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Conservation

of
Building
(Ashurst and Dimes, 2011).

Decorative

Stone

See page 7.
The first essential in approaching an historic building in need of
repair is to determine the cause of decay, where possible, remove it
or minimize its effect.

BD
IBP

In practice, one of the most important responsibilities of anyone


faced with the care of an historic building is to anticipate trouble
before it happens.
Represents a milestone in thinking about the repair of historic
buildings.

REPLAC3

Emphasized the need for careful and consistent maintenance or


daily care.
Stress the need to preserve the patina of age.
Unline Ruskin, tampering (middle) had led him to prefer demolition
to repair.
Implifictly acknowledged the need for renewal of decayed stone, but
he insisted where this was done the new should be clearly
distinguishable from old.
Dictum (pronouncement, dictate, command, proclamation)
For plain areas of masonry, on the other hand, a convention arose of
replacement, not in stone, but with tile, in order to differentiate the
repair from surviving medieval work.
Possible amount of stone renewal, whatever material is selected to
replace it, makes for the fewest problems and greatest preservation
of historical material.
The crucial decision to be made is what to repair and what to leave
alone.

Durable
1

Three criteria may be considered to determine whether stone should


be used in any particular situation.
Firstly, it should be sufficiently durable of a stone for intended
purpose. In the past, the durability of a stone was from experience
of its use, a method of assessment which should not be forgotten
today.
Now, physical and chemical tests can provide valuable additional
indications of likely durability.
Second, it should be economically available and easily quarried and
worked to the desired profiles.
This criteria is still important but is less critical now than in the past
because of improvements in transport systems and increasing
sophistication of cutting equipment.
Thirdly, it should be pleasing to the eye. Because stone is a natural
material all types may claim to satisfy this criteria, although it may

Transpor
t1

be noted that some man-made juxtapositions (comparison/


contrast/proximity, closeness) of stone are not aesthetically
pleasing.
It may usually be assumed that in the past availability was of
paramount importance. Other historical factors relating to political
boundaries, ownerships, trade agreements, and conditions of
instability and war have obviously influenced the use and choice of
particular stone.

Summary
Service life
important.

prediction

methods

are

extremely

Include the data related with the durability and


service life prediction methodologies, the application
is still incipient.
Service life and maintenance of buildings and
components- still presents some limitation due to the
complexity degradation phenomena and the lack of
reliable tools for their modeling.
The deterioration does not occur uniformly, sincle it
composed of various subsytems, degrade at different
rate, can be assumed that they are composed of
several layers of durability, with different service life.
Heritage building????

-Consider
the
effect
of
environmental
exposure
conditions and the use of the
building.
---Data on durability of heritage
buildings material??
Service life- service life is often
confused with durability.
Durability is not realted to a
period of time but instead
corresponds to the buildingss

Durability_CON
CEPT

ability
and
that
of
their
components
to
show
an
adequate performance during
their life cycle.
Canadian Standard (CSA S47895;2001),
the
concept
of
durability refers to the ability of
a building or its components to
achieve the best performance in
a given environment or location,
without having to be significant
corrective measures or to the
repair or replacement of its
elements.
So, According to the New Zealan
Building Code, includes function
requirement, refer element as
well as construction methods
should be sufficiently durable ,
ensure
the
meeting
of
performance requirement during
the building service life, without
habvibg
significant
rehabilitation works (Lee et al.,
2008).
But , in real life,high quality
construction
details
may
promote a higher protection of a
building element against the
degradation agents, contribute
to the increase of its service life
(John et al., 2002).
-Knowledge of performance of

material
over
time,
the
knowledge of the capacity of
material withstanding with the
degradation mechanis, it will be
subjected to , under a give set of
environment exposure condition,
and the characteristic of the
construction and its context
(Wyatt, 2005).
Sustainable, can be translated
by durable.
Normative Framework for
Service
Life
Prediction
Buildings.

the
of

Currently, there are numerious standards and guidelines that


intend to establish standardized methodologies to evaluate
the durability and service life of buildings and their
component.
Japanese principles guide for service life planning of
buildings.
1992- BSI 7543 for durability British guide to durability of
building elements, products and components (BS 7543,
1992) that lists various methods to estimate the service life of
construction products
a)through past experience, using similar buildings, subject to
similar use and climatic conditions
b) degradation level of the elements in a short period of use or
exposure, estimating value for which the durability limit is
reached
c) accelerated ageing test, stimulate real situation
BS 7543 proposes defining the sercice life of buildings as a
function of the type of use; 5 category
1. less than 10 years: short-lived buildings such as
storehouse,
at leats 10 years; average building such as industrial building
at least 30 years; current buildings, new housing, hospitals,
schools,
at leat 60 years; long-living building such as public building
at least 120 years:
This also prescribes that the proper periodic maintenance.

ISO 15685-8 2007: Reference sercie life and service life


estimation
Then, more documents concern on maintenance..
RILEM, CIB,..
CIB, some commissions address the durability
maintenance of buildings.

and

W080 commisions- Predicion of service life of building


materials and components with coopeation of Committte
TC59 Technical of RILEM.

MeasuringHeritageConservationPerformanceThe
SeminarAlonso, V. I. & V. M. Meurs. 2012. Assessing the performance of

conservation activities. In Zancheti, S. M. & K. Simila, eds. Measuring heritage


conservation performance, pp. 1-14. Rome, ICCROM.

Ever since the Burra Charter, the theory of conservation


has been undergoing a paradigm shift that sets the
maintenance of significance as central goal of heritage
conservation.
Fact crucial because defintions of cultural heritage vary
broadly acrros countries and cultural areas. Cultural
heritage is also entailed with a variety of values nad
therefore the objectives of conservation acitivities are
radicaaly different depending on the cultural area.
Cultural heritage encompasses monuments, groups of
buildings and sites with cultural and natural values
(UNESCO, 1972), objects, landscapes and places of
cultural significance (ICOMOS Australia, 1999) as well as
living and intangible heritage (UNESCO, 2003).
This paper is focuses on tangible cultural heritage.
The most widely accepted ideas about the aims of
conservation are those established by the Burra Charter
and UNESCO Conventions, conservation of cultural
significance and the values that are entailed in cultural
heritage.
The impact for the activity of conservation including
social and economic benefits.
Shifting attention from cultural heritage to people.

SP_DC

Some recent trends have also gone further and


considered not only the values placed on cultural
heritage and people involved with it, but also
environmental impacts generated by conservation
practice.
Which proposed the Triple Bottom Lone Tool, draws on
sustainability princples and considers the impact that
conservation practice has on people, finance and
environment
(Lithgow
and
Thackray,
2009).
(philosophy???).
Conservation of cultural significance as wekk as a clear
understanding of the positive and negative social,
economic and environmental imacts that such activities
may bring about.
Cultural significance of heritage comprises both the
fabric and non-tangible values related to it.
Much data have been generated relating to the
appropriateness of conservation materials and methods
of interventions.
Due to the difference, it should be recorded and
monitored.
Assessing Economic Impact
Growing realization that cultural heritage is worth
conserving because it has a capital asset which has been
called cultural capital as it constitutes a force for
development (Mason et al., 1999; Throsby, 1999).
European Commision survey that cultural sector showed
larger economic frowth in comparison to other indsutires
that had been traditionally considered as more
productive (Giordano, 2007).
According to Burra Charther, no or minimal change on its
cultural significance (ICOMOS Australia, 1999;p.3).
It should be used and economically exploited in ways
that do not damage its values and do not compromise its
future use and enjoyment.
Conservation is good economic investment. But no
reference with other options (Mason, 2005, p.13).
Social Impact = sense of place. English Heritage (2009,p,
13) sates that the revalorization of historic environment
has a clear positive impact on the sense of place that
people have, which in turn can impact on crime level,
social inclusion and regeneration.
Social impacts have been much overlooked in he
assessment
of
conservation
activities.
Although
conservation projects have reported important social

SUSTAI
N1

IBP

HB_V

benefits, indicators have not been used and possible


negative impacts have been neglected.
Very little interest has been taken in conservation to proactively protect the natural environment.
Increasingly relevant in the light of abundant evidence
that shows that degradation of physical environment and
the depletion of worlds natural resources.
Scientitic evidence hs also shown that human-produced
greenhouse gas emissions that have had a strong impact
on climate change.
RDS1 Data sources for energy performance assessments of historic
buildings (Hay, Clark, and , 2014).
Summary
Overview of UK data sources available that may be useful for the
development of a multi-scale data model within EFFESUS project.
Identify UK data sources for use in the EFFESUS project.
*EFFESUS project focuses on historic properties, essential that it
contains information on listed buildings and conservation areas.
So, this will provide the census data, most/all properties within the
UK.
Data will be used in the development of a multi-scale model and an
associated software tool.
Why?
1. Lack of data in building construction. There are a number of
sources of building types and characteristics for domestic properties
but few for non-domestic.
Building , construction materials as well, provide data a low
resolution at the stage of urban neighborhood scale.
Data sources cover 4 categories= 1)building stock data, 2)Urban
district/spatial data, 3) Building energy use and CO2 emission data,
and 4)Climate zoning.
A.Building stock
Whether domestic or non domestic, age of buildings, types of
buildings, construction types, heritage protection and architectural
type.
*Any census in Malaysia, data on the type of house, size, main
heating system (not energy efficiency of buildings)???
Listed building data
Check in mALAYSIA
Source provide domestic and non-domestic energy consumption for
geographical areas

ASHEC1 Implementation challenges to the adaptive


reuse of heritage buildings: Toward the goals of
sustainable , low carbon cities. (Esther, Yung and Chan,
2012).
Summary
Keyword:
Adaptive
reuse,
Built
Heritage,
Sustainable
development, Low carbon city and Hong Kong
Ro-to ASSES THE RELIABILITY OF ADAPTIVE USE OF HERITAGE
BUILDINGTHAT
STRESS
ON
ACHIEVING
SUSTAINABLE
SUPPORTING LOW CARBON CITIES
-In-depth interviews. LR7 case studies buildings, ownership, new uses, type of new
operator.
-- Adaptive reuse extends the buildings life by avoiding the
creation of demolition waste and saving the embodied energy,
is well recognized as contributing to reducing low carbon
emissions, mitigating climate change and hence achieving
sustainable devel- opment. Adaptive reuse of historic buildings
has increasingly emerged in urban conservation, in particular, in
the developing countries. While conserving the heritage values
of the heritage buildings and giving the building a present
viable use, the reuse of historic buildings can also enhance
economic and social sustainability. The practitioners reveal that
achieving a low carbon city requires a holistic consideration on
the economical, social, envi- ronmental and the political
concerns which constitutes to the four fundamental pillars in a
solid sustainability framework

ADAPTIVEUS
E

LOWCARBON
1

Low carbon emissions are one of the key factors contributing to


a sustainable and effectively tackling climate change.
Adaptive use is form of sustainable, extends the buildings life
and avoids demolition waste, encourages reuses of the
embodied energy and provides significant social and economic
benefits to the society.
HB= ability to
sustainability.

embraces

the

different

dimensions

of

HB_V
Test1
Rco2

How to address them all in practice, remain unresolved.


The reality of climate change has prompted to the urgency in
the reduction of carbon emissions.

CO2STA
CO2STA

The construction of new buildings consumes significant


amount of raw materials and energy and generates high carbon
emissions.

CO2STA

Buildings are responsible for more than 40% of global energy


use and produce one third of global greenhouse gas emissions
(UNEP, 2009).

CO2STA

Construction and building account for approximately 136 million


tonnes of waste annually, nearly half of which is from demolition
(HUD, 2003).
Greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong nearing 50 million
toones per annum and rising.

CHB

Given the above figures, the building sector also has great
potential for significantly reducing carbon emissions.
Historic buildings constitute a significant portion on the entire
building stock all over the world and it is not possible to
preserve them all intact (whole).
In UK, only 1.5% is added existing building stock each year, and
approximately 372,000 listed building entries (English Heritage,
2010).
Hong Kong 94 declared monuments and 1444 proposed graded
historic buildings (antiquities Monument Office, 2011).
ReUSE
Adaptive reuse by passess the wasteful process of demolition
and reconstruction.
This environment benefit, combined with the energy savings
and carbon emissions reduction (Department of the
Envirpnment and Heritage, 2004).
Carbon emissions reduction is on eof the most crucial strategies
to mitigate the adverse impact of climate change.
Broad approaches for reducing carbon emissions including
substitution or mitigation of carbon energy sources, technology
innovation and adaptation or behavior change (Crane and
Landis, 2010).
Kyoto Protocol signed in 2005, requires the develop nations to
reduce GHG emissions to 5.2% below the 1990 level, between
2008 and 2012.
Major issues to be considered=existing buildings.
Built heritage that through adaptive reuse has a new function
for some socially useful purpose, appears to be the most
effective approach for a self-financing and sustainable form of
conservation (Balaras, Dascalaki, & Kontoyiannidis, 2004;
Brand, 1994; Bromley, Tallon, & Thomas, 2005; Kurul, 2007;
Pickard, 1996; Steinberg, 1996).
In particular, extending the life of an existing building through
reuse can lower material, transport and energy consumption
and pollution and thus make a significant contribu- tion to low
carbon reduction and sustainability (Bullen, 2007; Van der
Voordt, 2004; Velthuis & Spennemann, 2007).
Reduce it emissioms, improve cost efficiency but also conserve
significant value (Langston, 2010).
Adaptive reuse is broadly defined as any building work and
intervention to change its capacity, function or performance to
adjust, reuse or upgrade a building to suit new conditions or
requirements (Douglas, 2006).
It helps reduce greenhouse as emissions and carbon footprints
(Balaras et al., 2004).

ASHEC2

Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale

RCO2

KYOTO1
RCO2

Lowcarbon1

RCO2

RCO2

input-output (Chen, Chen, Zhang,Shao, Guo, Zhou and


Jiang, 2011).
Summary
Keyword
Carbon emission Low-carbon building Inputoutput model Life cycle assessment

Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework


in this paper are detailed carbon emission account
procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine
stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility
construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment,
property management, demolition, and disposal for
buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity
databases based on multi-scale inputoutput analysis,
essential for low-carbon planning, procurement and
supply chain design, and logistics management.
In the context of global climate change, buildings as one of
the main energy consumers and carbon emitters attract
increasing attention.
According to IPCC(1), buildings consumed 40% energy
sources, led to 36% energy related carbon emission in
industrialized countries.

CO2STA
CO2STA
CO2STA

As estimated by EIA (2), buildings accounted for 30.8% of


global energy consumption.
Even exceeded that of industrial production and
transportation as indicated (3), in the European Union and
the United States.

LOWCARBO
N1

Evidently, the pursuit of low carbon buildings would be


strategically essential to relieve the impact of global
climate change.

QUANTIFYC
O2

Many academic efforts have been made to quantify


the carbon emission associated with some stages of
the life cycle of buildings (4-15).

JAPANCO2

In Japan, carbon emissions derived from the construction,


maintenance, operation, and disposal of wood and steel
reinforced concrete houses are traced and calculated and
solar energy technology was suggested to reduce carbon
emission during the operation stage, carbon cost for
application of this technology.
Energy regulations, such as insulation, =Denmark to reduce
end-use nergy consumption and carbon emission during the
operation stage.

ENERGYSTA
SWEDENCO
2
I-O-ANA

Input-output analysis was applied to assess direct and


indirect carbon emission of building sector in Sweden,
multipliers of direct carbon emission. =total carbon
emission per unit of final consumption instead of total
output.
Yan et al (8) calculated carbon emissions derived from
manufacture and transportation of building materials,
energy consumption of construction equipment, energy
consumption for processing resources and disposal of
construction waste, through carbon emissions factors
adopted were collected from previous studies with various
background and system definition.
Hacker et al (9) studied embodied carbon of building
materials and operation carbon emission, where in
carbon emission originated from other stages of the
life cycle buildings were omitted, and operation
carbon emission just focused on that derived from
energy used to operate appliances.
Jiang and Tovey (10) proposed a series of low-carbon
sustainability
strategies
including
effective
energy
management, technical measures for energy conservation,
renewable energy technologies, awareness raising and
behavior change and off-setting methods for Chinese
buildings,
but
carbon
emissions
costs
for
the
implementation were not counted.
Carbon emissions as one of the main environmental
influences for buildings in China,
Stage, al inputs can be classified as material, equipment
and energy as well as manpower included for a generalized
account.
The quantification of carbon emission for the life cycle
assess according to the behavior of a building.
1. Embodied carbon emissions from aspects of area, time
span and capita
2. Amount of carbon emissions flows in the whole design
evaluated through flux indicators. A.Production area,
commodities can be classified into international imported,
domestic imported and local one.
B.Carbon cost, carbon benefit.
3. The ration can be evaluate the rationality of the internal
structure of the life cycle buildings which are called
communication indicators.

OPERAPHAS
E

LOWCARBO
N1

CHINACO2

Heritage Planning
Summary
The recognition that conservation provides environmental
benefits over new construction was stimulated by the oil crisis
of 1973.
New construction brings about high-energy consumption
(carbon footprint). The additional energy is spent on
demolishing an existing old building, fabricating new building
products (including extracting the raw materials), hauling the
products to the construction site and erecting the new building
from scratch.

Newvsold

Conservation reduces solid waste and the demand on landfills.


Demolishing an existing building crates a considerable amount f
debris37.
Embodied Energy The investment of energy in the
construction of historic buildings has already been made
(Jackson, 2005;47-52).
Inherent passive energy-conserving characteristics. High
thermal capacity of exterior walls, keep interior relatively cool
by day and warm by night. High ceilings that allow heat to rise
and presence of natural cross-ventilation.

