer
o
9
ge n er al prayer o f the Chri s ti an Church u n d er all n ecess itie s an d
c o n d iti o ns We m u s t care fully av o i d n arr o wi n g its s ig n ican ce
It is n o t e g a m ere pe n ite n ti al pr ayer 3 like every true prayer
i t c o n tai ns thi s ele m e n t but is n o t c o n n ed to thi s It is a
prayer in every n ece ss ity n o t o nly agai ns t sin but al so agai ns t
It is n o t a m ere cry o f an gui sh bel o n gi ng o nly to
all evil
t i m es o f tr o uble ; it is a pr ayer n o t m erely agai ns t all evil but
The P o m er an i an Age n d e go e s so far as to pre
fo r all g o o d
the Lit an y fo r the S aturd ay Ve sper Service in the pl ace
s cribe
o f the M agni cat an d to have it su n g in o ne and the same
week day Service with an d th at to o eve n be fo re the T e
.

7"

Luther pr o n o u n ced i t
very bes t th at c o ul d b e mad e

e um

ext the L o rd

Pr ayer

t he

SEC O N D

O MM UN I O N
O n the relati o n o f the C o mm u n i o n to the res t o f the Service
T o Luther W o r d an d S acram e n t s are the o bjective fo un da
ti o ns o f the Church and acc o rdi ngly the o bj e c tive fact o rs
o f the
Service as the m eans o f grac e whereby the i n d ivi d ual
c o m es i n t o po ss ess i o n o f the bless i n gs o f salvati o n 3 the Lo r d s
Su pper e speci ally as a sacr am e n t is re gar d e d n o t m erely the hi gh
e s t an d m o s t i m pre ss ive ann o un ce m e n t an d ass ur an ce o f grace
but al so as the o bj ective s eali n g o f gr ac e He n ce the Lo r d s
Supper fo rm s the summ it o f the Service as well o n its o bjective
as o n its subjective S i d e : i n as m uch as in the celebr ati o n o f the
sacr am e n t the gr aci o u s decl ar ati o n o f the G o spel is c o m plete d
an d give n es pe c i al po wer an d the appr o pri ati o n o f salvati o n o n
the part o f the c o ngre gati o n is acc o m pli she d He n ce while the
Service h as i n d ee d to Luther the o fce o f i ns tructi n g in salvati o n
ar as he kee ps the pre achi n g o f the W o r d in view he re gard s i t
so f
al so as a s e ali n g o f salv ati o n
a c o mm u n icati o n o f gr ace n o t
m erely in the Lo r d s Su pper but al so in the Wo rd He there fo re
n d s the sum an d su mm it o fth e e n tire Service in the C o m mu n i o n
1
in the Euch ari s t
Fo r thi s re aso n the separ ati o n o f the c o m mu n i o n fro m the
preachi ng Service is e n tirely fo reign to the spirit o f th e G o spe l
The C o mm u n i o n
as apprehe n ded by the Lutheran Church

Address
whi ch re pl aces the Sermo n in so m e churches is an
i mpo rtati o n fr o m the Re fo rm ed Church an d c ann o t be litur gi
cally jus tied There is n o pr o per Service witho ut the preach
7
in g o f the W o rd 3 there is n o c o m plete Servi ce witho ut Wo rd
an d S acram e n t
Part I I ntroductio n A SAL U TAT I O N as in begi n n i ng o fAc t
I , Part I
M ay he be prese n t by h is grace who is always
A CT .

T HE

7
1

Klie fo th

Koe s tlin

Se e

s
s

L itu rgi sch e A bh a ndlungen , V III

Luther s

(V)

p 71

Ges ch ich te de s C h ris tlich en G otte sdie m ts

Von O rde n ung Gottesdie ns ts

The L uthe ran M

3 06

o ve

me nt in

Eng lan d

pres e n t by h is O m n i po te n ce Fo r n o t all are w i th h im in th e


L o I am with yo u alway n o r is He
m ann er in which he sai d :
with all in the m an n er o fwhich we say : The L o r d be with
.

