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Anda di halaman 1dari 407

CIEAEM 66

Lyon

21-25 juillet / July 2014

Editor of the Journal : Benedetto Di Paola and Claudio Fazio

International program committee : Gilles Aldon (F), Peter Appelbaum (USA), Franoise Cerquetti-Aberkane

(F), Javier Diez-Palomar (ES), Gail Fitzsimmons (AU), Uwe Gellert (D), Fernando Hitt (Ca), Corinne Hahn (F),

Franois Kalavasis (Gr), Michaela Kaslova (CZ), Corneille Kazadi (Ca), Rjane Monod-Ansaldi (F), Michle Prieur

(F), Cristina Sabena (I), Sophie Soury-Lavergne (F).

Lyon

The theme of this conference refers to fundamental questions about mathematics, their existence, their discovery,

and their relations with other sciences, but also issues related to their teaching and learning in the twenty-rst century.

The PISA 2012 assesment and analytical framework (PISA, 2012) oers a denition of mathematics based on

mathematical relations with the "real world" :

Mathematical literacy is an individual's capacity to formulate, employ, and interpret mathematics in a variety

of contexts. It includes reasoning mathematically and using mathematical concepts, procedures, facts and tools to

describe, explain and predict phenomena. It assists individuals to recognise the role that mathematics plays in the world

and to make the well-founded judgments and decisions needed by constructive, engaged and reective citizens.(PISA,

2012)

The reality of mathematical objects can be seen only through an act of representation. And even if one believes

Freudenthal, if "our mathematical concepts, structures, ideas have been invented as tools to organize the phenomena

of the physical, social and mental world" (Freudenthal, 1983, p ix), relationships between mathematics and realities,

as well as relationships of mathematics with other sciences, come up against and face problems of translation due to

the nature of mathematical objects themselves.

Thus, the relationship of mathematics to realities, being philosophical, social, societal or educational, raises questions that the conference will address through its sub-themes of :

Mathematics in relation to other disciplines, by questioning the relationship, at a school level and at an academic

level, between disciplines and addressing the question of the reality of objects and concepts that depend on the

appropriate epistemology of each discipline

Logic in mathematical practices, addressing issues of logic as being part of mathematics and mathematical discovery,

as well as the links between logic and reasoning through questions such as : what is the role of logical reasoning ?

What are the links with argument, evidence ? What teaching can promote the acquisition of reusable logic skills ?

Technology and mathematics experiences, sub-themes in which the mathematical experience will be questioned :

is mathematics used by students to solve a mathematical task in a paper-and-pencil environment dierent from that

he or she would use in a technological context ?

Multiculturalism and reality : teaching realities in multicultural classrooms with multiple cultures can equally be

addressed from the perspective of professional cultures, social cultures, ethnic cultures, etc.

Gilles Aldon

Lyon

1 Plenaries

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

It's not just a matter of pink blocks : The provenance of mathematical

Tamsin Meaney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mathematics in and for work in a globalised environment . . . . . . .

Gail E. FitzSimons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mathematics as a part of culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Frantiek Kuina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 Semi-Plenaries

2.1

2.2

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

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resources

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Learning with touchscreen devices : the manipulation to approach and the game-approach as

to improve geometric thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ferdinando Arzarello, Marcelo Bairral & Carlotta Soldano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

La diversit empirique pour faire exister les objets mathmatiques . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thierry Dias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Working group 1

3.1

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learning

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strategies

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7

8

8

18

18

37

37

57

57

57

61

61

65

Gail FitzSimons and Javier Dez-Palomar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Critical learning in and between practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Toril Eskeland Rangnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Deux savoirs en miroir : Les procds mathmatiques et la langue latine en tant qu'exercice de la pense 74

S. Attisano, L. Bisello, A. Boggio, A. Loiero & S. Rossi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Ordinary dierential equations and individual-based simulations to deal with the modelling of bacterial

growth for use in classroom activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Marta Ginovart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Teaching Hyperbolic Geometry through Drama and ICT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Panagiota Kotarinou, Charoula Stathopoulou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Analysing and construing mathematics containing designing activities in adults' workplace competences 86

Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup, Lars Gustafsson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Boucles de rtroaction. . . la recherche de traces ecaces et senses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Petronilla Bonissoni, Paolo Longoni, Gianstefano Riva & Ernesto Rottoli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

Connecting mathematics to other disciplines as a meeting point for pre-service teachers . . . . . . . . 94

Javier Diez-Palomar, Joaquin Gimenez, Yuly Marsela Vanegas, Vicen Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Joint approaches of sciences and mathematics learning by experimental approaches . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Gilles Aldon, Rjane Monod-Ansaldi & Michle Prieur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

Mathematics as Vocational Knowing : The Importance of Recontextualisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Gail E. FitzSimons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

Modlisation et pratique scientique en classe : ds, enjeux, exemples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Michle Gandit, Christine Kazantsev, Hubert Proal, Dominique Spehner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

Students' expressed capabilities related to risk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Kjellrun Hiis Hauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Classe de mathmatiques, ralit et communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

Chapitre 0

Lyon

4 Working group 2

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

4.9

4.10

4.11

4.12

4.13

Ana Serrad Bays, Uwe Gellert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Un projet d'enseignement fond sur les situations de recherche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mathias Front, Marie-Line Gardes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7th grades' reactions to an unusual mathematical scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Kalliopi Pavlopoulou,Tasos Patronis, Maria Andrikopoulou . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Deconstructing the Filtration of Reality in Word Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Nina Bohlmann, Hauke Straehler-Pohl, Uwe Gellert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Des problmes pour favoriser la dvolution du processus de mathmatisation : un exemple en thorie

des nombres et une ction raliste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gilles Aldon, Viviane Durand-Guerrier, Benoit Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Proposition d'ingnierie pour l'tude de la proportionnalit par confrontation la non-proportionnalit

via des manipulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Valrie Henry, Pauline Lambrecht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An insight on children's ideas about the inverse relation between quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ema Mamede, Isabel Vasconcelos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A priori analysis and its role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hana Novkov, Jarmila Novotn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Developing hypothetical thinking through four cycles of informal stochastical modelling . . . . . . . .

Ana Serrad Bays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Teaching and learning algebra in the transition between scholastic levels : a preliminary study. . . . .

Daniela Sanna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reasons to Believe : Mathematics and the Reality of Consumerism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hauke Straehler-Pohl, Uwe Gellert, Nina Bohlmann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mathematics is more than the mathematics lesson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Audrey Cooke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Didactical Desiderata from a Sociological Approach to Logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

David Kollosche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 Working group 3

129

129

129

132

132

139

139

142

142

146

146

151

151

156

156

165

165

173

173

179

179

188

188

193

193

197

197

201

5.1

expriences mathmatiques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Cristina Sabena, Ruhal Floris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

5.2 Mathematics and concerts at stadiums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

Alejandro Rosas, Jorge Luis Rosas, Leticia del Rocio Pardo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

5.3 The use of technological resources for teaching trigonometry on teacher's training/L'utilisation des

ressources technologiques pour l'enseignement de la trigonomtrie sur la formation des enseignants . . 209

Nielce Meneguelo Lobo da Costa, Maria Elisa Esteves Lopes Galvo,Maria Elisabette Brisola Brito Prado209

5.4 The street lamp problem : discovering the triangle centres starting from a real situation . . . . . . . . 214

Gentile Elisa, Monica Mattei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

5.5 Algebraic interactions emerging from a ICT school experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Pili Royo, Joaquin Gimnez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

5.6 Proving processes in a Dynamic Geometry Environment : A case study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Madona Chartouny, Iman Osta, Nawal Abou Raad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

5.7 Primary graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

Daniela Ferrarello . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

5.8 La calculatrice comme milieu exprimental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

Ruhal Floris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

5.9 La pense arithmtico-algbrique dans la transition primaire-secondaire et le rle des reprsentations

spontanes et institutionnelles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

Fernando Hitt, Mireille Saboya et Carlos Corts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

5.10 The activity of programming on the continued education of the mathematic teacher . . . . . . . . . . 260

Lyon

Maria Elisabette Brisola Brito Prado, Nielce Meneguelo Lobo da Costa, Tnia Maria

5.11 Early childhood spatial development through a programmable . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cristina Sabena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.12 The use of technology when teaching about the equal sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Anna Wernberg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mendona

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Campos260

. . . . 265

. . . . 265

. . . . 279

. . . . 279

6 Working group 4

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

6.8

6.9

Jeannette Tambone, Teresa Assude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Odysseus' proving journeys to proof : an investigation on cognitive and aective realities . . . . . . .

Andreas Moutsios-Rentzos & Faidra Kalozoumi-Paizi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Contraintes d'un problme et raisonnement mathmatique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Teresa Assude, Anne Crumire & Jeannette Tambone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

The value of mathematics in dierent realities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Maria C. Johansson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

An investigation on the school socio-cultural identity and the perceived parental involvement on mathematics learning in Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sonia Kafoussi, Andreas Moutsios-Rentzos, Petros Chaviaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Stereotypes in mathematics textbooks as a potential additional obstacle in multicultural classrooms .

Hana Moraov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

A multilingual mathematics classroom : Various realities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Eva Norn, Lisa Boistrup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bringing students out- and in- school knowledge : teaching young Roma children mathematics and

language through their everyday experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Charoula Stathopoulou, Christos Govaris, Peter Appelbaum, Lena Gana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Langage, subjectivit et pratique : qu'appelle-t-on ralit en ducation mathmatique ? . . . . . . . .

Samuel Edmundo Lopez Bello, Jean-Claude Rgnier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 Workshops

7.1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

8.2

8.3

285

285

290

290

297

297

301

301

312

312

317

317

324

324

329

329

336

336

345

Mathematics used by the graphic register within the physics class / Mathmatiques convoques par le

registre graphique au sein du cours de physique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

Cline Renkens et Valrie Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345

How a street lamp, paper folding and GeoGebra can contribute to teachers' professional development . 354

Cristina Bardelle & al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

The toolbox : objects and tools for doing mathematics / La bote outils : objets et outils pour faire

des mathmatiques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Alessio Drivet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360

Un dispositif original pour apprhender le rel en mathmatiques : la rsolution collaborative de problme363

Marie-Line Gardes et Sonia Yvain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363

Investigative work in the classroom - How to integrate previously acquired knowledge in the curriculum

/ Situation de recherche en classe et intgration des savoirs institutionnaliss dans un curriculum . . . 370

Authors-Auteurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370

La classe d'accueil et la classe post accueil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

Isabelle Jordi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379

Activits favorisant la pense logique chez les enfants pre-scolaires et les lves de l'cole primaire . . 383

Michaela Kaslov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

8 Posters

8.1

285

Maria Elisa Esteves Lopes Galvo, Anglica da Fontoura Garcia Silva,Tnia Maria Mendona Campos,Ruy Cesar Pietropaolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Mathematical modeling : Secondary teacher preparation in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cynthia Oropesa Anhalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Problem solving : Analyzing narrative genre aspects of prospective mathematics teachers' discourse . .

Janet M. Liston . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapitre 0

389

389

389

393

393

398

398

Lyon

Lyon

Chapitre 1

Plenaries

1.1 Introduction

L'ensemble des confrences plnires de la CIEAEM 66 ont t lmes et sont disponibles en ligne sur le site de la

CIEAEM :

http ://www.cieaem.org/ ?q=node/39

Plenaries of CIEAEM 66 have been videotaped and are available online on the CIEAEM website :

http ://www.cieaem.org/ ?q=node/40

Michle Artigue, Universit Diderot, Paris, France

Paul Drijvers, Freudenthal intitute, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Tamsin Meaney, University of Malm, Sweden

Frantiek Kuina, University Hradec KRLOV, Czech Republic,

Alejandro Gonzales-Martin, Universit du Qubec Montral, Canada.

In these proceedings are included the text of the plenary given by Gail Fitzsimons (University of Melbourne) during

CIEAEM 65 in Turin.

La confrence plnire de Gail Fitzsimons (Universit de Melbourne) donne Turin (CIEAEM 65) est incluse

dans ces actes.

Chapitre 1

Lyon

1.2 It's not just a matter of pink blocks : The provenance of mathematical

learning resources

Tamsin Meaney

Malm University,

Abstract : In this paper, the role of learning resources in the teaching of mathematics to young children with diverse backgrounds

is examined. In particular, learning resources are examined for their historical, social and cultural meanings which can and do impact on

their potential to promote learning with dierent groups of students. For this research, Kress and van Leuwen's work on multimodalities is

used as a theoretical frame in order to illustrate the alternative meanings that learning resources may have. Implications from a speculative

example are used to suggest a broader understanding of how learning resources could contribute to dierent groups of children gaining

foregrounds which utilise mathematical thinking.

Introduction

Girls

are scientists too. I don't know why there are boy toys and girls toys or boy colors and girls colors. That

Rylee, aged 6

As I began this paper, there was a raging debate about LEGO and its impact on girls learning mathematics and

their desire to enter science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers 1 . Then a month away from

the conference, LEGO announces the production of a range of girl scientist toys as a result of an online campaign 2 .

So why this interest in gender and toys and what has it to do with mathematics education ? My interest stems from

research results which suggest that teachers in diverse classrooms often feel that teaching everyone exactly the same

is the most equitable approach (Norberg, 2000). Often teaching everyone the same actually means that some groups

of children must learn to learn like children from dominant groups. For example, Kersh, Casey and Young (2008)

recommended that encouraging young girls to spend more time on the structural aspects of block building may be

particularly helpful in reducing the gender gap in math and science achievement by promoting and nurturing the

development of spatial skills and mathematical competency (p. 247). This can be re-stated as if girls just play with

blocks like boys then they will gain the same mathematical competency and desire to enter STEM careers as boys.

However, Riegle-Crumb, King, Grodsky, and Muller (2012) suggest that simplistic explanations such as these need to

be rethought so the complexity of the situation is better understood. Consequently, I want to investigate why using

some learning resources may be counterproductive to supporting children to learn mathematics.

Although mathematics education has a long history of using learning resources, how dierent kinds of resources

contribute to learning is still under discussion. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Pestalozzi advocated

the use of artefacts. Since then support for their use has come in waves (Sowell, 1989). With each wave, the kind of

learning resources that are advocated and their purposes that they are supposed to achieve alter. For example, Frbel's

philosophy behind advocating that children worked with his gifts was that they would promote mediation between

the individual and God (Meaney, 2014). Recently, digital resources have been promoted as supporting children to work

with more abstract concepts than are generally thought to be connected to concrete resources (Resnick et al., 1998).

However, there remains questions about who determines the purpose of learning resources in mathematics teaching

and how this purpose can be achieved. On the surface, the colour of resources may seem to have little to add to this

discussion. However in this paper, I argue that some children perceive and respond to dierent attributes of learning

resources, including colour in ways that designers and teachers do not recognise or intend.

Although many have investigated the role of learning resources on mathematics education learning (Sowell, 1989 ;

Clements, 2000 ; Adler, 2000 ; Moyer, 2001 ; Ahmed, Clark-Jeavons, & Oldknow, 2004 ; Paek & Homan, 2014), the

investigations have assumed that the learning resources were either carrying the meanings that researcher felt they

had or no inherent meanings (see for example, Sarama & Clements, 2009). Moyer (2001) reiterated a point made by

others to say in relationship to mathematical meanings, manipulatives are not, of themselves, carriers of meaning or

insight (p. 176). Although accepting that manipulatives do not magically convey mathematical meanings to children,

1. Based on this article : http ://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/10578106/Gender-specic-toys-put-girls-o-mathsand-science.html the International Organisation of Women in Mathematics Education (IOWME) have been discussing this issue on their

facebook page.