Durable1

Older buildings were often constructed with durable- long-lived


materials and building systems. Repairable, lowering
maintenance costs has benefit of reducing the energy required
to maintain, repair and restore.
Peter Yost has said, if you double the life of a building, you
halve the environmental impact (of its construction) (cited in
Carron,2010;8).
These arguments while valid, received little attention,
imperatively to achieve environmental sustainability and low
carbon footprints finally lencouraged a wider audience to pay
attention.

Should be respected, retrofitting initiatives can be affective in


terms of energy savings
Green initiative= promotion of rating systems for green
building Green Building Councils (BGC) LEED
professional accreditation program. (Most began as tools
for new construction and the transfer of their prescriptive
measures
to
rehabilitation
projects
generally
undervalued building reuse).
However, a physical retrofit is not necessarily the most effective
intervention that can be made to reduce energy consumption.

Energysta
Existingmethod1

QUANTIFYCO2

Spquantifyco

Historic Scotland give guidance to the owner, compiled


extensive research into quantifying the actually U-values.
Calculated values with these data in hand,..
Historic Scotland has produced a climate change action plan
whose recommendations including improving energy efficiency
in traditional buildings.
The plan acknowledges that old buildings may not achieve the
same level of efficiency as new ones, but it makes the case for
their providing alternative sociocultural and economic benefits
i.e., for their overall sustainability.
-Achieving balance)
The repair, maintenance and adaptation of existing buildings
currently accounts for approximately 46% of the total
construction industry output in Scotland. Improving knowledge
and skills in this sector will directly support and encourage
economic activity. In some cases it may be unrealistic to expect
older building to achieve the energy efficiency of a new
building; however this must be balanced against the
contribution made in other ways such as their cultural value,
urban identity, life cycle and longevity and importance and
significance to communities (Historic Scotland, 2012; 14)44.
The total carbon footprint of a historic building, including both
the embodied energy in the existing place and ongoing energy
consumption is usually far lower than that of a new building.
To define the scale of the problem, it has been said that a 100year-old building could use 25% more energy than a new
building and still have less lifetime energy consumption than
the new on that lasts only four or five decade (Donovan
Rypkema, 2011; 473). American preservation economist.
Carl
Elefante
declares
the
widely
cited
the greenest building is one that is already built.

mantra

Cultural value, bears no direct relationship to economic or


money. It is assessed by identifying aesthetic, historical,
scientific and other qualities to determineants of heritage value.
Value-hb-cost=revealed preference method, travel cost method,
hedonic price method, cost benefit analysis)
Economic impact study, spending and impact.
Property value= size, location, age and condition. House has
heritage significance as well, it can be said to possess cultural
capital and cultural value., which may or may not affect the
market (economic value).
Remarkably consistent: property values in local historic
districts appreciate significantly faster than the market as a
whole in the vast majority of cases and appreciate at rates
equivalent to the market in the worst case (Rypkema, 2002; 6-

CO2STA_M
Newvsold

Newvsold

7).
The view in turn has led some people to conclude that a
recognized historic area loses economic value through formal
recognition or protection.
Heritage tourism. UNWTO, UN agency promotes tourism as a
diver of economic growth, inclusive development and
environmental sustainability. (CULTURAL TOURISM)CULTURAL
HERITAGE TOURISM.
In UK, the total expenditure by international and domestic
visitors on heritage attractions in the UK was 7.3 billion (12.4
billion including natural heritage), creating 113,000 jobs
(195,000 with natural heritage) including multiplier impacts
270,000 (466,000) jobs (Oxford Economics 2009 cited in
Heritage Lottery Fund, 2010; 6-12).
World Heritage is used as a brand to attract visitor.
EAB2 Energy Efficiency and Buildings with Heritage Values:
Reflection, Conflicts and Solutions (Giancola and Heras,
2014).
Summary
To ensure the built heritage conservation, it will be necessary
to develop new methodologies to support the decision
making process = thru optimal level of energy efficiency
which is achievable without endanger the preservation of
historic building values.
Relationship between the retrofit of historical architecture,
energy efficiency and sustainability is a significant field of
experiment and research.
In order to achieve the ambitious CO2 reduction targets it will
be necessary to improve the energy efficiency of the existing
buildings.
Key values which must be identified and preserved.
**There are no specific guidelines or generic hierarchy of
interventions to improve historic and traditional buildings.

EAB3

SUSTAINABILITY
SR1 Sustainability for repair and maintaining concrete and
masonry buildings
Summary
Sustainability is meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet

SUSTAIN1

their own needs.


Plethora of response towards meeting the goals of living
more gently with the earth.
Building industry has an udeniably important place in this
dialog

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA
EAB1 Assessment of ecological sustainability of a building
subjected to potential seismic events during its lifetime (Menna,
Asprone, Jalayer, Prota, & Manfredi, 2012)

Summary
Given the wide range of applicability of sustainable, various
methodologies and conceptual frameworks have been
developed encompassing different disciplines, such as
engineering and environmental science, economy.

SUSTAIN1

A framework for sustainability assessment is made up of a set


of objectives, variables/parameters and infdicator.
But the key objectives for sustainable development are
generally represented in terms of as a triple bottom-line
strategy illustrated in Fig 1 (Willard, 2002).

TBL

These objectives are usually established by decision-makers.


In the context of sustainability, the significant role of the
construction industry as one of the major exploiters of the
environment in the form
Other subject of sustainability in construction work is life cycle
benefir-based discussed by Faber and Stewart, 2003; Faber
and Rackwitz, 2004).
LCA_D

The life cycle assessment (LCA) framework which is used to


address issues such as CO2 emissions, human health and
resource depletion in the decision making process, is generally
adopted in order to quantify the environmental aspects.
Life cycle assessment is a technique for quantifying the
environmental aspects associated with a product over its
entire life in other works, from cradle to the grave.
This encompasses the extraction and processing of raw
materials, manufacturing, transportation and distribution, use,
reuse, maintenance, recycling and final disposal (Consoli et
al., 1993)..

LCA_D

LCA_P

LCA, employed usually as a decision making support,


especially suitable for the integration of various life cycle
stages in term of their environmental impact.

APP1: Malaysias Rising GHG Emissions and Carbon Lock-In Risk: A


Review of Malaysian Building Sector Legislation and Policy (Zaid, Myeda,
Mahyuddin, & Sulaiman, 2015)
Summary
Malaysia also alarming growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that
caused by escalating number of automobiles, factories and power plants.
1990-2004, Malaysias carbon emissions grew 221 percent (+221%)
increased energy demand from industrial and transportation sectors
(Watkins, 2007).
By 2009, Malaysias national energy demand has increased by 210.7%
from 1990 which prompted its carbon emissions growth +235.6% (Energy
Comissioon, 2011; IEA, 2011).
Projected carbon emissions growth from the 1990 levels and its projexted
levels for 2020.
Malaysias carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in 2020 wil amount to 285.73
million tonnes; a 68.86% increase compared to year 2000 (Safaai et al.,
2010).
Malaysias Carbon Emissions Growth and Projection

Malaysia announced at the 2009 United Nations Climate Change


Conference in Copenhagen (COP-15) avluntarily commitment to reduce
40% of its greenhouse gas emission (from 1990 levels) by year 2020
(Department of Environment, 2010).
The global buiding sectors primary contribution of fossil fuels
used to generate electricity or used directly for building
operations in the form of fuel combustions which represent
approximately 40% of global GHG emissions (IEA, 2011; UNEPSBCI, 2009;2010A).

CO2STA

Co2STA

Produces 40% of global wastes and consumes approximately 16%


of water sources (du Plessis, 2002; Sission et al., 2009) UNEPSBCI, 2010b).
Residential building represents 65% of the global total sectoral
emissions and 35% for commercial buildings (Baumert et al.,
2005). Only 10-20% of building energy is consumed for preproduction and demolition or deconstruction and similarly for its
GHG emissions (Sisson et al.,2009, Urge-Vorsatz et al., 2012).

GHG emissions produced in the operational phase (80-90%) for


energy consumption mainly for heating and cooling purpose
(50%) and appx 10% to 20% is used for water heating (Sisson et
al., 2009; Urge-Vorsatz et al., 2012).
Studies suggest that without any action, building sectors energy
use is expected to grow from 60% to 90% between 2005 to 2050
(Urge-Vorsatz et al., 2012).
Malaysia, from World Bank (2015), Malaysias 2010 emissions
at7.7 metric tons per capita, approximately 40% more than world
average (Table 3).
*has steadily increased surpass the world average
withstanding its environmental impacts, the building sector has
been identified by the IPCC as the sector with largest mitigation
potential (IPCC, 2007).

Many project to reduce energy consumption.

Technologies, design, equipment, management


alternative solutions (Levine et al., 2007).

systems

and

Review, building contributes to the growing GHG emissions in


Malaysia.
But has remarkable potential to reduce GHG emissions during to
operational phase with strategies such as lower-energy building
design, energy efficiency policies and building codes.
Opportunity is solar energy
Many developed countries in Europe have already progressed
towards low-energy and zero-energy building requirements.
Building legislation in Malaysia, should be revised in terms of bioclimatic design and site specific planning to help reduce
electricity consumption for cooling purposes, reduce heat transfer
and improve natural ventilation.
UBBL1984
construction
requirements.

imposes

no

energy

efficiency

Malaysian building sector, turn would help Malaysia reach is


voluntary 40% reduction pledge.

APP2 Residential and Commercial buildings (Levine et al., 2007)


Summary:
Measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from buildings
fal into one of three categories:
Reducing energy consumption
Embodied energy in buildings
Switching to low-carbon fuels including a higher share of renewable
energy or controlling the emissions of non-CO2, GHG gases.
Substantial reduction *new vocab
LR purpose only (yellow colour) note ye adah
Mature technologies for energy efficiency already exist widely and
have been successfully used (high agreement, evidence).

Also give significant benefit to life cycle cost, providing reductions in


Co2 that have net benefit rather than cost.
80% indicates that there is a global potential to reduce approximately
29% of the projected baseline emissions by 2020 cost effectively in the
residential and commercial sectors.
At least 3% od baseline emission can be avoided at costs up to 20
Us/tCo2 AND 4% more if costs up to 100US$/tCo2 are considered.
There are numerous array of accessible and costeffective technology
and know-how that have not yet adopted which can abate the GHG
emissions in building include passive solar design, high appliances,
lighting, high efficient ventilation and cooling systems, solar water
heaters, insulation materials and techniques, high-reflectivity building
materials and multiple glazing..
75% or higher occur for new buildings through designing and
operating buildings as complete systems.
Over the whole, building stock the largest portion of carbon savings
by 2030 (high agreement, much evidence_.
Implementing carbon mitigation options in building associated with a
wide range of co-benefits.
Building offer the largest share cost effective opportunities for GHG
mitigation.
Trends in building sector
Co2 emissions for commercial buildings grew at 2.5% per year and
1.7% per year for residential buildings.
Despite the high-efficiency technologies and practice, the energy use
in the buildings continues to be much higher than necessary.
The largest regional increases in CO2 emissions for commercial
buildings were from developing Asia (30%), north America (29%) and
OECD Pacific (18%)
The largest CO2 for residential buildings was from Developing Asia
accounting for 42% and Middle East North Africa with 19%.
But, in the past seven years since the IPCC Third Assessment Report
(TAR,IPCC, 2001), CO2 in residential buildings have increased at a
much slower rate than the 30-year trend (annual rate of 0.1% versus
trend of 1.4%) and emissions associated with commercial buildings
have grown at a faster rate (3.0% per year in last five years) than the
30-year trend (2.2%) (Price et al., 2006).
2 scenarios of carbon emissions resulting from energy use in buildings
IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (IPCC,2000),
Scenario A1b and B2, into 10 world regions (Price et al., 2006).
It show 8.6 GtCO2 emissions in 2004 to 11.4 and 15.6 GtCO2 emissions
in 2030 (B2 and A1B respectively), representing an approximately 30%
share of total CO2 emissions in both scenarios.

In Scenario B2, lower economic growth in the developing world


(except China), two regions account for the largest portion of
increased CO2 emissions from 2004 to 2030: North America and
Developing Asia.
In scenario A1B, (rapid economic growth), increase in CO2 emissions
occurs in the developing world (Developing Asia, Middle East/North
Africa, Latin America and sub-Sharan Africa, in that order.
Overall average annual Co2 emissions growth is 1.5% in Scenario B2
and 2.4% in scenario A1B over the 26-year period.
Purpose of estiamating the CO2 mitigation potential in buildings, a
baseline was derived based on the review of several studies.
The building sector baseline derived and used in this chapter shows emissions between the B2 and
A1B (SRES) scenarios, with 11.1 Gt of CO2 -eq emissions in 2020 and 14.3 Gt in 2030 (including
electricity emissions).
Single largest user of energy in residential buildings in both regions is space heating, followerd by
water heating (China) and other uses- primarily electric appliances (USA).
Water heating is the second end use in China.
Lighting and cooling are similarly important as the third and fourth largest user in the both
countries.
Residential building- space heating, water heating.
Mitigation options in buildings
-can be achieved over the coming years using existing, mature
technologies.
Trade-offs between embodied energy and operating energy
The embodied energy in building materials needs to be considered
along with operating energy in order to reduce total lifecycle energy
use by buildings.
Levine et al also highlight about the consideration on total lifecycle
energy use by buildings.
The replacement such as concrete and steel, with materials requiring
small amounts
For standards of building construction, the embodied energy is
equivalent to only a few years of operating energy, although there are
cases in which the embodied energy can be much higher (Lippke et al.,
2004).
Thus over 50 year time span, reducing the operating energy is
normally more important than reducing the embodied energy.
For traditional buildings, the embodied energy can be large compared
to the operating energy, as the latter is quite low.
Cost saved with the energy savings.
Employment creation and new business opportunities: most studies
agree that energy-efficiency investments will have posititive effects on
employment, directly by creating new business opportunities and

indirectly through the economic multiplier effects of spending the


money saved on energy costs in toher way (Laiter et al., 1998; Jochem
and Madlener, 2003).
The energy service business appears to be both a very promising a
quickly growing business sector worldwide.
Especially in the area of semi-skilled labour in the buildings trades
(Jeeniga et al., 1999; European Commissin, 2003).
European Comission (2005) estimates that 20% reduction in EU energy
consumption by 2020 can potentially create (directly or indirectly) as
many as one million new jobs in Europe.
Abatement of GHG potentially function of costs and world regions for
2020. Measures for CO2 abatement in buildings are cost-effective.
Save the energy typically offer larger and cheaper options to abate
CO2 emissions than measures related to fuel savings.

APP3 Malaysians Low Carbon Cities


Summary
Global greenhouse Gases Emission
28.19bn tonnes of CO2
28% growth in carbon emissions, 1995-2005.
Rapid industrialization in the developing
higher

world,

climb

Climate change models


3 emissions reduction models
132% increase in emissions by 2050=business as usual, no
action taken
75%=Late and slow decline, action starts in 2030.
47%=Early and rapid decline, action starts in 2010, 47%
decrease in emission
Early but slow decline, actions starts in 2010, emissions
return to 1990 levels by 2050.
Emissions projected to 2020
Million tonnes CO2e

(Khazanah National,2010)

The need to develop low carbon cities


Malaysia proposed a voluntary reduction up to 40% in terms
of emission intensity of GDP by the year 2020 compared to
2005 levels.

IPPP4 Projection of CO2 emissions in Malaysia (Safaai et al.,


2011)
Keyword: Greenhouse gas emissions, CO2 emissions projection,
LEAP
Co2 has increased rapidly over the past decade.
Many counties including Malaysia are playing an active role in
reducing CO2 emissions through national mitigation and
intergovernmental mecahnis, such as United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC),
There are six greenhouse gasses with their respective radiative
forcing and GWP. However, co2 is the most important of the GHGs
that increasing in atmospheric concentration because of human
activities.
Predict future events, LEAPS.
-Fossil fuels based sectors.
BUSINESS AS-USUAL:
Energy Demand Trends:
From 2000 to 2020, in four sectors that have different growth rate.
-26.63 mTOE IN 200 TO 77.16 mTOE IN 2020.
Industrial SECTOR INCRASESE FROM 39 TO 46% OF FINAL ENERGY
DEMAND IN 2020.
-PARALLEL TO MANUFACTURING, MINING AND CONSTRUCTION IS
DIRECTLY AFFECTING THE ENERGY DEMAND (18).
TWO SECTOR IS THE LARGEST SINGLE, TRANSPORATION SHARE
DROS 54% TO 48% IN 2020, RESIDENTIAL FROM 6- 4%
RESPECTIVELY.
RESIDENTIAL , RELATED TO THE NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS.
In Malaysia, electricity production
particular natural gas and oil.

is mostly fossil-based,

in

***CO2 emissions Trend 2000-2020


Co2 emissions are estimated to increase, in a different
growth speeds
(Electricity generation, industrial, transporation and
residential)

285.73 million tonnes of emissions is contributed in 2020.


