Anda di halaman 1dari 10

2016

Etovos Lorand University


Hazim A Alaamer

[INDUCED CARBONATE
SEDIMENTATION WITH
FOCUS ON LARGE IGNEOUS
PROVINCE]
Some aspects of Large Igneous Provinces, accompanying character of Plate Tectonic; that
intrigued many scientists of which play global roles in formation and sedimentation of the
Earths major surface features, in particular the relation to carbonate sediments are addressed
here. The interplay of these is vital to carbonate precipitation as they construct principle pillars
in fluctuations of sea level, alteration of seawater chemistry, prehistoric greenhouse/icehouse
and episodes of deoxygenated waters/atmosphere.

Induced Carbonate Sedimentation


with focus on Large Igneous Province
Compiled report for Carbonate Cycle and Cyclostratigraphy course

Contents
Introduction:................................................................................................................................ 3
Change in sea level .......................................................................................................................... 4
Change in seawater chemistry ........................................................................................................ 5
Rise in the level of sea floor (domal uplift) ..................................................................................... 7
Environmental consequences: ........................................................................................................ 9
References ..................................................................................................................................... 10

Figure 1: map of Large Igneous Province in the globe. Abbreviation ETHI: Ethiopian flood basalts
;DECC;:Deccan Traps; SIBE: Siberian basalts; KERG: Kergulen plateau;COLR;Columbia river
basalts;ONTO:Ontong java;NAPI: North Atlantic province, after kaerey e al, 2002. ...................... 3
Figure 2: Observed depth for oceanic ridges plotted as a function of lithospheric age, and
compared to the prediction of three models, HS half space model; PSM model of Parsons, Sclater
and Mickenzie; GDH1 global depth model of Stein and Stein (1996). Modified after Kearey et al.
2002. ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Figure 3: Phenomena associated with Cretaceous super-plume, modified after Kearey et al, 2002.
......................................................................................................................................................... 5
Figure 4: Variation in Mg/Ca ration in seawater from an assumed curve of long term changes in
sea level with summaries of non-skeletal carbonates and marine evaporites below; modified
after Kearey et al. 2002. .................................................................................................................. 7
Figure 5: Sections through Earth's interior beneath regions centered on (a) north America (b)
Hawaii (c) South Africa, illustrating the variation in the nature of "D" layer and the role of
upwelling and downwelling. After Kearey et al. 2002. .................................................................... 8
Figure 6: [A] Phanerozoic global LIP distribution, [B] holistic representation of LIP emplacement
and associated environmental effects. After Neal, et al., 2008. ..................................................... 9

Introduction:
Many rifts and rifted margin are associated with the subaerial eruption of continental
flood of basalts known as Large Igneous Province, abbreviated LIP. They are massive
crustal emplacements of mostly mafic extrusive and intrusive rock that originated from
processes different from normal sea floor spreading. LIPs may cover areas of up to
several millions km2 and occur in a wide range of settings. Within oceanic plates, LIPs
form oceanic plateaus such as Kerguelen and Ontong Java, figure1. (Kaere et al., 2002).

Figure 1: map of Large Igneous Province in the globe. Abbreviation ETHI: Ethiopian flood basalts ;DECC;:Deccan Traps;
SIBE: Siberian basalts; KERG: Kergulen plateau;COLR;Columbia river basalts;ONTO:Ontong java;NAPI: North Atlantic
province, after kaerey e al, 2002.

Environmental variables showing long oscillations that are particularly relevant for
carbonate sedimentation and sequence stratigraphy are eustatic sea level, sea-surface
temperatures, ice cover and the primary mineralogy of carbonates and evaporites. The
causes invoked for these oscillations fall in three categories (Schlager, 2005):
1- Oscillation of the rate of plate motion.
2- Celestial oscillation (solar system and beyond).
3- Autocycles in complex systems with numerous feedbacks.

In this report, we attempt to compile some important aspects that might be relevant
to precipitation of carbonate rock in terms of:
1- Change in sea level.
2- Seawater chemistry.
3- General rise in the level of sea floor or domal uplift.
4- Environmental Consequences.

Change in sea level


One area of current research involves the evolution of large igneous province (Kaerey et al.,
2002). Major changes in sea level are difficult to explain, except during ice ages, when large
volumes of fresh water are locked up in land-bound ice sheets. However, for much of geological
time, there were no major glaciations, and yet there were major changes in sea level (Kaerey at
al., 2002). The concepts of sea floor spreading, hot spots, and plumes provide plausible
mechanisms to resolve this problem. The water depth above oceanic crust formed solely by sea
floor spreading is related to the age of crust, younger crust occurring at shallow depths,
figure2.