(D uran dus )
B T H E PR E FA C E Thi s is the o l d e s t an d m o s t u n changed fo r m
It w as in use alread y in the ti m e o f Tertul l i an
o f the Se rvice
It be gi ns with the S urs um C orda c o n ti n ues in the G ratias an d
is the n e m b o d ie d in the D ignum e t j us tum with speci al
ff
al s chiey f
re
ce
the
chie
tiv
r
m
the
Greg
ri
f
r
es
o
a
n
a
c
f
a
s
o
o
S
p

u
o
y

ram e n tary

DA
The
S
RS
M
C
O
R
U
U
( )

the Greek fo rm : 6v rd;


.

v
7 0010 95
a
s
Li
f
t
y
thi
nk
u
o ur he art s 3
z a dia g
m
6
w
y
7
7
p
p

A n ex po siti o n o f thi s is giv e n by Cy pri an


o f n o thi n g e arthly
Whe n we s tan d
O n the L o r d s Pr ayer
in his tre ati s e
pr ayi n g bel o ve d brethre n we o u ght to be watch ful an d e ar n es t
with o ur wh o le he art i n te n t o n o ur prayers Let all car n al and
w o rl dl y th o ught s pass away n o r let the so ul at that ti m e thi n k
Fo r thi s reas o n
o n an ythi ng but the o bject o n ly o f its pr ayer
ace be f
o re h is prayer
pre pare s th e
al so the prie s t by w ay o fpre f
Li ft up y o ur he art s th at so
m i n d s o f the brethre n by sayi n g
u po n th e pe o pl e s an swer :
We li ft the m up u n t o the L o rd
he m ay b e re m i n de d th at he hi m sel fo u ght to thi n k o f n o thi n g
but the L o r d H o w can yo u ask to be hear d o f G o d whe n yo u

y o ur sel fdo n o t hear y o ur sel f?


Cyril :
It is n ecessary at that
i m p o rt an t h o ur to li ft o ur he arts to G o d and n o t to S i nk the m
I n thi s se n te n ce there fo re we are
to e arth an d e arthly thi n gs
an d ed t o reli n qui sh
in th at h o ur all c are s an d d o m es ti c
co mm
an xieties an d to h ave the he art in He ave n wi th G o d the L o ver

o f the hu m an r ace
Au gu sti n e
The heart s o f believers are
in He aven becau s e d aily d irected t o war d s H e ave n w h e n the prie s t
says
Li ft up y o ur he art s an d they c o n den t reply : We li ft
the m up u n t o the L o rd
(b ) Au gusti n e s ex pl an ati o n o fthe G RA T IA S is : That we li ft
up o ur he art s to the L o rd is by G o d s gi ft 3 f
o r which gif
t th e n

w e are h idde n to give th an ks to o ur L o rd G o d


u

fo un d in

'

Ex curs us
D I G NUM

(c )

the

on

Typ ical

L uthe ran C h ief Se rvice

3 07

To

pr ai s e G o d ab o ve all thi n gs is m eet so


far as G o d is c o n cer n e d 3 fo r he is o ur L o rd G o d 3 i t is just so
far as we are c o n cer n ed 3 becau s e we are h is pe o pl e
I t is me et
becau se Th o u has t m ad e us by Thy pure will 3 i t is j ust because
Th o u has t re d ee m e d us by Thy pure m ercy ; i t is right becau s e
Th o u d o s t gratuito usly jus ti fy us 3 i t is s alutary becau s e Th o u

d o s t pe rpe tually gl o ri fy us
I
ce
tiu
qu
te
d
by
n
n
o
n
s
o
Du
(
.

ran dus

C T H E SA N C T US H avi ng o ffered n u m er o u s petiti o ns fo r the


Chur c h o n e arth the c o n gre gati o n o f believer s n o w u n ite s with
the Chur c h in He ave n which d o e s no t n ee d its prayers in the an
geli e tri sagi o n Fo r i t is ab o ut to sit in heave n ly pl ace s with
Chri st Jesu s The B e n e dictus fr o m the Great H alleluj ah (P S
1 18 : 2 6
f
us tell s that Chri s t
o
the
P
a
ss
o
ver
a
d
de
d
t
o
the
S
a
n
t
c
)
is n o w c o m i n g to h is pe o ple thr o u gh h is re al pre s e n ce in the
L o r d s Su pper They are to e at an d dri n k in re m e m br an ce n o t
He n ce
o fan ab se n t but o fa trul y pre s e n t th o u gh u ns ee n L o r d
they excl ai m :
Ble ss ed be he that c o m eth in the nam e o f the

