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Challenges in Winding Flexible Packaging Film

By R. Duane Smith
Product Manager- Specialty Winding
Davis Standard LLC
Fulton, New York, USA

Abstract
Every flexible film producer is faced with the challenge of producing quality rolls of
film products. Since no film is perfectly uniform across its width, rolls of film must
be wound so that these slight imperfections do not stand out in appearance and are
not amplified during the winding process.
This paper addresses the importance of roll hardness and the proper profiling of roll
hardness for consistently producing good quality rolls of flexible packaging films. It
then discusses the winding principles used on all winders to control in-wound tension
or roll hardness. Rules of thumb are given to help determine the proper amount of
web tension for various types of films. Then the principles of nip and gap winding
using controlled torque to produce the desired roll hardness are explained. After the
discussion of how roll hardness is achieved, methods of roll hardness measurement
are presented. Causes and remedies for many defects due to roll hardness are
addressed. Information on the new reference book The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect
Troubleshooting Guide is presented to further assist in consistently producing quality
flexible packaging films.

Introduction
If all film webs were perfect, then the ability to produce perfect rolls of film products
would not be much of a challenge. Unfortunately, due to the natural variation in resins,
non-uniformities of the film formation processes, coatings and printed surfaces, there is no
such animal as a perfect film. The winding operations challenge is to wind film webs
with slight imperfections being sure that these do not stand out in appearance and are not
amplified during the winding process. Then, it is the responsibility of the winder operator
to make sure that the winding process does not produce additional variations in the
product quality. The ultimate challenge is to wind flexible packaging film that will run on
a customers process without problems and produce high quality products for their
customers.

Importance of Roll Hardness1


Roll density, or in-wound tension, is the most important factor in determining the
difference between good quality and poor quality rolls of film products. Rolls that are
wound too soft will go out-of-round while winding or while being handled or stored.
The roundness of rolls is very important in a customers operation to enable processing
these rolls at maximum production speeds with minimal tension variations.

Rolls that are wound too tight will also cause problems. Tightly wound rolls of films can
have blocking defect problems where the sheet layers fuse or adhere together. When
winding extensible film on thin wall cores, winding hard rolls can cause the cores to
collapse. This can cause problems in removing the shaft, or with inserting the shaft or
chucks on the subsequent unwinding operation.
Rolls that are wound too tightly will exaggerate web defects. Typically, films will have
slight high and low areas in the cross machine profile where the web is thicker or thinner.
When winding hard rolls, the high caliper areas build on each other. As hundreds, even
thousands of layers are wound; the high areas form ridges, or high spots, in the roll. As
the film is stretched over these ridges, it is deformed. Then, when the roll is unwound,
these areas produce a defect known as bagginess in the film. Hard rolls that have high
gauge bands next to low gauge bands will produce a roll defect known as corrugations, or
rope marks, in the rolls.
Slight variations in thickness will not be noticeable in a wound roll if sufficient air is
wound into the roll in the low areas and the web is not stretched over the high areas. Still,
the rolls must be wound hard enough that so they will be round and will stay that way
during handling and storage.

Randomization of Cross Machine Variations


Some flexible packaging films, either by their extrusion formation process or by their
coating and laminating process, have cross machine variations of thickness too severe to
be wound without exaggerating these defects. To randomize cross machine variations in
the wound rolls either the web or the slitters and winder are moved back and forth relative
to the web as they are being slit and wound. This cross machine movement is called
oscillation. For successful oscillation the speed must be fast enough to randomize
thickness variations and slow enough that it does not strain or wrinkle the film. The rule of
thumb for the maximum oscillation speed is 25mm (~1) per minute per 150 mpm (500
fpm) winding speed. Ideally the oscillation speed varies proportional to the winding
speed.

Profiling Roll Hardness


As a roll of flexible packaging film material winds, in-wound tension or residual stresses
build inside the roll. If this stress becomes greater during winding, the inner wraps
towards the core will be put under high compressive loads. This is what causes a defect
known as buckling of the webs in localized areas in the roll. When winding non-elastic
and high slip films, the inner layers will loosen; which can cause the roll to dish while
winding or telescope when unwinding. To prevent this, the rolls want to be wound tight at
the core and then wound with less tightness as the roll builds in diameter. This is
commonly referred to as Roll Hardness Taper. The larger the finished wound rolls
diameter, the more critical the roll hardness tapering profile becomes. The secret to
building a good roll hardness structure is to start out with a good solid foundation and then
to wind with progressively less in-wound tension.