-The largest emitting sector is electricity generation in 4
secotr- most due to the increasing use fo coal (295) for
power generation for power generation which responded to
the Five-fuel Diversification Strategy in Malasia Ninth Planless dependent to oil, but compensated by higher
generation by coal fuel and hydroelectricity.
Coal fuels emitted the most CO2 compared to other fuels.
Cleanest fuel is hydro, biomass zero emission.
Malaysia produces 86% of its electricity in conventional
power plant and 14% in hydroelectric power plant (22).
Second largest contributor to CO2 is transportation sector
30.34% of total emissions in 2020. Projected to grow from
31.73 million tonnes in 2003 to 86.43 million tonnes in
2020.
Heavily reliant on pertroleum based fuels.
Industrial sector become the third contributor oc CO2
emissions in Malaysia, residential fourth= 26.26 and 0.03%
respectively..
~~~Population, GDP and energy demand have linkages
between CO2.
BAU-Inrease, total co2 emissions in 2000 in all were 88.97
million tonnes if no control options have been exercised.
Replace dependency on oil or diesel which offers great
benefits for the environmental, society and country

Carbon dioxide intensity ratios: A method of Evaluating the Upstream


Global Warming Impact of Long-Life Building Materials (MacMath, R. and
Fisk, P.
Summary
A carbon dioxide intensity ratio (CDIR) is defined here as the ratio between
the net upstream CO2 impact (emissions minus storage) of a material and
the weight of the material.
A material with positive CDIR is net CO2 source and one with a negative
CDIR is a net CO2 sink.
__
The countries that participated in the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Kyoto, Japan, jointly drafted
on international agreement concerning global warming known as the
Kyoto Protocol.

Approved 6 categories of GHG emissions in the document (Kyoto Protokol).


EU agreed to 8% reduce GHG emissions compared with emissions of the
reference year (1990 or 1995).
US delegation agreed to similar goal: a 7% of reduction of total GHG
emissions compared to appropriate reference year.
80% , ghg emitted in US is carbon dioxide (CO2) accounting for 80-85% of
total global emissions. The industrial sector of US economy account about
1/3 of national end-use CO2 emissions.
Aside from electric utitlities, whose purpose it is to produce electric power
for the rest of the economy, the top-ranked manufacturing industry of the
industrial sector in terms of the total impact of upstream CO2 emissions is
the building industry, including
maintenance, repair and remodeling construction
The use phrase in Life Cycle of Building represent only one chapter. The
processing and manufacture of building materials cause enormous off-site
impacts/
Looking at figure, it is evident that the practices in construction play a
signigicant role in GHG, especially CO2
CO2 release in two ways; by the combustion of fossil fuels and by the
physical or chemical transformation of materials.
98% of CO2 emissions resulting from the production of building materials
is caused by fossil fuel combustion occurring during upstream (i.e. preuse) life cycle stages raw material acquisition, transport, material or
product manufacture and distribution.
Only a small fraction of the building indusrys toral (2%) results from
upsteam physical and chemical material transformation processes (i.g.,
the chemical reactions of cement production)
Some of building materials, synthetic and natural can function as sinks for
CO2. For example, biomass materials, wood that may contain as much
53% carbon in their material content.
A net CO2 sink is a material which contains an amount of carbon in its
mass greater than the equivalent amount of CO2 released during the
upstream stges of materials life cycle.
To date, efforts to reduce GHG emissions during a buildings useful life are
focused on the energy consumption required to operate and maintain a
building.
Numerous energy efficiency measures that significantly reduce energy
consumption during a buildings use, operation and maintenance have
widely accepte and implemented by design professionals and building
industry.
The use phase represents only one chapter in building life-cycle story.
The processing and manufacture of building materials cause enormous offsite impacts prior to the buildings use.
These impacts occur upstream during the source (raw material
acquisition), transport, process (manufacturing) and distrution life cycle
stages.

U.S economy: building industrys share of total upstream CO2 emissions


for all sectors of the u.s economy:
a. Its the largest sector accounting for roughly 20% of total annual
industrial emissions and 7% of the U.S. annual total
b. Upstream CO2 emissions are roughly 5 times greater than direct
emissions (construction of building) and 10-20 times greater than the
annual operation (use) of the building
c. The largest single material or product contributing to CO2 emissions is
Portland cemend based ready-mix concrete (9%().
Evidence base on the practice, it has signigficant role in releasing GHGs,
especially co2 EMISSIONS.
Deriving a CDIR for most commonly used building materials and products
response to the Kyoto Protokol.
*Zero impact on co2
Material flow
-Hydrocarbons in life cycle major source and sink of CO2.
Which material are CO2 sources and CO2 sinks, the life cycle of the
material must be analyzed.
Data
1. The energy supply fuel source and quantity per unit weight for raw
material acquisition and transport to all processing facilities of a particular
industrial sector
2. The quantity of material produced by that industrial sector per unit
weight per year/ quantity of material
3. The amount of carbon store per unit of material
4. The energy supply fel souce and the quantity of fuel consumed per year
by particular industrial sector
5. The carbon content of each type of fuel source
6. The physical/chemical CO2 emissions processes and quantity of
emissions per unit of material output.
Material, manufacturer.. site-specific, energy..
A particular building material may be processed or manufactured at more
than one location, one manufacturing facility may produce more than one
material and not have energy consumption data separated by material
Two factor can improve the balance of CO2 source material
1.substituiton of low CO2 impact materials for high CO2 impact materials
and the selection of high recycled content material.
Subsitute form Portland cement to fly ash.- subsitutes can significantly
reduce the largest component of CO2
95% of all CO2 emission resulting from the production of concrete.
Kyoto Protokol is challenge.
Minimal impact on global warming.

A Review of CO2 in Malaysia : Current status


Challenges, Yahaya, N.Z, Ghazali, N.I and Ishak, F. )
Summary

and

Malaysian CO2 EMISSIONS ARE MAINLY


TRANSPORTATION ACTIVITIES (97.1%).

CAUSED

BY

Individually owned vehicles, busness owned vehicles.


1.4 million metric tonnes in 2008 (MDEOE, 2010).
Power station (1.6%) Industrial (1.1%) and (0.2%) others.
National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) initiative to implement green technology, which may able to
reached a zero or low green house gas (GHG) emissions)/

Scotlands historic
Scotland, 2014)
Summary

Environment

Audit

2014

(Historic

Investment in the historic environment


Each year spend around what..
Traditional buildings have embedded energy (the energy required
to extract, process, manufacture, transport and install building
materials).
Reducing ghg associated with the upkeep of old buildings,
maintaining their cultural significance is a challenge.
All measures to improves in traditional buildings need to be
considered carefully, wih thought given to the carbon foorptint,
life span and the sustainability of existing and replacement
materials.

Building Construction
European Building Construction Illustrated (Ching, Mulville,
___).
Summary
The evaluation of building materials should extend beyond heir
functional, economic and aesthetic aspects and include assessing the
environmental consequences assocated with their selection and use.
The examination called, a life cycle assessment.
=encompasses the extraction, processing of raw materials, the
manufacturing, packaging and transport of finished product to the
point of use,
maintaining the material in use, the possible recycle and reuse of the
material and its final disposal.
The assessment can be on energy or carbon and other GHG emissions
or both.
Various database are available, some are cradle to gate=Assessment
from raw material until it leaves the factory gate, or cradle to grave

(full life cycle assessment.


Embodied energy includes all of the energy expended during the life
cycle of a material
Embodied Energy in Building Materials
Material
Energy Content (MJ/kg)
Sand
0.081
Woord
10.000
Aluminium
155.00
Concrete
0.75
Plasterboard
6.75
Brickwork
3.0
Cement
4.5
Glass
15.0
Steel
20.10
Lead
25.21
Copper
42
Selected data from Hammond and Jones (2011).
Evaluating choice is complex, cant be reduce to a simple formula
yielding a precise and valid answer with certainty.
Example: Using less of a material with a high energy content may be
more effective in conserving energy and resources than using more of
a lower-energy material.
Using a higher-energy material that will last longer and require less
maintenance, or one that can be recycled and reused, may be more
compelling than using a lower-energy material/
The Building Research Establishments (BRE) Green Guide to
Specficiation takes into account a wide range of environmental
impacts and assigns a corresponding rating.
To qualify the stone as construction material, stone should have the
following qualities:
Strength
Hardness
Durability- resistance to the weathering effects of rain, wind, heat
and frost action for exterior stonework
Workability
Density
Appearance

Rubble consist of rough fragments of broken stone that have at


least one food face for exposure in a wall
Cut stone is quarried and squared stone of a specified size,
used commonly for wall panels, cornices, copings, lintels,
flooring or coursed walls
Flagstone refers to flat stone slabs used for flooring and
horizontal surfacing
Crushed stone is used as aggregate in concrete products.

Building Material
(Sahu, Jena
Summary
Characteristics
stones

of

and

Construction

few

building

1. Granite Most granite available in


our country is
Laterite is a clay stone with vesicular
texture. Soft rock.
Contains
moisture when freshly
quarried which makes it easier to
dress.
After exposure, for about a month or
two it becomes harder.
Limestone essentially consists of
carbonate of limed mixed with certain
other impurities like silica, iron,
alumina, carbonates of magnesia,
etc., varying greatly in hardness and
texture.
Compact-grained
or
dense
or
crystalline in texture, weathers well.

STONE

STL1 Negotiating Repair and Authenticity in the


Conservation
of
Ornamental
Architecture
StoneManaging Decay and Past Interventions on the Facades
of Rosslyn Chapel and Mission San Jose (Nau, 2010).
Summary
LR points
The ethical concepts that are touched in the most
conservation literature are the ideas of authenticity and
integrity (Bell, 1997; Forster 2010ab).
Authenticity as being true in substance, as really
proceeding from its reputed source or author and
integrity as material wholeness, soundness and
uncorrupted character.
The replacement of decayed stone in historic buildings
is an accepted practice when the decayed stone
compromises the structural stability or protective and
weatherproofing ability of the structure.. Firmly look
down upon stone replacement for purely aesthetic
reasons (Curran et al., 2010; Coulson 2007; Historic
Sotland 2005; Ashurst and Dimes, 1998).

Identifying and Sourcing Stone from Historic Building Repair


An approach to determining and obtaining compatible replacement stone.
Technical advice note (English Heritage, 2006)
Summary
Stone repair must be planned and carried out with care and sensitivity and
requires a sound knowledge of the characterisitics of the stone involved.
The choice of replacement stone must be both sympathetic and cost effective.
Compatible- replicates the original in its appearance, chemical physical and
mineralogical, strength and durability.
Retain maximum amount of original stone, wherever this does not compromise the
integrity of building.
Maximum retention is often the preferred opton but inaccessible structureexpensive, it may not cost effectively.
It is therefore acceptable to replace stone selectively to ensure to replace stone
selectively to ensure structural stability, or when it has decayed beyond repair.
Replacement may also be appropriate when the purity of the building design is
considered.
Sucessful repair is depend on understanding of the historical context.
English Heritage supports the need of sustainable source of stone for conservation
repair and maintenance.
Working with partners to ensure that the environmental impact of quarrying is
minimized
Stone- abundant, readily available, workable and strong, widely used natural
material for constructing buildings, monuments, sculpture and carved.

On a local scale, use of locally available stone and local masons has produced
distinctive vernacular building styles.
The composition caries, even within a single source, a building stone may prove
unstable, brittle or soft.
Particularly prone to decay, its necessary often to replace some of its stone.
Stone sourcing must take the following factors into account:
the matching stone should be similar in colour, texture and physical properties to the original
any intervention must not harm the original building fabric
the roles and responsibilities of those within the design team must be well understood
all work must comply with the Listed Building Consent framework and British and European
Standards
background information avaibale .
Stone consultants- geologists or petrographers
The rate of decay will vary, especially for exposed stone, depending on the
conditions around and withing the building for example, wind, rain, thermal
variations, frost, atmospheric pollution and biological activity.
Studing the construction of the original building and current condition of the
stonework and surrounding is therefore essential to determine the need for repair,
choosing the best manner of replacing severely decayed elements
tHE IMPORTANT OF Preliminary survey
Active quarries
220 quaries producing building stone in England.
Disused quarries- the source has been traced to a particular quarry but the quarry
is now closed, it may be possible to obtain the stone by reopening the workings for
a short time.
Recycle stone
No suitable replacement stone commercially available, but small quantities of
materials are required, minor repairs, it may be acceptable to use recycle stone.

Embodied energy and CO2 in UK dimension stone (Crishna,


Banfill and Goodsir, 2011)
Summary

ARUP check endnote LR (EMISSION), LCA (building)


Summary
The intersection of preservation and environmental advocacy
Serve a tangible story of past, engine economic within its
community.
As communities around the country begin to take steps to reduce
GHG emission, it increasingly important to understand the
advantages of both, (maintenance and environmental)
Understanding energy use
Understanding of embodied energy..

The avoided impacts approach measures environmental impacts


avoided by choosing not to construct new buildings.
The analysis of building scenarios in this study suggests that reusing an existing
building and upgrading it to be as efficient as possible is almost always the best
choice regardless of building type and climate. However, careful material selection
and efficient design strategies for reuse are critical and can play a major role in
minimizing the impacts associated with building renovation and retrofit projects.

HERITAGE
HG1 The Burra Charter the Australia ICOMOS Charter for
Places of Cultural Significance 2013 (Burra Charter, 2013)
-The charter sets the standard of practice, prosuvide
advice, make decision and undertake work to places that
contain the cultural significance include owner managers
and custodians.
DC
Conservation means all the processes of looking after a
place so as to retain its cultural significance.
Normally seeks to slow deterioration

Conservation may include the processes which


include maintenance, preservation, restoration,
reconstruction, adaptation and interpretation and
will commonly include a combination of more than
one of these.
It may include retention of the
contribution to places or objects make to cultural
significance of a place.

DC
2

C_A

DM
Maintenance is fundamental to conservation, undertaken
where fabric is of cultural significance, and its
maintenance is necessary to retain that cultural
significance.
Preservation is protects the existing fabric.
Restoration means returning a place to a known earlier
state by removing accretions or by reassembling existing
elements without the introduction of new material
Reconstruction means returning a place to a known earlier
state and is distinguished from restoration by the
introduction of new material

DA
C

Adaptation means changing a place to suit the existing


use or proposed use.
Compatible use means a use, which respects the cultural
significance.
Article 18- Restoration and reconstruction should reveal
culturally significant aspects of the place.

RR
D
DM
2

According to Article 1, section 1.5 , maintenance means


the continuous protective care of a place and its setting,
But Burra Charter (2013) claimed that maintenance need
to be distinguished from repair which involves
restoration or reconstruction.

DM
3

Cultural significance means aesthetic, historic scientific,


social or spiritual value for past.

DC
S

Embodied in the place, fabric, setting use, associations,


meanings, records, related places and related objects.

DF

Fabric means all the physical material include elements,


fixtures, contents and objects.
Building interiors, subsurface, as well as excavated
material.

DF2

Comment: it is all about the cultural significance of the


fabric
HG2 Understanding Conservation
The objective of building conservation is to secure the
protection of built heritage, in the long-term interest of
society (BHS 7913:2013) Section 0.1
The concept of cultural significance underpins the whole
philosophy of conservation.
The term intervention, in conservation terms, is used as
a collective noun to cover any works to change, modify,
repair or maintain the historic environment in good
condition and in so doing preserve its historical and
cultural value or significance. It is discussed in BS 7913:
2013 in para 6.11 "Interventions and Judgement" and as
defined in 3.11 , Action that has a physical or spatial
impact on a historic building or its setting.
The following is a list of terms commonly used in
conservation to define intervention. These are:

DC
DCS

DIC

DAC
2

Alteration
Conservation
Conversion
Intervention
Maintenance
Preservation
Protection
Rebuilding
Reconstruction
Repair
Replication
Restoration
Reversibility
Need to understand the cultural significance of building
with full documentation before any intervention and then
a clear diagnosis and appraisal need to be done. Earl, J.
(1991)
Building
Conservation
Philosophy
Donhead/College of Estate Management, Reading.
Understanding of the significance of cultural received a
response on the movement in term of thinking, writings
and principles of philosophical thought by John Ruskin,
William Morris about the intervention.

SPDIF

SPDIF

CP
Nations Athens Conference of 1931 that drawn the code
of ethics and the conservation movement on
international stage.

CP2

In 1963, the Congress of Architect and Specialists of


Historic Buildings approved a text of International
Charter of the Conservation of Monuments and Sites,
The Venice Charter:

CP3

Then adopted by international Council on Monuments


and Sites in 1965- ICOMOS
1981, Austrlian ICOMOS adopted the Burra Charter. This
was used to identify the important of Cultural
Significance.
1985, the International Institute for Conservation Ottawa
drew up its own Code of Ethics for Practice for those
involved in Conservation of Cultural Property in Canada.
Fundamentally the principles of conservation may be
simply stated as follows:
Minimum loss of authenticity
Minimum intervention
Minimum loss of fabric
Reversibility

CP4

CP5

CP6

BD

Absence of deceit, or, honesty of intervention


-The main causes of defects might be summarized as
follows: dampness, movement and biological change
(Addleson and Rice, 1991)
Identify the construction
Load-bearing walls
Frame construction.

BC

SP-R

There is a wide range of repair technique.. which are available


to eliminate [or reduce the effect] the cause [and source] of a
defect, stabilize its impact or minimize its rate of spread.
These need to be assessed according to their least destructive
impact on the original material on the [assets] aesthetic and
technical performance. The repair must be compatible with
the original construction, its life span and follow the principles
