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EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN UNIVERSITY

CIVIL ENGINEERING GRDAUATION REPORT


CIVL402-CAPSTONE PROJECT /SPRING 2016
DESIGN OF OLYMPIC SWIMMING POOL FOR
EXTENDING LALA MUSTAFA BASHA SPORTING
COMPLEX

Group members:
Mohammad Al-Hamad 139164
Peyman Poursultan 108974
Khader Abuzaid
117731
Bexultan Savkenov
117269
Advisor:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Serhan Sensoy

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this project is to apply the theoretical knowledge and practical work of the
project , analyze and design a new building next to lala Mustafa Basha sport center that
including Olympic swimming pool and gym , yoga and providing some offices.
There will be two parts in our report first part is hand calculation the second one is software
programming design ( GEO 5 , SAP2000 ) and we used Aoto-CAD for drawing and MSproject for management stuff.
This project has different section to be studies:

Structural analysis
Reinforced concrete
Soil mechanics and foundation design
Fluid mechanics
Management
Health and safe matter
Environmental impact
Transportation system

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This report has been done by Mohammad Al-Hammad, peyman poursultan, Khader Abuzaid,
Bexultan Savkenov, Students in Civil engineering department at Eastern Mediterranean
University (EMU), Our department has the course of CIVL-402 in the curriculum plan
EMU gives the opportunity to use this course to increase our experience in engineering field,
we choose our project to be in our campus
we express our since gratitude to Assoc. Prof. Dr. Serhan Sensoy our advisor for this
project who helped us from time to time during the previous semester for 401 and this
semester for 402, to be able to achieve the project design requirements
We thankful to him for his support, cooperation and motivation provided to us during the
semester days for constant inspiration presence and blessing
We also extend our sincere appreciation to my faculty members (Civil Engineering
Department), who provided a valuable suggestions and precious time in accomplishing our
project report.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1
Introduction
This report about designing a extending building or LALA-MUSTAFA BASHA
sport center that including olympic swimming pool, gym, yoga, offices,
and facilities

This report will describe the analysis and design that done during the
project, our project is steel structure and reinforced concrete building
project it has just one big floor which include the swimming pool and the
gym with facilities we are covering the swimming pool by truss system.
The project gives you some engineering skills it develops the knowledge
of engineers in their life and it gives small view about your future work.
The project details will give you the power to be ready when are facing
the reality
The main goal of this project is show the design procedure of the
structure and foundation, cost estimation.
The report is intend for anyone who is study civil engineering or anyone
who is interested in civil engineering.

1.1 Plans
Location of the new building

Figure 1 General plan

1.2 The area for extending building

Figure 2 Our new building

1.3 Architecture plan

Figure 3 Arc plan.1

Figure 4 Arc plan.2

1.4 3D Dimensions

Figure

Figure

Figure

CHAPTER 2
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
2.1 Introduction

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the


likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development,
taking into account Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) defined as a
tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a
project prior to decision-making. It aims to predict environmental impacts
at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to
reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and
present the predictions and options to decision-makers. By using EIA both
environmental and economic benefits can be achieved, such as reduced
cost and time of project implementation and design, avoided
treatment/clean-up costs and impacts of laws and regulations.

2.2 Types of environmental impacts of construction


Construction has many impacts on the environment and it causes some
environmental problems such as:
Construction dust impact.
Construction noise impact.
Water waste pollution impact.
Construction wastes impacts.

2.3 Construction dust environmental impact (Air pollution):


The dusts produced at the construction site is one of the major
environmental problems because it effects the air. To minimize the
construction air quality impacts, improvements from construction sites
have been provided such as watering site area frequently, covering
material properly during transportation and the site area should be kept
clean.
2.4 Construction Noise:
Noise during the construction works would mainly be related to the
construction works and the usage of powered mechanical equipment for
construction

activities,

erection

or

dismantling

of

formwork

and

hammering works. In order to reduce noise impacts, activities would be

carried out in phases, which could avail to reduce the number of needed
to be sit on-site and the noisy works will be performed during the less
noise sensitive time periods. Besides, baffle/noise screens will be provided
to noisy machines and temporary noise barriers and enclosure will be set
up around the construction site.

2.5 Water waste pollution impact:


To minimize construction impacts on water quality, the excavation
activities would be prosecuted in dry condition, and control measures
should be provided to the runoff and drainage from the site areas to
lessen putting up run-off.

2.6 Construction waste impacts:


There are different types of refuses that will be to be produced during the
construction period. The wastes which would be generated from the
Project include construction materials, chemical refuse and general
waste. To minimize the effects materials should be considered carefully
to avoid unnecessary formation of waste, covering all materials during
heavy rainfall.
2.7 Sum up:
With the implementation of the mitigation measures, the environmental
impact will be minimized and with no unacceptable residual impacts. It is

therefore

concluded

that

there

will

not

be

any

insurmountable

environmental problems for this project.


The solutions with the big trees in our construction area:

CHAPTER 3
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Load combination
According to Euro (EN 1991-1-1 (2002) (English): Eurocode 1: Actions
on structures - Part 1-1) there are many load combination that should
be considered when we calculating the loads that the structures are
subjected on. The structure designed in this project is located in
Cyprus, where the loads caused by the earthquake is the main concern
when designing a structure. In this project there are two different
designs, one of them is based on the load combinations caused by
Dead load, Live load, and Earthquake loads. The other design is based
on the load combinations caused by Dead load, Live load, And Wind
loads.