Lo r d H o san n a
A s the S an ctus e m ph as ize s the d ivi n e the
Lu
B e n e dictus e m ph as ize s the hum an n ature o f o f o ur L o r d
ther se parate d the S anctus fr o m the P reface in o rder pr o babl y
The
to bri ng the B e ne dictus d irectly be fo re the C o n s ecr ati o n
H os anna is fo u n d in the e arlies t C o mm u n i o n Service o n rec o rd

viz that in The Te achi ng o f the Twelve A po stles (Ch apter


IX
C o m po sed by Vo lpre c h t o f Niirn
D T H E E X H O R TA T I O N
be rg I 5 2 5 is u n litur gi cal an d c au se s a bre ak in the Service ;
It w as pre pare d to an
o r pre achi n g
s i n ce thi s is n o t the pl ace f
w h o h ad bee n
swer the n e c e ss i ty f
o r i ns tru c ti ng the pe o ple
r ai se d u n d er R o m i s h err o r c o n cer n i n g the true s i gn i c an ce o f
the L o r d s Su pper I n the o ri gi nal i t is m uch l o nger The
e d i fyi n g character o f its teachi ng has m ade it es peci al ly d e ar to
the Luther an Church and eve n whe n n o t u se d its pre se n c e
in the b o o k give s an excelle n t pr actic al ex po s iti o n o f the
The Exh o rtati o n t o o k the
do ctri n e O f the L o r d s S ii ppe r
.

'

Th e L uthe ran [ Mo ve m e n t in

08

Eng la nd

/
h
a
rd oi ca race eo eg
l
a
c
e
o
f
t
S
a
n
c
S
a
n
e
s
i
e
t
o f th e e arl
p
y
y
y

Church
e
H o ly thi ngs fo r h o ly pers o ns
I f an y o ne
be n o t h o ly let h im n o t appr o ach H e d o e s n o t say ab so
lute ly free fr o m S in but h o ly 3 fo r n o t abs o lute free d o m fr o m

s in but the pre se n c e o fth e S pirit m ake s h o ly


Chr
t
s
so
o m)
y
(

PAR T I I C O N S E C RA T I O N
The C o nsecr ati o n pr o perly Speaki ng c o ns i s ts o nly o f the Wo r d s
o f I ns tituti o n
A
cce dit ve rb um ad e le me ntum e t t s ac ram e ntum
~
But with o ut prayer we cann o t c o m e at C hri st s i nvitati o n to
p artak e o fwh at He is ab o ut to give
A T H E L O R D S PRA Y E R T hi s pr ayer is n o t re ally c o n se
ar as the ele m e n ts are c o n cer n e d 3 but i t is c o n se
c rato ry so f
c rato ry o f the believers w h o are re ady to receive the he ave n ly
bl ess i n gs
We have heard :
Ble ss e d is h e th at c o m eth in

an d in the L o r d s Pr ayer
we go
th e n am e o f the L o rd 3
That a pr ayer give n by th e
fo rth to m eet the c o m i n g K i n g
L o rd is pre ferre d to an y fur n i shed by the Church is expl ai n ed
becau s e at thi s ce n ter o f the c o mm u n i o n ac t we pre fer to de al
7
with the L o rd al o n e and to us e n o w o rd s o ther than h is
T he
d o x o l o gy to th e Praye r is her e o m itted That i t is n o t s i m pl y
the prayer o f th e o i c iating m i n i s ter is m an i fes t fr o m the O re
7
T h e L o r d s Prayer h o wever hi ghly
Let us pray
mus
prized in th e L o r d s Su pper is no t an ess en ti al part ; an d
he n ce is o m itte d in a fe w Or d ers
B T H E W O RD S O F I N S T I T UT I O N As they here o ccur they
fere d to th e c o n gre gati o n to awake n thei r fai th ;
are n o t o f
but are recited to the Lo r d in c o nn ecti o n wi th th e L o r d s
Prayer as a part o f the act o f pr ayer H e n ce the m i n i ster
turn s n o t t o ward s the c o n gregati o n bu t t o war d s th e altar
The s i gn ic an ce o f th e e n tire ac t is
as he re ad s the w o r d s
0 L o rd we c o m e at Thi ne
as th o u gh he wer e to say :
i n vi tati o n 3 fo r here are Thy graci o u s w o rd s u n t o which Th o u

wilt assuredly be faith ful


Great s tre ss is l aid up o n the n e ces
.

