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PERMANENT JOINTS

Riveting - Nituire
Welding

Sudare

Brazing - Brazare
Soldering - Lipire
Bonding (with adhesives) - Incleiere

dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING
inter-diffusion and alloying

filler

parental (base)
material

thermally influenced base material


(structurally modified)

. Structural modifications during welding Reduced mechanical properties of


the welded seam in respect with base material
High residual stresses and deformations are induced due to local heating
Thermal or thermo-mechanical stress relieving treatment is recommended
dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-Methods of welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

electric-arc welding

Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)

FUSION

Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)


Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

gas welding (oxyacetylene or hydrogen flame)


resistance welding (percussion welding, resistance spot welding)
thermit welding (superheated liquid metal from a chemical reaction )
other (plasma arc welding, laser beam welding, induction welding, etc)
NON FUSION (friction welding, ultrasonic welding, etc)

dec. 2005

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WELDING - Weldability
Composition
Material

Thickness

Ce = C +

Mn Cr + Mo +V Ni + Cu
+
+
6
5
15

Ce < 0.5%

1 mm < g < 30 mm

Carbon steel - the best


Cast iron - pre-heated & special electrodes
Aluminum - MIG (inert gas) & ultrasonic heating
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Weldability and Joinability of Common Materials


OxyArc
acetylenic
Welding
Welding

Material

Electron
Beam
Welding

Resistance
Adhesive
Brazing Soldering
Welding
Bonding

Cast iron

Carbon steel & low-alloy


steel

10

10

10

10

Stainless steel

10

10

10

Aluminum

10

Magnesium

10

Copper & Copper alloys

10

10

Nickel & Nickel alloys

10

10

10

Titanium

Lead

10

10

Zinc

10

Thermoplastics

10*

10**

7***

Thermosets

Elastomers

10

Ceramics

10

Dissimilar metals

3-7

N/A

10

Note: 10 = Excellent, 5 = Fair, 1 = Seldom/never used.

dec. 2005

* : Heated tool; ** : Hot gas; *** : Induction.

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WELDING - Characterisation
Advantages
flexibility (combine simple shapes into very complicated structures
economy of materials & labor
adaptability to automatization
sealing capacity
uniform force flow (reduced stress concentration)

Shortcomings
residual stresses and thermal deformations
requires positioning devices
operator ability is important
requires costly control procedures (X-rays, ultrasonic tests, etc)

dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-Classification
shape of the seam

relative position of the welded parts

butt
lap

fillet weld
Tee

square weld

edge

V-groove weld

corner

dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-Nomenclature
Toe

Actual
throat
Face

Size of weld
(Leg)

Square weld

Theoretical
throat
Fusion zone
(Filler penetration)

Toe

Root

Face
Toe

Toe

Fusion zone
(Filler penetration)

Size of weld
(Leg)

Fillet weld
Root

Root

Original
surface

Root penetration

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Welded seams should be always considered critical sections
Residual stresses are neglected
Cross section of the welded seam effective height and effective length.

l eff = l 2a
Stress calculation has a conventional character

e = 2 + 2 + //2

compound stresses

=12.5

Permissible stress calculated on the basis of the strength of parental materials

as = k0 k1 a
dec. 2005

k0 = 0.751

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Butt welds

case A. Traction F

s =

F
< as
s l eff

a=s

l eff = l 2 s

case B. bending Mb

s =

6M b
< as
sl 2eff

Mb

Mb

case C. traction +bending F+Mb

s =

F
6M
+ 2 b < as
s l eff s l eff
dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Butt welds
F = F sin
s =

F// = F cos

F
< as
s l eff

l eff =

// =

a=s

b
2s
sin

F//

F//
s l eff

b)

compound stresses

e = 2 + 2 + //2

dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Transverse lap weld

case A. Traction F

F1 = F2 = F
F1
=
2 a l eff

a=

2
s
2

a=0.707s
F2

F2
2 a l eff

F1

l eff = b 2a

e = 2 + 2 =

F
2 a l eff

conventional calculation

dec. 2005

2
2

s =

F
< as
2 a l eff
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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Transverse lap weld
case B. bending Mb

conventional shear stress

s =

a=0.707s

6M b
< as
2al 2eff

Mb

l eff = b 2a

Mb

case C. traction +bending F+Mb

s =

F
3M b
+
< as
2 s l eff s l 2eff

dec. 2005

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
case A. Traction F

Parallel lap weld

max

F
b

F
F

// =

F
as
2 a l eff

a = 0.707 s
dec. 2005

l eff = l 2a
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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Parallel lap weld

case B. bending Mb

max

uniform stress distribution

T
T

Mb
s =
<
(b + s )a l eff as

Mb

Mb

s =

case C. traction +bending F+Mb

dec. 2005

F
Mb
+
as
2 a l eff (b + s ) a l eff

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Parallel lap weld
s

T1
F

b+s

e1
b

T2
T1 + T2 = F

T1 e1 = T2 e2

dec. 2005

e2

T1 = F

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e2
e
; T2 = F 1
l+s
l+s

Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Tee lap weld
F

b) double bevel
groove joint

a) double fillet joint


s

calculation identical with


that of transverse lap weld

dec. 2005

calculation identical with


that of a butt weld

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-STRENGTH calculation
Fillet weld subjected to torsion

Version 1
s =

Mt

(d + 2a )4 d 4

a
s

< as

(d + 2a )

16

d
Mt
Ft

Version 2
s =

2M t

d m2 a

dec. 2005

< as

d m = d + 0.707a

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Traian CICONE

WELDING-Design
1. Ensure the accessibility of the
electrode or other welding
devices to the weld seam

recommendations

electrodes
45

2. Long and thin seams are


preferred to short and thick ones
2l

a
dec. 2005

V=la2

2a
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WELDING-Design

V=2la2

Traian CICONE

recommendations

3. Design simplicity can save much


welding and assembly time

dec. 2005

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10

WELDING-Design

recommendations

4. Design sections for circular or straight


seams to permit automatic welding

5. For better flow force - taper zone near


the seam is recommended

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WELDING-Design

Traian CICONE

recommendations

6. Accurate machining should be always done after the welding and


eventually a stress release thermo-mechanical treatment
7. Do not design weld seams where other stress concentrators already exist

Reduce the length of weld seams


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WELDING-Design

recommendations

8. Avoid the intersection of the seams


8

10
6

9
3

4
1

5
2

dec. 2005

10

11

11

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Traian CICONE

BRAZING & SOLDERING


Temperatures are always below the melting point of the base materials

FILLER (braze or solder) differs completely from the base material


Brazing is a group of processes in which materials are joined by
heating to a suitable temperature and by using a filler metal with
a melting point above 450C, but below that of the base metal.
brazing alloys are based on tin, lead, silver, etc
Soldering is similar to brazing except that the filler metal has a melting
temperature below 450C and has relatively low strength.
tin-lead alloys
alloys including antimony, zinc and aluminum
dec. 2005

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12

BRAZING & SOLDERING


Advantages
Dissimilar metals, cast and wrought metals, can be joined
Assemblies can be joined (brazed or soldered) in a stress-free condition
Materials of different thicknesses can be joined
As temperature is lower, metallurgical properties of base materials are not seriously
disturbed
Joints require little or no finishing

Shortcomings
The joint may be less resistant to mechanical and heat loading than the base material
Filler materials are usually expensive
The need for initially clean surfaces
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BRAZING & SOLDERING

dec. 2005

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13

BRAZING & SOLDERING

dec. 2005

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