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Data Communication

Laboratory Experiment 1

IP Addressing/Subnetting

Submitted By:
Reginald Ray P. Sibalon

Submitted To:
Engr. Orlando Davin Jr.
December 1 , 2016

I. Introduction

Understanding IP subnetting is a fundamental requirement for almost


any techie - whether youre a coder, a database administrator or the CTO.
However, as simple as the concepts are, there is a general difficulty in
understanding the topic.
Here well break this topic into eight simple steps and help you put the
pieces together to fully understand IP subnetting.
These steps will give you the basic information needed in order to configure
routers or understand how IP addresses are broken down and how subnetting
works. You'll also learn how to plan a basic home or small office network.
A basic understanding of how binary and decimal numbers work is required.
In addition, these definitions and terms will get you started:

IP Address: A logical numeric address that is assigned to every


single computer, printer, switch, router or any other device that
is part of a TCP/IP-based network
Subnet: A separate and identifiable portion of an organization's
network, typically arranged on one floor, building or geographical
location
Subnet Mask: A 32-bit number used to differentiate the network
component of an IP address by dividing the IP address into a
network address and host address
Network Interface Card (NIC): A computer hardware component
that allows a computer to connect to a network

II. Problem Set/Solution


1. Create a network that will accommodate 16 Host and 3 network.
(include subnet mask) IP. address of the mother network = 192.168.4.0
Network

192.168.1.0
192.168.4.16
192.168.4.32

Usable Host

Broadcast
Address

from
to
192.168.4 192.168.4 192.168.4.15
.1
.14
192.168.4 192.168.4 192.168.4.31
.17
.30
192.168.4 192.168.4 192.168.4.47
.33
.46

Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.240

2.Create a network that will accommodate 12 networks with 256 hosts.


Start with IP 192.168.0.0
Network

Usable Host
from
192.168.0.0
192.168.0.
1
192.168.1.0
192.168.1.
1
192.168.2.0
192.168.2.
1
192.168.3.0
192.168.3.
1
192.168.4.0
192.168.4.
1
192.168.5.0
192.168.5.
1
192.168.6.0
192.168.6.
1
192.168.7.0
192.168.7.
1
192.168.8.0
192.168.8.
1
192.168.9.0
192.168.9.
1
192.168.10.0
192.168.1
0.1
192.168.11.0
192.168.1
1.1
Subnet Mask= 255.255.255.0

Broadcast Address
to
192.168.0.2
54
192.168.1.2
54
192.168.2.2
54
192.168.3.2
54
192.168.4.2
54
192.168.5.2
54
192.168.6.2
54
192.168.7.2
54
192.168.8.2
54
192.168.9.2
54
192.168.10.
254
192.168.11.
254

192.168.0.255
192.168.1.255
192.168.2.255
192.168.3.255
192.168.4.255
192.168.5.255
192.168.6.255
192.168.7.255
192.168.8.255
192.168.9.255
192.168.10.255
192.168.11.255

3.Create a network that will allow 8 users/hosts, in one I.P from


192.168.0.0-255
Network

Usable Host

192.168.0.0

From
To
192.168. 192.168.

Broadcast
Address
192.168.0.7

0.1
0.6
Subnet Mask=255.255.255.248
4. Create a network that will allow 4 users/host in one ip from
192.168.2.0-255
Network

Usable Host
From
To
192.168.2.0
192.168.2. 192.168.2.
1
2
Subnet Mask=255.255.255.252

Broadcast Address
192.168.2.3

5. Enumerate the ip address classes, subnet classes and their


corresponding number of host

Class

IP address

1.0.0.1 to
126.255.255.
254
128.1.0.1 to
191.255.255.
254
192.0.1.1 to
223.255.254.
254
224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.
255
240.0.0.0 to
254.255.255.

Subnet
Classes
255.0.0.0

Reserved for
multicasting

Number of
host
16 million
hosts of 127
networks
65,000 on
each 16,000
networks
254 hosts of
2 million
networks
Reserved for
multicasting

For research

For research

255.255.0.0

255.255.255.
0

254

III. Conclusion
A very important concept in IP addressing is the network address.
When an organization is given a block of addresses, the organization is free
to allocate the addresses to the devices that need to be connected to the
Internet. The first address in the class, however, is normally (not always)
treated as a special address. The first address is called the network address
and defines the organization network. It defines the organization itself to the
rest of the world. In a later chapter we will see that the first address is the
one that is used by routers to direct the message sent to the organization
from the outside.

Reginald Ray P. Sibalon

BSECE-5

The Origins of AutoCAD

AutoCAD is a software application for 2D and 3D drafting. It was developed


by Autodesk and has been available on the market since 1982. In that time it
has grown substantially, adding new features and programs to appeal to
different professions and has spawned mobile and cloud-based apps. The

software combines design and documentation folders together with the


ability to share the work produced via the Internet.
By March 1986, only four years after it was introduced, AutoCAD had
(arguably) become the most widely used design application worldwide, a
position it still holds today. Its success can be measured by the way it is used
by a range of skilled personal, including architects, project managers,
animators and engineers.
AutoCAD was developed from a program called Interact, which was written in
a language called (SPL) by Michael Riddle. The first version ran on the
Marinchip Systems 9900 computer (Marinchip Systems was owned by
Autodesk co-founders John Walker and Dan Drake). Walker paid Riddle US$10
million for this CAD technology.
When Marinchip Software Partners (later known as Autodesk) formed, the cofounders decided to re-code Interact in C and PL/1. They chose C because it
seemed to be the biggest upcoming language. The C version was the most
complex programs in that language. Autodesk had to work with a compiler
developer, Lattice, to update C, enabling AutoCAD to run. Early releases of
AutoCAD used primitive entities such as lines, polylines, circles, arcs, and
text to construct more complex objects. Since the mid-1990s, AutoCAD
supported custom objects through its C++ Application Programming
Interface (API).
The modern AutoCAD includes a full set of basic solid modelling and 3D
tools. The release of AutoCAD 2007 included the improved 3D modelling that
provided better navigation when working in 3D. Moreover, it became easier
to edit 3D models. The mental ray engine was included in rendering and
therefore it is possible to do quality renderings. AutoCAD 2010 introduced
parametric functionality and mesh modelling.