The good solid foundation requires starting the winding operation on a high quality,
properly stored core. Most rolls of film materials are wound on paper cores. The paper
cores must be of sufficient strength that they can withstand the in-wound compressive
tension caused by the film being wound tightly on the core. Typically paper cores are kiln
dried to between 6-8% moisture. If these cores are stored in a high moisture environment,
they will absorb this moisture and swell to a larger diameter. Then, after the winding
operation, these cores can dry to a lower moisture level and will shrink in size. When this
happens, the solid wound rolls foundation will be lost! This causes these rolls to have
defects such as buckling, staring and/or telescoping when they are handled or unwound.
The next step in obtaining this required good winding foundation is to start winding with
as much roll hardness as possible. Then, as the rolls of film material are wound, the roll
hardness needs to be uniformly decreased. The suggested decrease in roll hardness at the
finished diameter is generally between 25% and 50% of the starting hardness measured at
the core.
The amount of starting roll hardness and the amount of taper of in-wound tension is
generally a function of the Build-up Ratio of the wound roll. The Build-up Ratio is the
ratio of the cores Outside Diameter (O.D.) and the wound rolls finished diameter. The
larger the rolls final wound diameter (the taller the structure) the more important starting
on a good solid foundation and winding a progressively softer roll becomes!
Table #1 gives a Rule of Thumb for the suggested amount of hardness taper based on the
Build-up Ratio.

Table #1
How to Achieve Roll Hardness
The winding tools to develop roll hardness are Web Tension, Nip Pressure from a
pressure or lay-on roll or winding drum and Winding Torque from a center drive when
2

Center/Surface winding film webs . The following describes how each of these tools are
used to develop hardness in rolls of film materials. Also Rules of Thumb for starting
values to produce the required roll hardness of different flexible packaging materials.
Web Tension Principle of Winding - When winding elastic films, web tension is the
dominant principle of winding used to control roll hardness. The more the film is
stretched before winding, the harder the wound rolls will be. The challenge is to be sure
that the amount of web tension does not induce significant permanent stresses in the film.
When winding film on a pure center winder as shown in Figure #1, the Web Tension is
produced by the Winding Torque from a center drive. Therefore, with center film winders
Web Tension and Winding Torque are the same roll hardness principle. The web tension
is set for the desired roll hardness at the start and then tapered as the film winds. The
webs winding tension produced from the center drive is typically closed looped
controlled with feedback by tension measuring transducers.

Figure #1 - Tension Principle on a Center Winder


The amount of starting and finishing web tension for a specific material often needs to be
determined empirically. A good Rule of Thumb for the range of web tension is between
10% and 25% of the films elastic limit. Many published papers suggest amounts of web
tension to be used for specific web materials. Table #2 from the paper Guidelines for
Web Conveyance and Winding Tensions for Polymer Films, Papers and Paperboard
3
Webs lists suggested tensions for many web materials used in processing flexible
packaging materials.

Films

Tension Range (Metric)

Tension Range (English)

Polyester

35 to 105 N/cm/mm

0.5 to 1.5 lbs/inch/mil

Polypropylene

14 to 35 N/cm/mm

0.2 to 0.5 lbs/inch/mil

BOPP

21 to 70 N/cm/mm

0.3 to 1.0 lbs/inch/mil

Polyethylene

7 to 21 N/cm/mm

0.1 to 0.3 lbs/inch/mil

Polystyrene

35 to 70 N/cm/mm

0.5 to 1.0 lbs/inch/mil

Vinyl (uncalendared)

3.5 to 14 N/cm/mm

0.05 to 0.2 lbs/inch/mil

Aluminum Foils

35 to 105 N/cm/mm

0.5 to 1.5 lbs/inch/mil

Cellophane

35 to 70 N/cm/mm

0.5 to 1.0 lbs/inch/mil

Nylon

7 to 21 N/cm/mm

0.1 to 0.3 lbs/inch/mil

Papers

25 to 40 N/cm/mm

0.35 to 0.5 lbs/inch/mil

Conversion: kg/cm/mm = Newton/cm/mm x 0.1

Table 2
For winding on pure center winders, it is suggested that the starting tension be towards the
higher value of the suggested tension range. Then smoothly taper the winding tension
towards the lower suggested range given in this table.
When winding laminated web of several different materials, to obtain the suggested
maximum web tensions for laminated structures, simply add the maximum web tensions
for each of the materials that have been laminated together (usually disregarding any
coatings or adhesives) and apply the sum of these tensions as the maximum web tension
for the laminate.
The important tension consideration for laminating flexible film composites is that the
individual webs need to be tensioned before they are laminated so that the strain
(elongation of the web due to web tension) will be approximately equal for each web.
If one web is strained significantly more than the other web(s), curl problems or
delamination wrinkling known as tunneling can occur in the laminated webs. The
amount of tension should be a ratio of the modulus and the web thickness to prevent curl
and/or tunneling after the lamination process.
Nip Principle of Winding When winding inelastic films, Nip and Torque are the
dominant principles of winding used to control roll hardness. The nip controls the roll
hardness by removing the boundary layer of air following the web into the winding roll.
The rolling nip also induces in-wound tension into the roll. The harder the nip, the harder
the winding roll will be. The challenge for winding flexible packaging film is to have
sufficient nip to remove the air and wind hard straight rolls without winding in too much
4

