14 tayangan

Diunggah oleh serept

- 2001 Spe 68184
- Chapter 6-A
- Material Balance Method
- Water Quality Considerations
- NM(Carito-Mulata)Khan Et Al.-field Operations Strategy Under Uncertainty in El Carito Field, North of Monagas, Venezuela
- Integrated Oil PVT Characterization
- 2017 PhD Al Theyab
- 4. DHI and Seismic Pitfall.pptx
- Hydrocarbon Formation
- Quest for Oil Game Guide
- 18. Preservation, Degradation & Destruction of Accumulation
- 1. PPO - Production Systems Analysis - Slides 1-12
- AAPG_Abnormal Pressures in Hydrocarbon Environments_M70_1998.pdf
- Petroleum Principles
- MK - GMB - 12 Subsurface Mapping
- Setting up UI Python
- Ifeanyi Seteyeobot. Cv
- Final Dissertation 1.pdf
- Breitling Oil and Gas Announces Spud of Breitling-Potter Church Prospect
- EOR Miscible Gas Project in Oil-Gas Condensate Field

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Mangi Altaee

Lesson Outcomes

To explain the reserve estimation by DCA.

To describe the three types of decline curves

To apply the decline curve analysis for reserve

estimation

RESERVES ESTIMATION

"reserves" means different things to different people.

To the banker

the amount of capital retained to meet probable future

demands.

To the oil and gas operator

the volumes of crude oil, natural gas, and associated products that

can be recovered profitably in the future from subsurface reservoirs.

those quantities of petroleum which are anticipated to be commercially

recovered & marketable from known accumulations from a given date forward.

reserves?

operation of oil and gas properties

buyers and sellers of oil and gas properties

financing exploration, development, or purchase of oil

and gas properties

agencies with regulatory or taxation authority over oil

and gas operators

investors in oil and gas companies

potential reserves on undrilled prospects

developed

sizing and design of equipment

opportunities for additional profit from well stimulation

Oil and gas reserves form an oil companys main assets!

It is very important to quantify forms of reserves.

Quantifying of reserves is a complex problem!

limited data

varying interpretation

Reserve estimation

It is an on-going activity during exploration, development

planning, and during production.

Classification of Reserves

Proven reserves

certainty to be recoverable under current economic conditions,

technical conditions and government regulations.

Unproven reserves

those reserves that are based on data similar to that used in the

estimation of proven reserves but technical, contractual, economic

or regulatory uncertainties prevent these reserves from being

classified as proven.

Proven reserves:

1.

wells

2.

undrilled acreage, deepening wells to different reservoirs

Unproven reserves:

1.

production with technology and profitablity close to those exist today

2.

Possible reserves are those that are not yet discovered, but whose

existence is presumed with reasonable degree of probability.

Where significant data are available, particularly fluid production and reservoir

pressure data, and the reservoir drive is known.

Where production and reservoir data are limited but the reservoir is analogous to

reservoirs in the immediate vicinity and same geologic horizon.

Where such data are of sufficient quantity and quality to have established the

reservoir drive mechanism

Where production and reservoir data are limited, but the estimate is supported by

a calculation of the hydrocarbons in place by the volumetric method.

Considerations for probable or possible reserve:

Where significant production data are available, but the reservoir drive

mechanism is uncertain or the magnitude of the reservoir drive is uncertain.

Where production and reservoir data are limited and there are no analogus

reservoirs in the immediate vicinity.

Where production and reservoir data are limited and the estimate is not

supported by volumetric determinations.

1.

recovered from existing wells including reserves behind

pipe.

2.

completion intervals open at the time of estimate and

producing to market.

3.

reserves.

completion intervals open at the time of the estimate,

but which have not started producing, or were shut in

for market conditions of pipeline connections, or were

not capable of production for mechanical reasons and

the time when sales start is uncertain.

from zones behind casing in existing wells, which will

require additional completion work or a future

recompletion prior to start of production.

3. Undeveloped reserves are reserves expected to be

recovered

1. Analogy

well is drilled.

Least accurate

2. Volumetric calculations

obtained/ drainage area

3. Material Balance equation

planned & executed

discreet elements.

widely used.