Figure 2: Observed depth for oceanic ridges plotted as a function of lithospheric age, and compared to the prediction
of three models, HS half space model; PSM model of Parsons, Sclater and Mickenzie; GDH1 global depth model of Stein
and Stein (1996). Modified after Kearey et al. 2002.

Such crust has an essentially uniform thickness of 6-7 km. However, if the crust is
thickened, as a result of enhanced igneous activity above a hot spot or plume, the water
depth will be shallower than that predicted by the age/depth relationship. Thus
enhanced rates of sea floor spreading, hot spot or plume can produce elevated ocean
floor that will displace the water upwards and cause a rise in sea level. (Kaere et al.,
2002). Coupled to the increased crust production, it was a worldwide increase in sea
level to an elevation some 250 meters higher than at the present day. The situation can
be well explained and exemplified by phenomena called Cretaceous Super-plume,
figure3.

Figure 3: Phenomena associated with Cretaceous super-plume, modified after Kearey et al, 2002.

Regarding carbonate production and with reference to figure 3, rising sea level and
warmer temperature are better for carbonate precipitation in general (Schlager, 2005).
Thus we conclude that the higher activity of volcanism, mantle plumes, the more
expected production of carbonate sedimentation.

Change in seawater chemistry


Changes in the net rate of formation of oceanic crust are a very effective way of
changing the proportion of young, elevated ocean floor, and hence producing, in the
long term, changes in the sea level (Kaerey et al., 2002). Variations in the net accretion
rate also imply changes in the amount of igneous and hydrothermal activity at spreading
centers that will have implications for chemistry of seawater (Kaerey at al., 2002). With
this regard, one important approach is to compare LIP timing with seawater isotopic
chemistry which is recorded by marine carbonates, (Ernst at al., 2005).Interaction

between the circulating seawater and the hot basaltic rock at ridge crests are thought to
remove magnesium and sodium from the seawater and to release calcium ions from the
rock. It is also possible that the sulfate ion is removed from the water when it
encounters the oxic conditions at or near the sea floor. These changes would predict
that the Mg/Ca, SO4/Cl, and Na/K ratios in seawater decrease during periods of high
rates of formation of oceanic crust and hydrothermal activity.
It was suggested that such changes in seawater chemistry are reflected in the
mineralogy of marine evaporites and carbonate sediments throughout the Phanerozoic.
They assume that a first order sea level curve may be used as a proxy for the rate of
production of oceanic crust, and hence the variation in hydrothermal brine fluxes,
throughout the past 550 Ma, figure4. From this the temporal variation in the Mg/Ca
ratio for seawater is calculated. During the resulting periods of low Mg/Ca ratio,
associated with high sea level stands, non-skeletal carbonates are composed of (low
magnesium) calcite, and marine evaporites are characterized by late forming KCl
(Sylvite), and an absence of Mg salts. By contrast, the periods of high Mg/Ca ratio are
characterized by non-skeletal carbonate deposits composed of high magnesium, calcite
and aragonite, and marine evaporites in which MgSO4 formed during the final stages of
evaporation. The former periods have been termed periods of calcite seas, and are
thought to be associated with high pCO2 and high surface temperatures; i.e. a
Greenhouse Earth such as that which probably characterized the Cretaceous. The
periods of high Mg/Ca ratio have been designated as periods of aragonite seas. These
appear to correlate with times of low pCO2, and low surface temperatures, and include
ice ages, i.e. an Icehouse Earth. Variations in pCO2 in the atmosphere in the geologic
past are thought to have been largely due to the out gassing of CO2 from volcanic
activity. Thus eustatic changes in sea level, changes in seawater chemistry, and
variations in the concentration of CO2 in the Earths atmosphere in the past might all be
related to variations in the rates of sea floor spreading and plume activity (Kaerey et al.,
2002). On the other hand, assessing the environmental effects related to LIPs from
other causes, such as plate tectonics; variation in solar cycle, the obliquity, is difficult
and therefore accompanies with complication that represents an important frontier
(Ernst et al., 2005).

Figure 4: Variation in Mg/Ca ration in seawater from an assumed curve of long term changes in sea level with
summaries of non-skeletal carbonates and marine evaporites below; modified after Kearey et al. 2002.

