Anda di halaman 1dari 3

SKF1013: Introduction to Physical Chemistry

EXPERIMENT 5:

5.1:

RATE OF REACTION AND RATE LAW

OBJECTIVES

Upon completion of this experiment, students should be able to:


1. determine the rate law of a reaction
2. explain the function of catalyst and inhibitor in reaction kinetic
3. determine the reaction rates of graph

5.2:

INTRODUCTION

Decomposition of pure hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 is a first-order reaction. The rate of this decomposition at (t)
time depends on the concentration of H 2O2 at (t) time.
2H2O2 H2O + O 2

d[H 2 O 2 ]
k[H 2 O 2 ]
dt

(Equation 1)

d [ H 2 O2 ]t
kdt
[ H 2 O2 ] 0

ln

[ H 2 O2 ]t
k1t
[ H 2 O2 ] 0

(Equation 2)

= rate of reaction

[H2O2] = concentration of H2O2 at (t) time


k

= rate constant

13

SKF1013: Introduction to Physical Chemistry

Equation 2 shows the relationship between initial concentrations of H2O2 with the final concentration of H2O2 at
(t) time. Usually the rate of decomposition is slow at room temperature but by using heterogeneous catalyst
such as tiny platinum metal or manganese dioxide is better to increase the decomposition process.
Homogenous catalyst such as dissolve ferric ion (Fe 3+), manganese ion (Mn 2+), bromide ion (Br -) and enzyme
"blood catalyst" or "amylase" are also suitable for this reaction ( able to increase the rate of reaction)
Without catalyst, decomposition reaction of H2O2 needs higher energy and cause the comparative stability of
H2O2 (becomes too high). A concentrated H2O2 solution can be stored in a refrigerator for a long time without
decompose. Otherwise, the present of catalyst such as manganese will make the process of reaction
(decomposition) to become easier.

For example:

H2O 2

Mn2+

H2O2 + MnO2 + 2H+

MnO2 + 2H+
Mn2+ + 2H2O + O2

We can reduce the decomposition process of H2O2 by using a negative catalyst (inhibitor) like dilute mineral
acid, ether or glycerol. This is because the catalyst active centre is being neutralized or becomes inactive, and
the hydrogen peroxide itself from the factory has the inhibition due to the present of dust, which one of the
factor effect the catalyst activity. In this experiment, the dissolve ferric ion with concentration of 0.025 M is
used as a catalyst. The catalyst helps to increase the rates of H2O2 decomposition.

Chemicals
100% H2O2 v/v
0.025 M FeCl3 solution
1 M H2SO4 solution
0.05 M KMnO 4

14

SKF1013: Introduction to Physical Chemistry

Apparatus
Burette
Pipette 2.5 and 10 mL
Conical flask 250 mL
Measuring cylinder
Watch

5.3:

ACTIVITIES

Procedures
1.

Dilute concentrated H2O2 "100% v/v" (2.5 mL) with 200 mL of distilled water in a conical flask.

2.

After 10 minutes, immediately add 20 mL of FeCl3 solution. This time is called as (t + 0 minutes).

3.

Pipette the solution (10 mL) into another conical flask containing 10 mL of 1 M H2SO4.

4.

Quickly titrate the solution with standard potassium permanganate solution (KMnO4) 0.05 M and get the
volume, V (L) at time, t=0 (V o)

5.

Repeat the procedure 3 for several conical flasks.

6.

After each 10 minutes within an hour, take one sample and titrate with standard solution of 0.05 M
KMnO4 to this sample (because V t at time = t is needed to calculate the rate constant).

7.

Plot a graph of ln Vt/Vo versus t (seconds) and estimate the k value from the slope by using equation 2
(tangent).

15