in-wound tension in order to prevent causing roll blocking or deforming the web over the
high caliper area.
The nip loading is less material dependent than web tension and will vary greatly on the
material and the amount of roll hardness required. To prevent nip induced wrinkling of
the winding film, the amount of nip is the minimum required to prevent air from winding
into the roll. This nip is often held constant on center winders as Mother Nature provides
the nip pressure taper with a constant nip loading force. As the rolls build larger in
diameter, the footprint (area) of the nip between the winding roll and the pressure roll
becomes greater. If the width of this footprint goes from a 6mm (1/4) at core to 12mm
(1/2) at a full roll, then the winding nip pressure automatically tapers by 50%. Also, the
amount of air following the rolls surface increases as the winder rolls diameter increases.
This boundary layer of air increases the hydraulic pressure trying to open the nip. This
increasing pressure adds nip loading tapering.as diameter builds. On wide, fast winders
used to wind large diameter rolls, the nip loading may have to be increased as the roll
winds to prevent air from winding into the roll.
Figure #2 shows a center film winder with an air loaded pressure roll which uses both the
Tension and Nip tools to control the winding rolls hardness.

Figure #2 -: Tension & Nip Principles on a Center Turret Winder


Gap Winding Sometimes air is our friend. Some films, especially sticky high
coefficient films with uniformity problems need to be gap wound. Gap winding allows a
small amount of air to be wound into the roll to prevent web blocking problems inside the
rolls and to help prevent deforming webs that have high caliper band areas. To
successfully gap wind these films, the winding operation needs to have the ability to
maintain a small constant gap between the pressure roll and the winding material. This
5

small controlled gap helps meter the air being wound into the roll and also directs the web
squarely into the winding roll to help prevent wrinkling defects.
Torque Winding Principle - The Torque tool to obtain roll hardness is the force induced
through the center of the winding roll. This force is transmitted through the web layers
and cinches or tightens the inner wraps of film. As stated earlier, this Torque is used to
produce the web tension on center winders. With these types of winders; web Tension
and Torque are the same winding principle.
When winding film products on a center/surface type winder, the pressure roll is driven to
control the webs tension as shown in Figure #3. The web Tension coming into the
winder is independent from the winding tension produced from this Torque. The
incoming web tension in normally held constant for a constant amount of strain in the web
coming into the winder.

Figure #3 Center/Surface Winder with Driven Pressure Roll


When winding film products on a center/surface type winder, the control of the winding
tension is open loop controlled. Typically the winding tension starts at 25-50% greater
than the incoming web tension. Then this winding tension is tapered as the roll builds in
diameter to a value at or even less than the incoming web tension. The pressure rolls
surface drive will regenerate or pull negative (braking) torque when the winding tension is
greater than the incoming web tension. As the winding rolls diameter increases, the
surface drive will gradually provide less braking until it reaches zero torque then winding
6

tension equals web tension. If the winding tension is programmed to go below the
incoming web tension, then the surface drive will pull positive torque to make up the
difference between the lower winding tension and the higher web tension.
Center/surface winding should be used when slitting and winding films or other materials
with large Poissons Ratios which will change in width with changes in web tension.
Center/surface winders keep the slit rolls width constant as constant web tension is
brought to the winder. The rolls hardness is profiled from the center torque without
producing neck-in width problems.