All specific weights () of the materials used in the load calculations are
obtained from the Euro Code for loads and forces.
Gym & Yoga:
For dead load : Thickness=0.12 ( From stander the min thickness=0.06
and Max=0.12 for safety factor we use it as 0.12 ) our
D.L=0.12m*25KN/m3=3KN/m2
For the live load acting on the slab we have 1KN/m2 (Service load)
For earth quake loads we design according to TEC2007

Reinforcement design for gym:

Figure

Span design:

U-direction:

M(kgcm)

d(cm)

R(kg/cm
^2)

S101

1.035

0.5

14.77

13.87

13

8.2

S102

1.034

0.754

13.7

12.55

13

7.43

S103

1.027

0.753

13.8

14.1

13

8.34

S104

1.05

0.754

13.77

13

8.15

S105

1.05

13.86
12.77
6

12.63

13

7.47

0.002
7
0.002
1

S106

1.044

0.744

13.94

13.81
3

13

8.17

0.002
7

3.63

S107

0.958

0.5

14.12

9.26

12

6.43

0.002

2.4

S108

0.956

0.744

13.38

8.45

12

5.87

0.002

2.4

S109

0.95

0.743

13.18

9.18

12

6.375

0.002

2.4

10/31(2.53
)
10/31(2.53
)

S110

1.85

0.5

12.68

0.94

13

0.556

0.002

2.6

10/30(2.61
6)

GYM

V-direction:

0.002
8
0.002
1
0.002
3

As(cm
^2)
3.64
2.73

Selected
10/21(3.73
8)

2.99

10/28(2.8)
10/26(3.01
)

3.63

10/21(3.73
8)

2.73

10/28(2.8)
10/21(3.73
8)
10/31(2.53
)

M(kgcm)

d(cm)

R(kg/cm
^2)

As(cm^
2)

Selected

1.035

0.5

14.77

10.11

12

7.02

0.002

2.34

10/30

1.034

0.754

13.7

15.06

12

10.46

0.002
9

3.48

10/22

3.48

10/22

1.027

0.753

13.8

15.07

12

10.47

0.002
9

1.05

0.754

13.86

9.2

12

6.39

0.002

2.04

10/36

1.05

12.776

13.69

12

9.31

0.002
65

3.24

10/24

3.24

10/24

1.044

0.744

13.94

13.63

12

9.47

0.002
6

0.958

0.5

14.12

8.25

13

4.88

0.002

2.6

10/30

0.956

0.744

13.38

12.26

13

7.25

0.002

2.6

10/30

0.95

0.743

13.18

12.6

13

7.45

0.002
1

2.6

10/30

1.85

0.5

12.68

11.17

12

7.76

0.002
16

2.4

10/31

Support design:

U-direction:

M(kgcm)

d(c
m)

R(kg/cm^
2)

As(cm^2)

Availab
le

S103

8.94

13

5.289940
828

0.002

2.6

2.99

S102S103

7.775

13

4.600591
716

0.002

2.6

2.86

13

7.571005
917

0.0020
78

2.701818219

3.63

0.002

2.6

3.18

GYM

S104

12.795

Asavailable

Add

S104S105

10.36

13

6.130177
515

S105S106

10.425

13

6.168639
053

0.002

2.6

3.18

S106

20.8

13

12.30769
231

0.0033
79

4.392170298

3.63

0.762170
298

10/90

S107S108

10.47

13

6.195266
272

0.002

2.6

2.4

0.2

10/250

S107

12.86

12

8.930555
556

0.0024
52

2.941839064

2.4

0.541839
064

10/100

S108S109

10.6

12

7.361111
111

0.0020
21

2.424844018

2.4

S109S110

16.607

12

11.53263
889

0.002

2.4

2.5

S110

1.35

13

0.798816
568

0.002

2.6

2.6

S101S102

7.875

13

4.659763
314

0.002

2.6

3.185

S101

8.335

13

4.93

0.002

2.6

3.64

V-direction:

M(kgcm)

d(cm)

R(kg/cm
^2)

As(cm
^2)

Available

S110
S110S110

5.95

12

4.131944

0.002

2.4

2.4

8.81

12

6.118056

0.002

2.4

2.4

S103
S103106
S106S109

9.04

12

6.277778

0.002

2.4

3.48

8.505

12

5.90625

0.002

2.4

3.36

9.395

12

6.524306

10.785

12

7.489583

S102
S102105
S105S108

10.785

12

7.489583

2.4
2.4671
64
2.4671
64

2.92

S109

0.002
0.0020
56
0.0020
56

11.575

13

6.849112

0.002

2.6

3.36

12

13

7.100592

0.002

2.6

2.92

S108

11.6

13

6.863905

0.002

2.6

2.8

S101
S101104
S102S104

9.148

12

6.352778

0.002

2.4

8.645

12

6.003472

0.002

8.195

12

5.690972

0.002

GYM

Reinforcement design for yoga & trx:

Asavailable

Add

2.34

0.06

10/250

2.4

2.19

0.21

10/250

2.4

2.76

2.6
3.48

Figure

Span design:

U-direction:
YUGA&T
RX

M(kgcm)

d(cm)

S101

1.081

0.5

14.49

7.23

13

S102

1.081

0.75

14.5

8.64

12

S103

0.75

13.51

8.32

13

S104

0.76

13.52

8.56

13

S105

0.77

14.53

8.96

13

S106

0.78

13.54

11.62

13

S107

0.79

14.55

13.99

13

S108

0.8

14.56

13.65

13

S109

0.81

13.57

13.89

13

S110

0.82

13.58

14.49

13

S111

0.83

14.59

11.62

13

S112

1.081

0.84

13.6

13.93

12

S113

1.02

0.85

14.61

13.64

12

S114

1.081

0.86

13.62

13.83

12

S115

1.081

0.87

12.63

14.43

13

V-direction:

R(kg/cm
^2)
4.278106
51
6
4.923076
92
5.065088
76
5.301775
15
6.875739
64
8.278106
51
8.076923
08
8.218934
91
8.573964
5
6.875739
64
9.673611
11
9.472222
22
9.604166
67
8.538461
54

As(cm
^2)

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.6

0.002
0.0022
72
0.0022
17
0.0022
56
0.0023
54

2.6
2.9541
57
2.8823
62
2.9330
41
3.0597
38

0.002
0.0026
56

2.6
3.1866
11
3.1202
71
3.1637
35
3.0470
68

0.0026
0.0026
36
0.0023
44

Selected
10/30(2.61
6)
10/31(2.53
)
10/30(2.61
6)
10/30(2.61
6)
10/30(2.61
6)
10/30(2.61
6)
10/26(3.01
)
10/26(3.01
)
10/26(3.01
)
10/25(3.14
)
10/30(2.61
6)
10/24(3.27
)
10/24(3.27
)
10/24(3.27
)
10/25(3.14
)

YUGA&T
RX

M(kgcm)

d(c
m)

S101

1.081

14.49

11.65

12

S102

1.081

14.5

11.65

13

S103

13.51

11.63

12

S104

13.52

11.66

12

S105

14.53

7.23

12

S106

13.54

13.65

12

S107

0.5
0.7
5
0.7
5
0.7
6
0.7
7
0.7
8
0.7
9

14.55

13.7

12

S108

14.56

13.7

12

S109

13.57

13.7

12

S110

13.58

8.5

12

S111

14.59

14.45

12

S112

1.081

13.6

14.51

13

S113

1.02

14.61

14.5

13

S114

1.081

13.62

14.5

13

S115

1.081

0.8
0.8
1
0.8
2
0.8
3
0.8
4
0.8
5
0.8
6
0.8
7

12.63

8.95

12

Support design

R(kg/cm^
2)
8.090277
778
6.893491
124
8.076388
889
8.097222
222
5.020833
333
9.479166
667
9.513888
889
9.513888
889
9.513888
889
5.902777
778
10.03472
222
8.585798
817
8.579881
657
8.579881
657
6.215277
778

0.002220
87

As(cm^2
)
2.665040
83

0.002
0.002217
05
0.002222
77

2.6
2.660465
65
2.667328
42

0.002
0.002602
13
0.002611
66
0.002611
66
0.002611
66

2.4
3.122558
57
3.133996
51
3.133996
51
3.133996
51

0.002
0.002754
64
0.002356
89
0.002355
27
0.002355
27

2.4
3.305565
67
3.063961
11
3.061849
49
3.061849
49

0.002

2.4

Selected
10/28(2.8)
10/30(2.6
16)
10/28(2.8)
10/28(2.8)
10/31(2.5
3)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/31(2.5
3)
10/22(3.5
6)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/25(3.1
4)
10/31(2.5
3)

U-direction:
YUGA&T
RX
S115
S114S115
S113S114
S112S113
S111S112
S111
S110
S109S110
S108S109
S107108
S106S107
S106
S105
S104S105
S103S104
S102S103
S101102
S101

M(kgcm)
9.28
5
7.19
5

d(cm)
12
12

6.76

12

7.07

13

7.46
7.55
4
15.3
95
10.6
8
10.4
8
11.2
1
11.7
65
12.2
5
15.3
95
10.6
8
10.5
25
11.0
1
11.8
95
12.2
5

13
12
13
13
13
13
12
13
13
13
13
13
13
13

R(kg/cm^2)
6.4479166
67
4.9965277
78
4.6944444
44
4.1834319
53
4.4142011
83
5.2458333
33
9.1094674
56
6.3195266
27
6.2011834
32
6.6331360
95
8.1701388
89
7.2485207
1
9.1094674
56
6.3195266
27
6.2278106
51
6.5147928
99
7.0384615
38
7.2485207
1

As(cm^2)

Available

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.6

3.04
3.1054016
56
3.1420030
75
3.1534410
18
2.8933055
27

0.002
0.0025

2.4
3.2508395
06

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.6

0.002

2.6
2.6913481
02

0.0022
0.002

Asavailable

Add

0.6508395
06

10/11
0

2.6
3.059
2.9963892
56
2.9077012
02
2.9182593
04
2.7770784
25
2.6

0.0025

2.6
3.2508395
06

0.002

2.6

2.6

0.002

2.6

2.6

0.002

2.6

2.5

0.1

0.002

2.6

2.5

0.1

0.002

2.6

2.6

2.6

10/30
0
10/30
0

V-direction:
YUGA&T
RX
S101
S101S106
S106S111
S111
S102
S102S107
S107S112
S112
S103S108
S108S113

M(kgcm)
12.32
5

d(cm)
13

11.42

13

10.82
18.26
5

13

12.31

12

11.44
10.82
5
15.15
5
11.45
5

13

12

12
12
12

18.86
15.14
5

12

S104
S104S109
S109/S1
14

12.35

12

11.57

12

10.83

12

S114

13.31

12

S105
S105S110
S110S115

7.595

12

2.205

12

7.323

12

S115

9.285
12.23
5

12

S113

S103

13

12

R(kg/cm
^2)
7.29289
9
6.75739
6
6.40236
7
12.6840
3
8.54861
1
6.76923
1
7.51736
1
10.5243
1
7.95486
1
13.0972
2
8.96153
8
8.57638
9
8.03472
2
7.52083
3
9.24305
6
5.27430
6
1.53125
5.08541
7
6.44791
7
8.49652
8