of good conservation practice (Stirling,. (2002).

HR1 The art of repair conservation principles in practice


The cultural significance is the foundation of the conservation work.
Material themselves are the most significant aspect.
It is important, equally however, neglecting stitch in time repairs can
lead to accelerated deterioration and loss.

SPDAC
SPBD

Repair is an art, which requires knowledge and skill and must be


guided by conservation principles.

CP7

Repair is not an optional because the building will deteriorate over


time.

SPBD2

Repair need to be based on the correct diagnosis of


defects. Understanding of the building, its design and
materials, and heir decay patterns and rates of decay
over time.

SPBD3

MINIMUM INTERVENTION
- Assuming that repair is necessary to long-term
survival of building, the key to preserving historic
and significance is conservative repair or keeping
repairs to the minimum necessary.
- Minimum intervention ensures the repairs do not
cause unnecessary damage.
- Principle of minimum intervention also makes

CP8

economic and environmental sense.


TRADITIONAL MATERIALS AND TECHNIQUES
- Materials used for repair will never same with
historic but should be close as possible and
compatible by not introduce damaging chemicals
or stress or disfigure the appearance of building.
- Repair work should survive the historic materials,
not vice versa.
- MODERN
MATERIAL
CAUSES
AN
ACTIVE
DETERIORATION. E.G. Use of damaging modern
materials in repair work is the repointing of
hundreds of our most historic monuments with
cementitious mortars, which damaged the
masonry by introducing salts and inhibiting drying
out.
- Approach only appropriate in this case where allow
the retention of fabric.
REVERSIBILITY
- The alternative design features or better repair
techniques, wherever possible, there should be
the potential to remove or reverse repairs at some
future point without damaging historic material.
- Hard to achieve especially for structural repairs
that require built-in reinforcement or rebuilding.
Also some finishes and decorations which need
more durable than their predecessor to cope with
exposed conditions or less frequent maintenance.
AUTHENTICITY
- Recessive and harmonious
- Easy to spot when newly carried out but artificially
aging or distressing materials to reproduce the
patina of age, help them to blend in with existing
materials usually unwise, weather-in naturally.
- But schemes of repair can often provide the
opportunity to remove damaging past repairs such
as cement renders
ADVICE
- Get right advice, conservation professionals, craft
people.

CP9

C10

CP1
1

CP1
2

HAL2 - Managing Built Heritage The Role of Cultural Significance


(Worthing and Bond, 2008)
Summary:
The idea of maintenance of the building fabric is a fundamentally
important activity goes back to the writings of John Ruskin and
William Morris along with other early pioneers of the conservation
monument.

SPDM

Ruskin (1989) exhorted people to take proper care of your


monuments and will not need to restore them, and Morris (1877)
called upon those who deal with monuments to put protection in
the place of restoration, to stave off decay be daily care.

SPDM1

In the current SPAB document SPABs Purpose states that


regular maintenance is the most practical and economical form
of preservation.
James Semple Kerrs observation that maintenance is the most
single important conservation process, where the place is
architectural, mechanical or botanical, prevention is better than
cure (Kerr, 1996).
Kerr (1996) is echoed on many international guidelines
emphasise the importance of an effective maintenance
programme in protecting the significance of embodied in and
represented by the fabric of buildings.

SPDM2
SPDM3

DIF/S
PDM4

DM4
The British Standard BS 7913 (BSI, 1998), Guide to the Principles
for the Conservation of Historic Buildings states that systematic
care based on good housekeeping is both cost effective and
fundamental to good conservation.

DM5

The Burra Charter refers to maintenance as the continuous


protective care od the fabric, and goes on to say it should be
distinguished from repair. As the repair can be seen as a point of
failure, It will usually involve damage that need replacement of
historic fabric.

SP-R

Repair works will become necessary for historic buildings, when it


carried out, they will prolong the life of an element and building.
Good repairs are important for the long-term protection of
cultural significance.

GR_
SP-R
SP-R

Brereton (1991) makes the point that any unnecessary


replacement of fabric is likely to diminish its authenticity and
thus its historical/cultural value.

SP-R

Fieldan (1994) suggests a hierarchy of interventions, which


implicitly puts some actions in order of least harm to the fabric:
The
prevention
of
deterioration,
protective
measures,
consolidation and repair.

SPDIF

Fieldans explain of a hierarchy of intervention is a useful way of


considering maintenance activity from the perspective of
emphasizing the need to protect and enhance the cultural
significance represented by the fabric. To ensure this, the degree
of intervention should be informed by conservation principles.
Conservation is based on a respect for the existing fabric and
should involve the least possible intervention. It should not
distort the evidence provided by the fabric (Australia ICOMOS,
1999).

SPDIF

SP-M
SPDIF

Maintenance then can be seen as the primary activity supporting


the key building conservation principles of retaining the
maximum embodied cultural significance through a process of
minimal intervention in the fabric of historic buildings.

CP_M

The phrase as much as necessary as little as possible is a


maxim in the Burra Charter (Australia ICOMOS, 1999) which
encapsulates a key overarching theme for the care of historic
building and echoes the conservation principle of minimum
intervention.

SPDIF
DCS

The Burra Charter observes; the cultural significance of a place

is embodied in its fabric, its setting and its contents.

HAL3- Conservation maintenance management establishing a


research agenda (Dann, Worthing and Bond, 1999)
Summary:

National and international guidelines all emphasise the importance CP


of regular maintenance based on the principle of minimal intervention.
Withhiscall,in1897,to...putprotectionintheplaceofrestoration,
to stave off decay by daily care, Morris (1877) highlighted the
importancethatmaintenanceplaysinprotectinghistoricbuildings.
TheBurraCharter(ICOMOS,1979)specificallydefinesmaintenanceas DM
thecontinuousprotectivecareofthefabric,andistobedistinguished
fromrepair.
TheBurraCharter(ICOMOSAustralia,1979)definesconservationas DC
beingalloftheprocessesoflookingafteraplacesoastoretain
culturalsignificance.

DCS

Itgoesontostatethatculturalsignificanceofaplaceisembodiedinits
fabric,itssettinganditscontents.
SP-DM

Debates between maintenance and repair, where for the majority of


buildings, the distinction between these interventions will not be
SP-DM
conceptuallyimportant.
But,inthecontextofheritagebuilding,thesedefinitionandtheaction, SP-DIF
areoffundamentalimportance.
For historic buildings, in addition to the continuity of function,
it is the fabric itself that is important because of its cultural CP
significance- the building itself is an artifact.
As little as necessary, as much as possible is a commonly
expressed maxim in regard to conserving historic buildings and is SP-R
concept, which adds another dimension to debates about plannedpreventive, planned, and response maintenance.
Obviously, repair works are inevitable from time to time. However,
in most cases repair will involve restoration or reconstruction and
needs to be treated with caution.
Repair works can of course be seen to contribute to the historical
development of the fabric authentic, if not original.

SP-R

CP

Overall aim is to retain cultural significance.

The principles to be considered during repair and maintenance work are


set out in some detail in Heritages The Repair of Historical Buildings
(Brereton, 1991)
In the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings (SPAB) The
Purpose of SPAB (SPAB, 1987) and more recently in BS 7913. These
remain a practical guide to conservation principles in action and include
Honesty
Exacting recording
Reversibility
The need for research
Repair above restoration
Fitting the new to the old (and not the other way round)
Authenticity
The charter develops this by stressin that retaining cultural
significance must be necessarily involve the least possible

CP_H
CP_RG
CP_R
CP_RE
RR
FNO
CP_a

intervention.
The Venice Charter agreed in 1969, (ICOMOS, 1966) states it is
essential to conservation of monuments that they be maintained on
a regular basis.

HAL4- Conservation Principles (2008)


Summary:

Maintenance can be defined s routine work necessary to keep the


fabric of a place in good order.

DM

Repair can defined as work beyond the scope of maintenance, to


remedy defects caused by decay, damage or use, including minor
adaptation to achieve sustainable outcome, but not involving
alteration or restoration

DR

Sustain significance; understand the values that contribute to that


significance and how the elements that will be affected by repair
contribute to those values.

SPDCS

DR

Objective of repair; reduce the long-term deterioration of buildings


fabric by remedying the cause of any defects. This in turn sustain
the significance of building, but to achieve this there needs to be
sufficient information to understand the impact of the proposed BP-C
repairs.
Conservative approach is fundamental to good conservation.

CP
SP-DIF
CP

Only techniques and materials, which have been demonstrated to e


SP-DIF
appropriate to the fabric, should be considered.
Normally is the same as the original or parent material or compatible
properties, both technically and aesthetically.
Interventions that maximize the life expectancy consistent with the

DIF

CP

significance.

Intervention should be reversible, should not prejudice future CP


interventions when these become necessary
Adequately recorded
Intervention not compromise
management and maintenance.

BP-CR

the

sustainability

of

future

Effective repair- understand how a building works and its material


are starting to fail, (prevention purpose).
CP

Establish the repair strategy requires a regular review of information


to determine a particular course of action. Further investigation
required before any decision made.
Option should be considered the elimination or minimize harm to
STON
significance of building.
E

STON

Obtain original material matches in term of mineral composition,


E
density and porosity.
New stone could hasten the decay of the original and unlikely to
weather in the same way, therefore looking very different.
To get proper match, new replacement stone has to come either
from the original quarry or at least from one in close proximity to the
original supply.

The rich diversity geology means that hundreds of different stone


types have been used over the centuries for building purpose.
Info- Accurate info on the original quarries, number, distribution of
buildings constructed from those stones is very scant.

STON
E

HAL5 Conservation and Repair Works for Traditional


Timber Mosque in Malaysia: A Review on Techniques
(Mustafa et al., 2011)
Summary:

Building life cycle will never be excused from the existence of


defects and deterioration.

BD

Which commonly become problems to building, existing in newly


build or in aged building.

BD

Focus on the building constructed from wood, affected by its


agent and serious defects and damages can reduce values to a
SP-C
building.
The key element of conservation activity will never escape with
SP-ICR
repair and maintenance work.
Repair works, identify the causes and repair techniques that best
suites with the condition.
Review on the conservation of traditional timber mosque in
Malaysia that comprises of concept principles and approaches of
mosque conservation in general.
Technique that grouped as fully and partial replacement,
mechanical reinforcement, consolidation by impregnation and
reinforcement, removing paint and also preservation of wood and BD
control insect invasion, to prolong and extended the function of a
timber in building.
DR

It is quite natural that as buildings aged, they will be exposed to


serious building defects and deterioration. No building is
maintenance-free. As such, every building whether heritage or
new, requires care and protection to limit deterioration.
STONE
It is important for the repair work that extending the life of the
buildings and avoid the repair works that may damage the
buildings heritage value (2).

Stone buildings are also affected to


deterioration, due to wear and tear process.

defects

and CP

This paper is also highlights on the concern of sustainable


issues that realize the outcomes of preserving the historical
buildings. For future generation.

CP

High
Authenticity aspects in conservation. (10) Outlined by ICCROM
Four (4) : material, design and architectural, the quality of
workmanship and manufacturing technique and the originality
of layout and construction..

CP

11- Based on authenticity, preserving the material, according


to its original material includes the type, color and texture.

CP_M
CP_CL
CP_RG
MT

Quality of workmanship to perverse


craftsmanship and manufacturing.

the

originality

of

4 principles that always practiced in conservation work in


Malaysia which is minimal intervention, conducting scienftific
and laboroties testing, documentation of conservation work,
applying effective methods and techniques.
Conclusion, conservation practice, it is necessary to determine
appropriates technique available to protect the cultural
significance.
Understand the defects , it can be repaired satisfactorily only if
the causes have been correctly diagnosed. The technique of
repair should consider the kind of defect to help to reduce the
further deterioration.
To prolong, it is important to understand the techniques
availbale and best practice with the prinicples of repair in
securing for optimal conservation works.

HAL6 Tensions and omissions in maintenance management


advice for historic buildings (Dann & Wood, 2004)
Summary:
Identify the key themes for the best practice (including those for condition
survey.
Identification of gap of knowledge in maintenance of historic buildings.
Historic buildings differ from new ones in that they are expected to last for

SP- DCS
BD

BD
BP

ever (Fielden, 1982).

It is important to appreciate that the cost of maintaining and


repairing an historic building is not usually great when measured
over the life of the building. But cost arise it is usually because there
has been a period of neglect or poor management (Government
Historic Buildings Advisory Unit (GHBAU), 1998, Part C. P.1)
Maintenance means the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents
and setting of a place, and is to be distinguished from repair, Repair
involves restoration or reconstruction and it should be treated accordingly
(ICOMOS, 1987, Article 1).
Maintenance includes all practical and technical measures that are needed
to keep the site in condition at a standard that permits enjoyment of the
cultural resource without damage. It is a continuous process (Feilden and
Jokilehto, 1993, p. 3).

SP-LMMONEY

DM

DM

SP-DM

From the Fielden and Jokilheto, 1993; British Standards Insitute 1998
BS7913;1998) defines maintenance more broadly to include some repair.
The rationale for different approach to the maintenance of historic building
is rooted in debates in their nature and value.
Arguably the clearest expression of the particular values embodied in
historic buildings. in the fabric
Cultural significance is priority
Worthing and Dann (2000) argue that the maintenance and repair cannot
be interchangeably because repair may prolong the life of the
component/element (building) ad therefore the necessary for the long-term
protection of significance, it will also involve damage of the fabric.
Brereton (1991) does not argue against repair, he point out the
unnecessary replacement of the fabric likely to diminish its authenticity and
thus its historical/cultural value.
Two key principles should guide the maintenance and repair (Brereton,
1991, Fieldan, 1982)
The conservation of cultural significance and minimal intervention
Like for like material and method of construction
Honest about the nature of the intervention making no attempt to
disguise or artificially age the work
The importance of information and recording in order to anticipate
maintenance need.
DAnn et al., (2002) suggest the primary purpose of condition surveys for
historic buildings should be to mitigate vulnerability and avoid any

DM
SP-DM
SP-DM

SP-DM
SP-DAC

CP

DM

BP

unnecessary loss of fabric, survey data that gas potential on the effects of
policy decisions on the historic environment.
Dann, N., Worthing, D. and Bond, S. (2002), The Role of Condition
Surveys in Maintaining the Built Cultural Heritage, FBE, UWE, Bristol.
An element of some of these definitions is that maintenance is about
keeping a building functioning and that there is a balance to be struck
between performance and resource inputs

GAP

GAP
SUTAINABILI
TY

GAP IS THE CONSERVATION LITERATURE


The importance of a clear framework for decision-making
The organisational and financial implications of minimal intervention (for
example, very frequent inspections, qualified and multi- skilled staff
available to carry out frequent maintenance work).
Performance indicators, and other measurements/judgements relating to
quality. There is also a lack of recognition of the different interpretation of
quality by different groups and individuals.
Increasing focus on sustainability, environment.
The work is often technical and philosophical. This is ironic as
much philosophical writings on this subject emphases
maintenance as being central to conservation.
The conservation literature may be divided into three groups:
tends to fall into 2 groups which the philosophy and principles of
conservation and the detail of how specific historic fabric should
be recorded, conserved and maintained. 3 rd is more on
management of conservation and its process.
Less fundamental, principles which are commonly accepted:
(Brereton, 1991, Earl, 1996, Fielden, 1982);
Using like-for-like materials and methods of construction
Being honest about the nature of the intervention. i.e
making no attempt to disguise or artificially age the work
The importance of information and recording in order to
anticipate maintenance need.
It is important to appreciate that the cost of maintaining and
repairing an historic building is not usually great when measured
over the life of the building. When substantial costs arise it is
usually beause there has been a period of neglect or poor
management (Government Historic Buildings Advisoty Unit
(GHBAU), 1998 Part C p.1

CP

SP-CP
CP_LLM
CP_H
CP_RG

HAL7 Assessing how organizations approach the


maintenance management of listed buildings (Dann,
Hills and Worthing, 2006)
This paper shows how organization approach the
maintenance management of listed buildings in their care is
explored using a framework which integrates best practice
from
the
general
maintenance
management
and
conservation sectors.
Using cultural significance and vulnerability as the key
reference point for management decision and action.
BP
Focus on conservation principles and treatment of specific
materials.
Summary:

LBP

There are key conservation principles that are broadly agreed


upon within the UKs conservation sector:
A. Minimal Intervention: doing as little as possible as much as
necessary
B. Conserve as found: retain as much cultural significance
embodied in the building as possible
C. Use of like-for-like materials: matching original materials
and techniques where possible
D. Reversibility: where possible techniques adopted should
be reversible in the future.
E. Honesty in repair: repair should be disguised as being
original
F. The Importance of Recording: in order to understand before
taking action and to record thoroughly what has occurred.

CP_M
CP_CAF

HAL8- Public perception: Heritage Building Conservation in


Kuala Lumpur (Azhari & Mohamed, 2012)
Summary
Malaysia had initiated the effort of conserving heriatage
buildings just approximately 30 to 40 years ago.
The awareness is slowly increasingl through it is rather slow.

Philosophy

CP_LLM
CP_R
CP_H
CP_RG

HALP1 Conservation Philosophy in action: examples of


structural intervention in the United Kingdom and the
export of national practices (Miller, ___)
Summary:
This paper set the principles of conservation in the UK
and looks at recent cases where the same ideas have
applied to project overseas.
Conclude by asking how our own national techniques
should be translated to other countries.
Leading character on philosophy that enact the change
were William Morris with other close friends created the
Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings (SPAB)