Films Coefficient of Friction Properties Effect on Winding


The films layer to layer coefficient of friction properties have a major effect on the ability
to apply the T.N.T. principles to produce the desired roll hardness without roll defects.
In general, films which have a layer to layer coefficient of friction (COF) value of 0.2 to
0.7 will wind well. However, consistently winding defect free rolls of high slip or low
slip (low COF or high COF) films usually presents major winding challenges
High slip films have low layer to layer COF
Low Coefficient of Friction Films
(generally COF< 0.2). These films will often have inner web slippage or cinching
problems when they are winding and/or in subsequent unwinding operations or will have
roll handling problems in between these operations. This inner web slippage can result in
defects such as web scratching, dishing, telescoping, and/or starring roll defects.
Low COF films need to be wound as tight as possible at the core with high torque. Then
the winding tension produced by this torque is tapered to a minimum amount at 3 to 4
times the core OD and the desired roll hardness is obtained using the Nip winding
principle. Air is never our friend when winding high slip films! These films always need
to be wound with sufficient nip loading to prevent air from entering the roll during the
winding process.
Low slip films have high layer to layer COF
High Coefficient of Friction Films
(generally COF >0.7). These films will often have blocking and/or wrinkling problems.
When winding high COF films, out-of-round rolls can be experienced at low winding
speeds and roll bouncing can be a problem when winding at higher speeds. As explained
by well know consultant and columnist Tim Walker of TJWA Inc.,
this is due to fact that the outer layers of a winding roll requires a small
amount of sliding action as the layers first enters the winding roll. This sliding
action produces inwound tension as the air following the web is ejected from the
nip or out the sides. If the full width slides, this is not a problem. But, if one lane
or spot sticks and the rest slide, then a local shear stress will develop near the
sticking point. This local shear may form a small buckle or soft wrinkle in the top
layer. In some products, a small bump or ripple can be wound over and ignored,
but in other products (especially optically clear films), the next layer will not
smoothly wind over a bump or ripple, but will instead conform over the bump,
producing a slightly larger bump or ripple. As additional layers are added, like a
rolling snow ball, the defect will often get bigger with each turn. (Walker, 2009)
7

These bump or ripple defects in high COF films are commonly called slip knots or slip
wrinkles. These films are best gap wound with a minimum gap between the following roll
and the winding roll. Spreading needs to be provided as close to the winding point as
possible. A FlexSpreader covering on a well wrapped idler roll just before the winder has
helped to minimize slip wrinkle defects on high COF winding applications.

Measuring Roll Hardness


Winding of film is often referred to as an Art. This is because the setting and
programming of the Tension, Nip and Torque will vary depending on:

The type and design of the winder


The type of web material being wound
The width of the rolls being wound
The speed of the winding operation

Not only will the same settings provide different roll hardness with the variations above,
but also different film products and different end use applications will vary the roll
hardness and profile desired. However, after the hardness profile has been established,
this hardness must be reproducible on a consistent basis. To insure that wound rolls of
film is produced with consistent roll hardness, hardness measuring devices must be
available to the winder operators. With these devices, an operator can check roll hardness
and make adjustments accordingly to insure that the roll hardness is within the acceptable
range for that product.
To measure the roll hardness across the outer surface of the roll, it is suggested that a
Rhometer, Schmidt Hammer or a PAROtester be used. These are impact based
devices for measuring relative roll hardness on a relative scale. The Schmidt Hammer
was developed for concrete hardness testing and has been borrowed for use on roll
hardness testing. The PAROtester is a similar device that was developed specifically for
evaluation of the hardness of paper, foils and films rolls. The PAROtester is considerably
more sensitive, has less impact energy and is less operator dependant due to its more
defined direction of impact then the Schmidt Hammer. A new device called a TAPIO
RQP (Roll Quality Profiler) is similar to the PAROtester and has the added feature of
automatically sampling at fixed distances across the roll as it is rolled along the surface.
This device was specifically developed for flat paper grades but also works well on many
grades of film.
A Smith meter is an instrument that can be used to measure the hardness profile from the
core to the outer wraps of the roll. The Smith meter measures the penetration of a small
needle as it is inserted in-between the wraps of the web along the rolls sides.
With computerized data acquisition systems, such as the Davis-Standard AccuWind
system, it is now possible to calculate the Roll Density Factor (RDF) and plot the relative
roll density from core to full roll as the roll winds. These systems compare the actual
winding rolls diameter with the theoretical diameter and plot the ratio as a function of the
winding rolls diameter. The RDF curve is displayed to the operator on the Operator
Interface Terminal (OIT) at the winder console.
8

PAROtester

TAPIO RQP

Hardness Devices for Measuring Roll Hardness across Roll

Smith Needle

AccuWind Roll Density Curve

Hardness Devices for Measuring Roll Hardness


From Core to Full Roll

The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide4


This article has presented a number of roll defects caused by improper roll hardness. The
challenge of identification and elimination of these and other roll and web defects has
been made easier by a new reference book The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect
4
Troubleshooting Guide . This book is the updated and expanded version of TAPPI
5
Presss best seller Roll and Web Defect Terminology . The expanded version with
valuable information for identifying and troubleshooting 224 roll and web defects was
written and edited by 22 Industry Experts with over 500 years of combined experience in
web handling and winding. The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide
incorporates complete chapters dedicated to Extrusion Coating and Laminating, Web
Handling, Slitting and Wrinkling Defects. It has been recognized by web producing and
converting industry experts as the most comprehensive reference guide available for
addressing roll and web defects.
The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide is available through TAPPI
Press at www.TAPPI.org/bookstore.