18

Klie fo th , V III (V ) 9 6
.

S
ee
,

b ve

a o

A ct

P art

II B
.

E x curs us

on

th e Typ ica l L uthe ran C h ief Se rv ice

fo r

clear n e ss and di s ti nct n e ss in the utteran ce as o ver


agai ns t the i nau d ible m u m b l i n g o f the Ro m i s h ad m i n i s trati o n
The rai s i n g o fch alice and pate n was i n te n d e d to
o f the M as s
re n der everythi n g vi s ible as well as au d ibl e
C T H E P A X O f thi s Luther says
It is truly the v o ice o f
the G o spel an no u n ci n g the fo r give n ess o fS i ns the o nly an d m o st
wo rthy pre pa rati o n fo r the L o rd s T ab le pro v ide d i t be apprehe n de d
by faith in n o re spect di e re n t than ifit pr o ceeded fr o m the m o uth
o f Chri s t
He n c e I wan t i t an n o un ce d w ith face t o wards the

It is an abso l uti o n o f the c o m m u n i can t s fr o m s in


e
pe o ple
C o m e hither an d receive fr o m G o d s o w n W o r d and thr o ugh
the ple d ges o f the very b o d y and bl o o d which have bee n give n
fo r thy S i ns the pe ace o fG od which is in reality made ready fo r

thee
PA RT III T H E D IS T RI B UT I O N
s

ity

A The A G N US D E I su n g d uri ng the Service is said to have


bee n i n tr o duce d by Po pe Ser gius I (6 8 7
It is bas e d o n

J o h n I : 2 9 The D o na no b is pace m ( Give us thy pe ac e )


has bee n i n tr o d uce d s i n ce the X I Ce n tury ; an d is a re m in is
ce n ce o fthe war s an d ge neral d i so r d er o f th at di sturbed peri o d
I n the Lateran Church at Ro m e Alt says that the o ld fo rm
with o ut the D o na is s till m ai n tai ne d 3 as the Church sho ul d be
an i m age o f the he ave n ly Jeru sale m where alre ad y all is peace
I n the Luther an Se rvice it is a beauti ful re spo ns e to the P ax

G o d s Wo rd :
The Pe ace o f the L o r d be with yo u alway
[ Man s A nsw e r : Ah Lo r d Th o u k n o wes t h o w we n ee d
what Th o u d o s t here o ffer
0 Lam b o f G o d have m ercy o n

Gr an t m e thi s Thy pe ace


me
B T HE D IS T RI B UT I O N P R O P E R The n the Lo rd says : Here
Th o u has t bee n re d ee m e d by
is that fo r which th o u prayes t
Chri s t s bl o o d Here is the very B o dy an d the very Bl o o d
which purchas ed thy fo rgive ne ss and salvati o n Jus t as cer
fered thee ju s t so cert ai n ly art tho u a
tain ly as they are here o f
re d ee m ed s i nner fo r wh o m G o d has o nly th o u ghts o f l o ve
C o m e receive what G o d has pr o vi d ed thee
Take an d e at
,

Th e L uthe ra n [ Mo ve m e nt in

3 10

Eng la nd

thi s is the B o dy o f Christ given fo r thee


Take m e at my
w o rd an d receive m y peace

Give n fo r thee
is an additi o n to the fo r m ul a re ferred to

5
Luther
The C atechi sm tells us th at the
fo r yo u
the
are

chie fthi ngs in the sacr am e n t


an d
require truly believi n g

Fo r thee
heart s
as a f
o rm ul a o f d i stributi o n is pre f
er able

to
fo r yo u
s i n ce i t is the o i c e o f the sacr am e n t to in divi
d ualize gr ace
Th e Be n edicti o n is fo u n d in Luther s Germ an M ass o f 15 2 6