0.0020
02

As(cm
^2)
2.6025
72

0.002

2.6

0.002
0.0034
82
0.0023
47

2.6
4.1782
81
2.8160
22

0.002
0.0020
64
0.0028
89
0.0021
84
0.0035
95
0.0024
6
0.0023
54
0.0022
06
0.0020
65
0.0025
37

2.6
2.4763
15
3.4668
41
2.6204
33
4.3143
92
3.1980
49
2.8251
72
2.6467
4
2.4774
59
3.0447
81

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.4

0.002

2.4

2.4

0.002
0.0023
32

2.4
2.7988
65

2.4

Available

Asavailable

Add

0.406840
67

10/170

2.66
2.8937997
01
3.2140621
19
3.305
2.6
2.8669982
57
3.0989788
11
3.06
2.8972310
84
3.097923
3.06
2.66
2.9006624
67

1.216469
282
0.138048
998
0.165172
04

10/60
10/300
10/300

3.097923
3.06
2.4
2.4

2.66

0.138864
77

10/300

Earth quake calculations:


The figure below is the Eurocode 8 Cyprus National Annex provided
seismic zoning map of Cyprus. The map and Eurocode 8 is being used
since 2007 in the southern part of the island. However it is also
possible to use Eurocodes in the northern part of the island but it is not
compulsory
The Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 is being used in the northern part of
the island and the following map in the figure below has been adapted
to the code. However the TEC 2007 seismic zoning map is not as up-todate as the Eurocode.

Figure

10

Seismic Zoning Map of Cyprus (from Eurocode 8 National Annex CYS EN 1998-1:2004)
(Currently used in the southern part of the island)

Spatial Distribution of the Main geological formations of


Cyprus

Figure

11

For earthquake design calculations (manual design):


FOR YOGA
TX=0.40253 (FROM SAB ANALYSY)
TY=0.40708 (FROM SAB ANALYSY)
Soil type spectrum characteristic period Z4

I=1
Slab weight (DL)=0.12*25=3KN/m2
Total dead load=(29.55*17.562)*3=1556.93KN
Wall for roof=(5-0.45)*94.23=428.75KN
Walls=428.72/2=214.37(********************)
Wu=(1556.93*214.37)+0.3*518.98=1926.99KN
A=0.2 (Z3) S(T)=2.5
A(T)=0.2*2.1*1=0.5
R(T)=8
Fi (Vt FN )

wi H i
N

w H
j 1

Vt = W A(T1) / Ra(T1) < 0.10 Ao I W

Vt=120.44KN

F=120.44KN
Truss system:
We are going to cover the truss by fiber sheet price lightweight roofing
materials price of roofing sheet in kerala which have weight of
0.9KG/m2 =0.088KN/m2

For live load (service load)=1KN/m2


The total weight for truss system (from SAB)=1242.75KN the materials
we used is S275

Truss calculations:
Why do we use truss system:
1. Carrying load of big roof without using column in specific situations
like swimming pools and wedding halls
2. Light weight as dead load on the buildings
3. Easy to build compare to concrete reinforcement
Definition for truss system:
A truss is essentially a triangulated system of (usually) straight
interconnected structural elements; it is sometimes referred to as an
open web girder. The individual elements are connected at nodes; the
connections are often assumed to be nominally pinned. The external
forces applied to the system and the reactions at the supports are
generally applied at the nodes. When all the members and applied
forces are in a same plane, the system is a plane or 2D truss.
Members under axial forces in a simple truss

Figure

12

The principal force in each element is axial tension or compression.


When the connections at the nodes are stiff, secondary bending is
introduced; this effect is discussed below .

In order to get good structure performance the ratio of span to truss


depth should be chosen in the range 10 to 15 according to (STEEL
BUILDINGS IN EUROPE Single-Storey Steel Buildings Part 5: Detailed
Design of Trusses).

Figure

13

Geometry of truss:

Figure

14

For the height of truss according to ratio 10 to 15 our space 48/15=3.2m


for simplicity we took it as 3.5m plus the 2% inclination =0.5m of height
for drainage for water system

Figure

15

The type of the material that we choose to cover the building on it (which
is acting on the truss system) is fiber sheet price lightweight roofing
materials price of roofing sheet in kerala and here is some photos for it

Figure 16

Figure

17

Figure 18

Figure

19

TRUSS ANALYSIS (SAP DESIGHN):

In this figure after putting the load in sab and run the program, the program gave us the
dimensions for each member depends on how much the member is carrying load and if
it is in compression or tensile, The sap is using circular hollow section for designing
members
TOP CHORD: (TUPO-D244.5*5.4)
BOTTOM CHORD: (TUBO-D152.4*4)
DIAGONA CHORD: (TUPO-D133*4)
VERTIAL CHORD: (TUBO-D82.5*3.2)
And what we find in manual calculations it was similar and we are going to provide
them in next section

The whole truss dimensions is providing in next table (what we found from sap
program)
Note that: the sap is using the circular hollow section (D*t)
D: is the diameter
t: is the thickness

TRUSS ANALYSIS (MANUAL DESIGHN):


Design was done according to euro code3 2005, our material is steel
grade 275
For load calculations:
L.L=1KN/m2 (service load)
And for dead load=0.088KN/m2

What we found from sab:


Diagonal force: 191.606 kn
Vertical force: -153.24 kn
Top chord:-525 kn
Bottom chord: + 344.024 kn
.
TOP CHORD:
LE =0.7 2=1.4 m=14 cm
=

140
=29.35
4.77

Pc=267.39
Use 139.7 x 5 CHS
c area 0.1=267.39 21.2=566.86> 5525OK
.