In Conclusion
Winding good rolls of flexible packaging film is a challenge that every operator faces.
Consistently winding good rolls depends on the consistency of bringing good film to
the winding operation. A winder operators job is not to camouflage poor quality
flexible packaging film products into shippable rolls. His or her responsibility is to
handle films with slight imperfections and to produce quality rolls that will run
without problems on the downstream customers process, and produce high quality
products for their customers. Understanding the winding principles and how they
10

are used to control roll hardness profiles is the first step in winding rolls without
defects. I hope that the information presented will help in meeting the challenges of
consistently producing quality rolls of flexible packaging film products.
References

1.

Smith, R. Duane, The Art of Winding Good Rolls, Paper Film & Foil Converter, August, 2001 pp 46-53

2.

Smith, R. Duane, Which Winders For You, Plastic Technology, January, 2013

3.

Smith, R. Duane, "Guidelines for Web Conveyance and Winding Tensions for Polymer Films, Papers
and Paperboard Webs, AIMCAL CONVERTING Quarterly, 2011 Quarter 3, pp 58-62

4.

Smith, R. Duane (Editor), The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide, TAPPI PRESS,
Atlanta, 2013.

5.

Smith, R. Duane (Editor), Roll and Web Defect Terminology- 2nd edition, TAPPI PRESS, Atlanta, 2007.

BIOGRAPHY OF R. DUANE SMITH

R. Duane Smith is Product Manager of Specialty Winding at


Davis-Standard LLC.
Duane is widely known throughout the Paper, Film and
Nonwoven Industries for his technical knowledge on web
handling and winding with over 43 years of experience
working in this area.
He has two patents in the winding area.
Duane has made over 85 technical presentations and
published over 30 articles in major international trade
journals and magazines. He has been an instructor at 16
TAPPI short courses and has published three books through
TAPPI Press. He is the editor of TAPPI Press first e-book,
The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide.
Duane is the author of the winding chapter of the TAPPI
Film Extrusion Manual and the author of the Unwinding and
Splicing chapter and co-author of the winding chapter of the TAPPI Extrusion Manual. Duane has been
honored by the TAPPI Board of Directors naming him a TAPPI Fellow and by the Society of Plastic
Engineers by awarding him the SPE Certificate of Recognition for his Significant Contributions made to the
Society and the Plastic Industry. He can be reached at dsmith@davis-standard.com

11

Challenges of Winding
Flexible Packaging Films
Presented by:

R. Duane Smith
Product ManagerSpecialty Winding
Davis-Standard LLC, Fulton, NY USA

Challenges in Winding Flexible Film

If all film webs were perfect, then the


ability to produce perfect rolls of film
products wouldnt be much of a challenge.
Unfortunately, due to the natural variation
in resins, non-uniformities of the film
formation processes, coatings and printed
surfaces, there is no such animal as a
perfect film.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Challenges in Winding Flexible Film

It is NOT the winding operations


responsibility to camouflage poor quality
film products.
However, it is the winding operations
challenge is to wind film webs with slight
imperfections that do not stand out in
appearance and are not amplified during
the winding process.
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Challenges in Winding Flexible Film

The ultimate challenge is to wind


flexible packaging film that will run on
your customers process without
problems and produce high quality
products for their customers.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Challenges in Winding Flexible Film

Roll density, or in-wound tension, is the


most important factor in determining the
difference between good quality and poor
quality rolls of film products.
Proper roll hardness is extremely
important to be sure that high quality
rolls are produced, handled and stored,
shipped and thenProcessed by your customers at
maximum production speeds without
product defects.
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Presentation Goal:
To develop an understanding of the roll

hardness principles and


how these are used on film winders
to wind rolls with the proper
hardness profile to consistently produce
quality roll of Flexible Packaging Films.

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CONFIDENTIAL

The Art of Winding

Developing roll hardness is more of an Art


than a Science.
The best combination of the roll hardness
tools often needs to be empirically
determined.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Rules of Thumb
However, in this presentation we will be
suggesting some Rules of Thumb for
the starting values for different web
materials to assist in optimizing the
wound roll hardness profile to meet your
Customers needs.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

This presentation based on an article published in

Plastics Technology September 2015

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CONFIDENTIAL

The Importance of Roll Hardness

Rolls that are wound too soft will go out-ofround while winding or while being handled
or stored. The roundness of rolls is very
important in a customers operation to
enable processing these rolls at maximum
production speeds with minimal tension
variations.

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CONFIDENTIAL

TheImportanceofRollHardness

FilmRollsWoundTooSoftCauseProcessingProblems
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CONFIDENTIAL

The Importance of Roll Hardness

Rolls that are wound too tight will also


cause problems.
Tightly wound rolls of films can have
blocking problems.
When winding extensible film on thin wall
cores, winding hard rolls can cause the
cores to collapse.
Rolls that are wound too tightly will
exaggerate slight web defects.