2. https ://ideas.lego.com/blogs/1/post/11

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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I argue that some attributes of the learning resources may invoke children to ascribe meanings to the resources that

could aect detrimentally their learning of mathematics.

Generally it is assumed that resources used appropriately can contribute to children being able to mediate between

concrete and the abstract concepts and representations (Skoumpourdi, 2010). Physically manipulating learning resources is supposed to help children to gain, from a specic problem, a more abstract, generalised principal which can

be used in a range of contexts (Ahmed, Clark-Jeavons & Oldknow, 2004). From this perspective, if there are diculties

with children learning mathematics through using the materials, it is generally the children or their teachers who are

at fault. For example, Gravemeijer (1990) stated concrete representations remain problematic as long as children keep

seeing them as concrete material, rather than in relation to mathematics (, p. 30). Viewing the failure of learning

resources to produce the desired learning as the fault of the children or their teachers, generally from not explaining

them suciently (Skoumpourdi, 2010), simplies a complex situation.

In a written version of a keynote given at CIEAEM 2003, Afzal Ahmed made the following statement The

interplay among and connections between objects (structured or unstructured), images, language and symbols that

lead to mathematical reasoning and the stating of mathematical propositions of very wide generality is well worth a

closer study (Ahmed, et al., 2004). In this keynote, I want to continue this study by investigating how the meanings

attached to learning resources can be counterproductive for learning mathematics for some groups.

In this investigation, I use the work of Kress and van Leeuven (2001/2010) on multimodalities to discuss how

mismatches in children and teacher's meaning ascriptions to artefacts could result in some groups of children not being

able to use learning resources to gain the mathematical thinking anticipated by resource developers and teachers.

Rather than contributing to a decit explanation in which children or teachers are blamed for lack of learning,

understanding the potential dierent meanings connected to modes contributes the mismatch can be used to identify

alternative approaches to learning resources. However, before considering multimodalities, I want to discuss how

meaning ascriptions are connected to dispositions to learn.

Dispositions to learn

In order to understand the relationship between using learning resources and inequitable participation in learning

opportunities, it is important to recognise that all children learn something when engaged in activities, it is just that

what they learn may not be about mathematics. This will have an impact on the meanings that that the children

see as possible to ascribe in future situations. Whilst engaged in using learning resources, children draw upon and

ascribe meanings, mathematical and otherwise, to their manipulations of those resources. These meanings then become

potential meanings which can be ascribed to future situations where the children engage with the same or similar,

from their perspective, learning resources. Their previous experiences therefore have an impact on their dispositions

to learn in future situations. This relationship has been discussed by Skovsmose (2005a ; 2005b) from the perspective

of children's backgrounds and foregrounds. Skovsmose's (2005b) viewed a child's disposition to learn as being aected

by perceptions of past and potential future experiences. Meaning in learning comes to refer to a relationship between

the dispositions of the learner, the intentions of the learner, the intended and unintended eects of learning activities,

and the learner's reections on these eects (p. 93). The dispositions of a learner embody propensities that become

manifest in actions, choices, priorities, perspectives, and practices (Skovsmose, 2005a, p. 7). These propensities may

be contradictory because the child may conceptualise dierent foregrounds and backgrounds simultaneously in the

same situations.

By the foreground of a person I understand the opportunities, which the social, political and cultural situation

provides for this person. However, not the opportunities as they might exist in any socially well-dened or 'objective'

form, but the opportunities as perceived by the person. Nor does the background of a person exist in any 'objective'

way. Although the background refers to what a person has done and experienced (such as situations the person has

been involved in, the cultural context, the socio-political context and the family traditions), then background is still

interpreted by the person. Taken together, I refer to the foreground and the background of a person as the person's

dispositions. (p. 6-7) A child's foreground is determined by their current understandings about social, political and

cultural situation in which they are situated. Thus, reections on their past experiences form their interpretations of

future possibilities. Most work that has used Skovsmose's ideas about foregrounds and backgrounds have not considered

interactions with learning resources but learning more generally (for example, Gorgrio & Planas, 2005 ; Lange 2009 ;

Alr, Skovsmose, Valero, 2009). However, it seems relevant that the impact of children's responses to engaging with

dierent learning resources be considered as a component of their backgrounds which contributes to perceptions of

their foregrounds and thus their dispositions to learn.

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Multimodalities

Thus it can be considered that children's dispositions to learn will be aected by the meanings that they ascribe

to the learning resources and to the situations in which they are used. Meanings can be expressed through verbal

language but also through other modes :

Children use the full range of material and bodily resources available to them to make and express meaning

. . . Language is only one tool in a range of human semiosis, and . . . individuals choices of semiotic modes are motivated

by a complex web of interconnecting personal, institutional and social factors. (Flewitt, 2006, p. 46)

Drawing inspiration from Halliday's (1985) work on Systemic Functional Linguistics, Kress and van Leeuven

(2001/2010) described how meanings come to be attached to dierent modes, which included a range of physical

and ethereal forms of communication. These included speech and writing, but also colour and sound. In their discussion, they suggest two semiotic principles, provenance and experiential meaning potential. Provenance is of interest

when a sign is transferred into a new situation and the meanings that surrounded that sign in its original context

remain with the sign. When LEGO blocks were coloured pink, meanings attached to pink, such as it being a femininity

marker (Koller, 2008, p. 402) remain with the blocks. On the other hand, experiential meaning potential is about

using information given to a sign that comes from a bodily experience. Kress and van Leeuwen (2001/2010) stated

material qualities can also acquire meaning, not on the basis of 'where they come from', but on the basis of our

physical, bodily experience of them (p. 74). For example, talking about something being heavier can include sensual

meanings about the mass of an object that come from experiences of holding dierent objects.

Meanings can be expressed in dierent modes, such as the choice of a theme colour for a magazine article. This

colour would be obvious in the pictures but also in the written language describing the pictures. In considering Kress

and van Leeuven's theory in regard to learning resources, their shape, colour and size, for example, could all articulate

dierent meanings. The traditional linguistic account is one in which meaning is made once, so to speak. By contrast,

we see the multimodal resources which are available in a culture used to make meanings in any and every sign, at every

level, and in any mode. Where traditional linguists had dened language as a system that worked through double

articulation, where a message was an articulation as a form and as a meaning, we see multimodal texts as making

meaning in multiple articulations. (Kress & van Leeuwen 2001/2010, p. 4 ; italics in the original).

The meanings expressed by dierent attributes may be in harmony, or in conict or somewhere in between depending on what the interpreter brings with them to the interpretation. Using their background knowledge, an interpreter

can decide that one meaning is more important than other meanings. However, in doing so the interpreter's valuing

of this interpretation is also reinforced because insight from other interpretations are not utilised, thus solidifying the

importance of a particular meaning, in a two way feedback loop.

When one interpretation has become normalised as the only appropriate interpretation, then issues of power

come into play. In explaining how grammar books come to represent how language should be judged, Kress and van

Leeuwen (2002) wrote : In this case we can have grammar books, which become authoritative sources of information

on the practices, even though they are simply records of these. However, here power intervenes inasmuch as these

records tend to be of the practices of those who are regarded as belonging to a group whose usage can be accepted as

denitive, and may as a result be imposed on other groups as well. (p. 344)

Thus, when expectations of how learning resources will contribute to developing children's mathematical thinking

are based on the meanings assigned to them by one particular group then it is likely that other groups' mathematics

learning will be impeded as their interpretations are disregarded or remain unrecognised.

Two examples

In order to exemplify how Kress and van Leeuven's views on multimodality can be operationalised, I provide two

examples from research into the development of games or apps for ICT that will support young children's engagement

with mathematics. The rst example illustrates how children's interpretations of meanings embedded into the game

through its design contributes to the children learning about conjecturing. In the second example, the provenance

attached to representations of the apples and numerals produce responses that are unlikely to contribute positively to

mathematical learning of any kind for the child involved.

The rst example comes from a six and a half minute video of two Swedish preschool children playing on an

interactive table (see Lembrr & Meaney, 2014). The game was designed by rst-year university, gaming students. As

can be seen in Figure 1.1, the game consisted of a virtual set of scales, with dierent combinations of cubes, available

at the bottom of the screen, which could be dragged to the scale pans. The balance beam can tip to suggest that one

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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11

side is heavier than another. When the pans are considered to be equal, a light in the centre of the balance beam glows

green. A game such as this is known as a virtual replication (Paek & Homan, 2014). Unlike the diculties identied

by Paek and Homan (2014) in regard to virtual replications which relied on children using a computer mouse, the

touchscreen technologies meant that the children intuitively determined how to move the cube blocks around.

(0 :01 :16.6) Anna : Annars kan vi gra s hr.

Att man tar av den.

Anna tar bort gul kub4.

Anna : S tar han av den.

Anna pekar p vgsklen p Albins sida.

Anna : S tar han av den (hela innehllet p

Albins sida vgen)

och d tar han denna frn mig.

Anna pekar p gulkub2x2.

Lraren : Funkar det ?

Albin drar ner gul stapelkub2x3 och drar upp

gul kub2x2 som ligger p golvet p Annas sida.

Anna och Albin tittar tiden p vgen. Det blir

grnt.

Albin : Jaaaaaa

Lraren : Ooooohhhhh (gr ett frtjust lte).

Det klarade ni ju !

you take o it.

Anna removes yellow 4 group of cubes.

Anna : So he takes it.

Anna points to the scale pan on Albin's side.

Anna : So he takes it o (the entire contents

of the pan on Albin's side of the balance) and

then he takes it from me.

Anna points to yellow group of 2x2 cubes.

Teacher : Does it work ?

Albin pulls down a yellow 2x3 group of cubes

and pulls up yellow 2x2 cube lying on the bottom on Anna's side.

Anna and Albin watch the centre of the scales.

It becomes green.

Albin : Yessssssssss !

Teacher : Ooooohhhhh (make a delighted cry).

It says you have succeeded !

This game relies on the children interpreting the meanings embedded into the dierent objects on the screen to

play the game. Having had some experiences with an actual balance, it was possible for the children to make use of

the resemblance to a virtual balance. At dierent times, the teacher and the children used terms such as heavier or

lighter to describe what they saw (Lembrr & Meaney, 2014).

Making use of the experimental meaning potential (Kress & van Leeuven, 2001/2010) connected to experiencing

what heavier and lighter looks like on a real balance allowed the children to produce and learn about conjectures,

while playing the virtual game. Their dispositions to learn was supported by positive previous, related experiences,

even though the learning was about mathematical conjectures, rather than balances.

Although a teacher was present and interacted with the children, the game's green light came to gain the role

of expert, in that it judged the children's success in balancing the scales. In Western society, the colour green has a

provenance which connects it to something positive and moving forward. If the balance beam had glowed red, it was

likely to be interpreted as meaning something else. Nevertheless, green does not have the same provenance in other

cultures. For some children, the clues embedded into this game would make little sense to them and not produce

the kind of conjectures that these young Swedish children did. This may lead to some groups of children feeling that

mathematics makes little sense to them and thus reduce their dispositions to learn.

In the second example, the meanings that come with fruit and the presentation of the equations interfered with a

6 year old child, Miguel, my nephew, learning mathematics from playing games on a tablet (Lange & Meaney, 2013).

Chapitre 1

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12

On the third and nal day of recordings, the following interaction occurred around an app called Knattematte (see

Figure 1.2).

T : I wonder what this one does ?

M : Mmm, apple. I don't see any apples. (apples start to fall from the top of the screen)

T : How many apples can you see ?

M : Three. You just have to eat them.

T : You don't press four ? No. It's a very strange game. Two, three.

M : You've just eat them.

T : Four, ve, six, seven.

M : I think that was eight.

T : Was it eight ? (new game)

T : Seven, one, two, three, four, ve, six, seven. (new game)

M : Red apple

T : So how much is six plus one ?

M : Six

T : One, two, three, four, ve, six. Six plus one makes ? And which ? (points to the numbers at the bottom of the

page)

M : Seven.

T : There you go. (Miguel successfully answers the next question by himself)

T : Well done. (In the next go, the answer is 6 but Miguel pushes 9 instead. It just shakes. He then pushes the 6)

M : Six, ve plus one. Two plus seven ? Nine.

T : Yep, you know these ones that's pretty good. (M in the next game, just pushes a range of numbers till the

correct one moves into position. Then the next game comes up).

M : Nine

T : One plus six is ?

M : Seven

T : Mmhmm. One plus.

M : This is a maths game. (Miguel returns to the main menu)

Knattematte gave the player a choice of three dierent fruits. Although the fruit turned out to stand for dierent

levels, Miguel chose apples initially because they were his favourite fruit. Correspondingly, the experimental meaning

potential for him was the taste of the apples. Therefore, it is perhaps not so surprising that Miguel considered that

virtual eating of the apples was what he should do. Although I, with my teaching experience, tried to steer him towards

counting, he found that he could make the apples look like they were eaten by tapping on them.

Later, a simple addition was given with an appropriate number of apples and a choice of four numbers provided

at the bottom of the screen. The correct number needed to be tapped, but if a wrong number was tapped, it just

shook. Miguel soon learnt that nding the correct answer to move on to the next game could be achieved by simply

tapping on each number until the correct one was identied. Regardless of nding this solution strategy, he labelled

Knattematte a maths game and promptly left it. Although only 6, Miguel had grown to dislike mathematics as

represented by worksheets. His emotional reaction to worksheets counterbalanced his liking of apples so he opted out

of the game. However, he played other apps for a long period of time, when they did not resemble artefacts from school

mathematics, even if I could see that they involved dierent mathematical understandings (Lange & Meaney, 2013).

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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13

Thus, the provenance of this game and its experiential meaning potential as interpreted by Miguel resulted in possible

learning opportunities being discarded. He had no disposition to learn through this game.

These two examples indicate how designers, teachers and children's interpretations of learning materials, whether

they are physical or digital, can be in harmony and thus contribute to children's learning about mathematical thinking

or in dissonance resulting in a lack of learning from these materials. These are individual examples. In the next section,

I hypothesise how groups of children with similar background experiences may come to form dierent interpretations

of learning resources than was anticipated by adults and how this might contribute to these groups being less likely

to take up certain kinds of learning opportunities.

In this section, I describe briey what is known about the connection between children's early childhood building

with blocks, particularly LEGO and later mathematics interest and achievement in high school. From there I consider

how spatial thinking is related to having a STEM career. I also consider what is known about gender dierences in

regards to spatial thinking, which has been linked to playing with blocks. From this, I argue that the provenance of

the colour pink might contribute to girls building more LEGO and thus gaining spatial thinking but it may also make

girls feel that unless STEM careers also have an aura of femininity then these are not for them. Thus making LEGO

bricks pink could reinforce girls' perceptions that only feminine careers are possible. This is a speculative argument

which requires research. Nevertheless there is sucient existing evidence to use this as an example, even if speculative,

of how the foregrounds of some groups of students can be reduced.

