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Distributed database :

In a distributed database storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may be stored in
multiple computers located in the same physical location, or may be dispersed over a network of
interconnected computers.Just to ensure that the databases are up to date and current there are two
processes: replication and duplication.
Centralized database :
A centralised database holds all of an organisations data on a central computer,
whethermainframe or server. Dumb terminals on a mainframe system and PCs on a network system
can access it. These terminals and PCs can be some distance from the central database, but the
point is that all the data is together at the same place.

Distributed Database Concepts

Database Systems Concepts

Following are the main advantages of distributed database.

1. Local control.
2. Reliablity and Availability.
3. Effiecient Querying processing.
4. Modular growth.
5. Economics.
Disadvantages of distributed databases are:
1. Software Complexity
2. High cost
3. Data integrity
4. slow response

Advantages of distributed database are :

1. Reflects organizational structure
2. Improved share ability and local autonomy
3. Improved availability
4. Improved reliability
5. Improved Performance

Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributed Databases

Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributed Databases over Centralized Databases /
Relative Advantages of Distributed Databases / Disadvantages of Distributed Databases /
Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributed Databases / Advantages of
Distributed Databases compared to Centralized Databases / Advantages and Disadvantages
of Distributed Database Management System / Advantages and Disadvantages of Distributed
Database System over Centralized Database System

Advantages of Distributed Database System

1. Increased reliability and availability A distributed database system is robust to

failure to some extent. Hence, it is reliable when compared to a Centralized database
2. Local control The data is distributed in such a way that every portion of it is
local to some sites (servers). The site in which the portion of data is stored is the
owner of the data.
3. Modular growth (resilient) Growth is easier. We do not need to interrupt any of
the functioning sites to introduce (add) a new site. Hence, the expansion of the whole
system is easier. Removal of site is also does not cause much problems.
4. Lower communication costs (More Economical) Data are distributed in such a
way that they areavailable near to the location where they are needed more. This
reduces the communication cost much more compared to a centralized system.
5. Faster response Most of the data are local and in close proximity to where they
are needed. Hence, the requests can be answered quickly compared to a centralized
6. Reflects the organizational structure Normally, database is fragmented into
various locations wherever we have controls.
7. Secured management of distributed data Various transparencies like network
transparency, fragmentation transparency, and replication transparency are
implemented to hide the actual implementation details of the whole distributed
system. In such way, Distributed database provides security for data.
8. Robust The system is continued to work in case of failures. For example,
replicated distributed database performs in spite of failure of other sites.
9. Complied with ACID properties Distributed transactions demands Atomicity,
Consistency, Isolation, and Reliability.
10. Improved performance and Parallelism in executing transactions can be

Disadvantages of Distributed Database Systems

1. Complex Software Complex implementation. Costs more in terms of software

cost compared to a centralized system. Additional software might be needed in most
of the cases over a centralized system.
2. Increased Processing overhead It costs many messages to be shared between
sites to complete a distributed transaction.
3. Data integrity Data integrity becomes complex. Too much network resources
may be used.
4. Different data formats might be used This may cost time.
5. Deadlock is difficult to handle compared to a centralized system.
6. May cause much more network traffic in case of write operation in a
replicated form of distributed database.
7. Distributed System supported Operating System is required to implement
distributed database system.
8. The data shared between sites over networks are vulnerable to attack. Hence,
network oriented security protocols to be used based on the sensitivity of data
9. More complex in terms database design According to various applications, we
may need to fragment a database, or replicate a database or both.
10. Handling failures is a difficult task. In some cases, we may not distinguish site
failure, network partition, and link failure.

It is a database in which storage devices are not all attached to a common CPU. It may
be stored in multiple computers located in the same physical location, or may be
dispersed over a network of interconnected computers. Collections of data (e.g., in a
database) can be distributed across multiple physical locations. A distributed database
can reside on network servers on the internet, on corporate intranets or extra nets, or on
other company networks. The replication and distribution of databases improves
database performance at end-user work-sites.
Advantages of Distributed Database

Management of distributed data with different levels of transparency.

Increase reliability and availability.

Easier expansion, and easy to update.

Protection of valuable data if there were ever a catastrophic event such as a fire,
all of the data would not be in one place, but distributed in multiple

Improved performance data is located near the site of greatest demand, and the
database systems themselves are parallelized, allowing load on the databases to be
balanced among servers.
Disadvantages of Distributed Databases

Complexity is high because extra work must be done by the DBAs to ensure that
the distributed nature of the system is transparent.

Economics increased complexity and a more

extensive infrastructure means extra labor costs.