Pre serve yo u in true faith is better than in th e true faith


ere n ce is to the perso nal faith o f th e believer
as the re f

The i n tr o d ucti o n in the sam e Order s o f true be fo re B o dy


urther than a Br an de nbur g N rnb e rg
an d Bl o o d is tr ace d n o f
Age n d e o f 1 5 9 1 an d the n to the C o bur g o f
The in
tro duc tio n o fa c o n fe ss i o nal s tatem e n t reecti ng the vi o le n t c o n
tro v e rsie s o f the ti m e s s ee m s o ut o f pl ace in th at m o m e n t whe n
The acceptan ce
o fall o ther s the so ul is al o n e w ith its S avi o ur
Sh o uld be pr es upp o se d in every
o f wh at such fo rm ul a decl ar es
ad m i n i s trati o n
The sacr am e n t al u n i o n o ccurs in the sacram en tal acti o n an d
there fo re n either u n til n o r after the taki n g an d e ati n g The
c o nsecrati o n is there fo re n o t c o m plete d u n til in the distrib u
ti o n I n h is e arlier li tur gi cal wri ti n gs Luther advi se s s tr o ngly
th at the bre ad shall be c o nsecr ated an d di stributed be fo re the
wi n e is c o nsecrate d H e argues that thi s o ccurred at the i ns ti
Thi s pr actice pres e rves the u n ity
tutio n o f the L o rd s Su pper
It is ad o pted in the c o m
o f the c o ns ecr ati o n an d di s tributi o n
m un i o n o f the S ick
,

PA R T

IV.

PO ST

CO

MMU N I O N

A The Nunc D imittis is fo u n d at thi s part o f the Servi ce in


the o l d es t Lutheran liturgies (Buge nhage n I 5 2 4 3 D Ob e r I 5 2 5 3
Str assburg I 5 2
alth o ugh n o t ge n er ally ad o pted in the XVI
.

I t is n ot h owe ver w itho ut pre ceden t in th e O ri ental Liturgi es al th o ugh

o arabi c
Wh i ch shall b e given fo r yo u
M
o rm
no t in th i s pre c i s e f
(
)
16 Klie f th V III
25
1
o
p
15

E x curs us

C e nt ury

on

th e Typ ica l L uth e ran Ch ief Se rvice.

11

C asaub o n qu o ted by C alvOr traces i t to the Liturgy


I n m o st Pr o t es tan t churches the e n
o f Chrys os t o m add i n g
tire acti o n o f the celebr ati o n o fthe L o r d s Su pper is c o n cluded
with thi s hym n which the pe o ple chan t o n be nd ed kn ees

which is a m o s t be auti ful and h o ly i nstituti o n


.

The pe ace o e re d in the P o x


pr aye d fo r in the Agnus

received in the D istri b utio n is n o w t han k ful l y ac


D ei
"
No w lettes t Th o u Thy s ervan t depart in peace
kn o wled ge d
The chil d o f G o d is as n ear Heave n as he can be in thi s li fe 3
ul e sh is e n tirely
n earer yet he o n e day s hall be whe n thi s s i n f
put o ff He is read y fo r the ble ss e d exchange thi s very m o
m e n t as he al so is ready fo r everythi ng ass ig n e d by his L o rd
Whitherso ever the L o r d s e n d s h im will he go 3 whats o ever the
Lo r d c o mm an d s him will he do Fo r the peace o f G o d is h is 3
where o f he is s o fully
and the salv ati o n o f G o d is a po ss es s i o n
c o nsci o u s that he can e x clai m :
Mi n e eyes have se e n Th y

salvati o n
The use o f the Nunc D im ittis acc o rd s with the practice at the
i ns tituti o n M atth 2 6 : 3 0 :
Whe n they had s u n g a hym n

they we n t o ut i n t o the m o u n t o f Olives

B T H E V E RSI C L E The Nunc D imittis h o wever is indivi


dual The th anksgivi ng is ye t to b e re n d ere d by the e n tire
c o ngre gati o n Thi s is i n tro d uced by the vers icle which ap
pe ars rs t in the C o b urg KO o f 1 6 2 6 and afterwar ds was ge n
e rally i n tr o duced i n t o Luther an litur gies