The issue of pink bricks is a speculative example of how some groups of students may be channelled into making

choices about their mathematics learning through subtle inuences such as the meanings ascribed to particular learning

resources because of their outward appearance. This is not to say that dispositions to learn are linked exclusively to

the use of learning resources. Instead I argue that because learning resources are often considered in research literature

to have limited if any meanings embedded into them, the non-mathematical meanings associated with them may

go an unrecognised which could contribute to the reasons for some groups disengaging from mathematics not being

understood which allows the children or their teachers' to be blamed for a societal problem.

In their longitudinal study of the impact of block play on school mathematics achievement, Wolfgang, Stannard

and Jones (2001) found that the complexity and adaptability in children's block play in preschool correlated with their

mathematics achievement in high school. As well, in relation to LEGO play, they found :

Since all other outcome variables at the middle school and high school levels such as number of classes taken,

number of honors classes taken, average mathematics grades, and a combined weighted value of all mathematics

courses taken were all signicant, we may clearly state that there is a statistical relationship between early LEGO

performance among preschool and achievement in mathematics, not during the elementary school years, but later at

the middle and high school level. (Wolfgang, Stannard, & Jones, 2003, p. 473)

The data that they had collected could not be used to determine whether the correlation was causal. However,

other researchers such as Piccolo and Test (2010/2011) suggest that block play leads to increased spatial thinking

and having high levels of spatial thinking is linked to students choosing STEM careers (Uttal & Cohen, 2012). If

LEGO play also contributes to improving spatial thinking, then Wolfgang et al.'s (2003) result would seem to be in

alignment with these other studies. There has been some research on gender aspects in regard to spatial thinking.

Newcombe (2010) stated that males had superior spatial skills and while training was unlikely to result in closing the

gap in results for genders, it would improve the skills of both males and females. It has been suggested that boys are

more involved in block play in preschools and this may contribute to better visual-spatial skills (Calder et al., 1999).

However, in their own study with preschool children, Calder et al. (1999) did not nd any signicant dierences in

play type according to gender or to spatial-visual skills. More recently, Ferrara, Hirsh-Pasek, Newcombe, Golinko,

and Lam (2011) found that there was no gender dierences in a study of the language used by preschool children and

parents involved in block play. It thus seems that gender dierences in block play and the development of spatial skills

is not clear cut.

In a study on adults from two geographically but culturally dierent communities in rural India, Homan, Gneezy

and List (2011) found that gender-related dierences in solving a spatial problem were present in the patrilineal society

but not in the adjoining matrilineal society. Although it cannot be presumed that there is a causal correlation, it does

seem that cultural norms may play some part in whether gender dierences in spatial thinking occurs.

It is therefore interesting to speculate how colour might aect whether or not gender dierences arise in regard

to developing spatial thinking from block play. Studies such as Ferrara et al. (2011) and Wolfgang et al. (2003) used

Chapitre 1

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14

blocks in a range of colours. However, the new version of LEGO for girls is predominantly pink and purple in colour.

The gures are also dierent, less androgynous and use pink and purple in the clothing. The building sets for LEGO

Friends are of poodle parlours, beauty shops and shopping malls. Without a thorough analysis it is dicult to know

if the construction demands dier between the traditional kits and LEGO Friends. Figure 1.3 provides a photo of

dierent LEGO friend constructions.

The complexity of the building skills needed for LEGO Friends may provide opportunities to gain the same spatial

thinking skills as from constructing the traditional kits which could result in the higher mathematical achievement

noted in Wolfgang et al.'s (2003) study. A similar expectation could be that girls can develop superior spatial thinking

from constructing LEGO Friend kits and this could contribute to more of them seeing STEM careers as part of their

foregrounds.

However, colouring the bricks pink with its provenance connected to femininity may counterbalance the desire to

adopt a STEM career. As gender dierences in math performance, even among high scorers, are insucient to explain

lopsided gender patterns in participation in some STEM elds (Hyde, Lindberg, Linn, Ellis, & Williams, 2008, p.

495), there is a need to think about other aspects of this complex situation to consider causes and thus solutions.

Although the introduction of pink LEGO bricks would not yet have any impact on gender disparities, there is a need

to think about why simply improving mathematical skills may not lead to more women taking up STEM careers.

Pink had originally been a male colour, associated with the red of blood and ghting. In contrast, blue was considered a girl colour because of its association with the Virgin Mary's cloak (Koller, 2008). However in the last half

century, the gender associations with colours have swapped. Koller (2008) found that as a result many companies

marketed products perceived as being unfeminine in pink, such as cars or electronic goods. Those marketing these

products judged, rightly in most cases, that the products would take on the qualities of femininity that pink portrayed.

Although Koller (2008) also noted that many positive associations with pink can easily tip over into negative associations such as naivety and stupidity, pink has come to communicate fun and independence, nancial and professional

power without conforming to masculine norms, as well as femininity and self-condence (p. 416). However colouring

cars and electronic gear in pink has not necessarily contributed to women wanting to understand the technology on

which these things are built.

STEM careers are situated as primarily masculine occupations (Riegle-Crumb, et al., 2012), and thus in opposition

to the pink provenance of femininity. Even the post-feminist associations with pink that situate women as nancially

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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15

independent and competent (Koller, 2008) may not contribute to girls associating their exploratory play with pink

bricks with foregrounds that include having STEM careers. The choice by the LEGO company to produce LEGO

Friends was a commercial one and it has been extremely successful 3 . However, it cannot be considered to have the

same potential outcomes as LEGO's choice in the 1990s to focus on kits for boys. This focus allowed playing with LEGO

to be seen as a masculine activity which can be regarded as encouraging a seamless move into seeing STEM careers,

with the same provenance, as available in their foregrounds. It is not clear that girls will see such a smooth path ahead

of them. Girls may gain more spatial thinking skills but this may not contribute to them taking up STEM careers as

it seems to have for boys. This is in contrast to suggestions that increased building block experiences will provide a

smooth path towards STEM careers as suggested by researchers such as Kersh, Casey and Young (2008). Riegle-Crumb

et al. (2012) suggest that associations of STEM careers with masculinity will continue to be the main contributor to

why girls do not take up these career choices -yet because of the societal pervasiveness of gender essentialist beliefs

and the accompanying socialization and micro-level interactions that support them, gendered patterns in choice of

major will not shift accordingly (p. 1067-1068). Thus, the focus on pink and its associations with femininity might

result in restricted or at least not expanded foregrounds for girls in regards to STEM careers, even if more girls

improve their spatial skills. Rylee's point, made at the beginning of the paper, echoes the concerns of researchers such

as Riegle-Crumb et al. (2012). Colouring toys particular colours to indicate whether they are for boys or for girls ies

in the face of her belief that girls are scientists too.

Ways forward

The meanings that are ascribed into learning resources reect the wider cultural values of the dominant groups

within a society. Some groups of children who do not share the background experiences of children from dominant

groups may have diculties interpreting the meanings attached to learning resources that designers and anticipate.

Having a green light to indicate that a correct result has been achieved only makes sense because in many Western

countries green has this provenance. Although its use in learning resources will reinforce this often undiscussed meaning

making, if children initially do not make the connection then they are unlikely to be able to reinforce this meaning.

Consequently mathematics may take on the provenance of being nonsensical and other mathematical experiences are

reacted to as though they have the same nonsensical provenance.

On the other hand, the provenance of aspects of learning materials such as colour can be problematic in its own

right and result in some groups of children having their foregrounds reduced. Teachers and resource designers may

anticipate that making a learning resource pink will encourage girls to use it but the other connotations that come

with that colour may oset these advantages. Thus, the neutrality of learning resources needs to be problematised

so that the interaction between them and children's dispositions to learn mathematics, both in present and future

opportunities, are better understood. Although teachers in classrooms and designers of learning resources can take

into account the provenance and experiential meaning potential of dierent aspects of learning resources, there is

also a need for mathematics educators and researchers to challenge stereotypes at the societal level. If more equitable

representation of dierent groups in STEM careers is to be achieved then rhetoric alone, about the need for such

a change, will not produce it. Colours which have gendered, class or ethnicity connotations are only one aspect of

learning resources which can reinforce the idea that certain skills can be developed only by particular groups of

people. Changing colours will not change outcomes unless societal beliefs are fundamentally challenged. In 1916, after

reviewing research on women and their possibilities for taking up dierent careers, Lowie and Hollingworth wrote no

rational grounds have yet been established that should lead to articial limitation of woman's activity on the ground

of inferior eciency (p. 284). Yet in 2014, we still have a psychologist gaining newspaper headlines by suggesting that

innate dierences between women and men will mean that few women will ever become engineers 4 . Such headlines

suggest that research results alone will not lead to more equitable foreground perceptions by children. It also means

that aware teachers and children, such as Rylee at six years old, cannot be held responsible for overcoming societal

value systems by themselves.

3. http ://www.businessweek.com/magazine/lego-is-for-girls-12142011.html

4. http

://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2689540/Stop-trying-make-girls-science-It-goes-against-human-nature-claims-

psychologist.html

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Gail E. FitzSimons

University of Melbourne

Rsum : Cet article commence par une brve analyse de quelques consquences de la mondialisation pour la politique d'ducation,

qui dispose actuellement d'un fort accent sur l'conomie. En particulier, il problmatise des documents pdagogiques encadres en termes

de comptences et d'aptitudes. La vie professionnelle est de plus en plus exigeant : apprentissage continu et l'innovation qui, en partie,

dpendent de la connaissance disciplinaire comptent. Cependant, contrairement l'cole, les problmes et les solutions ne peuvent pas

tre connues et enseignes l'avance. Localement, de nouvelles connaissances doivent tre labores, de faon crative et en respectant les

contraintes, pour trouver une solution viable. Je donne un exemple paradigmatique de la faon dont les mathmaticiens et les ingnieurs

collaborent dans l'industrie de l'acier. Je vous propose ensuite quelques exemples de l'enseignement des mathmatiques problmatique pour

le lieu de travail et l'examen de la faon dont l'enseignement des mathmatiques peut tre dirente. Enn, je prsenterai un projet de

recherche en milieu de travail novateur qui adopte une approche socio-mathematique.

Abstract : This article opens with a brief analysis of some consequences of globalisation for education policy, which currently has a

strong focus on the economy. In particular, it problematises curriculum documents framed in terms of competences and skills. Working life

is increasingly demanding continuous learning and innovation which, in part, depend upon relevant disciplinary knowledge. However, unlike

school, problems and solutions cannot be known and taught ahead of time. Locally new knowledge must be developed, creatively and within

constraints, to nd a workable solution. I give a paradigmatic example of how professional mathematicians and engineers collaborate in the

steel industry. I then oer some examples of problematic mathematics education for the workplace, and consideration of how mathematics

education might be dierent. Finally, I introduce an innovative work-place research project which adopts a sociomathematical approach.

Contemporary globalization is dened as the intensication of cross-national interactions that promote the

establishment of transnational structures and the global integration of cultural, economic, environmental, political,

technological and social processes on global, supranational, national, regional and local levels. (Dreher, Gaston, &

Martens, 2008, quoted in Milana, 2012, p. 782)

Educational activity is shaped simultaneously in global, national, and local spheres, and today's education systems

are no longer immune to the eects of globalisation. Educational identities of teachers and students alike are becoming

more standardised, while at the same time there is unprecedented access to, and sharing of, knowledge and information,

ideas and products, real or virtual witness the global uptake of Web 2.0, social media, etc.

One of the consequences of globalisation, and the rapid and unpredictable ows of money and people, as well

as advanced technologies and communications, is that the historical model of full-time education followed by fulltime work until a dignied retirement no longer applies to the vast majority of people. The likelihood is that there

will be several changes of jobs and even occupations, in dierent geographical locations ; periods of unemployment or

under-employment ; casual or contract labour or relatively more secure employment ; promotion or demotion. Although

learning is an integral part of living and being (informal education), inevitably there will be an unprecedented need

for ongoing learning, formal, and non-formal education in and for work and beyond. Yet, there is also the likelihood

of gaps between periods of formal education, and returning to study can be a challenging experience, particularly in

mathematics with its constantly evolving use of new technologies.

In terms of education policy, there has been a marked trend toward responding to the needs of the economy ahead of

other global concerns such as the environment and human rights (Milana, 2012). This is reected in the introduction of

various mechanisms of quality assurance originally designed for business, including Total Quality Management models

(e.g., ISO 9000), benchmarking, and rankings (FitzSimons, 2011). The politicisation in many countries of PISA and

TIMSS results, along with national testing, directly inuences mathematics curriculum and assessment, even though

few people are actually willing or able to question the epistemological basis on which these assessments are formulated

(Lundin, 2012).

Salling Olesen (2010) briey outlined the history of work from traditional societies, where working and learning were

an everyday part of life, through industrial capitalism to the present, post-industrial workplaces. He identied shifting

conceptualisations of work, from a focus on the individual to a human capital perspective or else an individualistic

learning perspective. He noted that, in recent times :

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a good deal of industrial work has turned into planning, control and adjustment, as well as communication and

logistic tasks. Reporting has become an integrated aspect of manufacturing and service work. The quantitative

proportion of oce work and dierent types of business services is increasing, the dierence from manufacturing on

the other hand is becoming less obvious. Oce work is undergoing many processes of industrial reorganisation

similar to those that took place in manufacturing. Automation and semi-automation by means of information

technology is shaping data processing, accounting and text processing in a way which has similarities with the

industrial development. (p. 7)

He observed that there are new divisions of labour, oering new opportunities for learning ; while, at the same

time, the notion of workplace has also taken on new meanings as a societal institution on one hand, and involving new

spatial and sensual realities, so that older stereotypes of work and learning should be avoided.

In summary, one consequence of globalisation is greater interconnectivity worldwide, which has resulted in less

control by national governments over critical policy areas such as education and work. In addition to environmental

phenomena such as climate change threatening survival of ora and fauna (including humans), there are also rapid

and unpredictable ows of people and nance, generating uncertainty at societal and individual levels. Consider, for

example, the dire eects on large cities, such as Detroit, of volatile demand (due, in part to global oil price uctuations

and global nancial crises) alongside the technological substitution for labour or shifts to low-wage economies in the

automobile industry ; and this is played out in smaller cities and towns throughout the industrialised world, with

consequential ow-on eects for the su-rounding population.

The global ows of knowledge, people, capital, and jobs have given rise to the issue of recognition or validation of skill

levels, acknowledging people's non-formal and informal learning. Formalised as National Qual-cations Frameworks,

they often include the implementation of a learning outcomes-based approach to curriculum. At an individual level,

these learning outcomes are generally taken to be the knowledge, skills, competences, attitudes, and experience gained

as an inherent part of learning and work processes. Socially, the anticipated benets are to enable greater mobility of

workers, to promote lifelong learning, and to assist employers from a Human Resources perspective (Bohlinger, 2012 ;

EACEA, 2010). However, there is no universal agreement on the denitions of any of the key terms used to describe

learning outcomes. The critical literature claims there is not sucient research to support the political changes from

an epistemological perspective, as it is argued that learning outcome statements are not capable of capturing complex

curricula and knowledge satisfactorily : Learning outcomes can inhibit useful learning processes, fail to recognise

explorative and unintended learning, and create a target-led culture (Souto-Otero, 2012). Bohlinger (2012) points out

the problem of assessment of competence (as a performance) can only ever reect part of that competence, and is

clearly dependent upon the skills (or competence) of the assessor.