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CONFIDENTIAL

The Importance of Roll Hardness


Typically, films will have slight high and low areas in the
cross machine profile where the web is thicker or thinner.
When winding hard rolls, the high caliper areas build on
each other. As hundreds, even thousands of layers are
wound; the high areas form ridges, or high spots, in the roll.
As the film is stretched over these ridges, it is deformed.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

The Importance of Roll Hardness


Hard rolls that have high gauge
bands next to low gauge bands will
produce a roll defect known as
corrugations, or rope marks, in the
rolls.
Then, when the roll is unwound,
these areas produce a defect known
as bagginess in the film.

Slightvariationsinthicknesswillnotbenoticeableina
woundrollifsufficientairiswoundintotherollinthelow
areasandthewebisnotstretchedoverthehighareas.Still,
therollsmustbewoundhardenoughthatsotheywillbe
roundandwillstaythatwayduringhandlingandstorage.
CONFIDENTIAL
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

Randomization of Cross Machine


Variations
Some flexible packaging films, either by their extrusion
formation process or by their coating and laminating
process, have cross machine variations of thickness too
severe to be wound without exaggerating these defects.
To randomize cross machine variations in the wound
rolls- either the web or the slitters and winder are moved
back and forth relative to the web being wound.
This randomizing cross machine movement is called
oscillation.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Oscillation Speed
For successful oscillation the speed must be fast
enough to randomize thickness variations and slow
enough that it does not strain or wrinkle the film.
The rule of thumb for the maximum oscillation speed
is 25mm (~1) per minute per 150 mpm (500 fpm)
winding speed.
Ideally the oscillation speed varies proportional to the
winding speed.

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CONFIDENTIAL

The Importance of Roll Hardness


As Stated earlier-

Roll Hardness is the critical factor in


determining the difference between a good
quality roll & a poor quality roll.

Secret to building a good structure


Start winding on a good solid foundation.
Then wind with progressively softer roll
hardness.

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CONFIDENTIAL

SecrettowindingaQualityRoll

StartWindingwithagoodsolidfoundation:
Usequality&properlystoredcores
StartWindingwithasmuchRollHardnessas
possible

Thenwindwithprogressivelysofterrollhardness:
UseasmuchtaperoftheRollHardnesstoolsas
possible.
Thelargerthewindingrollsfinisheddiameterthe
morehardnesstaperisrequired.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Profiling Roll Hardness


As a roll winds - Inwound tension or residual
stresses build up inside the roll
If stresses become greater as roll winds larger
- inner wraps towards the core will loosen &
may even go into compression. This usually
happens as the roll of flexible package
materials cures after winding.
These compressive loads causes rolls defects
such as telescoping, buckling and/or starring

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CONFIDENTIAL

Telescoping,BucklingandStarringRollDefects

Telescoping

Buckling

Starring Defects

ROLL HARDNESS MUST BE


PROFILED TO PREVENT THESE!
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CONFIDENTIAL

Secrettobuildingagoodstructure

Thegreater theBuildupRatio=
FinishedRollDiameter/CoreOD

Themoreimportantthehardnessofstart
andthehardnesstaperbecomes!
Building a 12 story building (a 48 roll diameter
on a 4 core OD) - the foundation and structure
is much more critical than building a 4 story
building (a 16 roll diameter on a 4 core OD).

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CONFIDENTIAL

Rules of Thumb for Roll Hardness Taper

25% on 3-5 to 1 Build-up ratio*

33% on 6-8 to 1 Build-up ratio*


50% on 9-12 to 1 Build-up ratio*
*Build-up ratio is Wound Roll Dia./ Core O.D.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Roll Hardness Profiles


Roll Hardness vs. Diameter

Hardness Taper

120
100
80

Ideal Hardness Taper

60

Maximum Hardness Taper


Minimum Hardness Taper

40
20
0
Core

Full Roll

Diameter

Normally straight line profiles are used. However, todays control


systems allow profiling the roll hardness tools to provide non-linear
hardness tapers if required.
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CONFIDENTIAL

Winding Tools to develop


Roll Hardness

The three winding tools used


for consistently winding
dynamite rolls are:

T.N.T.
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CONFIDENTIAL

T.N.T. Winding Tools to


Develop Roll Hardness :

Tension - The Webs Tension


Nip - The Nip of the Pressure Roll
Torque - The Torque from the Center
Drive

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CONFIDENTIAL

Using the T.N.T. Tools to

Develop Roll Hardness

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CONFIDENTIAL

Using the T.N.T. Tools to

Develop Roll Hardness

Tension - The WEBs Tension


Extensible Films- Web Tension is
Dominant Winding Principle
The more stretch put into the web before
winding it, the tighter the wound rolls will
be.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Rule of Thumb for Web Tension


Web Tension = Strain (stretch) put into the web
Function (Matls. Modulus, Width, Thickness)
Strain = Stress/Modulus of Elasticity (E)
= (Web Tension / Area) / Modulus
= Web Tension/(Width x Thickness)/Modulus
The challenge is to be sure that the amount of web tension
does not induce significant permanent stresses in the film.
Suggested amounts of Web Tension
Rule of Thumb is 10%25% percent of machine
direction elastic limit of web material.