C T H E C O LL E C T Th at ad o pted in the C o m m o n Se rvice


is fr o m Luther s Ger man M ass o f I 5 2 6 re pl aci n g the P o s t C o m
m u n i o n o fthe Ro m an M ass which ab o u n d e d in do ctri nal c o r
That heret o fo re u se d in the E n gl i sh churches o f the
ruptio ns
Ge neral C o u n cil is fr o m the Bran den bur g Niirnb e rg Or d er o f
i
n a revi se d
which
h
as reappeare d
s ee n el sewhere
1
a
s
53 3
fo rm in the B o o k o f C o mm o n Pr ayer
D T H E B E NE D I C AM US is fo u n d alre ad y in the litur gy o fChrys

The R o m i s h M ass has i t : B e ne dicamus D o m in o


o s to m
.

The L uthe ran [ Mo ve me nt in

12

Eng land

is a G er
Gr ati as
G o tt s ei ge lo b e t und geb e ne de ie t
m an m etri cal re n d eri ng
O f the Service as a wh o le i t may be sai d t hat the Fir s t Act is
v ari able the Sec o n d i nv ari able in its p arts I n the Firs t there is
a c o ns t an t ch an ge acc o rdi n g to the day o r s e as o n o f the Church
Ye ar I n the Sec o n d whatever h e the day o r se aso n the un i
The o n ly exce pti o n to the v ari a
fo r m i ty is al m o s t c o m plete
ti o n s o f the Fir st Act is the pe rm an e n ce o f K yrie Gl o ri a in Ex
The o nly exce pti o ns to the per mane n ce o f
c e ls is an d Creed
the Sec o n d Act are the Pr o per Pre faces an d where the m us ic
is th o r o u ghly e l ab o r ated th e m el o d ie s o f the S anctus Agnus
D e i an d B e n e dicamus ch an gi ng acc o rdi n g to the se as o n o f th e
Church Ye ar

I n a s eries o fact s c o veri n g th o u san ds o f years


says Kl i e
fo th
G o d h as b o r n e h is tes ti m o n y to m e n an d h as s po ke n to
the m in th o u san d s o fw o r d s S o al so every o n e o f the pe o pl e
that e n ter s G o d s h o u se bri n gs with h im an e n tire w o rl d o f cares
j o ys n ecessities an d s i ns Vari ed to o an d
an d ble ss i n gs
m an i fo l d are the ways in which the W o rd o f G o d n d s m e n and
m an n d s hi m sel f rel ated to the W o rd
I t is right there fo re
that the Act o f the W o rd S h o uld prese n t the savi n g d eed s o f G o d
to m e n in their ever fre s h ri ch n e ss an d thu s lead m e n t o salv a
ti o n But all the act s o fG o d an d all the c are s and h o pes o f th e
hu man breas t h ave o n e g o al 3 so al so all divi n e s e rvi ces and all
divi n e de ali n gs with m e n le ad to but o n e g o al : Re d e m pti o n
thr o ugh the Bl o o d o f Chri s t He nce i t is pr o per that the ac t o f
the Servi ce whi ch gives his Bl o o d an d in it the fo rgive n ess o f
e and salvati o n s h o uld al so be extern ally o n e an d th e
s i ns l i f
77
feri n g the o n e thi n g fo r all in but o n e fo rm
sam e o f
Deo

A no ther ge n er al r em ark is n ecessary Fr o m the very begi n


n i n g the Luther an Order s rec o gn i z e that a di f
fere n ce m u s t b e
m ad e betwee n the cities where the n ecessary m u sical reso urc es
o r the f
ull re n deri n g o f the Service an d the vil
are at han d f
.

1"
V

III

148 s q .