In recent years the majority of European countries have revised their mathematics curricula to bring into eect a

stronger focus on competences and skills, an increase in cross-curricular links, and a greater emphasis on the application

of mathematics in everyday life. The Education, Audiovisual & Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) (2011) states :

. . .mathematical competence will be understood to go beyond basic numeracy to cover a combination of knowledge,

skills and attitudes. Mathematical competence will refer to the ability to reason mathematically, to pose and solve

mathematical questions, and to apply mathematical thinking to solve real life problems. It will be linked to skills like

logical and spatial thinking, the use of models, graphs and charts and understanding the role of mathematics in

society. (p. 8)

However, for the ve identied areas of mathematical competence mastering basic skills and procedures, understanding mathematical concepts and principles, applying mathematics in real-life contexts, communicating about

mathematics, and reasoning mathematically the EACEA report found that specic teaching and assessment methods

were lacking, and made recommendations for support and reinforcement considered desirable in line with EU policy.

Clearly, policies can aect all involved in education. But, do they achieve what they intend especially in relation to

work ? As Gal (2013) reminds us, there has been little interest shown by the mathematics education community in

the external perspective : in what actually happens to students after they leave school, in how people actually use

mathematics in the workplace or elsewhere, or in understanding how the mathematical knowledge and dispositions

developed in school play out in adults' lives.

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In workplaces, apart from academic knowledge such as mathematics, there is generally a wealth of codied knowledge in the form of manuals, charts, instructions, etc., in print and online. This codied knowledge is combined with the

pervasive non-codied cultural and personal knowledge of workers which Eraut (2004) considers as skills. By cultural

knowledge he means knowledge that is uncodied and acquired informally through participation in social activities,

often taken for granted. Personal knowledge is dened by Eraut (2004) as :

what individuals bring to situations that enables them to think, interact and perform . . . it includes not only

personalized versions of public codied knowledge but also everyday knowledge of people and situations, know-how

in the form of skills and practices, memories of episodes and events, self-knowledge, attitudes and emotions.

Moreover, it focuses on the use value of knowledge rather than its exchange value in a world increasingly populated

by qualications. (pp. 263-264)

Workers bring three interrelated kinds of skills (or logics) : (a) technical (related to equipment & work organisation),

(b) behavioural (non-codied cultural & personal qualities), and (c) cognitive (education & training) skills (Mounier,

2001 ; Wedege, 2000). The capacity to exercise these skills is developed from personal, social, formal and non-formal

educational, and working life experiences. In post-industrial workplaces there is a rich mixture of various forms of

knowledge, and hence opportunities, or imperatives, for learning. However, learning at work is of a qualitatively

dierent kind from learning at school. There is always a specic purpose, or a social motive, integrating learning into

meaningful social and communicative contexts.

Working for a living is inevitably a social and cultural activity, mediated by tools and artefacts, material and

non-material, including an inescapable need for communication in many forms, verbal and non-verbal. Eraut (2004)

prefers a social-centred denition of competence because it reects both the everyday role on the job and the mediating

role between workers within and between levels, internally, and between the workplace and clients, externally. He notes

that judgements of competence are still very situation specic, depending on the context of the performance and also

the expectations of each individual performer. He added that what counts as competence will change over time as

practices change and the speed and quality of work improves. Thus, from a learning viewpoint, competence is a moving

target (p. 264). Compare this with the static concept of competence used in education discourse.

In order to stay in business, workplaces need to produce and use new forms of knowledge or recontextualise existing

forms. Underlying this knowledge creation is the interdependence between dierent forms of knowledge theoretical

and tacit (Guile, 2011, p. 4), a consideration often neglected by education policy makers. Engestrm and Sannino

(2010) argue that traditional modes of learning, deal[ing] with tasks in which the contents to be learned are well known

ahead of time (p. 3) are inadequate when faced with the complexities of shorter life cycles of entire production, with

their constantly shifting or accelerating transformations in conceptualisations. Workers are constantly having to learn

things that do not currently exist, and for which they have no prior experience. (For a graphic example of this in the

highly complex work of structural engineers working only from architects' plans, see Gainsburg, 2006.)

Innovation at work

Particularly in a globalised economy, responsiveness to continual change is essential, requiring dierent forms of

innovation, and hence learning, at work. Ellstrm (2010, p. 27) portrayed practice-based innovation as a cyclical

process of adaptive and developmental learning (see gure 1.4). It is driven by contradictions and tensions between

explicitly planned change and ongoing change arising implicitly through the constant variations and modications in

performance that arise in response to unforeseen events, disruptions and problems (p. 37).

Apart from formalised Research and Development, innovations may be viewed as a function of the learning and

knowledge creation that takes place in the production of goods and services in organizations (Ellstrm, 2010, p. 27).

A basic assumption . . .is that the interface and the interplay between the explicit and implicit dimensions of work

may be driving forces for learning and innovation processes. The underlying idea is that tensions and contradictions

between work processes as ocially prescribed (the explicit dimension) and as perceived and performed in practice

(the implicit dimension) create potentials for learning and practice-based innovations in an organization. (p. 32)

This process begins with questioning, a disturbance or the emergence of a problematic situation . . .[which] leads

to routinized patterns . . .being broken and a search for new ways of dealing with the disturbance or the problematic

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Figure 1.4 Practice-based innovation as a cyclical process of learning (Ellstrm, 2010, p. 32)

situation at hand (p. 36). Ellstrm explains how the interplay between these two operational dimensions (explicit

& implicit) takes place in accordance with two complementary processes or logics. The logic of production has an

emphasis on the mastering and reproduction of prescribed work processes, while the logic of development is mainly

focused on exploration and re-conceptualisation (or reconstruction) of the operations that are performed in practice.

Following a similar line of thought to Eraut (2004) regarding personal or individual factors, Ellstrm (2010) continues

that the implicit work process depends in part upon these which could include knowledge, values, attitudes to work,

emotional and personality-related factors . . .There is typically a considerable creativity and an ability to improvise

when it comes to nding solutions to unexpected problems that arise (p. 31).

Focusing specically on workplace learning, the logic of production requires a process of adaptive or re-productive

learning [with] a focus on establishing and maintaining well learned and routinized action pat-terns. [The aim] is to

reduce variation so that the task concerned can be performed rapidly and with a low percentage of error (Ellstrm,

2010, p. 33). On the other hand, the logic of development presupposes learning with a strong emphasis on the subjects'

capacity for self-management and their preparedness to question, reect on and, if necessary, transform established

practices in the organization into new solutions or ways of working (p. 34). The importance of each kind of logic will

vary with the kind of work being undertaken : for example, nurses responsible for administering drug dosages would

be expected to routinely use their mathematical knowledges and skills at the highest level of accuracy and be ready to

question possible misunderstandings in communication ; whereas nurses responsible for maintaining a patient's health

and well-being from social and emotional perspectives would tend to vary their practices according to the specic

needs of that person.

There are a number of dierent barriers to innovation which may be related to subjective factors (e.g., an individual's competence), organisational, cultural, or structural factors (e.g., the division of labour). The in-dividual's

subjective capacity is related to, for example, previous experience with similar tasks, [their] knowledge and understanding of the task at hand, self-condence and occupational identity (p. 36). However, organisational and structural

factors may exert a greater inuence on learning and innovation where mathematics and technology use are concerned

(Smith, 1999) as management decides the level of responsibility for individual workers.

In summary, innovation is the essential core of workplace activity in a globalised environment. The ques-tion arises :

How well does today's mathematics education prepare students for this world of work which re-quires continuous development, creativity, a blend of theoretical and tacit knowledges, as well as complex personal and cultural knowledges ? In

relation to creativity and innovation, how meaningful is the learning that takes place in formal mathematics education ?

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Across a range of industries and sectors manufacturing, trades, creative and performing arts, agricultural production, minerals and energy, etc mathematical concepts, thinking and reasoning are frequently an implicit, if not

explicit, aspect of planning, production (taken in its broadest sense), and communications. A summary of recent

workplace mathematics literature (FitzSimons, 2013) indicates that workers at all levels may need to operate with

advanced technological tools. For example, they might measure, collect, enter, and/or interpret data (in graphs, tables,

spreadsheets) ; they might (re-)program and even adjust the operations of machinery in use ; or keep electronic records

of human and material resources and stock. These technologies radically extend human thinking and learning capabilities, and embody the often unique, idiosyncratic, conceptual systems of their designers, rendering the underlying

mathematics invisible. However, most forms of technology in the workplace, material and communicative, can only

function in combination with human activity (Wedege, 2000) through what has come to be known as instrumental

genesis (Rabardel, 1995/2002 ; Trouche, 2004).

Acknowledging the complexity of the so-called transfer of knowledge from academic institution to workplace, Eraut

(2004) identied ve interrelated stages, claiming that the 2nd , 4th , and 5th tend to be ignored in formal educational

processes :

1. of knowledge from academic institution to workplace, Eraut (2004) identied ve interrelated stages, claiming

that the 2nd, 4th, and 5th tend to be ignored in formal educational processes :

2. understanding the new situation a process that often depends on informal social learning ;

3. recognizing what knowledge and skills are relevant ;

4. transforming them to t the new situation ;

5. integrating them with other knowledge and skills in order to think/act/communicate in the new sit-uation. (p.

256)

In a sequence strikingly similarity to Eraut's, Nakagawa and Yamamoto (2010, 2013), gave an account of their

observations of the Japanese steel making industry that involved collaboration between industrial engineers and themselves as academic and industrial mathematicians, respectively. All participants, engineers and mathematicians, met

to form an understanding the context of the problem in all its complexity, including relevant historic and current

information. They then discussed the problem from their respective knowledge bases until they reached a common

understanding, and this required not only mathematical and scientic knowledge but also, signicantly, personal and

social skills. The mathematicians then recognized what knowledge and skills were relevant, and analysed the data

logically to interpret their previous observations. Transforming their mathematical knowledges and skills to t the

new situation needed to be integrated with the operational and economic realities of the particular site. This analysis

and transformation of mathematical knowledges and skills in the resolution of the original problem then oered a

starting point for innovation in the eld of mathematical research.

In this account, the mathematicians have brought to bear their cultural knowledge of the workplace and its processes

as well as their personal skills ; they have developed a collaborative and holistic approach, from understanding the

nature of the problem in the beginning, through to communicating the outcomes at the end. Nakagawa and Yamamoto

(2010, 2013) emphasised that while the culture of education has traditionally implied teaching to be uni-directional,

from school to industry, it is critical that teachers and academic mathematicians also learn from industry. As I will

discuss further below, this means adopting a humble and respectful stance towards the holistic enterprise of work,

in all its complexity, contingency, and uncertainty, with codied and non-codied knowledges, going well beyond the

familiar simplistic portrayals found in school mathematics texts and prominent international assessments (discussed

further below).

In my experience, non-mathematician workers at all levels may go through similar kinds of processes, on-ly less

mathematically sophisticated, with less intensity, and possibly less serious consequences. Yet the mathematical and

other knowledges they generate may be locally new. Clearly, doing the actual calculations, quantications, and visualisations, are only one aspect of the total work process for any worker, with levels of accuracy and precision determined

by the context, assisted wherever possible by available technologies and artefacts along with the invaluable learning

from experience (Bjrklund Boistrup & Gustafsson, 2014 ; Johansson, 2014, Smith, 1999). Very few workers will actually admit to doing any mathematics but, from a researcher's point of view, mathematics is often involved in their

actions, even though the work-ers are not necessarily conscious of it, and nor do they necessarily wish to be (see, e.g.,

Wedege, 2010b).

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Close observation of a professional painter shows just how much mathematics can be involved in such a task. Paul is

a self-employed house painter, in his mid-thirties. After various periods of employment, unemployment, and retraining

in dierent elds, he recently completed a mature-age apprenticeship, and now works as a sub-contractor for others

or as a sole tradesman. Now that he has full responsibility for his own business, he has had to draw upon his own

mathematical skills in order to stay in business. It is usual for customers to ask for a quote from several businesses before

accepting one. The preparation of a formal, and legally binding, quote places considerable mathematical demands on

people who typically have not studied mathematics beyond the compulsory requirements of the education system. The

quote should contain details of xed costs, such a non-consumable materials, and variable costs, such as paint and

labour, and include government taxes on services such as labour. Paul must ensure that all non-consumables, such

as the various sizes of ladders, brushes, rollers, groundsheets, and safety equipment, are available and costed into the

quote, as well as the requisite personal and public insurance covers. He must also have some means of assessing the

physical dimensions of the job so that he can estimate quantities of materials for preparation of the surfaces, along

with the various types of paint coats to be applied at dierent stages, and even the appropriate type of paint base

(oil, acrylic, external-use, internal-use, all-purpose, etc.) and cleaning materials for the brushes and rollers at the end

of each work day. He also needs to make a realistic estimate of his time actually on-the-job, as well as o-the-job in

purchasing materials, completing ocial legal documentation, and advertising his services. The mathematical demands

in this stage of the work are non-trivial. Preparing a quote that is too high risks losing the job ; quoting too low risks

making a loss and working for nothing at some point.

Once the quote is accepted, starting and completion times need to be negotiated, and purchasing of consumable

materials, as well as any additional non-consumables, takes place. In 2013, house paint in Australia was sold according

to the size of the can : 1 litre @ $ 40, 10 litres @ $180, 15 litres @ $240, for a reputable brand. At rst glance, the

largest can is the best buy. However, there are other considerations : If all the can is not used up, then money is

wasted ; if not enough paint is purchased this means yet another trip to the paint store (which can be a considerable

distance away), and travel costs must be added to time costings. On the other hand, it is risky to purchase too little

paint at the higher unit cost and need to return for more smaller cans at the relatively higher prices.

Once the job has begun, there are decisions about the organisation of the order of work, in terms of which parts

to start on, preparation of groundsheets, physically preparing the surfaces to be painted, followed by undercoat and

possibly multiple topcoats of paint (see gure 1.5). Paul also needs to make on-the-spot deci-sions, such as what to do

in the event of contingencies such as rainy weather, running out of paint, and so on.

The question of painting is rich in mathematics and could form part of an holistic community project for school

students, in association with other practical school subjects. However, questions for young students, commonly found

in school mathematical texts, trivialise and demean the work of tradesmen such as Paul who also takes great pride in

doing a good job in terms of aesthetics and ethics :

If you can paint

3

4

of a wall using only 2/3 of a can of paint, how much will you be able to paint with a full can of paint ?

I assert that no professional or amateur house painter has ever asked themselves this question ! Further, that

few if any young children learning fractions would have the experience or interest in serious house painting, nor the

motivation to nd the solution, let alone evaluate it for its reasonableness. This is the type of question that Palm

(2008, p. 42) described as a less authentic task.

At CIEAEM 63, I discussed the work of operators in the pharmaceuticals manufacturing industry (FitzSi-mons, in

press). The following problem is taken from an ocial training manual, obviously written in traditional mathematics

education textbook form :

The machine breaks down at 12 noon and starts again at 1.05 pm.

The average amount produced is 20 items each minute.

How much production was lost while the machine was stopped ?

You can ll in the second column of Worksheet 5 for extra practice at multiplying numbers.