in 1877,
Conservation Principles
It is essential to understand and sustain what is valuable
in the historic environment
Everyone can make a contribution
Places should be managed to sustain their significance
Understanding the value place is vital
Fabric
Stretched the concept of fabric
Conservation Principles (Historic Scotland, ___)
Heritage value: evidential value, historical value, aesthetic value,
communal value.
Repair necessary to sustain the heritage values of a significant
place is normally desirable.
Who value the place, why.
How those relate to its fabric.
HALP2: Building Conservation Philosophy for Masonry:
Part 1- Ethics (Forster, 2010a)
Summary:
This paper discusses the literature review of ethnic
encapsulated with building conservation philosophy
utilizing them to stimulate discussion on practical repair
interventions.
Then techniques available for the repair of historic masonry
structures are extremely wide ranging. This can be evaluated in
terms of cost, time and quality as with modern project.
Important to realize that repairs of historic buildings selected
need to conform to building conservation philosophy either
ethical and principles based evaluation.

Any repair project should


conservation philosophy.

be

underpinned

by

building

Ethics = those forming the broader issues or key concepts to be


considered
Principles= specific criteria on which conservation works should
be based
Bell (1997, pp. 27-33)
Ethics
Authenticity (non-distortion of evidence)= Undisputed
origin or veracity genuine (COED, 2008, p.88).
Original and authentic material are not necessarily the same. All
original fabric is authentic but not all authentic fabric is original.
Burra Charter defined cultural significance as .. aesthetic, historic,
scientific, social or spiritual value for past, present or future
generations.

Integrity : the state of being whole, the condition of being


unified or sound in construction (COED, 2008, p738).
It is physical and the moral meanings, ie material wholeness,
soundness and uncorrupted charter.
Greater inspiration from the primary concept of integrity as
opposed to authenticity.
Honest repair. The repair selected such as replacement of natural
stone may as being dishonest, but the integrity of the structure
would be retained.
Avoidance of conjecture and Restoration: Opinion or
conclusion based on incomplete information.
Restoration defined as alteration of building, which has decayed,
lost or damaged or inappropriately repaired or altered in the
past. The accuracy depends on the extent to which the original
design or appearance at previous date, or can be established by
research. Restoration can debase(reduce) authenticity of an
historic building.
Conjecturally based can cause problems for the interpretation of
history.
Bell (1997, p. 29) highlight that conjecture has major
ramifications for the authenticity of a site.
To avoid conjecture, incontestable evidence is required.
Unfortunely evidence of this nature is rarely available, even with
the presence of good historic documentation.
SPAB developed the concept of conservation repair as
anti restoration.
A conservative approach to repair is fundamental to good
conservation. This means that no building or part of a
building should be repaired before such repair is strictly
necessary or unless there is a good reason.
Avoidance of Conjectural
When a masonry building deteriorate the original perimeter of

the structure. The determination of the original wall line is clearly


very important as it defines the outer form of the building and
also gives a true point to which all masonry repairs should be
set.
Replacement stone set back from the original line then the outer
footprint of the building may be lost.
The difficulty with attempting to retain the original wall line is
that newly replace masonry beyond the surface beyond the
majority of the existing fabric and can lead to ponding (still) of
water on the upper surface of stone.
This consequently lead the accelerated decay due to increased
incidence of freeze.
Certain circumstance of mortar may incorporate to the upper
surface of the stone to shed water the newly repaired.
This may lead to better performance, greater longevity of the
natural stone, but is an additional process altering the aesthetic
outcome and also affecting the cost of the repair.
This problems goes to the heart of repair projects, with
philosophically defensible solution (bringing the stone out to the
original wall line) potentially cause conflict with technical
requirements for longevity of repair.
Respect to age and historic patina
Historic buildings develop patina over their life. It is important as
an old building that looks new (potentially due to cleaning or
restoration) may appear somewhat odd.
Feilden (1994, pp. 245-8) discusses patina, indicate that
acquired by materials through age, weathering and use it is
preious because it can only be acquired by time.
patination by age or wear has both an aesthetic and historic
quality that helps to testify to authenticity of the object.. its
destruction should be allowed only when essential to the
protection of the fabric. Falsification of patina should be avoided.
Fielden (1994, pp. 248) suggests craftsmen must be prevented
frm making good because very chip, crack or texture contributes
to patina and the buildings story.
The ceratain amount of patina will be removed during
conservation works.
Respect for age and historic patina: stone cleaning
The decision undertake stone cleaning must not be taken lightly
as in certain situations it can lead to irreversible sone decay
(Webster, 1992).

Respect for the contribution of all periods


Inseparable bond with setting

The removal of of an entire building or artifact contravenes the


concept of inseparable bonds from surroundings.
A monument is inseparable from history to which it bears
witness and from the setting in which it occurs (Bell, 1997, p 32)
cite from Venice Charter)

Rights of the Indigenous community

Authenticity depends in design and he integrity of its fabric.


Original repair would be retained due to its relative authenticity.
The nature of these repairs are honest and retain the integrity of
the structure, however their significantly lower than replacement
stone.
Principles
Minimal (least) intervention (or conservative repair)
Legibility (honesty and distinguishability)
Material and techniques (like for like materials)
Reversibility
Documentation
(meticulous
recording
and
documentation)

Repairs selected, based on the ethical concepts and a combination


of the principles, should be defensible and should in theory lead to
naturally good, well founded conservation interventions.
There are not absolutes in conservative repair. The decision and
the nature of the repair itself are clearly influenced by the
technical situation, legislative framework, cultural values and
financial constraints. No absolute rights or wrongs.
It influenced by the mind set of professional and statutory
bodies.
Good conservation should not ultimately be governed by cost
alone.
Hill (1995) highlights that the finances available, and will be
affected by current fashions in conservation philosophy.
It is important to realize that good conservation need not always
be expensive.
Ethical concept must be considered prior to design and
implementation of repair works.
Ethnic great deal of emphasis on the integrity and authenticity of
the structure.
The authenticity is also a key feature of building conservation
philosophy.

HALP3: Building Conservation Philosophy for Masonry Repair:


Part 2- Principles (Forster, 2010b)
Summary:
Principes are criteria which conservation works should be based
(Bell, 1997, pp 27-33).
There are no good or bad but there are skillful and unskillful
solutions to the repair of old buildings.
Minimal (least) intervention (conservative repair)
Less can be more meaning to do nothing can be best.
The concept of least intervention is important as the more
fabric is removed the less the original building will remain and
cause reduction of cultural significance of the structure.
Minimal internvention defined as as much as necessary
(Brereton, 1995, p.7) and as little as possible (Feilden, 2003,
pp. 235).
Decay These components could be repaired using less
intrusive method that would enable the retention of greater
amount of original fabric. The durability of these alternative
(such as plastic repair) are poorer than replacing natural stone.
It obvious that a trade off situation is present, retention of fabric
against longevity of repair.
The repair options.. range from overzealous (leading to
potential cost savings but indefensible conservation to puritan
(leading to philosophically good conservation but costly).
Example, use of pinning and dowlling technique enable the
retention of higher degree of historic fabric rather than replace.
But good conservation need not be expensive a puritan
philosophical approach can be least costly option.
Regular maintenance can be the most effective methd to
reduce decay.
When confront with decay, the following option should be
considered.
-do nothing
-de-scale masonry
-replace with natural stone
-indent with natural stone
-plastic repair in lime mortar
-plastic repair in an alternative materials
-pinning. dowelling and flaunching
-consolidation and open wall head treatment
-rebuilding

Minimal (least) intervention (or conservative repair)


Legibility (honesty and distinguishability)
Legibility or honest repair could be considered as a clear
solution to the principle of avoidance of conjecture.
The degree in which any repair is clearly distinguishable from
original work is often subjective.
Material and techniques (like for like materials)
A contentious issue is building conservation philosophy
between honest repair and like for like materials replacement.
Material replacement, decision making process is skewed to
honesty than a puritan approach.
Direct analysis to replaicate the mortars that composed of a
binder, aggregate and water (if hydraulic lime is use as opposed
to non hydraulic puttly limes).
Reversibility
Concept of work to a building, part of a building or artifact being
carried out in such a way that I can be reversed at some future
time, without any significant damage having being done.
Documentation
(meticulous
recording
and
documentation)
Recording is defined in the Stirling Charter as description,
depiction and analysis of any feature or area using drawings,
survey, photographs and any other suitable means all well as
the preservation of documents, photographs and other material
relating to the feature or area in any earlier condition or use
(Historic Scotland, 2000, p.7).

Sustainability
Two meaning, green agenda and also the continuation of a
building utility.
Essential for its survival, change must be sensitively managed.
Enable the sensitively of fabric. If these interventions are well
designed, they should be readable, reversible and not diminish
from the integrity of building.
Importance of concept of integrity , potential takes precedence
over the principle of legibility or honest repairs.

HALP4: Masonry Repair Options


Ramifications (Forster, 2012)
Summary

and

Their

Divergence in the project potentially


philosophical tenets are applied.

Philosophical

occurring

when

Purist, pragmatist and cynic.


The assessment of a deteriorating masonry structure should
lead to an objective evaluation of condition.
Philosophical tenets.
Every technical repair intervention should be assessed against
the guiding light, ethics and principles.
Purists view: the idea than there can be alternative
philosophical approaches to the preservation of building is
seriously misleading. Correctness cannot be watered down.
Pragmatists view: a sound philosophy is one which points in the
right general direction that a truthfulness. It is precise
application must depend on the building and its circumstances.
If I am in command of all the facts, then the building itself will
tell me what do do.
Cynics vie: conservation is a completely artificial procedure,
interfering with natural processes of decay of absolution.
Conservation philosophies are therefore necessarily artificial.

HALP5: The philosophy of conservation engineering (Hume,


2008)
Summary
The best situation form conservation viewpoint is to have the
original structure, in its original location and its original
condition, serving its original purpose.
But may well be needed for such repair.
Temper the philosophy of conserving as found and minimal
intervention

Conserve as found

Ideally be conserved as they are found,


They should not be taken back to the condition that it is

supposed they might have been in at some period in their


history neither should they be improved without good cause.
Record of change that have taken place during its history.
A little decay or a slight distortion should not necessarily result
in renewal.
Minimal Intervention
Necessary to make changes because decay or distortion
resulting in a threat to the structural stability or because
changes are necessary to ensure that the structure has viable
future.
Whenever changes are made, these should be kept to a
minimum.
Like for like repair.
If repair are to be made, the ideal is using the same materials
as are found the original construction.
Repairs should be reversible
If repairs have to be made, these should be design and carried
out with subsequent removal I mind.
This is the most difficult to achieve. But it is not possible to
make sensibly reversible repairs.
Repairs should be sympathetic.
It need to be in character with the structure. This is not to say
that they have to be made to look old, but copy the original
details of the structure.
Designed to sit happily with the original fabric
..
The philosophy of conservative repairs can be considered as
sliding scale of desirability:
Do nothing.
Add extra members in similar material.
Add extra members in foreign materials.
Carry out traditional repairs.
Insert new materials into the existing materials. Replace isolated
members.
Replace whole elements of the structure.
Replace the entire fabric behind the facade (facadism). Rebuild in
facsimile.

HALP6 The Role of Heritage Science in Conservation Philosophy


and Practice (Kennedy, ____)
Summary

The application considers the practical application of heritage


science to the building conservation sector, how best to marry
conservation philosophy with scientific investigations.
Repair to historic buildings and monuments should be carried
out with an understanding and basis within building
conservation philosophy.
ICOMOS, SPAB and other publications have evolved and been
updated over time to meet the developing ideas behind
sensitive conservation.
Forster discusses the ethics and principles behind building
conservation philosophy for masonry repair (Forster, 2010a,
2010b).
When considering authenticity, the ability to distinguish
between original material and later repairs is important.
Integrity of a structure is discussed by Forster, who makes the
distinction between living and dead buildings and how integrity
may conflict with authenticity..
Living= still in use and functioning. The replacement of a failed
section would require some scientific intervention to ensure
that the appropriate material is selected 17.
Patina= regarded as having aesthetic and historic qualities 19.
Reversibility of a conservation application is an important
philosophical principle.

Any action taken to conserve an object or building should have the


ability to be removed should it prove harmful to the substrate.
Principal of minimal intervention is important that is, as much fabric
as possible should be retained when a repair or other intervention
is required.

HALP7 Built Heritage Maintenance: A Malaysian Perspective


(Mohd-Isa, Zainal-Abidin, & Hashim, 2011)
Summary
Maintenance dann da
GMAL1: Green Maintenance for historic buildings: an
emerging concept (Forster, Carter, Banfill, & Kayan, 2011)
Summary:
This paper aim to study different maintenance regimes over a

period of 100 years to demonstrate how this concept can model


the associated carbon commitment and facilitate options
appraisal for historic buidings.
Wise (1984) cite that maintenance has been recognized as a cost
commitment.
Stern (2006) any maintenance intervention also has a carbon
commitment and there is an increasing international focus on
reducing carbon in the built environment.

M_CO

Maintenance is essentially a way of prolonging the lifespan of a


building.
The largely centers on new building and the upgrading and
maintenance of existing buildings receives little attention in the
context of carbon reduction although it contributors to the
lifetime carbon emissions in a way that cumulatively may be
significant.

SP_M_
C
M_CO

Associate with a life cycle carbon approach leads to the concept


of green maintenance whch can be seen as maintenance with
minimal environmental impact.
SUST
A MAIN TENET OF THESE FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABILITY BUT
THIS TENDS TO BE SEEN IN TERMS OF RETENTION OF THE
BUILDING I.E PROLONGING THE LIFE OF CULTURAL ASSETS
(ICOMOS, 1993).
Framework that soundly based on ethnics and principles
Forster (2010, p 92) states that repair selected, based upon the
ethical concepts and a combination of the principles, should be
defensible and should in theory lead to naturally good, well
founded conservation.
The essential principles of building conservation philosophy are:
least intervention; like-for-like material replacement; honesty and
distinguishability; integrity; reversibility; respect for historic
patina; and respect for traditional craft skill (Bell, 1997).
The success of maintenance intervention is therefore evaluated
not only the quality of the repair but also on its conformity to
these principles.
Maintenance of building contributes to significantly to GDP
(Balaras et al., 2005).
The financial cost of repair using traditional materials and
techniques is often greater tan with modern materials (Forster
and Kayan, 2009)/

GR
A lack of regular maintenance
Intervention that fits within the philosophical framework are
generally of high quality are more compatible with the existing
fabric and endure longer than insensitive, often inappropriate
repairs.

ENVG
M

Adding to the complexity of prioritization within philosophical and


economic context, a third and emerging factor in the evaluation
of maintenance is environmental sustainability.

GM

This tripartite approach draws parallels with the generally accepted


GM
model of sustainable develop- ment (Brundtland, 1987) and offers a
potentially useful framework for evaluation of sustainable or green
maintenance interventions
The Venn represents the traditionally accepted model of
sustainability with environmental, societal and economic factors,
overlaid with three factors that influence maintenance of
heritage buildings namely environment, cost and philosophical.
Those interventions that intersect three aspects
potentially be considered as being the most sustaible.

would

GM
DECISI
ONMA
KING
GM

It is important to understand the cumulative effect of


maintenance not only base on cost and philosophy but
environmental impact.
ALLOW SELECTION OF
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTION.

MAINTENANCE

THAT

PROVIDES

MAINTENANCE AND ITS IMPACT UPON CARBON AND


ENERGY USE
Existing buildings have an important role to play in the
reduction of carbon emissions and energy consumption to
meet global targets
Scottish
Governments
commitment
to
reduce
greenhouse gas emissions in Scotland by 80% in 2050.
Hammond and Jones (2008a) UK industry consumes over
420 Mt of materials, 8Mt of ol and releases over 29 mt of
carbon dioxide annually, including a significant quantity

Reduc
1
Reduc
1

CO2

GAP_C
O

of new materials disposed of as waste.


Is vital for the overall reduction in carbon emissions, very
little work has focused on the carbon and energy
associated with the maintenance processes need simply
to retain buildings in condition.
Energy use and carbon emission can be distinguished into
maintenance intervention and second the operational
energy use linked to the improvement in performance or
slowing the degradation of a building.
All maintenance has environmental impact with some
intervention leading to higher energy and CO2
expenditure than others (Historic Scotland, 2008).

LCA

GM

Measurement of the carbon emissions by Life Cycle Assessment


(LCA) is the determination of environ- mental impacts of products,
buildings or other services throughout their lives (ISOSO, 1996).

The conceptual model for green maintenance focuses on this area


in order to understand the potential for reducing energy use and
LOSER
CO2 emissions.
C

It is interesting to note that although legis- lation to control carbon


emissions has been established in many countries, no specific
LOSER
guidelines are directly targeted to reduce carbon emissions in C
historic buildings.
Gm concept and methodology:
LOSER

There is clearly a relationship between the number, type and C