BOTTOM CHORD:
A=

344.024
2
=12.5 c m
2750.1

USE 114.3 x 3.6 CHS


..

Diagonal:

A=

191.600.001
=6.96 c m2
275

USE 60.3 * 4
.
VERTICAL:
LE =0.7 3.5=2.45 m=24.5 cm
=

0.7 3.5
=159.09
1.54

Pc=71 n/mm^2
Use 48.3 * 6.80 CHS
c area 0.1=6.8071=483.51>152.2 OK

TRUSS ANALYSIS (Deflected shape):

Here is the deflected shape for the truss from sap program which is
70mm for 5m height and 48m length which is acceptable.

CHAPTER 4
Foundation design:
Introduction:
For the design of the foundation we are going to design it as mat foundation for many
reasons we will provide them specifically in our report and for the tribune we are going to
design the foundation as combined foundation and for the swimming pool we are going to
design it as retaining wall and normal slab to carry the hydrostatic pressure from the water.
We design the swimming pool in both cases when the pool is empty and when the pool is
filled with water and we are going to describe in each step.
General information for mat foundation:
1. Rectangular area for foundation or when the column loads are too big that individual pad
areas.
2. Vary criteria for ground condition. (our case)
3. Poor ground condition.
Under this reasons we are going to design our foundation as mat foundation.

Example for mat foundation:

Mat foundations are med to reduce the applied overall foundation pressure. The
increased area of the foundation will result to a grater one of influence hence grater
settlement at the same effective stress level.
Construction of mat foundation is rather expansive however if the total area of the
individual pads become greater than 50% of the total area of the building footprint,
mat foundation solution may prove to be more practicable.
Mat foundation can typically allow for a total settlement of about 75mm-100mm and
a differential settlement of about 53mm-50mm, However; the designer should
enhance the slope of the settlement through the mat foundation and it is effect on the
super structure before allowing these limits to be achieved in the design.
The transfer mechanisms, bearing capacity and settlement of mat foundation are
assumed in the similar way as far shallow pad foundation.
General bearing capacity equation can be mad for checking allowable bearing
pressure against shear failure of the ground.

The typical types of mat foundation can be classified as:

a- FLAT-PLATE MAT
b- THICKNESS FLAT-MAT

c- WAFFLE MAT
d- WALL PLATE-MAT

In our calculation we are considering "rigid design method" for mat foundation. in order to
access rigidity of the foundation system.

In the following sketch the gym section will be provided with the axial load for each column
(from SAP2000 Program)

After putting the reference axis:


P=109.1+176.8+175.8+146.2+181.5+316.7+341.9+322.5+187.3+325
.7+328.7+186.4+
114.9+186.9+187.9+116.7=4707.3KN
For the eccentricity in x-direction:
116.7 +186.36
(186.9+ 325.7+316.67+176.8 ) ( 5.8 ) + ( 187.9+328.7+314.9+175.8 ) ( 11.6 )+(322.5+146.2)(17.41)
x=
4707.3

=6.8m e=1.9m

For the eccentricity in y-direction:

y=

( 114.9 +186.9+187.9+116.7 )( 17.5 ) + ( 187.3+325.7+388.7186 .36 )( 11.5 )+(181.5+316.67+314.9+322.5)(5.5)


(109.1+ 176.8+ 175.8+146.2)(0.225)
4707.3

=9.1m
e0

For finding the lump factor

Of ultimate load for coulmns


=1.6
Of total load

MXY

Soil pressure beneath the foundation: qapp= A + IX

MYX
IY

(MY=0)

3
17.4 (17.5 )3
bh
IY= 12 =
=7771.1m4
12

For calculating the MY=4707.3*1.9=8943.87KN.M

4707.3
8973.87
qapp= 17.517.4 7771.1 x

=19.5+1.15x
Since the soil pressure beneath the mat can be calculated as:
Point
A
B
C
D

Y(m)
-----------------------------------------------------

X(M)
8.7
2.9
2.9
8.7

q(kpa)
26.5
19.9
19.9
26.5

E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.7
2.9
2.9
8.7
8.7
2.9
2.9
8.7
8.7
2.9
2.9
8.7

26.5
19.9
19.9
26.5
26.5
19.9
19.9
26.5
26.5
19.9
19.9
26.5

For determining the foundation thickness, based on diagonal tension


shear check at selected location by ignoring the soil pressure.
We are going to choose a corner column M or D which are carrying
greater load composed to the others.

VC*ASHEAR=L.F*P
ASHEAR= ((d/2+0.45)+(d/2+0.45))*d
=0.9d+d2


VC= 3 Fc '

0.85
25
=1420 VC=1420m
3

After equating our equations we got d=0.4m.