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What is the probability of a breakdown on the stroke of 12 noon ? Where is any consideration of the reality of

the situation ? Where is the recognition of the complex contextual knowledge which applies to the food and pharmaceuticals manufacturing industry concerning legal requirements ? In the highly regulated food and pharmaceutical

manufacturing industries there are strictly enforced Standard Operating Procedures requiring a line clearance (i.e., a

complete cleanout) for certain products before the process can restart. What does the wording of this question say

about respect for the workers who are actually doing the job ? What does it say about the researchers who produced

this text ? How does it position the workers who are competent adults with many years of practical experience here

and elsewhere ?

Many non-trivial mathematical questions could arise from such an incident if it were treated seriously. Organisational questions arise, such as whether the workers have complained repeatedly to management about poor maintenance

processes, ageing machinery, lack of appropriate sta available, etc. Even though this problem was ostensibly set in

an industrial context, it immediately destroyed any connection with the workers' reality by confounding their valued

identities as adults with those of school children. Instead, why not just ask the workers :

What can go wrong on the production line ?

What are the possible causes ?

What are the possible legal and other consequences ?

What might be the economic cost of a stoppage between 12.00 & 1.05 pm ?

What factors do you need to consider ?

A mathematics teacher familiar with the work processes of the industry would also consider using a Fish-bone

Diagram (see gure 1.6) in order to help tease out the issues, and also to assist the workers to become familiar

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with conventional industrial process control tools in order to enhance their democratic empowerment through gaining

powerful knowledge in the ongoing struggles for labour rights (FitzSimons, in press).

Roth (2012) illustrated the disparity between the mathematics taught to apprentice electricians in the form of

formal trigonometry, complete with magic circles to help them nd the correct ratios, and the practical reality of

working on-the-job with an inscribed tool which removed the need for any formal mathematical calculation whatsoever. Because there was so little connection between the two classrooms, mathematics and trade, completing their

mathematics training was reduced to a rite of passage due to the fact that the apprentices could not complete their

formal qualication without it. As Roth (2012) noted :

The requirements for doing well in the two locations are very dierent : exhibiting knowledge of trigonometry, on the

one hand, and doing a good job that makes bending and subsequent pulling of wires practical. Formal trigonometry

is the reference in the classroom, whereas rules of practice are the main references on the job. (p. 1)

Roth focuses our attention on the disconnection between the theoretical mathematics curriculum specically developed for a designated trade and approved by key industry personnel, and the remainder of the apprenticeship

program where the curricula are at least recognisable on-the-job, even if the rules are bent or broken in the interests of

successfully completing the task within the constraints (generally time & money). Vocational mathematics curriculum

designers and textbook writers need to move beyond their traditional school education orientation to become well

informed about, or even personally engaged in the eld of workplace mathematics education research (see Section 9),

as well as keeping up to date with evolving theories and practices of mathematics teaching and learning, including its

new technologies.

International assessment programs, such as PISA or PIAAC conducted under the auspices of the OECD, tend

to have an undue inuence on school and adult education curricula, respectively. Wedege (2010a) of-fered a critical

analysis of PISA :

PISA claims that the starting point is societal and labour market demands. However, the frame-work is based on a

conceptual construct of academic mathematical knowledge in terms of competencies and not on empirical research

on people's needs of mathematics in society. (p. 43)

She explains that the OECD (2003) exemplar question posed in relation to building a garden bed has nothing

to do with the actual practice of carpentry, and, in fact, practical experience of completing such a task (prac-tical

competence) could well lead to an incorrect mathematical conclusion according to the academic con-ceptual framework

of the question. Wedege (2010a) concluded that

in many educational documents, like policy reports and curricula, the discourse is not guided by a

the dualism between the individual and the situation is constitutive, but rather by a

logic like the one we nd in the international surveys. (p. 41)

competence where

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The former, logic of competence, refers to properties inherent to a concept (i.e., what a person can actually do

in a given situation), while the latter, competency logic, is intended to apply to a given context, once a concept of

competency (i.e., certain mathematical knowledges & skills to be demonstrated) has been speci-ed.

Referring to PIAAC, the Project for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies, linked to the PISA

project, using similar denitions of skills, Tsatsaroni and Evans (2013) were also concerned by the problematic attempt at recontextualising adult numeracy practices in test situations of either hand-written or computerised modes,

resembling school contexts as distinct from adults' actual workplace and everyday contexts. In this way, they claim,

PIAAC is likely to limit adults' responses to the scholastic tasks because the two situations, of actual practice and

formal assessment, are completely dierently structured activities. Tsatsaroni and Evans support Wedege (2010a),

noting that :

What distinguishes competency from earlier understandings of the concept of competence is the fact that

competency draws on behaviourist notions of performance, while ignoring other tradi-tions of social science

research which have more complex (implicit or explicit) denitions of com-petence.

Tsatsaroni and Evans (2013) were also concerned that the PIAAC survey is heading down the path of generic

curricula which are not actually based on any particular work practice, but wish lists from powerful employer voices :

One implication of this is that workers will be constantly in need of re-training. In the absence of any recognised

curriculum for adult numeracy internationally, the fear is that PIAAC could actually form a de facto curriculum for

adult numeracy internationally. In FitzSimons, 2002, chapter 6, following Bernstein (2000), I discussed the power of

business and industry in policy formulation of what has now eventuated in Australian vocational education curricula

(actually known as learning outcomes ) as a collection of generic numeracy (and other vocational) skills that must

ONLY consist of those observable in a given industry setting (see also, Wheelahan, 2007, 2009). The problem with

generic curricula is that they remove the theoretical curriculum coherence necessary for making decisions in times of

uncertainty when locally or globally new solutions must be found. (This will be discussed further below.)

The discipline of mathematics is characterised as the science of quantity and space, together with the various

symbolisations of each sub-discipline (e.g., algebra, geometry, statistics). It is taken as an objective reality, neither

subjective nor physical. Nevertheless, it is generally regarded as fallible (Davis & Hersh, 1980/1983). As a vertical

discourse (Bernstein, 2000), mathematics is described as being theoretical, conceptual, and generalisable knowledge ;

coherent, explicit, and systematic, with strong boundaries between itself and other disciplines. School mathematics

content is based on an arbitrary, and currently conservative, selection from the academic discipline of mathematics,

but is then recontextualised by teachers drawing on available, sometimes mandatory, texts, in an eort to make it

accessible to learners through the pedagogical means at their disposal.

Workplace mathematics is practical knowledge, informed by the accumulated mathematical knowledge and experience of workplace and other diverse cultures in society throughout history, often undertaken in complex and/or

contradictory contexts. It is developed by people in response to an experienced or potential, imagined reality. Much of

the mathematical work done by non-mathematicians could be described as a horizontal discourse (Bernstein, 2000) :

specic, locally useful knowledge ; a set of strategies which are local, segmentally organised, context specic and dependent. Compared to school mathematics, there are weak boundaries between mathematics and other workplace

knowledges. One consequence of this is that mathematics in workplace is often invisible to outsiders, even to (prospective) mathematics teachers (Nicol, 2002). (This is discussed further in Section 9.) Using it does not necessarily make

it visible, and most workers claim not to use anything they learned at school. It often appears as common sense ; be

very simple in relation to school mathematics and usually looks very dierent when presented in written or graphical

form (Williams & Wake, 2007a, b). It is totally embedded in contexts : historical, cultural, social, political, economic,

etc. It is said to be crystallised in technological and other artefacts : in tools of production and communication, in

work practices and organisation. (See FitzSimons, 2013, for a review of several large-scale studies on mathematics in

the work-place.)

For professional academic and industrial mathematicians, mathematics is both a tool and the object of their work.

For non-mathematicians, including engineers, mathematics is but one of many resources available in the resolution of

ever-evolving, contextually complex workplace problems. Using existing mathematical knowledge, derived from formal

and informal learning, generally goes unnoticed. However, in breakdown or problematic situations, creative reasoning

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is called for and locally new solutions must be found. Importantly, the best mathematical answer according to the

discipline may be of no practical use in the workplace : Mathematics at work is contextually situated and dependent,

unlike the practices of school mathematics where contexts are generally imaginary or grossly over-simplied. As is the

case with school mathematics, the purposes, structures, and products of work frame the mathematics that is carried

out (Nicol, 2002) so that the practices of these two dierent genres of mathematics are understandably distinct from

one another, and also from the work of professional mathematicians. Steen (2003) summarises the dierences :

Mathematics in the workplace makes sophisticated use of elementary mathematics rather than, as in the classroom,

elementary use of sophisticated mathematics. Work-related mathematics is rich in da-ta, interspersed with

conjecture, dependent on technology, and tied to useful applications. Work con-texts often require multistep

solutions to open-ended problems, a high degree of accuracy, and prop-er regard for required tolerances. None of

these features is found in typical classroom exercises.

. . .Numbers in the workplace are embedded in context, used with appropriate units of measurement, and supported

by computer graphics . . .Employees need statistics and three-dimensional geometry, systems thinking and estimation

skills. Even more important, they need the disposition to think through problems that blend quantitative data with

verbal, visual, and mechanical information ; the capacity to interpret and present technical information ; and the

ability to deal with situations when something goes wrong . . .(p. 55)

In the workplace meaningful communication is of the essence. Workers need to communicate about mathematically

relevant concepts and results with internal or external customers or suppliers of goods and services, with others at

dierent geographical locations, or with people working at dierent levels of authority in their own organisation. They

need to have the condence to question the mathematical assertions and assumptions of others in their workplace

contexts, and this can ultimately be a question of life and death, even survival of the business (FitzSimons, in press).

High level mathematical communication skills are also vital for people responsible for on-the-job training of apprentices

or other newcomers.

The study by Nicol (2002), which focused on prospective teachers visiting workplaces, showed that they found it

dicult to see anything but elementary mathematics, and even more dicult to recontextualise workplace mathematics

in forms appropriate to the kinds of senior classes they were expecting to teach. This is probably not surprising after

at least 12 years of experiencing conventional mathematics education, where mathematical theories and rules are

generally abstracted from any semblance of reality, and answers are inevitably found at the back of the book, or else

adjudged by the teacher for their adequacy. Although the teachers were able to make general observations on the need

for exibility, collaboration, problem solving, prociency with technology, creativity, and good communication skills,

they were unable to foreground the mathematics actually embedded in workplace activities and how it was used, or

to determine the kinds of mathematical understandings necessary. When attempting to design materials for students,

they either tended to remove the workplace context in an attempt to make the mathematics more accessible, or else

to recontextualise the actual mathematics in use at work at a much higher academic level than would ever be seen or

needed at the workplace. Many other authors over the last two decades have accepted the futility attempting to map

workplace mathematics either onto school-based curricula or to employers' impressions of the (school) mathematical

skills necessary for the (generic) workplace (FitzSimons, 2002, 2013 ; Wedege, 2010c).

In his study of the mathematical competence of workers involved in routine production work at 16 auto-mobile

production sites in the USA, Smith (1999) identied three broad domains of mathematical context : (a) measurement,

(b) numerical and quantitative reasoning, and (c) spatial and geometric reasoning (including spatial visualisation,

orientation, and translation in two or three dimensions). The rst two were dened in terms of observable mathematical

actions, but the third required inferences to be made. Smith provided an exemplary coding scheme as a table, with

denitions and examples for each of the three categories, and elaborated on these so that the reader could form a

reasonable impression of the mathematical and other work performed in this context of production. He also provided

tables of results, along with discussions, ac-cording to two levels of mathematical complexity of the knowledge demands

that he found in this study : low and modest. His thorough description of his methodology and ndings, along with

his comparative analysis of his ndings with the demands of schooling in mathematics at the time in the USA, oers

a model for others interested in this area of research. Gainsburg (2006) also provided a detailed description of the

methodology she used to study the high level mathematical activities of structural engineers, including her auditing

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Find a friend who is not a teacher. The person could be a member of the non-teaching sta (e.g., administrative

worker, librarian, laboratory technician, canteen manager), or a local shop-keeper, tradesperson, nurse, cab driver,

manager, farmer, glass blower, analyst, information technology/computer technician, golf pro. . . any paid worker !

They should have access to and regularly use some techno-mathematical equipment : e.g., computer, calculators.

Observing

1. As they do their work, look for evidence of the use of numeracy or mathematical ideas and techniques.

2. Ask them to explain what they are doing and why. [You may have to wait until after the person has nished the

task/s at hand ; maybe even come back later. In this case, make sure to take specic notes to help you recalling

the moment/event]

3. If you can see that numeracy would be involved : ask them about possible breakdowns in equipment or communication or how they managed to solve an unforeseen problem in the past.

4. Use Engestrm's activity theory framework to analyse what numeracy is involved in this job.

(a) Ask : who, what, why, how, where,when

(b) Identify : the subject, the object, the tools used [both material and verbal], the rules, the community, and

the division of labour.

(c) Consider each of the Fundamental Capabilities [for school mathematics] and identify any instances you

observed or that were reported by the worker.

of a relevant university subject. She highlighted the challenges for the engineers, as well as herself, to keep track of

the various lines of complex hypothetical reasoning that they used.

In his study of the mathematical competence of workers involved in routine production work at 16 auto-mobile

production sites in the USA, Smith (1999) identied three broad domains of mathematical context : (a) measurement,

(b) numerical and quantitative reasoning, and (c) spatial and geometric reasoning (including spatial visualisation,

orientation, and translation in two or three dimensions). The rst two were dened in terms of observable mathematical

actions, but the third required inferences to be made. Smith provided an exemplary coding scheme as a table, with

denitions and examples for each of the three categories, and elaborated on these so that the reader could form a

reasonable impression of the mathematical and other work performed in this context of production. He also provided

tables of results, along with discussions, ac-cording to two levels of mathematical complexity of the knowledge demands

that he found in this study : low and modest. His thorough description of his methodology and ndings, along with

his comparative analysis of his ndings with the demands of schooling in mathematics at the time in the USA, oers

a model for others interested in this area of research. Gainsburg (2006) also provided a detailed description of the

methodology she used to study the high level mathematical activities of structural engineers, including her auditing

of a relevant university subject. She highlighted the challenges for the engineers, as well as herself, to keep track of

the various lines of complex hypothetical reasoning that they used.

The following is a list the kinds of people observed as a possible source of ideas for others :

1. An ex-teacher, now conference facilitator.

2. A laboratory technician responsible for running and maintaining a school's science laboratory.

3. 2nd Year apprentice tter and turner as part of is part of the maintenance team of the equipment at a crude oil

processing plant.

4. A lecturer in management with teaching, research, and co-ordination duties.

5. A site manager for a shop tting company whose daily work is to review all plans and drawings.

6. A pharmacist working part-time at one of a chain of suburban pharmacies.

7. A graphic designer, working for an advertising company, whose responsibilities include designing, composing and

modifying images and artefacts.

8. An instrument technician working in a small hospital with 3 operating theatres, cleaning, preparing and sterilising

medical equipment after surgery and ensuring that stock levels are maintained.

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9. A professional punter, generally concentrating on thoroughbred racing but often including gambling on cards

and other sports betting.

10. A person making a table, whose top alone weighed upward of 200 kilograms, in his workshop shed at home and

organising transport to the customer.