Decline curve analysis is a graphical procedure used for analyzing

and gas wells.

Decline curve analysis is a basic tool for estimating recoverable

reserves. Conventional or basic decline curve analysis can be used

only when the production history is long enough that a trend can be

identified.

Decline curves represent production from the reservoir under

"boundary dominated flow" conditions. This means that during the

early life of a well, while it is still in "transient flow" and the reservoir

boundaries have not been reached, decline curves should NOT be

expected to be applicable

Decline curve analysis is not grounded in

fundamental theory but is based on empirical

observations of production decline.

exponential, hyperbolic, and harmonic

It is implicitly assumed, when using decline curve

analysis, the factors causing the historical decline

continue unchanged during the forecast period.

These factors include both reservoir conditions and

operating conditions.

Reservoir Conditions

Operating Conditions

pressure depletion,

separator pressure,

tubing size,

drive mechanism,

choke setting,

reservoir characteristics,

workovers,

compression,

relative permeability

artificial lift

Good engineering practice demands that, whenever possible, decline

curve analysis should be reconciled with other indicators of reserves,

such as volumetric calculations, material balance, and recovery factors.

It should be noted that decline curve analysis results in an estimate of

Recoverable Hydrocarbons, and NOT in Hydrocarbons-in-Place.

Whereas the Hydrocarbons-in-Place are fixed by nature, the

Recoverable hydrocarbons are affected by the operating conditions. For

example a well producing from a reservoir containing 1BCF of gas-inplace may recover either 0.7 BCF or 0.9 BCF, depending on whether or

not there is a compressor connected at the wellhead.

The following "decline curves" from production wells

are commonly used in the DCA:

Production rate vs. time.

Production rate vs. cumulative oil production.

Water cut vs. cumulative oil production.

Gas-oil ratio vs. cumulative production.

Percentage oil production vs. cumulative oil

production.

The (p/z) ratio vs. cumulative gas production.

Thereafter, as the reservoir pressure is reduced, the rate begins to

decline.

Number of years

before abandonment

Cumulative production

at time of abandonment

amount of water production.

When the value of the oil produced = the cost of disposing of the

produced water, we have reached the point of abandonment.

In bottom-water drive fields, we might plot the location of the oilwater contact in the formation against cumulative oil production.

As the OWC reaches the top of the sand, we know that we have

recovered the crude reserves for this well

oil sand

gas to be produced.

This information provides an indication as to when the well will

reach its abandonment point.

Pressure build-up tests or observation well data are used for this plot.

The relationship is from the application of the gas law to a fixed volume

container & Material Balance Equation (MBE).

imposed on the well with or without surface compression.

value or average reservoir pressure, Pavg, divided by z and plotted

against cumulative production,

An estimate of the ultimate predicable gas reserves may be

obtained

It has the advantage of being readily available and easily

recorded.

The production rate curves normally show a fairly smoothly

declining trend over extended periods when no major changes in

operating procedures are made and no stimulation treatments are

applied.

The economic limit production rate

When a production rate at which a well or field begins to lose

money if production continues. If we incorporate this value into

our rate versus time and rate versus cumulative production

curves, we can extrapolate each trend line to this cut-off point.

We can determine the number of years the well or field will

produce profitably and the cumulative production at the time of

abandonment.

1. Exponential Production Decline

2. Hyperbolic Production Decline

Nearly all conventional decline-curve analysis is based on empirical

relationships of production rate versus time, given by Arps (1945) as

follows:

Where

qt = production rate at time t

qi = initial production rate stb/day

t = time, days

Di = initial decline rate, day 1

b = Arps decline-curve exponent

Exponential Decline

q = qi e-Dt

where,

q producing rate at time t

qi initial rate, stb/day

D nominal decline fraction, 1/day

t time, days

Log Rate

Time

Production rate as a function of time: exponential decline

1. Exponential decline

acceptable provided that other units must be consistent.

Conversion to other units can be done:

D1t1 = D2t2

Re-expressing the Exponential Decline Curve in terms of

nominal decline fraction, D or time, t

q = qi e-Dt

(1)

D = -[ln(q/qi)]/t

(2)

t = -[ln(q/qi)]/D

(3)

Exponential decline

t of qdt

Np =

qdt

(4)

= (qi - q)/D

decline fraction, D from the given production data.

