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UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR

Civil and Environmental Engineering


0693-363 Water and Wastewater Treatment
Instructor: Dr. Biswas
Laboratory: SOLIDS
I. INTRODUCTION
Solids refer to matter suspended or dissolved in water or wastewater. Solids
may affect water or effluent quality adversely in a number of ways. Water with
high dissolved solids generally is of inferior palatability and may induce an
unfavorable physiological reaction in the transient consumer. Highly
mineralized water also is unsuitable for many industrial applications. Waters
high in suspended solids may be esthetically unsatisfactory for such purposes
as bathing. Determining the different portions of solids in the wastewater
permits the control and design of several biological and physical wastewater
treatment processes, as well as the assessment of compliance with regulatory
agency wastewater effluent limitations.
II. MATERIALS
II.1 Evaporating dishes: porcelain.
II.2 Drying oven for operation at 103-105C.
II.3 Muffle furnace for operation at 550C.
II.4 Desiccator.
II.5 Analytical balance, capable of weighing to 0.1 mg.
II.6 Tongs.
II.7 Graduated cylinder (100mL).
II.8 Glass-fiber filter disks.
II.9 Filtration apparatus (membrane filter funnel).
II.10 Suction flask.
II.11 Watch glasses.
III. SAFETY
III.1 Thermal gloves
III.2 Safety glasses

IV. PROCEDURE

IV.1 TOTAL SOLIDS DRIED AT 103-105C (Standard Method 2540 B)


The term Total Solids is applied to the material residue left in the vessel after
evaporation of a sample and its subsequent drying in an oven at a defined
temperature. Total solids include total suspended solids i.e. the portion of the
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total solids retained by a filter and total dissolved solids i.e. the portion that
passes through the filter.

IV.1.1 Preparation of evaporating dish


1 Ignite clean evaporating dish (SMALL PORCELAIN) at 550C for 1 hr in a
muffle furnace.
2 Store and cool dish in desiccator until needed.
3 Weigh dish to nearest 0.1 mg. (VALUE B in mg)
IV.1.2 Sample analysis
1 Shake sample well and measure 50 ml of well-mixed sample with a 100
ml graduated cylinder.
2 Pour the measure sample into the porcelain dish.
3 Place dish + sample for at least 1hr in an oven at 103-105C.
4 Remove dish + dried residue from oven using tongs provided.
5 Place in desiccator for 5 minutes.
6 Weight cooled dish + dried residue to nearest 0.1 mg. (VALUE A in mg)
TOTAL SOLIDS (mg/l) = (A-B)*1000/V(ml)
V=sample volume in mL
IV.2 TOTAL VOLATILE SOLIDS IGNITED AT 550C
(Standard Method 2540 E)
The term fixed solids is applied to the total suspended or dissolved solids after
ignition for a specified time and specified temperature. The weight loss on ignition is
called volatile solids.

IV.2.1 Sample analysis


1 Place dish + dried residue obtained from IV.1.2.6 in preheated muffle
furnace at 550C for
20 minutes.
2 Remove dish + ignited residue using tongs provided
3 Place in desiccator for 15 minutes.
4 Weight dish + ignited residue to the nearest 0.1 mg (VALUE C in mg)
TOTAL Fixed Solids (mg/l) = (C B)*1000 / V
TOTAL Volatile Solids (mg/L) = (A-C) * 1000/V

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IV.3 TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS DRIED AT 103-105C


(Standard Method 2540 D)
IV.3.1 Preparation of evaporating dish
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Insert disk in filtration apparatus.


Apply vacuum.
Wash disk with three successive 20 mL portion of deionized water.
Continue suction to remove all traces of water.
Discard washings.
Remove filter from filtration apparatus and transfer to a watchglass.
Dry in an oven at 103-105C for 1 hr.
Cool in desiccator to balance temperature.
Weigh to the nearest 0.1 mg. (VALUE P in mg)

IV.3.2 Sample analysis


1 Place filter paper in the filter funnel.
2 Apply vacuum.
3 Wash filter with three successive 10ml (approximately) volumes of
deionized water.
4 Turn off vacuum and discard washings in sink.
5 Shake sample well and pour 50 mL of well-mixed sample into 100 mL
graduated cylinder.
6 Apply vacuum and pour sample form graduated cylinder onto filter.
7 Wash material on filter with three successive 10 mL (approx) volumes of
deionized water.
8 Turn off vacuum after about 3 minutes.
9 Keep filtrate.
10 Using forceps provided, place filter back onto watchglass.
11 Put watchglass + filter + residue into hot air oven at 103-105C for 1 hr.
12 Remove watchglass from oven using tongs provided.
13 Place in desiccator for 5 minutes.
14 Weigh watchglass + filter + dried residue to nearest 0.1 mg. (VALUE S in
mg)
TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS (mg/l) = (S P)*1000 / V(ml)
IV.4 TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS DRIED AT 180C
(Standard Method 2540 C)
IV.4.1 Preparation of evaporating dish
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1 Ignite clean evaporation dish (LARGE PORCELAIN) at 180C for 1hr in


the oven.
2 Store and cool dish in desiccator until needed.
3 Weigh dish to nearest 0.1 mg. (VALUE X in mg)
IV.4.2 Sample analysis
1 Carefully pour filtrate from IV.3.2.9 into LARGE pre-weighted porcelain
dish.
2 Place dish + filtrate into hot air oven (180C) for 1 hr.
3 Remove dish + dried residue from oven using tongs provided.
4 Place in desicctor for 10 min.
5 Weigh dish + dried residue to the nearest 0.1 mg (VALUE Y in mg)
TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS (mg/l ) = (Y X)*1000 / V

REPORT
The report should include the following:
OBJECTIVE
BACKGROUND
DATA AND CALCULATIONS
(Including any special observations)
POINTS TO PONDER
1) The residue from Standard Method 2540 B, 2540 C and/or 2540
D could be used to determine volatile solids?
2) What does the Total Dissolved Solids obtained from Standard
Method 2540 C appear to be? Do you think that there could be
another way to estimate Total Dissolved Solids?
3) Standard Method 2540 B can determine a range of solids up to
(but not exceeding) 20,000 mg/L. However, the amount of
dried residue left in the dish must not exceed 200 mg, so how
would one determine the Total Dissolved Solids in a sample
that contained 20,000 mg/L TDS? Why do you think that there
is this 200 mg limit?
4) What property does the filter used in Standard Method 2540 D
possess that would allow it to be fired at 550C for the
determination of volatile solids?
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CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

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