Even though the teachers only spent 1-2 hours doing their observations, following a sociocultural approach they

were able to appreciate the complexities of the work done, and how mathematics was an integral part of the whole

activity, along with technical skills, and personal and cultural knowledges of the people they ob-served. Below is my

general feedback to the whole group :

Together, your accounts have captured very well the often unexpected complexities of people's work. I imagine that most

school students, not to mention the community at large, are unaware of the role that numeracy actually plays in the lives of

people in everyday life and at work. The detailed descriptions of typical jobs that workers are expected to do routinely as well

as the insights oered by breakdowns in those routines have provided a rich source of material for drawing out implications for

school mathematics/numeracy education. I am sure that the students in your institution and your colleagues who are able

to share in your ndings will be much better prepared for life beyond their formal education. Most importantly, there can be

some answers to the eternal question in mathematics classrooms : Why are we doing this ? What do we need it for ?

From prospective and practising teachers learning about mathematics at work through formal pedagogical activities

in higher education requiring them to conduct basic observational research, I now turn to examples of teachers,

school students, and industry personnel interacting in the boundary crossing work of forming partnerships where they

temporarily share a common goal. (See Damlanian, Rodrigues, & Strer, 2013) for further details.

One project (Bonotto, 2010, 2013) involved secondary students working with local industry with the intention of

changing school students' images of mathematics and to encourage them to continue their studies of mathematics

at higher levels. In the Veneto region, problems were suggested by local industry, public ad-ministration, and other

non-scholastic institutions, and were clearly of importance to these bodies, with the results from the school students

actually regarded as being of value. Workplace managers visited the schools and oered data, themes, statistics, linear

programming, Operations Research, and modelling ; also cryptography tasks. They included the following mathematical

topics :

Statistics : data collected from a provincial tourist oce and a pharmaceutical manufacturer ; also industrial quality

control.

Linear programming and operations research : optimization problems for a garbage-collection service, a telephone

call-centre, and share trading.

Modelling : the growth of tumour tissues, and Fourier analysis tasks suggested by the cardiology department of a local

public hospital.

A positive outcome of this project was, contrary to international trends, an increase in enrolments in mathematics

courses at the local university.

In a second project, Hana et al. (2010, 2013) described a boundary crossing exercise where school pupils acted as

industry consultants, supported by student teachers who worked between the school, the university, and the workplace,

to organise mathematical projects. In one lower-secondary school pupils acted as statistical consultants for a local

company producing valves, where stock control organisation had broken down. In this project the workplace manager

participated respectfully, as with adult consultants, giving professional critical feedback to the pupils, who, in return,

were able to ask critical questions of the company. Communicative competence was an essential aspect of this interface

between mathematics and industry. Through this school-industry partnership, the student teachers were enabled to

learn and teach in and between dierent contexts. The authentic industrial context clearly altered the regular conditions

of learning and teaching, and inuenced the outcomes for all concerned.

In summary, it is very important in an era of globalisation, that prospective and current mathematics teachers

learn to see the mathematics not only in work, but in the world around them in order to motivate their students

and, more importantly, so that their students might be more prepared, mathematically at least, to participate in the

world beyond school. Internationally, there are dierent forms of partnership between education and industry, with

benets for all participants who are able to respectfully learn from each other (see, e.g., Damlanian et al., 2013 ; Nicol,

2002).

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globalised environment ?

Let us return to the ve areas of mathematical competence listed by EACEA (2011) : mastering basic skills

and procedures, understanding mathematical concepts and principles, applying mathematics in real-life con-texts,

communicating about mathematics, and reasoning mathematically. Clearly, they are regarded as im-portant and their

intention appears to be related to workplace mathematics. How well might they meet the actual needs of mathematics

in and for work, and beyond, as described above ? Apart from begging the ques-tion of exactly what basic skills need

to be mastered and who will decide this, based on what criteria, , there appears to be an underlying assumption that

historic denitions of mathematical skills will be adequate for future generations. Authors including Artigue (2011),

D'Ambrosio (2012), Gal (2013), Lesh (2010), and Steen (2003), have called for dierent approaches to mathematics

curriculum and pedagogy in relation to the preparation of young people preparing to enter the workforce in the future.

They refer to changing the mathematical content and the relative emphasis on skills and processes vs. conceptual

understanding of big mathematical ideas, mathematical ways of working, and the use of technologies of communication

as well as mathematical labour-saving and exploratory devices.

Working in a globalised environment will require creativity in mathematical reasoning (see, e.g., Lithner, 2008),

transformation and development of locally new knowledge needed to work within constraints to solve unforeseen

problems. Solving the ever-evolving workplace problems requires abductive reasoning, in the rst place, as well as

deductive and inductive reasoning. Eco (1983, cited in Arzarello & Sabena, 2012, p 192) described abduction as

the search for a general rule from which a specic case would follow. Unlike deductive and inductive reasoning, the

conclusion drawn from abductive reasoning is not necessarily true, but must be plausible. Consider, for example, how

the doctor diagnoses your disease or the automotive mechanic diagnoses the fault with your car ; or the detective work

done, not only in the legal professions, but beyond that, every day, on scales ranging from the micro to the macro, in

workplaces around the world.

Arzarello and Sabena (2012) recognise all three kinds of reasoning as playing a role in the process of inquiry, but

abduction is the only one to introduce new ideas. From a workplace perspective, this is what so many workers do each

day as a normal, unremarked part of their jobs, when confronted by a disturbance, a questioning, or the emergence of

a problematic situation (Ellstrm, 2010). They consider all of the relevant information available to them, and possibly

their colleagues, through every possible sensory channel, including touch, sound, and smell, and then make often in

very short time plausible hypotheses to be tested, mentally and/or physically, supported by inductive or deductive

reasoning. The study by Arzarello and Sabena focused on semiotic and theoretic control in the context of an elementary

calculus class. They presented a three-fold model of semiotic actions, based upon the study of students attempting to

sort three unlabelled graphs which depicted a function, its derivative, and a possible anti-derivative. In the process,

according to Arzarello and Sabena, successful students passed through the following stages :

1. Interpreting relevant signs ; perceiving with respect to knowledge and cultural knowledge dimensions

2. Identifying and describing the relationships between the interpreted signs

3. Justifying the relationships with respect to mathematical theory.

Arzarello and Sabena described this as a shift from semiotic control to theoretical control of actions, as the evolution

from truth because of data to truth because of theoretical reasoning. For me, there are parallels with the processes

that many workers pass through when confronted with problematic situations, even though they are unlikely to be

specically mathematical problems per se, and in spite of the fact that theoretical mathematics is most likely to be

used as a tool rather than the goal. This means that, in practice, the justication process is likely to be that it

works.. However, due to the pervasive invisibility of mathematics for non-mathematicians, it is highly probable that

the theoretical mathematics actually learned in formal education at any level would increase the options available

and support judgements made, albeit unconsciously for the most part. As it happens, many papers presented in the

CIEAEM 65 Working Group 1 : Knowledge and Competences oered theoretically well informed accounts of practical

teaching which addressed issues of creative reasoning and control by students. The Group also raised the diculties

of assessing mathematical competence, with its complementary goals of preparation for work and life, in the school

situation. (See the WG 1 Report by FitzSimons & Kazadi, this issue.)

However, beyond mathematical competence, as dened by EACEA (2011) and others, there needs to be an acknowledgement of the personal and cultural skills that are essential aspects of communication in work and beyond,

in an acknowledgement of : (a) the possible negotiation of task parameters with clients or super-visors, (b) the development of shared understandings with others who do not share the same mathematical background, and/or (c)

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development of shared understandings when using mathematical representations which are foreign to traditional

academic usage (computer-generated or otherwise). The EACEA's expression applying mathematics in real-life contexts' seems to imply simplistic assumptions made about transfer and the value of word problems typically found

in school mathematics texts and tests (Evans, 1999 ; Lundin, 2012 ; Pais, 2013 ; Palm, 2008), as well as workplace

training manuals (FitzSimons, 2002, 2013). Transfer of mathematical ideas and techniques from school to workplace is

far from simple, as evidenced by regular reports in the mass media of employers experiencing problems with today's

school leavers (or even mathematics graduates !). Developing mathematical expertise, even competence, within an

education environment can never be taken as equivalent to the repertoire of personal, cultural, and technical skills,

along with the worker's ongoing development through practical experience, that are essential workplace requirements

for competence (Eraut, 2004). And, certainly, innovation as described by Ellstrm (2010) requires much more than

notions of application based on the simple transfer of school mathematical skills.

It is well known that employers facing an over-supply of applicants will use mathematics as a crude proxy for

intelligence, and require applicants to complete tests which may be completely unrelated to the work that will eventually be undertaken. However, one aspect of assessment that is rarely addressed seriously in formal education is the

consequence of errors. Human activity inevitably involves making mistakes. In school, nowadays at least, errors may

be used as a source for mathematics teachers to assist in the teaching/learning pro-cess, rather than treated as a

source of ridicule and shame for unfortunate learners as many older adults will recall. Workplace supervisors may

also use mistakes made by novices as a learning opportunity (FitzSimons & Wedege, 2007). However, once workers

are given full responsibility for their work tasks, mathematical mistakes can be catastrophic. Consequences of errors

in calculations or quantications such as misreading powers of 10, or mistaking the prex milli - [m] for micro [] can

be devastating : for example, in pharmaceutical dosages to people or other animals, or in the application of chemicals

in fertilisers or pesticides or herbicides. The environmental consequences of ignorance of, or deliberate disregard for,

careful use of, for example, manufactured chemicals in terms of spoilage or pollution of earth, air, and water are with

us all to see on the mass media, if not in our own local environments. Similar considerations apply to mining, drilling

for oil, de-forestation, monoculture crops, and so on. Returning to the theme of quoting or tendering for work, a

family member of ours had to suer the consequences of a typographical error when his company's quote for removing

some large and dangerous trees for local government omitted a zero, and was ultimately the one accepted as a legally

binding document. In my experience as a teacher of vocational students intending to become laboratory technicians,

it was not uncommon for them to confuse the processes of multiplying and dividing when calculating dilution factors

using authentic but unfamiliar numbers with positive and negative exponents, and many decimal places appearing

on the calculator display. Since they had little practical experience, they were not even aware that they had made

such apparently simple mistakes when using their calculators, which would have actually resulted in huge mistakes in

practice. Lack of conceptual understanding of probability was a factor in the USA Challenger Space Shuttle disaster,

when engineers wrongly made the assumption of independence of O-Ring failure in the abnormally cold conditions

before the launch. Mathematical error detection and remediation in contextual situations could be a valuable and

valued skill to develop in formal education.

As discussed previously, mathematical competence is the policy mantra of the present time. But, what exactly

is this competence and how might it be assessed ? Denitions have been given that involve mobilising a variety of

resources including mathematics to solve a so-called real problem. In mathematics education, individual skills have to

be learned and practised, and eventually become an unconscious part of a person's repertoire. When the skills have

become rened and part of a routine, and used appropriately, the person is said to be competent. When a breakdown

occurs, a competent person can draw upon their accumulated mathematical knowledge and experience to determine

possible causes and possible alternative actions, which may include changing the goals or resources and eliminating

or by-passing the mathematical problems altogether. Clearly, mathematical skills are easier to assess in educational

settings, and, as pointed out by Tsatsaroni and Evans (2013), asking adults to undergo formal education tests with

facsimiles of artefacts as prompts (even when conducted in friendly, informal settings) can never determine what they

would actually do outside of that setting in other situations with the actual range of possible resources to hand,

and their normal parameters of independence in decision making regarding the range of possible actions and the

im-portance of nding a specic answer, to what degree of accuracy, and, above all, the consequences of making an

error !

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Conclusion

Globalisation has led to a questioning of the autonomy of disciplines such as mathematics, as learners worldwide

demand contextual relevance. Recent curriculum frameworks identify the supposed qualications (skills and competencies) that will be needed at work, yet these are based on a static and outdated assumption that everything can

be known ahead of time and taught accordingly. Not all learners will need to understand in detail the highest levels

of mathematics currently taught in schools, but they will need to understand the big ideas behind the major areas

of quantity and space, in terms of deep conceptual understanding : e.g., randomness, variability, rates of change and

optimisation, periodicity, innity, alternative geometries, and so forth. In the world outside of education, the discipline

of mathematics continues to develop, vertically within recognised disciplines and horizontally into new sub-disciplines,

both as a result of current workplace problems and in anticipation of as yet unknown problems, even though this may

not be the mathematicians' actual intentions, and there may be a considerable time lag between the original research

and eventual practical outcomes.

Learners of all ages will need to understand that there are many mathematics and that what they encounter in

school is but one, albeit universally recognised and valorised, version (Knijnik, 2012). However, few people who need

to innovate, even to progress personally, in the global economy can aord to be without relevant abstract, theoretical

knowledge, including mathematics, and rely solely on contextual knowledge. A strong, meaningful disciplinary knowledge foundation is essential for critical decision making. However, the institution of mathematics education needs to

re-address the question of what is valuable knowledge, in and for work and beyond, in a complex and fast-changing

globalised world. To do this, there needs to be respectful, informed debate between mathematics educators, applied

mathematicians, and other people with expertise in environmental, economic, scientic, social, and technological trends.

Above all, mathematics education must eschew the imaginary pseudo-contextualisations of mathematics at work

that ultimately destroy its own credibility. The insertion of words such as plumber, painter, tiler, etc. into mathematical

tasks, without any of the associated constraints and practicalities of actual activities, demeans both the workers in

their valued occupations for which they have trained, qualied, and are justly proud, and the students apparently

fooled by the context. In the workplace, every mathematical action, well-founded or not, has a consequence which

can aect people's lives, livelihoods, social and environmental wellbeing, and so on. For some workers, negotiation

of the parameters of a task is an everyday occurrence, including costs and benets, along with critical questioning,

justication, and clarication, to a variety of stakeholders within and beyond their workplace. It is worth reiterating

that the best mathematical solution may not be feasible or even desirable in practice.

It is generally acknowledged that the mathematics used in the workplace by non-mathematicians is largely at a

relatively low level, in comparison with school mathematics curriculum documents ; also that it is con-textually situated

and meaningful to the people involved in the outcome. Mathematics (thinking, acting, communicating) is but one of

many resources available in the pursuit of an action, goal, or outcome that has potential value to product creators,

business owners (from local to multinational companies), ultimate users, or other beneciaries (e.g., people with medical

problems and the researchers who are working on solving these problems ; or users of new technological devices and

their developers). In the workplace, situations of breakdown can engender new learning, or innovation (Ellstrm, 2010 ;

Engestrm, 2001). Sometimes it is the mathematical aspects of a task that are the cause of the breakdown : for example,

discrepancies between calculated and the values expected based on historical data or available as codied theoretically

founded information. Once serious discrepancies are noticed by workers or supervisors, action must be taken to resolve

the conict. Gainsburg (2006) provided a detailed account of structural engineers grappling with hypothetical extreme

values in the safety-critical process of building design, and eventually nding workable resolutions to their problems.

Wedege (2000) gave examples of what she termed semi-skilled workers making decisions, within the limits of their

expertise, on quality control in an electronics manufacturing factory and in the loading of cargo at an airport where

safety is a prime concern : Once major changes are required, the workers also know when to shift responsibilities

upward. If it should happen that the mathematical decisions of workers themselves are the cause of the breakdown,

they can expect that their employment will be terminated or at least under close scrutiny.

Many workplace mathematics studies in the past have sought to identify the mathematics actually used in practice,

even how it might be improved (e.g., Coben et al, 2010 ; Hoyles, Noss, Kent, & Bakker, 2010), and many have

made comparisons between this genre and that of formal mathematics education (e.g., Williams & Wake, 2007a,b).