For obtaining adjustment factor for columns loads and soil pressure:
I will take A B C D as strip
Strip

Width

Qavg(kpa)

ABCD
EFGH
IJKL
MNOP

5.833
5.833
5.833
5.833

23.2
23.2
23.2
23.2
92.1

Load adjustment factor=

qav

P=qavAREA

2354
2354
2354
2354
9416

( qav + P)/2
=1.9
P

( Pav+ P)/2
adjustment factor=
=0.7
PAV

P(KN)
606.4
1028.1
1135.57
607.9
3377.8

For finding allowable soil pressure


Soil Profile:

Correction of N value of SPT


N = 20
N60 =

N x h x B x s x r
60

Where;
h=0.5

= 90 mm

= 1

s = 1
r = 0.95
20 x 50 x 1 x 1 x 0.95
60

N60 =

Cn =

( )

1
18 x 3
100

= 15.83... assume 16

= 1.36

N60 = Cn x N60
N60 = 1.36 x 16 = 22

Allowable Bearing Capacity


Allowable bearing capacity for a mat foundation is given in the following
formula;

qall =12 x N60 x (

B+0.305
B

)2

The formula is obtained from the foundation design principles.


For mat foundation of the stands

qall1 = 12 x 22 x (

16+ 0.305
16

)2 = 274 Kpa

For mat foundation of the olympic pool

qall = 12 x 22 x (

29+ 0.305
29

)2 = 269 Kpa

For the S.F.D & B.M.D for our strip:


For shear diagram:

For bending moment diagram:

For bottom steel reinforcement:


Our maximum moment value=333KN.M

Mu=0.9ASFY(d-

aAS

333=0.9*AS*420(0.4-

16.5 AS

As=2300mm2

As
bd =0.008

max

= 0.75 *

=0.019 OK!!

Total area of steel=2300*18.5=42550mm2


use 9424@19cm

For swimming pool reinforcement:


A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil when
cantilevered from a footing and rise above the grade on one side to retain a higher level grade on the
opposite side. The walls must resist the lateral pressures generated by loose soils or, in some cases, water
pressures.
In this project we have designed the retaining wall of the basement using hand calculation and GEO 5
program, Swimming pool contain by 2 Wall. wall height of the First retaining wall is 2.3 m and secont one
4.40m , also we have selected the thickness of the retaining wall according to some calculations where the
thickness should be safe to resist the shear wall. Also we did calculate the lateral soil pressure applied on the
retaining wall. The retaining wall in this project will be under the ground with a height of 2.3m and 4.4m
.Here we calculate the soil lateral pressure applied on the retaining wall due to the clay soil backfill,
considering the unit weight of the saturated clay and the water pressure which is located 1m from the ground
surface on the retaining wall.
Dimensions

length = 50 m
width = 25 m
Deep 2m 4m
Freeboard depth = 0.2 m
Maximum slope from shallow end to deep end = 10 %

Backfill Soil Properties

End Sand and Silty sand will be used as selected backfill with unit weight of 19 kN/m3 and = 30o
since the natural soil properties i.e. clay of high plasticity are not suitable for use as backfill.
The soil must be well compacted after placement.
Ground water table at the site is at a level of 1 m
Material Properties

Concrete

C25/30 Mpa fck = 25Mpa

Steel Grade S420 fyk=420 Mpa


Unit weight 25 Kn/m3
Design Loads

Dead loads, DL
concrete = 25 kN/m3
soil = 19 kN/m3
sat = 20 kN/m3

water = 9.81 kN/m3


Live load, LL

Assume Surcharge load = 10 kN/m3


Soil loads
Ko = 1 sin = 1 sin 30 = 0.5

Angle of friction structure soil

Bearing capacity 250 Kn/m2

2
3 * = 20

ANALYSIS OF WALLS
Cantilever wall with no water pressure
Dimension of the wall

After analysis

Acting force on the wall

Shear and Bearing Chek

Number of Bars 5 20
Concreat cver 30 mm
Spacing 20 cm

Cantilever wall with Water pressure

Forces acting on the wall with Water:

Cantilever wall details:

CHAPTER 5
Planning For Duration Of The Project

In this part of the project we need to make the planning for the project by using the
MS project program by assumed there are 30 workers in the site for structure
building , after using the MS Project we get 235 days to finish the works. For more
details about material such ceramic we used special kind(Foshan Top Quality Floor
Tiles Ceramic Tile Turkey ) , we used it for swimming pool , bathrooms and toilets ,
we used material for truss which is fiber sheet price lightweight roofing materials price
of roofing sheet in kerala as the photo below .

As you can see in the tables below we divided the works in to 3 parts (tables), the
first table its discussing and explaining how we found the amount of concrete and
excavation. For concrete part we found it by multiplying the area by the height to give
volume of the concrete place for example : columns, beams and slabs for each room ;
(gym, yoga, swimming pool and cantilever wall ).
The second table is speaking about steel area and the amount of reinforcing for the
structure, by finding the weight of steel in (ton)and multiplying this weight with price
per (1 ton). As you can see in the photos below

And the last table of this management part is to find all the quantity which is not
related for concrete and steel, such as : toilets, bathrooms, sinks, paintings and doors,
and for these materials they have standard prices just we are finding the number of
these materials in the building and multiplying by price for each. All of these
calculations is useful to find the total cost of the building, overall planning,
coordination, and control of a project from beginning to completion

Cost Estimation Of The Project


This part in management is about calculate the cost estimation of the project
Excavation
+ concrete
Material
Excavation
Foundatio
n concrete
Concrete
column for
Yoga
Concrete
beam for
Yoga
Concrete
slab for
Yoga
Concrete
column for
Gym
Concrete
beam for
Gym
Concrete
slab for
Gym
Concrete
column for
swimming
pool
Concrete
slab for
Gym
Concrete
beam for
swimming
pool
Cantilever
wall