longevity of maintenance interventions undertaken, and the
embodied energy and CO2 expended in repairs

A durable repair requiring fewer repeat interventions may incur less


energy over the life- span of the building than a less durable LOSER
C
alternative.
Durable rpair with higher longevity, requiring fewer repear
maintenance interventions, may incur less embodied carbon
expenditure over the life span of the building than a less durable

alternative.

LOSER
C

Service life may be defined as a period of time, post instllation,


during which all products or materials fail, achieve or exceed the
minimum acceptable performance (Balaras e al., 2005).
The longevity is ill-defined and inconclusive (Ashworth, 1996;
Douglas, 1994).
Inaccurate service life predictions and largel caused
inconsistent data pertaining the durability of product or
materials (Balaras et al., 2005).

GMA2 Green maintenance modeling: Mathematical framework of


Life Cycle Assessment Approach In Historic Buildings

Azhari, N. F. N., & Mohamed, E. (2012). Public Perception: Heritage


Building Conservation in Kuala Lumpur. Procedia - Social and
Behavioral
Sciences,
50,
271-279.
doi:
10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.033
Dann, N., & Wood, S. (2004). Tensions and omissions in maintenance
management advice for historic buildings. Structural Survey,
22(3), 138-147. doi: 10.1108/02630800410549035
Forster, A. M. (2010a). Building conservation philosophy for masonry
repair: part 1 ethics. Structural Survey, 28(2), 91-107. doi:
10.1108/02630801011044208
Forster, A. M. (2010b). Building conservation philosophy for masonry
repair: part 2 principles. Structural Survey, 28(3), 165-188.
doi: 10.1108/02630801011058906
Forster, A. M., Carter, K., Banfill, P. F. G., & Kayan, B. (2011). Green
maintenance for historic masonry buildings: an emerging
concept. Building Research & Information, 39(6), 654-664. doi:
10.1080/09613218.2011.621345
Forsyth, M. (2008). Materials and Skills for Historic Building
Conservation. UK: Blackwell Publishing
Harun, S. N. (2011). Heritage Building Conservation in Malaysia:
Experience and Challenges. Procedia Engineering, 20, 41-53.
doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.11.137
Idrus, A., Khamidi, F., & Sodangi, M. (2010). Maintenance
Management Framework for Conservation of Heritage
Buildings in Malaysia. Modern Applied Science, 4(11), 66-77.

Kamal, K. S., AbWahab, L., & A.G.Ahmad. (2008). Pilots Survey on


the Conservation of Historical Buildings In Malaysia. Paper
presented at the PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2nd. INTERNATIONAL
CONFERENCE ON BUILT ENVIRONMENT IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES 2008. SUSTAINABLE BUILT ENVIRONMENT
BRIDGING THEORY AND PRACTICE, PULAU PINANG, UNIVERSITI
SAINS MALAYSIA.
Kamaruzzaman, S. N., Zawawi, E. A., & Omar, A. (2011). Preliminary
Evaluation of Problems Involved in Maintaining Heritage
Buildings in Malaysia. The Proffesional Journal of The
Institution of Surveyors, Malaysia, 46(1), 30 - 38.
Menna, C., Asprone, D., Jalayer, F., Prota, A., & Manfredi, G. (2012).
Assessment of ecological sustainability of a building subjected
to potential seismic events during its lifetime. The
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 18(2), 504-515.
doi: 10.1007/s11367-012-0477-9
Mohd-Isa, A. F., Zainal-Abidin, Z., & Hashim, A. E. (2011). Built
Heritage Maintenance: A Malaysian Perspectives. Procedia
Engineering, 20, 213-221. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.11.158
Mustafa, I. K. F., S.Johar, A.G.Ahmad, Zulkarnain, S. H., Rahman, M. Y.
A., & Ani, A. I. C. (2011). Conservation and Repair Works for
Traditional Timber Mosque in Malaysia - A Review on
Techniques International Journal of Social, Behavioral,
Education, Economic and Management Engineering, 5(5), 103108. doi: scholar.waset.org/1999.10/14041
Rashid, R. A., & Ahmad, A. G. (2011). Overview of Maintenance
Approaches of Historical Buildings in Kuala Lumpur A Current
Practice.
Procedia
Engineering,
20,
425-434.
doi:
10.1016/j.proeng.2011.11.185
S.Johar, Che-Ani, A. I., Tawil, N. M., Surat, M., & Kamaruzzaman, S. N.
(2013). Preliminary Survey and Defects Analysis of Traditional
Timber Mosques in Malaysia. Wseas Transcations on
Environment and Development, 9(1), 13-23.
Sodangi, M., Khamdi, M. F., Idrus, A., Hammad, D. B., & AhmedUmar,
A. (2013). Best Practice Criteria for Sustainable Maintenance
Management of Heritage Buildings in Malaysia. Procedia
Engineering, 77, 11-19. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.07.017
Sodangi, M., Khamidi, F., & Idrus, A. (2013). Towards Sustainable
Heritage Building Conservation in Malaysia. Journal of Applied
Sciences & Environmental Sustainability, 1(1), 54-61.
Talib, R., Ahmad, A. G., Zakaria, N., & Sulieman, M. Z. (2014).
Assessment of Factor Affecting Building Maintenance and
Defects of Public Buildings in Penang, Malaysia. Architecture
Research, 4(2), 48-53. doi: 10.5923/j.arch.20140402.03
Talib, R., Boyd, D., Hayhow, S., Ahmad, A. G., & Sulieman, M. Z.
(2015). Best Practice on Prevention and Rectification of Roof
Leaking Selected Malaysia Heritage Building Cases.
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced
Engineering, 5(7), 8-11.

Zaid, N. S. M., Myeda, N. E., Mahyuddin, N., & Sulaiman, R. (2015).


Malaysias Rising GHG Emissions and Carbon Lock-In Risk: A
Review of Malaysian Building Sector Legislation and Policy.
Journal of Surveying, Construction and Property (JSCP),
Volume 6(Issue 1).

Johar
2011:
KEY
CONSERVATION PRINCIPLES
OF
OLD
TRADITIONAL
MOSQUE
A good conservation is perform based to principles, hence in
carrying a conservation work, it is crucial to understand some of its
basic principles. The principle act as an important assistant in
conserving a cultural property, thus charters are one of the sources
to guide for such works (Johar et al, 2011)
Conservation has been identified as an action or activity related with
repair and maintenance.

Maintenance Research

AU YONG CHEONG PENG, (2013) The relationship between preventive


maintenance characteristics and the maintenance performance of highrise office
buildings in malaysia. Faculty of built environment University of Malaya Kuala
lumpur

The selection of repair strategies becomes an important decision making in


constructionandbuildingindustry.

Lackofpretivemeasure
Buildingmaintenancecostsarerisingrapidly(ElHaramandHornet,2002).
IntheMalaysiancontext,thedevelopmentplanallocationforrepairandmaintenance
worksinbuildingsectorincreasedfromRM296millionduringtheEighthMalaysian
PlantoRM1,079millionduringNinthMalaysianPlan(Ali,2009;Governmentof
Malaysia,2006).

HoweveritdecreasedtoRM500millioninTenthMalaysianPlan(Governmentof
Malaysia,2010).
Allocating huge resources for building repair and maintenance activities (Lateef,
2008).

However,thebuildingarenotwellmaintanedduetothepoormaintenanceinthe
past,lackofawareness.

Littleknowledgeregardingthemaintenance
Althoughthegovernmenthasallocatedmassiveresourcesforbuildingmaintenance,
thereisnoestablishmentofguidelineorstandardoperationprocedurestheblueprint
tobefollowerd(MohdNooretal.,2011).

Maintenancepolicyisalwaysbudgeta

HRL1 - Conservation and Repair Works for Traditional


Timber Mosque in Malaysia: A Review on Techniques
(Mustafa et al., 2011)
Summary:

Building life cycle will never be excused from the existence of


defects and deterioration.
Which commonly become problems to building, existing in newly
build or in aged building.
Focus on the building constructed from wood, affected by its
agent and serious defects and damages can reduce values to a
building.
The key element of conservation activity will never escape with
repair and maintenance work.
Repair works, identify the causes and repair techniques that best
suites with the condition.
Review on the conservation of traditional timber mosque in
Malaysia that comprises of concept principles and approaches of
mosque conservation in general.
Technique that grouped as fully and partial replacement,
mechanical reinforcement, consolidation by impregnation and
reinforcement, removing paint and also preservation of wood and
control insect invasion, to prolong and extended the function of a
timber in building.
It is quite natural that as buildings aged, they will be exposed to
serious building defects and deterioration. No building is
maintenance-free. As such, every building whether heritage or
new, requires care and protection to limit deterioration.

SP-ICR
PAPER
Comme
nt
Identify
the
defect
and
cause

It is important for the repair work that extending the life of the
buildings and avoid the repair works that may damage the
buildings heritage value (2).

Stone buildings are also affected to


deterioration, due to wear and tear process.

defects

and

This paper is also highlights on the concern of sustainable


issues that realize the outcomes of preserving the historical
buildings. For future generation.
High
Authenticity aspects in conservation. (10) Outlined by ICCROM
Four (4) : material, design and architectural, the quality of
workmanship and manufacturing technique and the originality
of layout and construction..
11- Based on authenticity, preserving the material, according
to its original material includes the type, color and texture.
Quality of workmanship to perverse
craftsmanship and manufacturing.

the

originality

of

4 principles that always practiced in conservation work in


Malaysia which is minimal intervention, conducting scienftific
and laboroties testing, documentation of conservation work,
applying effective methods and techniques.
Conclusion, conservation practice, it is necessary to determine
appropriates technique available to protect the cultural
significance.
Understand the defects , it can be repaired satisfactorily only if
the causes have been correctly diagnosed. The technique of
repair should consider the kind of defect to help to reduce the
further deterioration.
To prolong, it is important to understand the techniques
available and best practice with the principles of repair in
securing for optimal conservation works.

HRL2 - A Review of the Maintenance Performance Factors for


Heritage Buildings
Mohamad, S.B.H.S., Akasah, Z.A., and Rahman, M.A.A. (2014)

InCIEC 2014: Proceedings


Infracstructure.

of

the

International

Civil

and

Summary:
My summary
Building maintenance is important part of the building
life cycle.
MP
This research is echoed on the maintenance performance
factors for heritage buildings.
LM
Author believes that the lack of maintenance scope and
procedure considered as non-sustainable caused of
building defect and deterioration problem.
To overcome, they need to spend a lot of money.
Building maintenance performance considered as major
issues in heritage buildings in order to prolong its life
expectancy.

SPLMMONE
Y
MPROL
ONG

This factors need to be considered during planning phase


of maintenance programme.
Planning phase and evaluation = part of development
process development relate to sustainability. Crucial in
determining the best practice and procedure in order to
meet the requirements.

PLAN
NING
MAINT
ENAN
CE
PROG
RAMM
E

Allocation for a billion of ringgit for building maintenance


especially in repair works.
Best maintenance programme where the defects development
can be detected earlier and repaired that subsequently consume
less money and prolong the life span.

BP
SP_LM
_MON
ET
SPLMMONE
Y
BP

Maintenance of heritage is becoming important process and task


to Malaysia Government in ensuring the nations heritage
buildings and monuments are in good conditions and can be
saved for the future generations.

FUTU
REGE
NERAT

ION
The Department of National Heritage has been established on
2006, headed by the Heritage Commisioner which in charge for
the registration of National Heritage and heritage building
conservation projects throughout Malaysia (Department of
National Heritage, 2012).

The essential manifesto that declared the maintenance


programme and conservative repair procedure as the
fundamental conservation principles was issued by William
Morris in 1877 (Department of National Heritage,2012; Dan and
Worthing, 2005)

HERIT
AGE_A
CT

SP-M

Dann, N. and Worthing, D. (2005) Heritage Organizations and


Condition Surverys. Structural Survey 23 (2), 91.
The historic preservation technology in building maintenance
plays an important role from start to finish for any preservation
project.
Includes investigation methods, materials selection
construction technology method (Wordsworth, 2001)

and

This research aim to identify the significant contributing factors


of heritage building maintenance performance of heritage
building.
The British Standard 3811 (1993) defined maintenance as the
combination
of
all
technical
aspects
and
associated
administrative actions which are intended to retain an item or to
restore it to require condition in which it can perform its required
function. (CIBSE, 2008).
CIBSE (2008). Guide M, Maintenance Engineering and
Management: A Guide for Designers Maintainers, Building
Owners and Operators and Facilities Managers (The Chartered
Institution of Building Services Engineers London, London,
Maintenance of heritage building has been recognized as single
most important conservation process in preventing the building
from potential defects.
The phrase prevention is better than cure is widely use.
Using Critical Success Factor (CSF) adopt and adapted into
building maintenance management system.

IM
BD

14] Sustainability in the practice of Historic Building


Conservation A.G. Ahmad (2011)
Summary:
Chapter discusses the importance of sustainability and its
links to the practice of historic building conservation.
Focuses on major technical issues associated with historic
building conservation with a special reference to
Malaysia.
Aspects of historic building sustainability and the need to
use local building materials including salvaged materials
in building conservation.
MH
Historic buildings in Malaysia and elsewhere in the world are built
to last and offer advantages from the sustainability viewpoint.
Original design for significal opportunities for energy
conservation and efficiency to reduce environmental impacts and
life cycle cost.
Common building features of buildings that have influences of
the culture. For an example, old Chinese shophouses with jack
roof, high ceiling in colonial buildings.
Historic buildings has related significant events of the countrys
cultural, political, economic and military and social history (Chen,
2011).
Usage of clay for bricks and roof tiles; lime for mortars and
plasters on wall,.
Building conservation includes all processes anad works
of maintenance, restore, repair and replace in order o
prolong its life, building fabric and structures as well as
functions.
Framework of Good Practice in Historic Building Conservation
Requires in-depth knowledge and expertise on building structures
and materials as well of building defects and causes.
=To understand the ensure authenticity of building structures and
fabric is preserved, protect the significance.
In Malaysia , practice comprising of dilapidations survey,
scientific studies and systematic documentation.
1.Dilapidation survey
Understand the state of defects
Determine the causes of defects
Identify appropriate methods and techniques of building
conservation.

Provide a vital resource for conducting the Historical


Architectural Building Survey (HABS).
Provide reference materials to clients, project consultants
and building contractors.

2. Scientific studies and laboratory tests.


-test procide vital information to identify and solve the defects
and problems, identify appropriate methods and technique,
structutal modification.
Sicientific studies- arhceaological excavation, local temperature,
colour scheme, species.
3- Documentation of building conditions in stages
A methodological system of documenting and recording the
building conditions before, during and after restoration using
HBS,
It involves three stages,
Stages 1- Condition of whole building to be recorded before
restoration. External and internal wall are fixed with yellow
strings to form grids of 1m2. The grid labeled, photographed and
stored. All infor pertaining to types of defect, techniques, grid
location, scale photographs for future reference and final
documentation
Stage 2- Analysis building materials, scientific studies, laboratory
test and identification of appropriate conservation methods and
techniques to be employed.
Stage 3- 1,2,3. After that, need to follow the standard of ethics
throughout the project period
-Continuous inspection of building problems or defects
Establish a systematic pictorial documentation for future
references.
Minimize unnecessary disturbance to existing building structures
and fabric.
Secure building stability throughout the project
Ensure public safety
Provide sufficient security to safeguard the building and its
properties
Reducing new materials use is salvaging of all or parts of the
existing buildings.
In Malaysia, historic buildings built before the Second World War
had solid or thick walls.
Painted with natural paint- lime wash that allows vapour in and
out of wall.
-Descried as a breathing wall.
Water moisture absorbed by the wall materials can easily
evaporate without causing damages.

The building reduces problems of dampness and condezation in


walls and mould growth on wall surface.

CP_M_
M

As well as the natural paint compare to modern synthetic paints


often oil based and contain high percentage of solvents. More
cost effective and environmental friendly. Which natural paint is
water based and do not contain solvents.
-Natural paint, binder, pigment and extenders contain other
additives that protect the building surface including wetting
agents, dispersing aid, thickeners, biocides, antifoam agents with
low temperature drying aids.

It should further encourages


Conservation principles to use the same or the closest possible
materials that are locally sources.
In Malaysia, the primary materials used in historic buildings
include clay, stone, sand and lime may be repaired and reused.
The use of lime for mortars and plasters in historic buildings is
more sustainable and ecologically more viable compared to
mixture of cements.
Caused huge damage to the old fabric due to incompatibility as
well as the manufacturing of cement may increase the
percentage of greenhouse emission produce worldwide (Kent,
2006).
Salvaged building materials
More harder in strength from the laboratories test (Ahmad, 2001).
Evidences that bricks used in historic buildings were made to
last.

MBPA1 Best Practice on Prevention and Rectification of


Roof Leaking: Selected Malaysia heritage Building
Cases
(Talib, Boyd, Hayhow, Ahmad, & Sulieman, 2015)
Summary:

BP

Identify typical problems facing the heritage or old


buildings in term of the problem of building leakage
scenario in Malaysia. This will subsequently tabulates
list of potential solutions best practiced by the local
waterproofing solution.

IBP
IM

Results from the changes have significantly increasing


the demands of maintenance work.
Talib and Sulieman stated that roof system is very
important as it provides shelter for the interior spaces
for the buildings.
Roof must be technically good and must perform
aesthetically satisfactory

ROOF

LEAKAG
E

Author list some potential solutions best practice by the local


waterproofing implementer.
Ask reader to take advantage on the information of list of the
real case studies pertaining to the building leakage syndrome
happened for the heritage building structure in hot and
humid tropical climate.
Selected from project done by the associated building
maintenance contractor for the last 20 years.

LEAKAG
E
Cstu
CLIMATE
1
Contract
or

Identifying the possible factors that cause the leakage,


prevent the same defects form repeating, thus save lot of
money.
Analysis= Formulation ideas creating a framework to prevent
or minimize the building the building leakage syndrome from
happening again. For old building, enough old to considered
as valueable .
Focus on roof
The exposure of extremes of the climate in tropical regions,
give rise to the problems.

CLIMATE
1

Most appropriate way are avoidable by use of more


appropriate design technique, better quality construction
workmanship and regular inspection and maintenance

Appway

Kamal and Harun, more than 37,000 historic buildings built


between 1800 and 1948 throughout Malaysia that worth to
conserve (Kamal et al., 2002).

MH

Maintenance help to extend the life of the buildings (Marshall


et al.,2014).

M-P

Conservation involves works undertaken to preserve the


condition of the building to its original state and this also

SP-ICR

includes the subsequent maintenance works (Rashid et al.,


2008)
Talib maintenance identified as a means on prolonging the
lifespan of the historical structure.
BD
Worthing et al., (--) highlights it is important to define
the building defects which need to be explained clearly
why it happened and how these defect had occurred
(Marshal et al., 2014).

MBPS1 Best Practice Criteria for Sustainable