Ex curs us

on

the

Typ ical

L uthe ran C h ief Se rvice

3 13

l ages and c o u n try where they are abs e n t C are w as t ake n that a
m o die d Service s h o uld b e pr o vided in which the s tructure o f
the full Service an d the sig n ican ce o f its parts were pres erved
u nbr o ke n The fo ll o wi ng is a type : 1 Germ an Hym n 2
K yri e 3 Hym n m etrical ver si o n o fth e G lo ria in E x ce ls is
C o llect 6 E pi stle
8 G os
4 S alutati o n
5
7 Hym n
n d eri n g o f the Cree d
Metri
c
a
l
re
1
0
Ser
m
n
l
o
11
e
p
9
Ge n eral Prayer 1 2 Hym n 13 Pre face 14 Exh o rt ati o n
16
Lo r d s Pr ayer
W o r ds o f I nstituti o n 1 7 D istrib u
15

ti o n duri n g the S i n gi n g o f Chri sti D u L arnm G o tt e s


18
Po s t C o mmu n i o n I 9 Be nedi c ti o n 2 0 Cl o si ng Hym n
L
n eberg C ale n be rg etc )
u
(
.

'

CHAPTER XXV
T HE

N G LI C AN

CA

TE C H IS M S

transl ati o n o f th e Niirnb e rg C ate chis m o f


15 3 3
C hanges b y C ranm e r C ranm e r s Vers i o n o f Luther s C ate ch is m

b
r
m
T
h
e
ii
r
n
e
C
a
c
s
s
o
A
u
N
te h i
the ry o f po s to l i c S c cess i o n
in full
g
A r chde aco n H oo k s mis t ak e
B e c o n s C ate ch i sm depe nden t o n L u
th e C as s e l C atechi sm
ther T h e C ate ch i sm o fD r John B ren t z
R evis i o n o f th e C as se l C ate chi sm in Re fo rm ati o n o f C o l o gne
Th e C hur ch C ate ch i s m co m pare d w ith tho s e o f B ren tz C as s el
C ate ch i sms o f Po ne t an d N o we ll
C o l o gn e an d Luther

C ranm e r s C ate ch i s m o f 15 48,

Church C atechi sm is a part o f the B o o k o f C o m m o n


Prayer bei n g i n clu d ed in the Or d er fo r C o n r m ati o n But so
i mpo rt an t is the hi s t o ry o f the d evel o pm e n t that i t requires se p
We have alre ady n o ticed the Bi sh o p s B o o k
arate tre at m e n t

I nstituti o n o fa Chri s ti an M an o f 15 3 7 an d S h o wn its de


or
s C atechi sm s
Luther
n
e
o
n
n
e
c
e
d
p
T HE

CRANM E R S C A

T E C H IS M

C ranm er made an o ther attem pt to su pply the want o f


a po pul ar b o o k o f re l i gi o us i n structi o n which was publi she d un
der the fo ll o wi ng title :
In

5 48

C A T E C H I S M US ;

That is

In tro duc ti o n i n to C hr i s ti an Rel i gi o n fo r th e syngule r


S e t fo rth b y th e m o s te
c o m m o ditie an d pro f
yte o f ch i ldre e n d y o ng peo pl e
reveren de fathe r in G o d Tho m as Arch b ysh o p o f C an terbury Pri mate o f all
G ualte rus Lynn e e cude b at
E ngl an d an d M e tropo l it ane
I t w as i n tr o duced by a dedicat o ry letter to to E d ward VI in
which after re ferri n g to the depl o r able i gno r an ce o f the pe o ple
I k n o wi n g
an d the ki n g s d e s ire to re m edy i t he c o n ti n ue s
to s ay a sh o rte

(3 14)

The A ng lican Cate ch is ms

I
3 5

greatly b o u n de n to s e t fo rward the sam e


e take n
am per su ad e d tha t thy s m y sm al trauyall in thys b e h alf
nge to pas se y o ur go dly
sh all n o t a lytle helpe the so o n er to b ry

pur po se
Al th o u gh the sub ti tle i e the title ab o ve the Pre
o v e rs e n e an d c o rrecte d by the m os te rev
face in the w o r d s

e t e n de father in G o d the Arc h e b ysh o ppe o fC an te rb urie gives


the hi n t th at i t was n o t o rigi nal Burn