However, few if any have enquired into the relationship between an individual's previous formal education and their

current mathematical, or mathematics-containing, practices ; that is, integrating the work as a societal process, the

mathematical and other knowledge required to do that job, and the individual's subjective experiences as a learner

of mathematics and a person doing a responsible job. Adults' Mathematics : In Work and for School School is an

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innovative research project which aims at analysing and understanding adults' mathematics-containing competences.

Rather than adopting the usual one-way assumption of moving from school or academic mathematics to the workplace

apparently based on the traditional life trajectory of young people moving into adulthood it aims to revise this

assumption, emphasising the two-way relationship between mathematics education and the workplace (cf. Nakagawa

& Yamamoto, 2010, 2013). This research adopts a sociomathematical approach (Wedege, 2010c), and addresses the

societal context of knowing, learning and teaching mathematics, with the intention of informing future curriculum and

teaching. The research is framed by Salling Olesen's (2008) heuristic model which attempts to capture the complexity

of workplace activity and allows for examination of the dynamics of workplace learning situations in general (see gure

1.7).

The model, according to Salling Olesen (2008) :

suggests that learning in the workplace occurs in a specic interplay of experiences and practices, identications and

defensive responses. It also suggests that learning in the workplace is not a response to technical and organisational

conditions only ; it mediates the specic relation between three relatively independent dynamics : the societal work

process, the knowledge available and subjective experiences of the worker(s). Based on professions, the model pays

particular attention to the cultural nature of the knowledge and skills with which a worker approaches a work task,

whether they come from a scientic discipline, a craft, or just as the established knowledge in the eld. (p. 118)

Building on this model, researchers Bjrklund Boistrup and Gustafsson (2014) and Johansson (2014) have each

adopted dierent methodologies in order to learn more about how adults utilise structuring resources in dierent

workplace measuring activities. They have also been able to gain insights into the workers' ration-ales for their ecient

and functional outcomes, even though there were few visible connections with the formal mathematics that might have

been expected in a school mathematics education context. Bjrklund Boistrup and Gustafsson adopted a multimodal

approach, where all forms of communicative resources (e.g., body, speech, tools, symbols) were taken into account,

as well incorporating the institutional norms of work-place activities into their analysis of two case studies : (a) lorry

loaders in a road-carrier company, and (b) a nursing aide in an orthopaedic department of a hospital. In both cases,

complex tasks were accomplished without the visible use of conventional measuring tools. In the rst case, the pallets

were the structuring re-source (as well as a communicative resource) :

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. . .the lorry loaders could estimate the weight of the pallet while they were seated in the forklift. With this

information they knew where to place it in the trailer in order to get the right pressure on the three dierent axes

along the trailer which can carry 24,000 kg. (Maria C. Johansson, personal com-munication, 18th September 2013)

In the second, the plaster itself was the structuring resource (Bjrklund Boistrup & Gustafsson, 2014) :

the nursing aide measured up with the dry plaster wrap directly on the patient's arm, prior to the actual plastering

process. The aide then repeated the measure several times when folding the plaster before nally adhering it to the

patient's arm.

Johansson adopted Bourdieu's concepts of capital and habitus as framework to analyse a nurse's transition between

the mathematical practices and school and work which inevitably involve learning. In this case, the nurse was taking

readings of mathematical outputs of various body function tests and interpreting them ac-cording to her own experience

of doing this work. This transition between two complementary knowledge systems requires a habitus with the third

eye, but also demanded mathematics as an educational capital(Johansson, 2014). Both articles highlight the diculty

in recognising potential mathematical activities in work, and how these can be overshadowed by other competences

and components in work such as caring in the case of nursing, and saving the customer money through unorthodox

(by conventional understandings) but practically justied methods of loading pallets. Both studies also highlight the

importance of embodied knowledge, which of course contributes to a lack of visibility to an outsider (as discussed in

Section 8).

Acknowledgement

This article is written as part of the research project Adults' Mathematics : In Work and for School, awarded to

Prof. Tine Wedege, led by Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup, and supported by the Swedish Research Council, 2011-2014.

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Frantiek Kuina

University Hradec KRLOV

Thank you very much for the opportunity to speak at your conference. It is a great honour for me.

I am not a mathematician, I am only a mathematics teacher, but the connections between mathematics and other

parts of human culture are very important for me. It is from the position of a mathematics teacher that I would like

to speak here very subjectively and with poor English. Please be patient with me.

Although I don't speak French it was the great French mathematician Jacques Hadamard (1865-1963) who

inuenced my way of looking at mathematics and mathematics teaching. In 1957 I studied in parallel with theoretical

mathematical lectures at Charles University in Prague his classical Lessons in Geometry (2008) and after fty years,

in 2007, his masterpiece The Mathematician's Mind (1996).

I would like to recall here Hadamard's words :

Practical applications are found by not looking for them, and one can say that the whole progess of civilisation

rest on that principle.

When Greeks, some four centuries BC consider the ellipse and found remarkable properties of it, they did not think

and could not think of any possible use of such discoveries. However, without these studies Kepler could not have

discovered, two thousand years later, the laws of motion of planet and Newton could not have discovered universal

atraction.

Giorolamo Cardano (1501 - 1576) is not only the inventor of a well-known joint which is an essential part of

automobiles, but has also fundamentally transformed mathematical science by the invention of imaginaries. The whole

development of algebra and analysis would have been impossible without that fundament ? (Hadamard 1996).

Mathematics is surely a part of culture, but school matematics is often a theory without connections with

technology, sciences, literature and art. Of course there are exemptions : realistic education of Freudenthal's Institut

in Utrecht or Michal Serra's Discovering Geometry.

The main problems in mathematics education connected with my theme are :

1. How to teach problem solving and how to cultivate creativity.

2. How to connect mathematics with other parts of culture.

My university teacher Bohumil Bydovsk (1880-1969) emphasized the psychological point of view in education.

This means also to cultivate connections with all parts of human culture and to see and support the students success,

satisfaction and perhaps also some unexpected results namely surprise.

Roger Penrose wrote in the book Shadows of the Mind (1995) : For our remote ancestors, a specic ability

to do sophisticated mathematics can hardly have been a selective advantage, but a general ability to understand

could well have. I would like to replace the words remote ancestors by words contemporery students. For them

also the understanding of mathematics is much important than formal knowledge of sophisticated mathematics. The

understanding of mathematics is fundamental in mathematics education. One of the ways to cultivate understanding is

to see mathematics in the state of creation and in the context of human culture as a whole. To show some possibilities

in this sense, is one of the aims of my lecture, in which I understand : mathematics is elementary mathematics.

Four elements of reality are, in my opinion, extraordinarily connected with human culture and mathematics :

(N) numbers as measuring of parts of reality,

(S) shapes as the scenes of reality,

(M) motion as demonstration of changes in reality,

(D) dimension as nature of reality.

All the elements N, S, M, D are present in the worlds of our children, all are subjects of our life not only in history,

but also in the present, all give stimuli for mathematics.

(N) Numbers as the measuring of reality

Although Leopold Kronecker (1823-1891) said that whole numbers are created by God, I believe (together with

Karl Popper (1902-1994)) that natural numbers are human products. They are products of human speech, invention

of counting and counting without limit (Fig. 1.8).

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Numbers are of course abstract notions, but in spite of this they are connected with reality which we percieve with

all our senses :

three stones we can see and touch,

three beats of a bell we can hear,

three dierent tasks we can relish,

three dierent perfums we can smell, . . .

These numbers are parts of everyday reality, they are measures of nite sets. Our children aquire the conception of

small natural numbers in their normal life in the family and preschool with the development of their mother language.

At schools the old abacus is the proper instrument for the representation of pure quantity.

To measure lengths human society created a number of apparatus. The results of such measuring are expressed by

means of positive real numbers and plenty of units (m, km, yard, mile, foot, . . .). It is a shame of our civilisation that

in 1998 the Mars Climate Orbiter wrecked as a consequence of mistake in applications of units of lengths (Barrow

2002).

Two school problems

Problem 1 (for students aged 10 years)

In how many ways it is possible to sew on a button with four holes ?

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Already on such a simple problem we can present some mathematicaly interesting questions (the role of denitions,

problems of equality,. . .)

Every child can draw some results of this problem SUCCESS is an important motivating power in good mathematics education.

Problem 2 (for students aged 18 years)

How many ancestors do you have since the beginning of our era ?

If we will count four generations during one century I am product of 80 generations of my ancestors. According

the g. 3 is the number of my ancestors 280 . This is more than the number of all persons living in this time. This is a

suprise. How is it possible ?

SURPRISE is a further motivating power in education.

A very interesting part of the set of natural number is the non nite set of prime numbers.

Although there are still many unsolved problems with prime numbers, these numbers have applications in dierent

areas of contemporary society, for example in coding, ciphering, geometry, technology, . . .The prime numbers occure

also in nature.

. . .1944, 1961, 1978, 1995, 2012, . . .

is a part of an arithmetic sequence with dierence 17. These numbers are the years of emergence of cicada Magicicada

in certain areas of the US. This insect with 2 large and 3 small eyes spend most of their 17-year lives

underground. After 17 years, mature cicada nymphs emerge at a given locality, synchronously and in tremendous

numbers. After such a prolonged developmental phase the adults are active for about 4 to 6 weeks. Within two months

of the original emergence, the life cycle is complete, the eggs have been laid and the adults cicadas are gone for another

17 years.

septendeci

Our nature oers a great abundance of shapes in the realm of zoology, botany and mineralogy (Fig. 1.11). Many

of them have geometrical properties, for example symmetry. Symmetry is connected with balance, not only in nature,

but also in technology. It is possible to describe the regularities of owers by means of groups of isometries. Nature

designed Platonic solids ages before Platon (428-347 BC) (Fig. 5).

Art emerged out of eorts made to map nature, and descriptive geometry from the needs of design engineers. Art

has of course a very long and interesting history. According the book 5000 Jahre Geometrie (Scriba, Schreiber 2001)

there are geometrical ornament that have been found and come from about 40 000 years BC (Fig. 1.13).

In 1926 Frantiek Kupka a very noted Czech artist with strong links to France published the series of wood

engravings Quatre Histoires de Blanc et Noir. It is a summary of Kupka's work which is also a grand tour of Modernism

(Fig. 1.14).

The connection of drawing and geometrical mapping of space was emphasized by the great German artist Albrecht

Drer (1471-1528).

The founder of descriptive geometry is of course the great French mathematician Gaspard Monge (1746-1818).

Descriptive geometry is a subject with a long and rich history in my country, but at this time the methods of mapping

are in decline.

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One very simple shape which is frequented in nature and very useful in technology is the circle. It is not a surprise

that the study of the properties of the circle is connected with well known names from mathematics history :

Thales (624-548 BC),

Euclid (365-300 BC),

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Apollnius (262-190 BC),

Descartes (1596-1650).

The circle is the gure of constant width. Is the circle the only shape with this property ? German engineer Franz

Reuleaux (1829-1905) constructed another such gure (Reuleax triangle) (Fig. 1.15) which has applications not only

in technology, it occures also in art. The Wankel rotary engine has a triangle rotor with form near to Reuleaux triangle

(Fig. 1.16).

Problem 3 (for

Draw several circles arbitrarily and color the regions of this map only by two colors. Two regions with common

frontiers must be colored by dierent colors.

The beauty of the obtained picture may be a resource of SATISFACTION for the students.

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Problem 3 is of course a very simple modication of the

(M)

four color

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Motion of an animal in nature, motion of a car in the street, motion of a rocket in space, motion of a pencil tip

while drawing, motion of an idea in history all these are examples of changes in reality. The rst visual representation

of motion was realised by the invention of lm here in Lyon by August and Luis Lumiere in 1895. In the painting

of a cow from Lascaux the motion is expressed very sugestively (Fig. 1.18). An interesing record of motion is in Fig.

?? by Strinberg.

Many geometrical notions are connected with motion.

According to Jacques Hadamard (2008) we have for example :

The distance AB is said to be equal to the distance A'B', if the rst segment can be moved onto the second in

such a way that A falls onto A' and B onto B'.

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Every line contains innitely many points. It can be viewed as beeing generated by a point which moves along it.

This is what happens when we trace a line on paper with pencil or pen.

In the same way, a surface can be generated by a moving line.

If a point can occupy innitely many positions, we call the gure formed by the set of these positions the geometric

locus of points.

By means of motion we can introduce for example the circle, the ball, the cylinder or the cube. Shapes which we

construct by means of motion in mathematics emerge also in nature : by plants or animal growing.

(D) Dimension as nature of reality

The dimensional point of view is presented in how children understand the world : the ball and its shadow, the

shoe and its print, the mother and her photograph, . . .

We can describe the position of a point in space by means of coordinates. The world we live in has three dimensions,

the plane is two-dimensional, the line has only one dimension. If we think of our space as a set of triad of real numbers

dened on the three-dimensional vector space, we can continue and construct four-dimensional space. In this space

there exists the four-dimensional cube whose net is three-dimensional (Fig. 1.20). The Spanish artist Salvador Dali

created a crucix in the shape of the net of the four-dimensional cube (Scriba, Schreiber 2001) (Fig. 1.21).

Two stimuli

Life and history are two most important stimuli for the cultivation of culture in mathematics education.

1 Dividing of space

The fence demarcates the garden, the frontiers dene the teritory of a state, the hedge divides the area onto elds,

the at is divided into rooms, . . .

Just like rooms in a house, so the cells of a plant are of dierent sizes, shapes and contents. Even quite an evident

fact in our world (the coast is the frontier of continent and sea) has a very sosticated expression in mathematics as the

Jordan curve theorem : a simple closed curve divides the plane into two connected regions, an inside and outside

(Fig. 1.22).

If the simple closed curve is a broken line, one of the regions is a polygon.

There are many interesting problems connected with polygons. I would like to remind only one.

Problem 4 (for students aged 15 years)

Find a polygon with this property : from a point in its inside (outside) it is not possible to see any

of its sides in whole.

Some solutions are in Fig. 1.23.

At the dawn of civilisation geometry was connected with solving practical problems.

For example the ancient Egyptians were concerned with the ooding of the Nile, food reserves and building the

pyramids. Here the measuring of lengths, areas and volumes was important.

The base of the measuring of lengths is the Archimedean axiom :

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The scale is a result of getting over a segment on a ray, measuring is the process of lling a segment by means

of unit segments and their parts. The segments are of course the interpretations of positive real numbers, including

irrational numbers.

Calculation of lengths, area and volumes are important parts of school mathematics.

During the early development of calculus, the Italian mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieri (1598-1647) formulated this principle :

If two solids have the same cross sectional area whenever they are sliced at the same height, then the two solids

have the same volume.

Archimedes (287-212 BC) formulated this principle in physical interpretation about 2000 years in advance (Kordos

Mathematics is strongly connected with all human culture. There are for example three pieces of literature which

deal explicitly with the mathematical problem known as Fermat's last theorem.

The history is well known. It was in number theory that Pierre Fermat (1601-1665) made his greatest mark literally.

While reading his Latin translation of Diophantus's Greek masterpiece Arithmetica, he wrote a deceptive simple

comment in Latin text to a problem about nding squares that are sums of other squares (for example, 32 + 42 = 52).

Fermat wrote :

On the other hand it is impossible for a cube to be the sum of two cubes, a fourth power to be the sum of two

fourth powers, or in general for any number that is a power greater than the second to be the sum of two like powers.