Area

Heig
ht

(m)

(m)

120

Total
Price

Quantity
(number of
column*vol
ume)
480

(TL/m
)
39

(TL)
18720

824.
34

0.4

329.736

155

51109.1

0.20
2

1.01*30=
30.3

155

4696.3

0.08
8

223.6

19.57

155

3032.6

519.
1

0.15

77.87

155

12069.1

0.20
2

1.01*20=
20.2

155

3131

0.08
8

151.5
5

13.34

155

2067.1

306.
4

0.15

45.96

155

7124.31

0.42
3

288

121.82

155

18882.72

1255

0.3

376.5

155

58357.5

0.12
0.37
8

216

25.92

155

4017.6

Un
it

Price

0.378
155
Total Price :

58.59
183292.92

Steel
Quantity
Material

Uni
t

Diame
ter

Weig
ht for

Weight

(mm)
Foundation
reinforceme
nt for Gym
Truss
Beam and
column for
structure
building

To
n
To
n

24

To
n

Quantit
y

(ton)
2.47

8243.4
126.68
196
4578.8
8

69
126.68
196

328

Price
(TL/to
n)

(TL)

2424

1994920.
95

5000

633409.8

2424

Totla Price:(TL)

Material
Bricks
Shower
Sink
Toilet
Paint
Plaster
False
ceiling
Wooden
door
Aluminum
Iron door

All quantity without concrete and reinforcement


Area
of
Price
mater
Total
Unit
Quantity
ial
Area
(m)
(m)
(TL/unit)
m
0.02
1700
85000
43
Adet
10
540
Adet
10
408
Adet
15
312
m
4741
4741
34
m
4741
4741
29
Adet
m
m
m

0.16

Total
Price

1109920
5.12
1372753
5.87

Total Price
(TL)
73100
5400
4080
4680
161194
137489

720

4500

40500

47
15
5

47
15
5

144
468
254

6769
7020
1270

Ceramic
for wall

Adet

1872.7

25per(m
2
1872.7
)
total price: (TL)
Total cost: (TL)
=

46817.5
488319.5
1,439,914
8.29

CHAPTER 6
HEALTH AND SAFETY

7.1 Introduction:

Safety and health at construction sites include achieving work conditions where certain measures and
activities are taken in order to protect life and health of employees and all the people who are included into
the process.
Safety in the construction industry continues to be a serious problem, with construction having more
accidents of greater severity than other industrial sectors. Construction work is considered to be one of the
most hazardous industrial activities in the world. The rate of injury in the construction industry is higher
than any other industries. Control of accidents is vital in the industry, employers are required to access risk

and take practical measures to protect, ensure safety and health of their workers, minimizing risk by means
of continuous surveillance and monitoring of where accidents are likely to occur

Figure35: health and safety requirements


The industry has generated this attention because, despite considerable efforts directed at reducing the
number of deaths, injuries and ill health, construction has one of the highest rates of fatal and major injuries.
According to Eurostat data in the European Union, the fatal accident rate is nearly 13 workers per 100,000
as against 5 per 100,000 for the all sector average. In the United States, according to United States National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health there were 1,225 fatal occupational injuries in the construction
sector in 2001 with an incidence rate of 13.3 per 100,000 employed workers. Concluding these statistical
data, effective safety management has three main objectives: to make the environment safe; to make the job
safe, to make workers safety conscious.

7.2 Causes of accidents:

Causes of accidents can be numerous. Many authors point that disasters such as rain, flooding, wind,
earthquake, landslides etc.cause casualties on sites.Additionally, workers continuous exposure to adverse
weather could lead to general discomfort and illness. Also, continuous exposure to moderately high noise
level or relatively high level of impulse noise such as explosives on site, noise produced by heavy
equipment, welding noise etc. causes major occupational deafness. Nevertheless, human error is considered
to be an undesirable human decision or action that reduces or has the potentials for reducing the
effectiveness of safety or system performance. This is also due to failures on the part of construction
workers, errors in judgements, lack of concentration at work, lack of awareness on the danger surrounding
the activities and safety requirements. Therefore, there must be adequate safety training for all construction
and building site workers and personnel on site to raise their awareness level about safety.

Figure36: Health and Safety risks and hazards on construction site

Health and Safety risks and hazards on construction site

Most accidents on construction sites were found to be caused from a combination of managements failure to
implement adequate safety measures to protect workers against, potential hazards in the working
environment and the many unsafe acts committed by workers themselves.

On the construction site there are big four safety construction hazards falls, electrocution, caught-in and
struck-by while some of the main health hazards on site are asbestos, solvents, noise, and manual handling
activities. The chance that these hazards will result in an injury for workers is higher when they are
combined with risk factors such as lack of supervision, lack of training, working alone, being uninformed
about their rights, trying to impress the boss, supervisor or co-workers, temporary employment. When
hazards are combined with risk factors (so called dangerous combinations) the chance of injury, and the
possible seriousness of the injury, increases.

7.3 Key hazards:

There are many ways to be killed, injured, or suffer illhealth on a construction site, including:

Figure37: Key hazards:

1. Working at Height

Falls from heights are the leading cause of injury in the construction industry. In the OSHA Handbook it is
said that fall protection is needed in areas and activities that include, but are not limited to: ramps, runways,
and other walkways; excavations; hoist areas; holes; formwork; leading edge work; unprotected sides and
edges; overhand bricklaying and related work; roofing; precast erection; wall openings; residential
construction; and other walking/working surfaces. The height limit where fall protection is required is not
defined. It used to be 2 meters in the previous issue of Work at Height Regulations and now it is considered
to be any height that may result in injury from a fall. Protection is also required when the employee is at risk
to falling onto dangerous equipment. Fall protection can be provided by guardrail systems, safety net
systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems, and warning line systems.All employees
should be trained to understand the proper way to use these systems and to identify hazards. The employee
or employer will be responsible for providing fall protection systems and to ensure the use of these systems.