Maintenance Management of Heritage Buildings
in Malaysia
(Mahmoud Sodangi, Khamdi, Idrus, Hammad, &
AhmedUmar, 2013)
Summary:
Guidance principles - Sustainable development and
heritage conservation.
Sustainable heritage conservation
It is vital that maintenance takes a leading role in
conserving heritage buildings.
-

How to adopt the sustainable maintenance


management of heritage buildings in Malaysia?
ICOMOS (1993) also support that framework is
sustainability in terms of prolonging the life of
cultural assets (1993).

Basically, the author doing an assessment on the


importance criteria pioneer the best practice for
sustainable maintenance management of heritage
buildings in Malaysia.
So, this paper identifies and ranks the criteria to
support the sustainable best practice.
Method- questionnaire selected sample of experts in
the field of heritage building conservation.
Analyzed using Relative Importance Index (RII),
Kendalls concordance test and Pearsons Chi-Square
test.
Provide supportive practical solution for decision
makers in heritage building conservation to
enhance and improve their sustainable practices
in managing the maintenance of heritage

SUSTAINABLE

building.
Good heritage building conservation practices the
relationship between maintenance management and
heritage building conservation
Purposive sampling
Conservation plan vital document which describes why
a heritage building is important, how that importance
will be retained in any future use, alteration,
development or repair. Important document to
consultants.
Paramount to
maintenance.

conserve

heritage

building

SUSTAINABLE
FUTURE
GENERATION

through

Heritage building conservation relate to sustainable


parallel to the concept of pass onto future generation.
To adopt sustainable maintenance management for
heritage building, authors suggest to identify the
criteria, what is important factor.

DECISIONMAK
ING

It was found the maintenance staff training and


expertise ws important criteria, agreed by respondents.
Provide practical solution to decision makers in
heritage building conservation to enhance and
improve their sustainable practices in managing
the maintenance of heritage building.

MBPS3 Maintenance Management Framework for


Conservation of Heritage Buildings in Malaysia.
(Idrus, Khamidi, & Sodangi, 2010)
Summary:
Is the practice approach adopted by custodians of
heritage buildings is the best for maintenance
management of heritage buildings in Malaysia?
National Heritage Department Malaysia,
Existing legislation on heritage building cannot address
the maintenance issues.

HERITAGE_A
CT

Thereby result to poor maintenance practices which


eventually lead to deterioration of buildings.

BD

Maintenance is significance process to conservation.

IM
Malaysia, still inadequate guidance on how maintenance
should be envisaged, managed, and integrated with other
key management activities in context of heritage building
conservation.

LM

Developing a maintenance management framework for


conservation
Provide holistic guidance practices to adopt in the
conservation.
Adapted to their management practices.

SP-DM

This recognition was made as early as 1877 by Wlliam


Morris the founder of the Society for Protection of Ancient
Buildings (SPAB).

SP-LMMONEY

Malaysian government spends quite a huge amount of


money in conserving antinal heritage buildings in the
country and the buildings deteriorate just few years after
the conservation works.

BD

Many heritage buildings in Malaysia still remain in poor


conditions with signs of serious building defects
threatening their survival (Kamal et al., 2008).

MBPA7
Assessment
of
Factors
Affecting
Building
Maintenance and Defects of Public Buildings in Penang,
Malaysia (Talib, Ahmad, Zakaria, & Sulieman, 2014)
Summary:
Assess the factors affecting maintenance and defects of public
building in Penang.
The summary of ten relevant factors surveyed from related
literatures.
Analysis= lack of preventive maintenance, insufficient funds to
maintain the building, lack of building maintenance standard, nonavailability of replace part and components and not responded to
maintenance request
Surveyed factors affecting maintenance of public buildings
Lack of preventive maintenance, insufficient funds to maintain the

LM

building, lack of building maintenance standard, non-availability of


replacement parts and components and non-response to
maintenance request.
Factors of building defect= lack of
overlooked site conditions, defective
conditions and moisture from wet areas.

building maintenance,
material, environment

5 major factors of building defect also were ranked as the most


significant factors which are: lack of building maintenance, overlooked
site conditions, defective material, environment conditions and
moisture from wet areas.

MBPA8 Best Practice Maintenance Management for Listed


Buildins (UWE, ___)
Summary
Maintenance seeks to extend the life of such elements and hence
the entire buildings.
Some conservation literature is clear about the distinction between
maintenance from repair (ICOMOS, 1987), other guidance (Feilden
and Jokilehto, 1993, P.3 and BS7913:1998) defines maintenance
more broadly to include repair.
Improvement rather than an adjunct/.
The rational for different approach debates about their nature and
value.
Cultural significance, building as artifact.
Retention of cultural significance and the principle of minimal
intervention (do as much as necessary, as little as possible).
GENERAL MAINTENANCE LITERATURE
*Minimal intervention does not feature as a guiding ptinciple for
general maintenance literature.
**Key principle is always minimal intervention**
**The conservation literature emphasizes a need to take a longterm interest in the maintenance of historic buildings.
Feilden (1982, p 218) states that Historic buildings differ from new ones is that
they are expected to last for ever a definition of forever being as long as it is
wanted. An historic building is one that for various reasons, society has decided
shall be conserved for as long as possible.

Long-term requirement for maintenance has implications for the

way in which such maintenance should be managed:


It is important to appreciate that the cost of maintaining and
reparining an historic building is not usually great when measured
over the life of the building.
When substantial costs arise it is usually because there has been a
period of neglet or poor management (Government historic Building
Advisory Unit (GHBAU. 1998; Part C, p.1).
*Kena cari reference, and update utk bab lain, panjang lagi bab ni).

20] Establishing Factors Influencing Building Maintenance


Perspectives: Ghanaian Perspective (Ofori, Duodu and Bonney,
2015)
Summary:

Factor influencing the decision to carry out building maintenance practices.


- Types of maintenance, Types of maintenance, Causes of Maintenance,
Stages of Maintenance, and Specific Influencing the Decision to carry
out maintenance.
Common factors and agent which are fundamental to deterioration of building
component ageing stock of building, obsolescence of building,
environmental or climate issues, moisture selection of materials and design
maintability.

MBPA5 Overview of Maintenance Approaches of Historic


Buildings in Kuala Lumpur A Current Practice (Rashid &
Ahmad, 2011)

CURREN
T
PRACTI
CE

Summary: TO BE CHECK AT THE REFERENCE FOR THE


DUNN, N. (2000) Maintaining Europes Built Heritage.
Fieldan B.M, and Jokilehto, J. (1993) Management
Guidelines for World Cultural Heritage Site

Maintenance as a key intervention in protecting historic structure


M-P
by prolonging a building lifespan.
This research highlight on the current practice of
maintenance approaches, implemented in historic buildings
in KL.
Basis for formation of the best maintenance programme for

historical buildings in Malaysia.


Dunn (2000) primary principles for conservation of historical
buildings. expresses on the approach to preserve the fabric of
historical buildings.

SP-DIF

DC

A strategy for slow renewal and decay prevention, best method to


ensuring the prolongation of buildings lifespans.
DM

ICOMOS stated that maintenance is defined as the continuous


caring performance to prevent the structure, fabric and the
positioning of the building, these differ from the concept of repair DM
works.
But Fieldan and Jokilehto (1993) described that maintenance
includes all practical approaches which are deemed necessary to
ensure that the condition of the building or the site of where it is
located is maintained true to its original and that the works
undertaken will not degrade the buildings value and significance.

BD

Taylor (23) stated that the degradation of the historical structure is


different compared to new modern buildings.
A.Ghapar (1994) also highlighted that in the general the element
and the building materials of the historical building will become
decay over time.
Main maintenance works carried out on these buildings are mainly
repair or replacement works. Not the building fabric or the
structural or non-structural elements.

LM

More related to the repair works on the falling concrete surface or


finishes, painting works and leaking or replacement od decayed
WHYHE
roofing structural system.
RI
BM

Lack of technical skills and expertise to carry out the maintenance


works is another issue faced in Malaysia.
BP_GUI
DE
New industry to Malaysia.
It is more intricate and delicate compared to contemporary,

modern buildings, because the need to understand the


importance of preserving the significance of the buildings with.
Need to understand the conventional or traditional materials and
technologies used for the construction of the buildings.
The non existence of specific guidelines and an example of an
established maintenance plan as a standard guideline that can
assist the maintenance department or unit is another issue
that is overlooked in Malaysia.
Finding implementation in Malaysia
Types of maintenance programme= 50% planned
maintenance programme, 50% unplanned maintenance
programme. Confirm by the problem is contributed the
the lacking of expert that establish the systematic and
standardized maintenance programme.
Basis of planned maintenance= self developed by
maintenance unit/or personnel.
To suit the building functions, characters, styles,
elements, etc.
The subject of authenticity, the differ
More complex compared to carrying out maintenance
works for a new buildings. The difference of the original
built material and technology that should be handled
properly by the maintenance department and the
technical skills

BP_TOM

WHYHE
RI
BM
LM

Conservation is a new industry and not all contractors


are knowledgeable and skillfull enough
BP_TOM
Preparation of maintenance plan 50% confirmed that
they have no plan, under listed 50 National Heritage
List HAVE MAINTENANCE PLAN.
Based on organizations needs.
Lack of expertise in establishing a systematic and
standardized maintenance programme
Financial dactor or cost is one of the major issues.
Incentives given are not enugh and limited. Only
provided for selected buildings only.
MBPA6
Issues
and
Problems
Affecting
the
Implementation and Effectiveness of Heritage Buildings
Maintenance (Rahman, MA.A., Akasah, Z.A., and

LM
SP-LMMONEY

Abdullah, M.S.
Summary:
This paper intent to identify the issues and problems
affecting the implementation of maintenance in dealing
with heritage buildings.
Number of issue has been identified involving financial,
spare parts, technical problems, human behavior and
attitudes, management and administration, education
and training.

LM

Yet little maintenance is done (Ashraf and Zainal, 2010)

LM

Maintenance often fails to be implemented properly


Shahril Bazlin (2004) states that failure to implement a
good maintenance practices have been influenced by a
number of significant issues and problems.

GR_
IP_
IP

Funso Falade (2006) issues and problem has become a


global phenomenon faced by most developing countries
including Malaysia.
Important approach ensuring the building and its
contents to operate and function properly.
Forster and Kayan (2009) states that although the
maintenance is the best approach in providing
protection to the heritage building.
Funso Falade (2006). Engineering and Globalisation in
Developing Countries: Nigeria a Case Study, Proceedings of
the 3rd African Regional Conference on Engineering Education,
26-27 September 2006, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South
Africa

Shahril Bazlin (2004), Pengurusan Penyenggaraan Bangunan


Kajian Kolej Rahman Putra Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

[3]Alan M. Forster, Brit Kayan, (2009) "Maintenance for historic


buildings: a current perspective", Structural Survey, Vol. 27 Iss: 3,
pp.210 22

SP-LMMONEY
IP SP

FINANCIAL PROBLEM WAS RANKED AS VERY IMPORANT

PROBLEM WHILE MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATIVE


PROBLEM RANKED AS MODERATEY IMPORTANT.
These prpblem need to be addressed in in improving the practical
maintenance of heritage buildings
24]
The
importance
of
On-Going
Maintenance
Maintenance in Preserving the Heritage Listed Buildings
(Rahman, M.A.A., Akasah, Z.A., and Zuraidi, S.N.F.,
2012)
Summary:
To be check the reference.

Maintenance important in determining the life long of the building,


inherit to the next generation.

M-P

This research emphasis on the good planning from the early stage
and is followed with on-going implementation from time to time.
This paper discuss on the importance of on-going maintenance.
Put forward to stimulate the practice of on-going maintenance as
an initiative to encourage the culture of maintenance, help to
increase the quality process.

BP

The maintenance works involve the activity of repair and replace in


the sense of conservation (5).
Keromo (8), frequently on time, not only depends on the factor of
need.
Agree on the several factors have to be taken into consideration
such as the longevity and sensitivity of the building.
Highly consider the originality and condition of the building without
damaging the physical structure of the building.
The reason why maintenance should be practice out collated with
the conservation practice.
Routine maintenance= on-going maintenance.
Author related the William morris, rationale is that a work

CP_YM

done routinely can give an effective result. Hence, in


maintaining a building if it is done regularly and continuously
it can give a better result.

MBPS2 Towards Sustainable Heritage Building


Conservation in Malaysia (M. Sodangi, Khamidi, &
Idrus, 2013)
Summary:

Conservation of heritage buildings has environmental


sustainability.
Government spends money, but buildings deteriorate just few
years after the conservation works.

LMGUIDELINE

Lack of clear guidelines for managing the maintenance of the


buildings.
So, this paper develop a framework for sustainable
management of heritage building, benefit for sustaining the
building, value of building, enhance the safety efficiently with
minimum resources.
Heritage building conservation reduces energy usage that
related with new construction and demolition. Promote
sustainable dev in term of embodied energy of buildings.
Is different because of the fabric that contain cultural
significance which must be retained maximally and the
authenticity of a heritage buildings depends essentially on the
integrity of its fabric.
The maintenance of heritage buildings involves repairing the
building fabric very close to the original using traditional
techniques and traditional matching materials and being
sensitive to original structure.

DIF
DCS
CP_ai

CP_M
O_

DM

BD

The conservative repair philosophy was introduced upon a


manifesto written by William Morries and other founding
members of SPAB in 1877.
Every building whether heritage or new, requires care and
protection to limit deterioration (Idrus et al., 2010)/
Quantitative research
The issues do not cover the artecfacts exhibited in the
buildings while the defects addressed do not include defect
that relate to substructure works (foundation cracking,
foundation, bowing, foundation settlement etc).

Difficult to use them to plan, control, organize and monitor


maintenance activities.
Money.
Hypothesis is =lack of maintenance management framework
for heritage buildings is related to 1)poor practices of
maintenance managers in managing the maintenance of
heritage buildings
2)Poor physical conditions of heritage buildings.

--LR
There are several existing frameworks for managing the
maintenance of normal buildings.
But is different from normal building because it fabric
that has cultural significance and authenticity that must
retained maximally.
Any work should form parts of philosophy.
Framework that act as a basis for heritage organizations to
prepare guidelines for managing the maintenance and
conservation of heritage.

CP_a

CP

BP_GUIDELI
NE

Conservation in M
MBPA2 Preliminary Survey and Defects Analysis of
Traditional Timber Mosques in Malaysia (S.Johar, Che-Ani,
Tawil, Surat, & Kamaruzzaman, 2013)
Summary: REFERENCE TO BE CHECK

Conservation in Malaysia has become revolution across the nation


(Ali et al.,2009; Che-aAni et al., 2009)
This paper preliminary survey on the defects and deterioration in
traditional timber mosque.
It is crucial to understand type and cause of defect.
Repair is depends on the survey findings of building conditions.
Defects and deterioration are common problems in any built
structure.
Various defects are more common in an old structure (Ransom,
1981).
As in BS3811 (Code of Practice, British Standard, 1984),
defects are defined as the deterioration of building
features and services to unsatisfactory quality levels of
requirement users.

Stone is of most popular materials for both structural and nonstructural parts in the construction industry and is widely used.
Fielden (2000); practice requires technical and scientific knowledge
of how decay occurs and how to eliminate it.

The understanding o buildings defects is therefore, an essential key


for good repair practice, particularly in the conservation of historic
buildings
It is part of the carbon cycle and therefore is liable to be broken
down by bla- blab la bla.
So, adah you ni to develop stone deterioration agent.

PRES
UR
BD

CM
BD

DD
TIMBE
R
SP_D
BD

GR_

Method: LR:
A list of subject buildings were collected from literatures, archives
and electronic documents from government agencies, such as the
Department of National Heritage, Department of Malaysian Islamic
Development (JAKIM), Museum Association of Malaysia (PERZIM)
and Penang Heritage Trust.

MBPA3 PS Pilots Survey on the Conservation of


Historical Buildings in Malaysia (Kamal, AbWahab, &
A.G.Ahmad, 2008)
Summary:
This paper doing survey on the conditions of building defects
and conservation approach to these buildings.
The research gap in this research is because of the some of
building (heritage that contain value) at risks of defects and
not being well cared for due to lack of technical knowledge
and high cost of repair and maintenance.

BP
BD
PAPER

LM
M-P

Fieldan (2000); building conservation relate to the


conservation work aim to prolong a buildings life and function.
In Malaysia, the practice of building conservation is considered
new.

CM

MH

39,000 historic buildings built between 1800 and 1948 throughout


the country which are worthy for preservation and conservation
pre-war buildings due to their year of build, ranging from
1800 to 1948.

CHB

Melaka, Bandar Hilir


Baba and Nyonya
Heritage
Cheng Hoon Teng
Temple
Kampung Kling
Mosque
Sri Poyyatha
Vinayagar Temple
Christ Church
St Paul Church
Malay
Independence
Memorial

Bandar Hilir

1896

Bandar Hilir

1646

Bandar Hilir

1748

Bandar Hilir

1781

Bandar Hilir
Bandar Hilir
Bandar Hilir

1753
1553
1911

Poor condition, has not being conserved

CStu

properly and has the sign of building


defects
. Based from the research findings, we can conclude that most of the
defects that occur at historic buildings in Malaysia were at external
walls followed by internal walls and etc.
Building owners should take special care and considerations at these
building elements in order to prevent defects from occur in the future.

LM
BD-E-I

cm

Malaysia face several problems dealing wit the


issues of historic building. First the present
legislation is not sufficient and suitable to protect
building.

CM
BP_
GUIDELI
NE

There is lack of technical knowledge in repairing


and maintaining historic buildings

BP
IBP
LM

Understanding the common building defects is a


simply a logical way of proceeding from the
evidence to the cause of a defects, after which
remedies can be prescribed.

BP
IBP
GR_

Good repair practice is central to good conservation in


Malaysia
Repair would be the only action required to enable
historic buildings to survive.
MBPA4 P Preliminary Evaluation of Problem Involved in
Maintaining
Heritage
Building
in
Malaysia
(Kamaruzzaman, Zawawi, & Omar, 2011)
Summary
Identify the problem involved in maintaining heritage buildings
and identifying the significance of maintaining these building?