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CONFIDENTIAL

How much Web Tension ?


Tech Tip - Web Tension

For a copy- please give me your card with email

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CONFIDENTIAL

Tension Principles of Winding

Rule of Thumb for Winding Tension Start winding at the higher value of
suggested tension levels.
Then smoothly taper this winding tension
by 25% to 50% to the finished roll dia.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Example to calculate
Suggested Winding Tension

Material

TENSIONLEVELS

Polyester
Polypropylene
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
Vinyl
Aluminum foils

0.5 to 1.5 lbs./inch/mil


0.25 to 0.5 lbs./inch/mil
0.10 to 0.3 lbs./inch/mil
0.25 to 1.0 lbs./inch/mil
0.05 to 0.2 lbs./inch/mil
0.5 to 1.5 lbs./inch/mil

Example SuggestedstartingwindingTension
Fora60wideand2milthickPolyethylene(PE)material
wouldbe:0.3lbs./inch/milx60x2mil
=36lbs.totalwebtensionstartingwebtension
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CONFIDENTIAL

NIP Principle of TNT Winding


Inelastic (non stretchy) webs

-Nip tension is dominant principle of winding


in order to control roll hardness

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CONFIDENTIAL

NIP Principle of TNT Winding

Nip of winding rolls


- Removes the boundary layer of air following
the web
- Adds inwound tension - the higher the nip, the
harder the rolls
- Challenge is to have sufficient nip to wind hard
and straight rolls without winding in too much
inwound tension to prevent blocking and
deforming the web over caliper bands

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CONFIDENTIAL

NipRulesofThumb:

Nipmustbeapplied
wherewebentersthe
windingroll.
Thewindingrolls&lay
onrollsweightandweb
tensionshouldnotaffect
theniploading.

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CONFIDENTIAL

NIP Principle Important Considerations


Nip load should be tapered
as roll winds to prevent
starring and telescoping
However, larger winding
rolls dia. drags more air and
produces a larger footprint
for Tapered Loading
Pressure with a constant
loading force.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Gap Winding
Air sometimes wants to be wound into the
winding roll of material to
-Prevent blocking problems
-Prevent deforming the web that is
wound too tightly over gauge bands
Lay-on roll should follow the winding rolls
surface with a small controlled gap
(Directs the web squarely into the winding roll)

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CONFIDENTIAL

Torque Principle of TNT Winding


TheTorque isthe
forcethatisapplied
thruthecenterofthe
windingroll.
TheTorque applied
cinches(tightens)the
windinglayersto
increasetherolls
hardness.
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CONFIDENTIAL

Films Coefficient of Friction


Properties Effect on Winding
Films layer to layer coefficient of friction properties have a
major effect on the ability to apply the T.N.T. principles to
produce the desired roll hardness without roll defects.
Films with coefficient of friction (COF) value between 0.2 to
0.7 will generally wind well.
However, consistently winding defect free rolls of high slip
or low slip (low COF or high COF) films usually presents
major winding challenges

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CONFIDENTIAL

Films Coefficient of Friction Properties


Effect on Winding
High slip films (COF< 0.2 ) often have inner web slippage
or cinching problems that can result in defects such as
web scratching, dishing, telescoping and/or starring roll
defects.
Low slip films ( COF >0.7 ) often have blocking and/or
wrinkling problems and may have roll bouncing problems.
See text for complete discussion of Films Coefficient of
Friction Effect on Winding .

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CONFIDENTIAL

Pure Center Type Winders

Only roll hardness tool


is Web Tension which
is produced from
winding Torque with
Transducer feedback
and trim.

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CONFIDENTIAL

Center Turret Type Winder with a


Nip Roll

Contact Winding:
Tension & Nip roll
hardness tools are
used to control the
winding rolls
hardness profile
Note Webtensionprovidedby
spindletorque

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CONFIDENTIAL

Pure Center Winder with


Pressure Roll

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CONFIDENTIAL

Center/Surface Type Winder


with a Driven Pressure Roll
Winding Torque Principle
is used to control rolls
hardness independent
from the webs Tension.
C/S Winders - All three
TNT winding principles
independently controlled
to optimize the rolls
hardness profile.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Tension Principles of C/S Winding


When Center/Surface Winding, the web
tension is normally held constant which
allows the web to be strained (stretched) the
same from the start to the finished rolls
diameter.
When slitting, this constant tension keeps
the spreading and/or neck-in constant
during the winding process.

