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Flame Test

Jenna Klenow
Chemistry 5th
10/16/15

Background: Flame tests identify unknown substances. This experiment is a qualitative


analysis. The heat given off from the flame will give the electrons a higher energy level. When
the energy level drops down, energy will be released in the form of a photon. Due to these
different wavelengths of energy different color flames will be illuminated.
Hypothesis:

State the results that you expect from the experiment. Include the variable that
will be altered and the expected outcome.

Materials:

1. 250 mL beaker
2. Bunsen Burner
3. Colored Pencils/phone

4. Goggles
5. Aprons
6. Gloves

7. Wooden splints soaking in:


NaCl, KCl, LiCl, CaCl2, SrCl2
and an unknown substance.

Procedure:
SAFETY NOTE: Wear approved chemical splash goggles and chemical-resistant
gloves and apron. Wooden splints will be put in a beaker full of water to be dealt with later. DO
NOT PUT IN TRASH CAN.
1. Put on gloves, apron, and goggles.
2. Fill 250 mL beaker with tap water and place at workstation.
3. Gather a wooden splint from one of the metal chloride solutions.
4. Light Bunsen Burner and place wooden splint back and forth through flame. Observe
the flame.
5. Afterwards, immerse the wooden splint in the tap water.
6. Record observations.
7. Repeat steps 1-4 with another salt, until all ions have been tested.
8. Repeat steps 1-4 with the unknown salt, determine with ion is present in this solution.
9. Once the lab work is complete, wash your hands with soap and water.
10. Perform calculations and answer all questions.
Results:
Solution
NaCl

Metal Ion Present

Pictures

Written description of
color(s) observed
Sodium Chloride
gave off a light
orange mixed color of
flame.

KCl

Potassium Chloride
gave a more Lilac
almost flame.

LiCl

Lithium Chloride
gave off a bright pink
flame.

CaCl2

Calcium Chloride
gave a slight red
mixed with orange
flame.

SrCl2

Strontium Chloride
gave a bright red/pink
flame.

CuCl2

At the tip of the


flame, Copper
Chloride had green
flames.

Unknown

This unknown
substance gave off a
green/yellow flame.

Conclusion: 1. Discuss some of the limitations of using flame tests to identify ions present in
solution.
1. Some limitations with flame tests would have to be if an ion is mixed.
2. Propose at least one possible method for improving the accuracy of results in this laboratory
experiment.
3. A green line of wavelength 468 nm is observed in the emission spectrum of hydrogen.
Calculate the energy of one photon of this green light.
Use the mathematical relationships v=c/ and E=hv
where v= frequency, c=speed of light(3.00 x 108 m/s), =wavelength, h=Planck's constant (6.63
x 10-34 Js), and E=energy
1. Some limitations with flame tests would have to be if an ion is mixed.
2. One method we could do to improve the accuracy of this lab experiment, we could
combine them with anions to more purify these ions.