D = (qi - q)/ Np

(5)

Example 1

and will be on exponential decline. The initial rate is estimated

to be 100 stb/day and the abandonment rate in this region is 5

stb/day. How long will the well last? Determine its annual

production.

Solution

q = qi e-Dt or

t = -[ln(q/qi)] /D

D = (qi - q)/ Np

D 1 t 1 = D 2t 2

D1 = [D2t2]/t1

= (0.001357 per day)(365 days)/(1 year)

= 0.4954 per year

t = -[ln(q/qi)] /D

= - [ln(5/100)]/ 0.4954

= 6.05 years

Time

(year)

Rate

(stb/day)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

6.05

100.00

60.93

37.13

22.62

13.78

8.40

5.12

4.99

Production

Cumulative

Annual

(stb)

(stb)

0

0

28,789

28,789

46,332

17,542

57,021

10,689

63,534

6,513

67,502

3,969

69,920

2,418

70,013

92

[100-60.93]/ 0.001357

=28,789 - 0

2. Hyperbolic Decline

decline model.

q =

qi

[1 + bDit]1/b

where,

b hyperbolic exponent . The value ranges from 0 to 1

Di initial nominal decline fraction, 1/time

Di = [(qi/q - 1]/(bt)

t = [(qi/q)b - 1] /(Dib)

integration of Di to obtain cumulative oil production

Di = {qib/[(1 - b) Np]} [qi1-b - q1-b]

or expressing initial decline fraction in terms of Np.

Example 2

will be on hyperbolic decline with an exponent of 0.5. The initial

rate is estimated to be 100 stb/day and the abandonment rate in

this region is 5 stb/day. How long will the well last? Determine its

annual production.

Solution

Di = {qib/[(1 - b) Np]} [qi1-b - q1-b]

={1000.5/[(1 - 0.5)(70,000)]} {1001 - 0.5 - - 51 - 0.5}

= 0.002218/day

= 0.8097/year

t = [(qi/q)b - 1] /(Dib)

= [(100/5)0.5 - 1] / [(0.8097)(0.5)] = 8.576 year

Time

(year)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

8.576

Rate

(stb/day)

100.00

50.67

30.54

20.39

14.58

10.94

8.51

6.80

5.57

5.00

Production

Cumulative Annual

(stb)

(stb)

0

0

25,983

25,983

40,341

14,358

49,450

9,109

55,743

6,293

60,352

4,609

63,872

3,520

66,649

2,777

68,896

2,247

70,005

1,109

3. Harmonic Decline

uncommon

predict longer time for recovery (i.e than exponential or

hyperbolic)

a special case of hyperbolic decline (exponent, b = 1)

Flow rate,

q =

qi

Time,

t =

(production)

[1 + Dit]

qi

q

-1

Di

qi

Cumulative Production,

Np =

(Integration of rate, q)

ln

Di

qi

Di =

ln

Np

qi

q

qi

q

Example 3

and will be on harmonic decline. The initial rate is estimated to

be 100 stb/day and the abandonment rate in this region is 5

stb/day. How long will the well last? Determine its annual

production.

Solutionq

Di =

ln

Np

qi

t =

qi

-1

Di

= 0.004280 per day

= 1.56 per year

= [(100 / 5) - 1 ]/1.56

= 12.16 year

Time

(year)

Rate

(stb/day)

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

12.16

100.00

39.06

24.27

17.61

13.81

11.36

9.65

8.39

7.42

6.65

6.02

5.51

5.07

5.01

100/[1 + (1.56)(1)]

Production

Cumulative

Annual

(stb)

(stb)

0

0

21,963

21,963

33,081

11,118

40,583

7,502

46,253

5,670

50,812

4,559

54,625

3,813

57,902

3,277

60,776

2,874

63,334

2,559

65,640

2,306

67,739

2,099

69,664

1,926

69,958

294

=[100/0.00428] x ln(100/39.06)

100.0

90.0

exponential

80.0

70.0

60.0

50.0

hyperbolic

40.0

30.0

harmonic

20.0

10.0

0.0

0

10

11

12

13

14

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