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CONFIDENTIAL

The Art of Winding

Developing roll hardness is more of


an Art than a Science.
SETTING AND PROGRAMMING OF TENSION,
NIP & TORQUE WILL VARY DEPENDING ON:
Type & Design of Winder
Type of Web Material
Width of Rolls Being Wound
Speed of Winding Operation

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

The best combination of the roll hardness


tools often needs to be empirically determined.
However,
After these are determined for your specific productsHARDNESS PROFILE MUST BE REPRODUCED
CONSISTANTLY

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

MEASURING ROLL HARDNESS


TO INSURE WINDING ROLLS WITH
CONSISTANT ROLL HARDNESSHARDNESS MEASURING DEVICES
NEED TO BE AVAILABLE TO WINDER
OPERATORS
Please refer to presentation preprint and written
paper for information on suggested roll hardness
measure devices.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Roll Defects Due to Roll Hardness


Out-of-round rolls
Roll blocking
Ridges
Tin Canning
Corrugations or rope marks in wound rolls

Art of Winding
Article Paper Film & Foil Converting
Give me a Card with email and I will send you a copy

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CONFIDENTIAL

Other Visual Defects to Avoid for


Consistently Winding Quality Rolls

Poor starts
Core offsets
Splices
Offsets and interweaving
Dished or telescoped rolls
Starred rolls
Trim wound in rolls
Slitter rings
Other slitter defects such as
-

Excessive slitter dust


Nicked edges
Scalloped edges
High edges

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect


Troubleshooting Guide
is the updated and expanded
version of TAPPI Presss Best Seller
Roll and Web Defect Terminology

Now includes a Glossary of


over 3000 terms commonly
used in the paper formation,
extrusion coating, web coating
and converting industries.
Available in 600 page hard copy and
NEW Electronic format with
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

advanced search capabilities

CONFIDENTIAL

The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect


Troubleshooting Guide
Written by 10 Chapter Champion Experts
Edited by 29 Industry Experts
Glossary compiled by 13 Well Know Experts
Over 800 years of experience compiled in 600
pages
The Most Comprehensive Reference Guide
available to assist in the identification and
elimination of Web Handling, Coating and Winding
Defects

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CONFIDENTIAL

10 Chapters on Roll and Web Defects


Roll defects general
Roll defects web profile
Roll defects edge
Roll and web defects - wrinkling
Web defects papermaking
Web defects calendering
Web defects aqueous coating
Defects - film extrusion and lamination
Defects - web handling defects
Defects - slitting defects
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect


Troubleshooting Guide

Clean and concise format for roll and web defects


copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

ListPrice $210

Special Pricing for


attending this TAPPI
Conference

SeminarSpecial$119.*
BundlePrice$190.*
HardCopyandElectronic
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ProceedsgototheTAPPI
PLACEScholarshipFund
*SpecialPricingonlygoodfor
ordersplacedbyApril29th,2016
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Conclusion- Challenges of
Winding Flexible Pkg. Films
During this presentation we have:
Discussed the Importance of Roll Hardness
Presented the Roll Hardness Principles
Explained how these are used as tools on Center and
Center/Surface Winders to build Roll Hardness
Suggested some Rules of Thumb for starting values
and tapers for these T.N.T. Roll Hardness tools.
Presented information on the valuable resource tool
The Ultimate Roll and Web Defect Troubleshooting Guide

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Conclusion- Challenges of
Winding Flexible Pkg. Films

Ihopethattheinformationpresentedwillassist
youinperfectingthisArtofwindingyour
flexiblepackagingfilmproductssothatyourhigh
qualitywebmaterialsareproduced,handledand
stored,shippedandthenprocessedbyyour
customersatmaximumproductionspeeds
withoutdefects.

copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Art of Winding Article

Reminder

Ifyouwouldliketoreceiveacopyofmy
ArtofWindingarticle,
TechTiponGuidelinesonWebTension
and moreinformationonRollHardness
measuringdevices.

Pleasegiveyourbusinesscardwith
ArtofWindingwrittenonit.
Willalsosendyoualinkwhereyoucanorder
anyorallofmyArticles&TechTips.
copyrightDavisStandard,LLC2013

CONFIDENTIAL

Challenges of Winding Flexible Pkg. Films

Questions?
Slide Courtesy of

Dr. David Roisum


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CONFIDENTIAL