Difficult to maintain integrity but in a distributed database, enforcing integrity

over a network may require too much of the networks resources to be

Inexperience distributed databases are difficult to work with, and as a young field
there is not much readily available experience on proper practice.

Centralized Database System

The centralized database system consists of a single processor together with its
associated data storage devices and other peripherals. It is physically confined to a
single location. Data can be accessed from the multiple sites with the use of a computer
network while the database is maintained at the central site.

Disadvantages of Centralized Database System

When the central site computer or database system goes down, then every one (users)
is blocked from using the system until the system comes back.
Communication costs from the terminals to the central site can be expensive.

Parallel Database System

Parallel database system architecture consists of a multiple Central Processing
Units (CPUs) and data storage disk in parallel. Hence, they improve processing and
Input/Output (I/O) speeds. Parallel database systems are used in the application that
have to query extremely large databases or that have to process an extremely large
number of transactions per second.
Advantages of a Parallel Database System
Parallel database systems are very useful for the applications that have to query
extremely large databases (of the order of terabytes, for example, 1012 bytes) or that
have to process an extremely large number of transactions per second (of the order of
thousands of transactions per second).
In a parallel database system, the throughput (that is, the number of tasks that can be
completed in a given time interval) and the response time (that is, the amount of time it
takes to complete a single task from the time it is submitted) are very high.
Disadvantages of a Parallel Database System
In a parallel database system, there is a startup cost associated with initiating a single
process and the startup-time may overshadow the actual processing time, affecting
speedup adversely.
Since process executing in a parallel system often access shared resources, a slowdown
may result from interference of each new process as it completes with existing processes
for commonly held resources, such as shared data storage disks, system bus and so on.

Distributed Database System

A logically interrelated collection of shared data physically distributed over a computer
network is called as distributed database and the software system that permits the

management of the distributed database and makes the distribution transparent to

users is called as Distributed DBMS.
It consists of a single logical database that is split into a number of fragments. Each
fragment is stored on one or more computers under the control of a separate DBMS,
with the computers connected by a communications network. As shown, in distributed
database system, data is spread across a variety of different databases. These are
managed by a variety of different DBMS software running on a variety of different
operating systems. These machines are spread (or distributed) geographically and
connected together by a variety of communication networks.

Advantages of Distributed Database System

Distributed database architecture provides greater efficiency and better performance.

A single database (on server) can be shared across several distinct client (application)

As data volumes and transaction rates increase, users can grow the system
It causes less impact on ongoing operations when adding new locations.
Distributed database system provides local autonomy.

Disadvantages of Distributed Database System

Recovery from failure is more complex in distributed database systems than in

centralized systems.

Major features of a DDB are:

* Data stored at a number of sites, each site logically single
* Sites are interconnected by a network rather than a
multiprocessor configuration
* DDB is logically a single database (although each site is a
database site)
* DDBMS has full functionality of a DBMS
* To the user, the distributed database system should appear
exactly like a non-distributed database system.
Advantages of distributed database systems are:
* local autonomy (in enterprises that are distributed already)
* improved performance (since data is stored close to where needed
and a query may be split over several sites and executed in parallel)
* improved reliability/availability (should one site go down)
* economics
* expandability
* shareability
Disadvantages of distributed database systems are:
* complexity (greater potential for bugs in software)
* cost (software development can be much more
complex and therefore costly. Also, exchange
of messages and additional computations
involve increased overheads)
* distribution of control (no single database administrator
controls the DDB)
* security (since the system is distributed the chances of
security lapses are greater)
* difficult to change (since all sites have control of their own
* lack of experience (enough experience is not available in
developing distributed systems)

Advantages and disadvantages of

distributed database
April 16, 2013 by Admin 4 Comments

In a distributed database, data is stored in different systems across a network. For

Example, in mainframes, personal computers, laptops, cell phones, etc.
Advantages of distributed database:
1) In a distributed database, data can be stored in different systems like personal
computers, servers, mainframes, etc.
2) A user doesnt know where the data is located physically. Database presents the data
to the user as if it were located locally.
3) Database can be accessed over different networks.
4) Data can be joined and updated from different tables which are located on different
5) Even if a system fails the integrity of the distributed database is maintained.
6) A distributed database is secure.
Disadvantages of distributed database:
1) Since the data is accessed from a remote system, performance is reduced.
2) Static SQL cannot be used.
3) Network traffic is increased in a distributed database.
4) Database optimization is difficult in a distributed database.
5) Different data formats are used in different systems.

6) Different DBMS products are used in different systems which increases in complexity
of the system.
7) Managing system catalog is a difficult task.
8) While recovering a failed system, the DBMS has to make sure that the recovered
system is consistent with other systems.
9) Managing distributed deadlock is a difficult task.