Finding
Lack of detailed and specific guideline
Lack of availability in obtaining similar building materials
Lack of awareness in maintaining and insufficient amount of
in-house maintenance stuff

BP_GUIDELIN
E
BM
LM

Reference and base for future research by highlight the issue


that needs to be emphasized maintaining heritage building.

RQ

Recently in Malaysia, UNESCO has declared George Town,


Penang and Melaka as UNESCO Heritage Site thereby making
heritage building maintenance more important.

MH

This status has brought the country involved in what would be


the biggest conservation project known (Khor, 2009)>
Most historical buildings are demolished due to the perception
of high maintenance cost. As a result, owners of these shop
house allow the Government or Local Authority to bring down
these buildings because they could not bare/afford the cost of
maintenance.
According to Idid (1996), Malaysia still does not have any Acts
which specifically relate the concept of maintaining and
conserving heritage buildings.
There are few acts that contain connection/linkage with
heritage building conservation which are
Antiquities Act 1976 (Akta 168) (abolished in Dec 2005)
Town Planning Act 1976 (Akta Perancang Bandar 1976) (Akta
172)
Local Authority Act 1976 (Akta Kerajaan Tempatan 1976) (Akta
171)
Rent Control Act 1976 (Akta Kawasalan Sewa) help to
maintain affordable and similar rents that has existed before
World War ii
Conservation and maintenance of old buildings is on a current agenda relating to the
built environment in Malaysia.

Lack of maintenance
building conservation

and

guideline

regarding

historical

It much harder, when more building are gazette


But, as highlighted by Surin and Hamid (2007) in the the Sun
online, it is the responsibility of the decision makers in
protecting these historical buildings eventhough there are no
proper guidelines and appropriate systems in the current
situation in Malaysia.
In UK, they are more advanced when comes to preserving
their buildings.

26] Heritage Building Conservation in Malaysia:


Experience and Challenges (Harun, 2011) Baca dua kali
17 , 25 February
Summary:
Conservation- physical action to preserve the fabric and

MH

SP-LMMONEY

Heritage_act

FT
LM

material of the heritage buildings, prevent decay and the action


that aim to prolong the life of the buildings.

DC

Aunthenticity is process or desire to reveal the true nature of an


object.

CP_a
CP_M

Accordance to the conservation principle, the practice of building


conservation should be as much as possible
Preserving the authenticity of the heritage base on the original or
historical evident. Authenticity is a process or desire to reveal the
true nature of an object.
practice in conservation works is quiet difficult to judge.
Ethical codes are definable as a series of moral principles or
values [4].

CP_a

CP_E

LBP

The basic principles and standards of conservation which contain


in international charters are:
i. Careful recording and research before intervention
ii. Minimum alteration of historic fabrics
iii. minimal risk of significant loss, damage or uncertainty in
performance, through intervention.
iv. Retention of a minimum of the original structure
vi. Distinctive or distinguishable use of new and additional material
vii. Sympathy in interpretation and symphathy in use
viii. Respect for the quality of place
ix. Preference for original material and workmanship
x. Longevity in the finished work

Documentation and Record- historical research, measured


drawing,
Dilapidation Survey and Building Investigation- state of defect,
cause, identify the approapriate methods and technique,
gives reference material to client, consultant, contractor
Two important stages of investiages i. Site testing- identify
material and their condition, temperature,
ii. Laboratory test, - composition with the original, colour,
texture, strength,
Conservation Works- Start after preliminary activity- cleaning
from dirt and leech, clear surround, cut all the unwanted
vegetation, and consolidation of temporary structure like tent to
cover, control damp admitting to interior space.
Normally, the process is top to the down of building, start with

BP
BP

BP

roof, fixing water proofing membrane,


Re-plastering and painting the wall with lime wash,
Reconstruct the collapse and damage column to the original
Remove and re-pointing loose mortar on the exposed bricks.
Restore door,
Laying and fixing new timber floor.

BP_GUI
DELINE

Guidelines- control by national heritage department especially


on the technique- use traditional practice, timber species,
grading, mortar for plastering, masonry, brick layering, building
colour.
Texture.
BP_CT
Reconstruct respect the original technique.
Design and material is the most an authentic criterion in
conservation of heritage building. Design and materials
included the architectural styles and construction technique is
considered an important value in the building.
In current practice, there are three (3) approach that always
been apply in conservation of heritage buildings
It is involve all parties, environmentalist = carbon emission?

25]
Materials
and
Skills
Conservation (Forsyth, 2008)

for

Historic

Building

Summary:

The philosophy of repair


Traditional or vernacular building is concerned with
utilizing indigenous materials with local knowledge of
climate and topography.
These always start with landscape and the earth
granite, sand, slate, chalk, clay, hill and fields that these
features in each county and building, their character.
The key to appropriate historic building repair is
awareness of the fundamental difference between
modern construction and traditional building.

CP

Modern construction is based


thinness, cavity wall construction.

or

impermeability,

---Ilmu tambahan
1. If thru capillary action, I moisture should penetrate the outer
masonry leaf or the cladding2, the air cavity (which may be
partially filled with insulation), is wide enough to break the
capillary action and surface tensions of the water, which then
descends by gravity and drains through weep holes.
The further function of the cavity is to eliminate 3 thermal
bridging, steel and glass may be thought as the ultimate thin
impermeable building construction.
1. Capillary action is the tendency of a liquid to
rise in narrow tubes or to be drawn into small
openings such as those between grains of a
rock.

Ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces


without the assistance of, or even in
opposition to, external forces like gravity.
2. Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide skin
or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements
In principle, use of cavities is similar to use of a insulating material
3. A thermal bridge, also called a cold bridge or heat bridge, is an area
of an object (frequently a building) which has a significantly higher heat
transfer than the surrounding materials resulting in an overall reduction in
thermal insulation of the object or building
Very
_____________________________________Compared to

artificial

Different principles; thermal mass, breathability, flexibility,


depending on the construction, the use of a protective,
sacrificial skin.
Thick wall provide thermal mass, sustaining warmth in
winter and coolness.
The walls (traditionally floor) are breathable and admit
moisture which then evaporates freely.
Masonry construction, lime mortar separating the stones
or brick is softer than the structural material and allows
the building to move and settle differentially without
cracking.

Lime mortar is more breathable than these materials, so


the majority of evaporation is through the joint.
***When hard, impermeable Portland cement pointing was a
introduced a century or so ago, the brick or stone became the
principal conduit for evaporation, causing leaching of salts and
consequent chemical corrosion in the materials and water
collecting at the joint caused mechanical deterioration due to
freeze-thaw action.
In limestone areas rubble construction also traditionally
relies on a protective skin of lime render which is
sacrificial to the structural material. The render is then
coated with limewash, which may be coloured with earthbased pigments and if the finish is smooth as opposed to
roughcast, sometimes scored for joints to produce
poormans ashlar.
20 century taste for hacking off render and plaster and
revealing the stonework beneath think of the worst pub
interiors, historic plaster removed and the rubble wall
beneath pointed with grey cement .
The traditional building are repaired sympathetically,
Majority of historic repair today is required less a result
of natural degradation of the building fabric from its
original state , than of damage resulting from
inappropriate repair over the last century, whether from
incorrect pointing and mortar repairs, expanding rusted
iron in old stone repairs causing spalling or delaminating
Portland cemend render.
The preferred option is always minimal intervention and
general principle is to use traditional materials and
techniques wherever possible. In the case of ruined
monuments, minimal intervention may extend to
retaining ivy on the basis that it may actually protect the
structure that it covers- a king of managed picturesque
decay. However, the basic well-known golden rules of
conservation minimal intervention, conserve as found,
like for like repairs and reversibility are not always
compatible with these principles, or with each other.
Historic building repair embraces a spectrum of
intervention from routine maintenance and the to do
option, through a comprehensive repair programme, to
restoration, the replacing.
Replacement is never acceptable when it is conjectural.
Fieldan list seven degrees of intervention
1. prevention of deterioration
2, degrees of intervention
3. consolidation of the fabric
4.restoration

CP

5. rehabilitation
6. reproduction
7. reconstruction
The preferred is always minimal intervention and general
principle is to use traditional materials and techniques whenever
possible.
Basic well-known golden rules of conservation minimal
intervention, conserve as found, like for like repairs, and
reversibility are not always compatible with these
principles, or with each other.

Stone (Ian Williams)


Types of Wall Construction
Stone construction in traditional building can be
initially divided into two types: rubble and ashlar.
Last century, stone has also been used as cladding.
Repairs must follow carefully previous methods of
preparation and setting.
Rubble
Rubble walls are either random, the stones being
used more or less as they come to had, or squared
with straightened edges.
Random rubble is either coursed, the stones roughly
leveled up to form layers of varying thickness, or
uncoursed, the larger stones being wedged by small
stones, known as pinnings or spalls, with no attempt
to from accurate vertical or horizontal joints.
Broken residual rubble from dressed-down blocks
and more thinly bedded stone was used as the infill
between the inner and outer leaves of rubble walls.
This infill was either consolidated by a semi-liquid
sand: lime mortar to form a largely solid core, or left
ungrounted.
Squarred rubble may be laid uncoursed, coursed or
regularly coursed.
Uncoursed wall usually formed of four stone size: large
bonding stones (risers), two thinner stones (levelers)
and small stones (snecks).
Coursed walling is formed of larger stones of the same
height, leveled off by thinner stones to form the courses.

Regular coursed walls are formed of rows or courses of


identical height stones, although the height of the
courses can vary up the wall.
ASHLAR
Formed of smooth squared stones with very think mortar
joints, usually laid in horizontal courses with stones of
identical height, but each course may vary in heigh.
Random ashlar- machine cut stone, may be laid to a
repeated pattern.
It can jave various surface finishes.

Different weather,
Different geological composition sediments laid down
under water contain salts which affect their weathering
characterisitic, and therefore the uses o which they can
be put.
Degree of durability is varying,
Weather with exposure caused change of colours
27] Maintenance in Conservation (Dann and Cantell)
Summary
There is also a series of approaches to intervention that have
gradually become accepted as key building conservation
principles.
These have developed over the last 150 years in the UK and can
be distilled into 5 principles:
1. Minimal intervention doing as little as possible, as much as
necessary
2. Use of like for like materials matching original materials and
techniques where possible
3. Reversibility where possible, adopting repair techniques that
are reversible in the future.
4. Honesty in repair not disguising repair as being original
5. The importance of recording understanding the structure
and what has occurred, and why, before taking any action

LBP
CP
CP_M
CP_LLM
CP_R
CP_H
CP_R

M
Of these five principles at first, minimal intervention,. The idea is
that by minimising intervention the material embodying
significance will be retained for the future.
BP_P
Maintenance is thus the most appropriate intervention
(philosophy and practically) for historic buildings and should
therefore take priority over other intervention.
It is important to emphasise that the terms maintenance and
repair should not be used as interchangeably as they might be

CP_M

for non-protected buildings. This is because repair, while it may


prolong the life of the element and building and involve damage
to the fabric.
In the current climate of increasing focus of sustainability, environmental,
those part which are seen as having historic or cultural significance
have grown in importance.
Academic work is often engage with technical or philosophical, rarely
include the sustainability matter.

31] Conservation of Historic Buildings (Feilden, B.M


Summary
All the materials now in use are derived from the same basic that have
been used for thousands of years earth, rock and timber, metals.
Repair of foundations.
It is decided to enlarge the existing footings, these new foundations can
be bonded to the old ones using post-tensioned reinforcement.
The most traditional method of repair to foundations is underpinning, i.e.
the removal of defective footings and their replacement by new and
enlarged one.
Causes of decay

39] Maintenance and Repair in South of Australia


Summary
Burra Charter: The guiding principles are do as much as
necessary to care for the place and make it useable, but
otherwise
Change as little as possible so that its cultural
significance is retained.
Sometimes a building sustains sudden and immediate
damage.. which repair are carried out promptly to return
to building to serviceable condition and to minimize any
secondary damage.
A number of observations should be kept in mind when
reading this guide.
1.Deterioration is a gradual process, silent and

CP_M_L

furtive destroyer of the materials of which


buildings are made.
2. It is easy to overlook small problems until they
become more serious- and more expensive.
3. The regular expenditure of moderate amount of
time and money are better, than large injections of
capital for major repairs every 10 or 20 years
4. When maintenance of buildings is neglected or
postponed, major and expensive repairs can re
result.
The single most destructive element against the fabric of
older and historic buildings is water and the major of
maintenance and repair work is related to the effect of
dampness and moisture.
The problems encountered in caring for an old building
are influenced either directly or indirectly by moisture,
these includes rusting, wood rot, staining, mould, rising
damp, salt attach, roof leaks, terminte activity and
cracking.
Damage in external walls from rising damp and salt attack is typified
by the ongoing breakdown of the mortar joints between individual
bricks or stones. Decay of the bricks or stones occurs if the wall has
been repointed with a mortar that is harder and less porous than they
are.

Common maintenance issues


The majority of maintenance concerns with internal walls are those
that affect masonry construction, of which the most common are wellknown scourges in South Australia. These are:

salt damp (the term commonly applied to the combined


action of rising damp and salt attack); and

cracking of masonry walls.


Refer to the following guidelines, and then to Section 6 for
more detailed information on these particular problems.

Dampness in masonry walls


In buildings of masonry construction, internal evidence of
dampness is most commonly encountered on the inside face
of the external walls, but can also manifest itself on either side
of the internal walls. Its presence is normally attributable to
three causes - rising damp, falling damp or condensation.
In addition, if damp patches are encountered in the vicinity of
bathrooms, kitchens or other wet areas, there could be faults
such as:
leaking water or waste pipes within the wall
defective tiling or grouting within shower cubicles, and

DECAY_REP
AIR
DECAY

poorly sealed corner joints


leaking waste pipes or sewer pipes below floor level.
In some cases, dampness can penetrate directly through an
external wall to the inside face. A common cause is leakage
from a downpipe joint due to a low-level blockage within the
pipe.
Where the ground level outside is higher than floor level, the
moisture may be coming straight through because there is
inadequate drainage away from the wall or no effective
vertical moisture barrier. This is a common problem in cellars.

Cracking
For aesthetic reasons, internal cracking is usually repaired promptly
In cases of more severe damage, it may be necessary to dig out and
replace individual stones or bricks with matching ones. If the condition
of the stone or brick has deteriorated to such an extent that it
crumbles like powder, then clearly
it should be replaced with new stone or brick to match. Again, it is
critical that the cause of the problem is identified and rectified prior to
repairing damaged stonework.

Repointing
Wear and tear are a normal part of a buildings aging process, and
may include the deterioration of mortar joints. These can be regarded
to some extent as an expendable component that wears out in the
course of doing its job. The lime-based mortars used in traditional
construction have a resilience and self-healing quality that enables
them to absorb some of the movement and stresses within the wall in
a way that cement-rich mortars cannot.

Repointing is cheaper and simpler than replacing decayed bricks or


stones, and loss of the original stone or brick will also have a far
greater impact on the historic integrity of the building.
Repairing mortar joints is critical; like the roof, they are a first line of
defence in preserving the building.
When repointing a wall the mortar joints should always be weaker than
the strength of the stone or brickwork. Repairs to mortar joints must
match the colour, finish and mix (the lime:sand ratio - to which 2.5%
of pozzolan such as trass or kaolin can be added) of the original
mortar joints in order to maintain the integrity, appearance and
physical properties of the wall.

Painting

Check the condition of exterior paintwork at least every two years.


This is particularly important for painted timber as paint protects
timber from moisture absorption and therefore from rot. Deteriorated

paint must be removed and the surface primed before repainting.


When painting window sashes and doors, open and close them daily
for the first few days to prevent them becoming stuck. Acrylic paints
are not recommended for any moving parts like doors and windows,
because they are prone to sticking even when fully cured. Enamel
paints should be used instead.
Avoid build-up of numerous coats of paint on moving surfaces; rather
let the top surface wear
away before re-coating.

Plaster repairs
Masonry walls are almost without exception finished with lime render
and plaster internally. Attempts to strip away the finish and re-point
the wall as an exposed masonry feature will invariably result in
disappointment - the lower standard of workmanship and inferior
quality stones and bricks used in constructing the wall will prove quite
unsuitable. Other imperfections such as chases
for wiring and piping will mar the finished result even more.
This approach is also harmful to the historic and aesthetic integrity of
the place, and would normally be ruled out for this reason alone.
Interior plaster may require repair due to normal wear and tear or as a
result of rising damp, salt attack, falling damp or structural cracking.

STONE
Summary:
The physical and mechanical properties of natural
stone narrow its use as building material.
Modt historic structure and
constructed by natural stone.

recent

buildins

Overview of available natural stone resources and


trends in building stone extraction.
The groups either igneous, metamorphic to
sedimentary rocks allow to understand their origin,
recognize rock types and compare their potential
use.