2. Moving Objects
A construction site is an ever changing environment; hazards are inherent to this industry and only increase
as a construction project progress, as things rise and expand.Construction sites can get quite hectic with the
sheer volume of constantly moving vehicles and trades people overhead lifting equipment shifting heavy
loads, supply vehicles, dumper trucks everywhere, maneuvering around a usually uneven terrain.

3. Slips, Trips, & Falls


When you consider the diverse range of activities going on at a construction site at any one time it seems
hardly surprising slips, trips, and falls happen on an almost daily basis.Construction sites are a mish mash of
holes in the ground, buildings at various stages of completion, scaffolding, stored materials and equipment:
you really do need eyes in the back of your head at times.

4. Noise
Noise is a major hazard within the construction industry. Repetitive, excessive noise causes long term
hearing problems and can be a dangerous distraction, the cause of accidents.Beware, using simple ear plugs
does not necessarily offer total protection against hearing damage employers are required to carry out and
document a comprehensive noise risk assessment and issue appropriate PPE (personal protective
equipment).

Figure38: personal protective equipment

Hand Arm Vibration Syndrome

Hand arm vibration syndrome, or blue finger as it is commonly referred to, is a painful and debilitating
industrial disease of the blood vessels, nerves and joints, triggered by prolonged use of vibratory power tools
and ground working equipment.This industrial disease is frequently cited in compensation claim cases
opened by ex-construction workers who worked for years with little or no protection, using inappropriate
and poorly maintained equipment.

5. Material & Manual Handling


Materials and equipment is being constantly lifted and moved around on a construction site, whether
manually or by the use of lifting equipment. Different trades will involve greater demands, but all may
involve some degree of risk.Where employees duties involve manual handling, then adequate training must
be carried out. Where lifting equipment is used, then adequate training must also be carried out, but may
involve some form of test, to confirm competency. Records of training must be maintained for verification.

6. Collapse
Collapse presents more a risk than a hazard. Every year excavations and trenches collapse, bury and
seriously injure people working in them precautions need to be planned before the work starts. The risk of
an unintended collapse is generally more associated with demolition works or when a partially completed
building or scaffolding collapses, but still accounts for a percentage of fatalities each year.

7. Airborne Fibers& Materials Respiratory Diseases

Construction sites are a throng of activity and kick up a lot of dust, often invisible, fine, toxic mixture of
hazardous materials and fibers that can damage the lungs, leading to diseases such as chronic obstructive
pulmonary, asthma and silicosis. Simply issuing PPE is not enough. Employers have a duty to ensure
protective equipment is actually used. Failure to do so could render an employee to disciplinary action and
in hot water with the health and safety executive.

8. Electricity

On average, three construction industry workers are electrocuted each year during refurbishment work on
commercial and domestic buildings. People working near overhead power lines and cables are also at risk.
There is also a growing number of electrocutions involving workers who are not qualified electricians but
who are carrying electrical work, such as plumbers and joiners and decorators.

7.4 Improvement of safety:

The improvement of safety, health and working conditions depends ultimately upon people working
together, whether governments, employers or workers. Safety management involves the functions of
planning, identifying problem areas, coordinating, controlling and directing the safety activities at the work
site, all aimed at the prevention of accidents and ill health.
7.5 Before work start on site:

Health and safety should be designed into constructions, before, during and after the building phase. It is
cheaper and easier to control the risks to workers in construction before work starts on site, for example by
putting in place a purchasing policy for machinery and work equipment (buying tools with low noise and
vibration emissions); setting health and safety requirements in tender specifications (meeting national
legislation as a minimum); planning the work process to minimize the number of workers who could be
harmed (schedule noisy work when the least number of workers are likely to be exposed); starting your
control activities before getting to site (by planning, training, site induction and maintenance activities);
setting down the procedures for effective consultation and participation of workers on OSH issues; ensuring
all persons, including managers, are trained and able to carry out their work without risk to the safety or
health of themselves or other workers.

7.6 Management on site:


Employers, with project supervisors, must cooperate and protect workers health and safety. This can be
achieved by: avoiding risks to all workers; evaluating risks that cannot be avoided; combating risks at
source; using collective measures to protect workers; using individual measures where there are no other
alternatives; establishing emergency procedures; informing workers of the risks present and the necessary
control measures; ensuring the appropriate training is given. The process of evaluating risks that cannot be
avoided is called a risk assessment. It should identify: potential dangers (hazards); who might be harmed and
how seriously; how likely this harm might happen; the actions required to eliminate or reduce the risk to
workers; which actions should be taken first. The control measures should be put in place and checks made
to ensure that they are working and are meeting legal requirements.

CHAPTER 7

Car parking area:


The area of parking after the constructed the building is around 80x55 meter.
According to neufert standards the normal size of car for park is around 4.5x2.25.also for road
5.4.
So after calculation and specified the locations, we reach to around 265 number of car park.
And also we provide car park area for disable people.
4.5+4.5+5.4=14.4
(74*55)/14.4=around 4 lines
74/2.25=around 33 cars for each row.
33*2=66 car park for a double row
66*4=around 265 car park