Rise in the level of sea floor (domal uplift)


Broad domal uplift, 0.5-2 km over a diameter of 1000 km, provides an unambiguous test
for the presence of a buoyant plume head below the lithosphere (Ernst et al., 2005). The
outpouring of large volumes of mafic magma in such short periods of times requires a
mantle source (Kaerey et al., 2002). Mantle plumes may form large oceanic plateaus and
some continental flood basalts (Kaerey et al., 2002). For example, extensive regions of
low velocity beneath the south Atlantic, southern Africa and the central and southwest
Pacific have anomalously high elevation of Earths surface, the case that is so large in
width of topographic swell to degree of several thousand kilometers (Kaerey et al.,
2002). However, the elevated topography and bathymetry for these areas cannot be
explained by anomalously high temperatures and/or low density rock types in the
lithosphere or asthenosphere. The only plausible explanation is that they are
dramatically supported by major upwelling, figure5, of hot material in the lower mantle
(Kaerey et al., 2002). Just as upwelling in the mantle produces regional uplift of the

Earths surface, downwellings produce regional subsidence. The most notable example
of depressed crust at the present day is the Indonesian depression characterized by high
seismic velocities in the transition zone and upper part of the lower mantle (Kaerey et
al., 2002). Evidence from geological record for regional scale elevation and subsidence
of the Earths crust may indicate that particular area has been underlain by a major
mantle upwelling and deep subducting slab, downwelling, in the past. Originally, it was
assumed that changes in sea level, causing major marine transgression and regression
on continental crust were synchronous worldwide. However, as more data accumulate
it became clear that this was not so, although an obvious explanation was lacking. It is
now apparent that elevation and subsidence of the lithosphere associated with
convection in the mantle, could provide an explanation for what were previously some
very enigmatic observations (Kaerey et al., 2002), like the identified domal uplift in the
Parana, Deccan and Karoo LIPs by the presence of radiating pattern of river drainage
(Ernst et al., 2005).

Figure 5: Sections through Earth's interior beneath regions centered on (a) north America (b) Hawaii (c) South Africa,
illustrating the variation in the nature of "D" layer and the role of upwelling and downwelling. After Kearey et al. 2002.

In this context, i.e.; the role of mantle plumes can be linked to the general fluctuation
of sea level with the sea floor as an acting function. It is conspicuous that the effect is
interactive with architecture of carbonate sedimentation to produce a hallmark in the
succession. High stand and Low stand could bear more than dual meaning, but at least,
Volcanism and LIPs have its share in the precipitation control.

Environmental consequences:
Connections between large historic basaltic eruptions and perturbations of the global
environment are well documented (Neal, et al., 2008). Recent data increasingly suggests
temporal correlation between LIP formation and significant oceanographic, biotic and
climatic events (Neal, et al., 2008), figure6. The study of LIPs and extinction events is
part of a boarder inquiry into the climatic effects of LIPs. Emplacement of a LIP may
release massive amounts of SO2 into the atmosphere causing global cooling and acid
rain, and CO2, which has a strong greenhouse effect. Furthermore, a minor temperature
increase can potentially trigger a massive gas hydrate melting and thus a LIP event can
have an effect far greater that its direct contribution to climate change (Ernst et al.,
2005). The most severe impact of LIP formation was Oceanic Anoxic Events
(OAEs),(Neal, et al., 2008). These OAEs were episodes of wide spread marine anoxia
during which large amounts of organic carbon were buried on the ocean floor under
oxygen-deficient bottom water (Turgeon & Creaser, 2008).

Figure 6: [A] Phanerozoic global LIP distribution, [B] holistic representation of LIP emplacement and associated
environmental effects. After Neal, et al., 2008.

References
Ernst, R. E., Buchan, K. L., & Campbell, I. H. (2005). Frontiers in Large Igneous Province Research.
LTHOS (79), 271-297.
Kaerey, P., Brooks, M., & Hill, I. (2002). An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration. Cornwall:
Blackwell Science Limited.
Neal, C. R., Coffin, M. F., Arndt, N. T., Robert, D. A., Eldholm, O., Erba, E., et al. (2008).
Investigating Large Igneous Province Formation and Associated Paleoenvironmental Events: A
White Paper for Scientific Drilling. Scientific Drilling (6), 4-17.
Schlager, W. (2005). CARBONATE SEDIMENTOLOGY AND SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY (Vol. 8). (L. J.
Crossery, Ed.) USA: SPEM(Society for Sedimentary Geology).
Turgeon, S. C., & Creaser, R. A. (2008, July). Creataceous Oceanic Anoxic Event2 Triggered by a
Massive Magmatic Episode. Nature , 323-327.