I have discovered a truly marvelous demonstration of this proposition that this margin is too narrow to contain

(Marilyn vos Savant, 1993).

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The Czech writer Karel Matj apek-Chod (1860-1927) wrote the story xn +y n = z n in which a mathematics

teacher proved the Fermat's last theorem as a soldier in World War I. But his proof was destroyed together with his

life.

The known French writer Marcel Pagnol (1885-1974) wrote a story La petit lle aux yeux sombres (Small girl

with dark eyes) in which mathematician Lemeunier proves Fermat's last theorem for n = 3.

And the American poet Cody Phanstiehl wrote about Andy Wiles who presented with smiles the solution of

this old problem.

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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47

Anglo Irish satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) touched on the idea of self similarity, a notion of fractal

geometry, over 260 years ago :

So naturalists observe, a ea

Hath smaller eas that on him prey ;

And these have smaller eas to bite'em,

And so proceed ad innitum.

Clouds are not spheres,

mountains are not cones,

Chapitre 1

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48

many patterns of Nature are. . .irregular and fragmented.

Technology, industry, agriculture, . . .are of course the parts of human culture which can't work without mathematics. An important feature of mathematics is harmony, which is naturally the common feature of good creative and

musical art and of course also literature.

Man as a creator

The lives of our children are full of creating new things. From building mud-pie out of sand, to children's drawings

and building of complicated structures from cubes. Many activities which lead to new outcomes are common in all

spheres of our life : new things, new ways, new products, new solutions to problems, new proof, new notions, new

denitions, new knowledge, new understanding, new theories. . .

All such activities I will call constructions. According to the method of creation and according the results of

constructions I will distinguish :

1.

Hard constructions

2.

Soft or fuzzy constructions : both the method and result are open.

Most problem solving in our school is hard constructions. Students solve typical problems such as application of

known theory. If we want to develop creativity and inventiveness of students we would have to give them an opportunity

to work also with soft and fuzzy constructions. The frontiers between hard, soft and fuzzy constructions are of course

fuzzy and depend on many factors (previous knowledge, training, talent, . . .)

To calculate 1 34 12 is a hard construction, but to nd a problem or story which is possible to solve by means of

this calculation is a fuzzy construction. The author of this problem Liping Ma-wrote that 90 % of a group of Chineese

teachers solved this problem but only 5 % of a group of American teachers were successful. (Ma, 1999).

Construction is the proces of transformation of a state into a new state, it is a method of realization of a methamorphosis.

Our life is full of metamorphosis. We can nd them in nature, technology, art, mathematics, . . ., in all human

activites (writing a novel, drawing a picture, constructing a machine, solving a problem, . . .).

Metamorphosis in nature : from a caterpillar into a buttery (Fig. 1.26).

Metamorphosis in literature.

Franz Kafka (1883 1924) one of the greatest writers of modernist and expressionist literature of the 20th century

wrote the short story Metamorphosis in which we can read : As Gregory Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy

dreams, he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect. . .His numerous legs, which were pitifully thin

compared to the rest of his bulk, waved helplessly before his eyes (Fig. 1.27, 1.28).

Examples of constructions in technology and art are in in Fig. 1.29 and 1.30.

Metamorphosis in mathematics.

p

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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49

We can calculate :

q

q

q

6 + 4 2 2 = 4 + 4 2 + 2 2 = (2 + 2)2 2 = 2 + 2 2 = 2

This is metamorphosis of symbols which is realized according to the laws of aritmetic, although for somebody this

Chapitre 1

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50

claculation may be a miracle similar to the metamorphosis of caterpillar. For them who know elementary mathematics

it is evident and simple.

James A. Gareld (1831 1881), 20th US President proved Pythagorean theorem by the application of known

formulas for area.

The area A of the trapeze ACDE (Fig. 1.31) is the sum of the areas of triangles ABC, BDE and ABE :

A=

1

1

1

ab + c2 + ab.

2

2

2

According to the formula A = 21 (a + b)v for the area of trapeze with bases a, b and height v is A = 21 (a + b)2 .

From the equality

c 2 = a 2 + b2

The construction of metamorphosis of known formulas into Pythagorean equality is not the application of logic

itself.

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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51

[ !h]

The transformation of a part of mathematics into a new theorem, a new proof, a new denition or solving new

problem is creative work usually hidden as the metamorphosis of the caterpillar to the buttery, or Kafka to the insect,

or transformation of a set of words into a poem, or the transformation of a set of colours into an artistic painting.

In all parts of culture intuition, experience, talent and applications are important.

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 1855) referring to an arithmetical theorem which he had unsuccesly tried to prove

for years writes : Finaly, two days ago, I succeeded, not on account of my painful eorts, but by the grace of God

like a sudden ash of lightning, the riddle happend to be solved. I myself cannot say what was the conducting thread

Chapitre 1

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52

which connected what I previously knew with what made my success possible (Hadamard 1996).

How can we teach problem solving ?

There are some nice publications in this area, for example by George Polya, Jacques Hadamard, Terence

Tao,. . .but in the school practice this problem, in my opinion, is still unsolved. Why ? According to Hadamard there

exist four stages of problem solving :

1.

2.

3.

4.

Preparation.

Incubation

Illumination

Verication

All these stages require time. This is the main problem of school practice.

Metamorphosis of dimensions.

Our writer Bohumil Hrabal grasped literature as a metamorphosis of our multi-dimensional world into onedimensional string of speech sounds. Metamorphosis of the dimensions is of course an important mathematical idea.

Find the solid drawn in the Fig. 1.32. This is not a cube, because in the picture of cube there are not all edges

visible. How can we imagin this polyhedron ? One of its faces is the hexagon ABCDEF (Fig. 1.33), one face is the

square S which is in front of the plane ABC . These two faces are connected with two triangles and four trapezes.

The visual lanquage of mathematics is, in my opinion, very important for understanding, but in our schools is often

neglected

Culture is a very important phenomen in human development. Culture of school mathematics means, in my

opinion, to see connections between the real world and mathematics, to have good orientation in individual parts of

mathematics and also in mathematics as whole, to understand dierent mathematical languages and last but not least

to solve problems by proper methods. Mathematical culture should be cultivated from the beginning of mathematical

education. In our country the level of mathematical culture is not very high. I will show this with just one example.

My students aged 18 years solved this problem :

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

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53

Find the area of a regular dodecagon inscribed in the circle with radius r.

Only two students found simple solution shown in Fig. 1.34. It is possible to see complicated ways to right solution

from these results :

A12 = 6r2 .

A12

sin 30

sin2 30

. 1

sin 75

4 sin2 75

v

u

p

p

p

u

t r(2 + 2 3) r 2 3 r 2 3 r 2 2 3

.

.

.

= 12.

2

2

2

2

Chapitre 1

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54

In the ninth century a Chineese mathematician solved our problem as shown in Fig. 1.35. This is nice mathematical

culture.

Cultivation of mathematical culture is a very dicult task for teachers. We should turn our attention not only to

the solution of problems, but also to the quality of this solution.

Conclusions

W. T. Gowers wrote in the book Mathematics : Frontiers and Perspectives (2002) about two cultures of mathematics. He means the distinction between mathematicians who regard their central aim as being to solve problems, and

those who are more concerned with building and understanding theories. He formulated the conclusion : mathematics

needs both sorts of mathematicians.

In my opinion the two mentioned views on mathematics are important also in school mathematics. The balance

between these two parts of mathematic education is an important part of mathematical culture. School mathematics

grow out of the problems of reality and to these problems it should return.

The process of creating something new is similar in all areas of human culture including mathematics. This is the

foundation for the union of mathematics with other culture.

My recommendation : To construct system of simple but not evident problems connected with all areas of culture,

to excite the interest of students for mathematics, to experience success with our students. But : mathematics is

labour, mathematics is heavy business. If our students see, that it is possible to gain success without labour, our eort

become vain.

REFERENCES

Barrow, J. D. (2002) The Constans of Nature. London : Jonathan Cape.

apek-Chod, K. M. (1919) xn + y n = z n . In : Ad hoc. Praha : Prask akciov tiskrny

Gowers, W. T. (2002) The Two Cultures of Mathematics. In : Mathematics : Frontiers and Perspectives : AMS.

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

Lyon

Hadamard, J. (2008) Lessons in Geometry. Newton : AMS.

Hardy, G. H. (1998) A Mathematician's Apology. Cambridge : CUP.

Kordos, M. (1994) Wyklady z historii matematyki. Warszawa : WSiP.

Kupka, F. (1926) Quatre historie de blanc et noir. Paris.

Lockhart, P. (2009) Mathematician's Lament. New York : BLP.

Ma, L. (1999) Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics. New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum.

Marylin Vos Savant(1993) The World's Most Famous Math Problem. New York : St. Martin's Press.

Penrose, R. (1995) Shadows of the Mind. London : Vintage.

Scriba, C. J., Schreiber, P. (2001) 5000 Jahre Geometrie. Berlin : Springer.

Wallas, G. (1945) The Art of Thought. London : C.A. Watts.

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Lyon

CHAPITRE 1. PLENARIES

56

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57

Chapitre 2

Semi-Plenaries

2.1 Learning with touchscreen devices : the manipulation to approach

and the game-approach as strategies to improve geometric thinking

Ferdinando Arzarello*, Marcelo Bairral** & Carlotta Soldano*

*Universit di Torino, **Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro

Rsum : La capture et l'analyse des direntes utilisations de l'cran tactile peuvent contribuer une nouvelle faon d'tudier

la gomtrie dynamique avec la technologie multi-touch. Nous discutons ici les donnes de trois expriences d'enseignement : deux avec

lves italiens de l'cole secondaire et une avec lves brsiliens de mathmatiques du premier cycle. Toutes les expriences ont t lmes.

Les tudiants ont travaill sur les tches proposes sur un priphrique tactile en ligne : le logiciel Gomtrique Constructer (GC). Nous

supposons que la manipulation sur la tablette est dirente d'un clic de souris. Sur la base de ces hypothses nous observons deux domaines

(constructifs et relationnels) concernant le dveloppement de la pense gomtrique sur GC. Par consquent, nous pouvons constater que

le dragging-approche et le jeu-approche permis par l'environnement multi-touch peuvent convenablement soutenir et amliorer les activits

des tudiants qui visent prouver et justier.

Mots-cls : Appareil cran tactile. Software constructeur gomtrique. Glisser pour approcher. Jeu approche. Justier.

Abstract : Capturing and analyzing dierent ways of touchscreen this study contributes with a new stream on dynamic geometry in

multi-touch technology. We discuss data from three teaching experiments : two with Italian High School students and one with Brazilian

undergraduate mathematics students. All experiments were videotaped. The students worked on tasks proposed on a free online touch

device : the Geometric Constructer (GC) software. We assume that manipulation on tablet is dierent from a mouse click. Based on this we

observe two domains (constructive and relational) regarding the development of geometrical thinking on GC. This allows us to ascertain that

the drag-approach and the game-approach allowed by the multi-touch environment can suitably support and improve students' justifying

and proving performances.

Keywords : Touchscreen device. Geometric Constructor software. Dragging to approach. Game-approach. Justifying.

Introduction

The emergence of multi-touch devices - such as iPods, iPhones and iPads - will promote new impact and challenges

in learning and instruction in general, and in mathematics in particular. Although in Mathematics Education some

touch devices have been developed (for instance, Geometer Sketchpad Explorer, Geometric Constructer, Sketchometry

and Math Tappers apps) research is still scarce concerning mathematical learning through touchscreen.

In our current research project we are interested in the way of manipulation of tablet resources as iPad. Particularly,

how ways of manipulation can enrich the multimodality of communication in instruction that touch devices provide.

In this paper we are addressing issues regarding the question : during the process of solving geometric problems using

the software GC which ways of manipulation touchscreen could be fruitful to improve student's strategies for justifying

and proving ?

As a methodological strategy to achieve this aim we construct a timeline illustrating those ways of touchscreen and

describing geometric aspects from students' interaction on the Geometry Constructer touchscreen software (Arzarello,

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Bairral & Dan, 2014). Assuming that mathematics used by students to solve a mathematical task in a paper-andpencil environment is dierent from what they use in a touchscreen device, in this paper we will address contribution

on CIEAEM65 subtheme 3.

Regarding their usage, environment mobile touchscreen user interfaces employ a specialized interaction model.

Interaction through current mobile touchscreens basically occurs with the computer recognizing and tracking the

location of the user's input within the display area. In other words, interactivity occurs in response to two dimensions

of the input action (Yook 2009 ; Park 2011). This enables six basic nger actions (manipulation) for input : tap, double

tap, long tap (hold), drag, ick, and multi-touch (rotate). In agreement with Arzarello & al. (2002) within dynamic

geometry software (GDS) the interaction concerns deeply perceptual aspects, which involve not only the objects (e.

g. drawings) but also the physical perceptions of students, their motions, gestures, languages etc. and the artifacts

that they use as mediating instruments. Perceptual aspects which must be analyzed concern many components, i.e.

visual phenomena, motion, kinesthesia, inner time(s) ; on the other hand, the most typical theoretical features are the

structured mathematical objects, their invariant properties, conjectures, theorems, proofs.

The role of the gesture, particularly the touchscreen, in supporting mathematical reasoning in technological context

is an emerging eld of research in mathematics education. Adopting an embodied cognition perspective we highlight

reciprocal connections between ways of touchscreen and cognition. Even though we are not looking only for ways

of touch that represent mathematical concepts (for instance, rotation) we agree with Boncoddo & al. (2013) that a

particular way of manipulation may serve as an important function of grounding mathematical ideas in bodily form

and they may also communicate spatial and relational concepts. Specically for geometrical thinking, inspired in

Hostetter and Alibali (2008), we consider important to stress that, in touchscreen devices, manipulations are based

on visuospatial images, linguistic factors inuence gestures and ways of touchscreen are communicatively intended.

Another relevant issue to consider is the way using a multi-touch-screen allows changing the task design in a

substantial way. More precisely, multi-touch screen devices allow designing geometrical problems in a dierent way

from the usual one, which would be very dicult within non-multi-touch screens environments. The design is inspired

by game theory and for this reason we call it game-approach. The space allows us only to illustrate it through an

elementary example.

We conducted three teaching experiments (TE) : 1) ve High School students (16-17 years old) at Liceo Volta

(Turin, Italy) were enrolled on the three-research sessions, 2) seven High School students (15-16 years old) at Liceo

Maria Immacolata (Pinerolo, Italy), and 3) four undergraduate mathematics students (23-26 years old) at UFRRJ

(Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were enrolled on the two-research sessions. All of them had previous experience with GDS.

Each session took about two hours long. For the three TE the analytical process was based on the videotape.

In each session the students worked out on proposed activities with Geometric Constructor (GC). The GC is a free

dynamic geometry software developed in Japan by Yasuyuki Iijima at Aichi University of Education (Iijima (2012).

With the GC we may construct basic geometrical objects (points, segments, lines, circles), measure them, drag and

make traces of geometrical objects and so on. Below we summarize students (from TE1 and 3) dealing with Varignon

Theorem task and we illustrate some aspects of their geometrical thinking captured throughout their manipulation,

as we show in the following chart.

After identifying each type of manipulation (Arzarello & al. 2013) we constructed a timeline to gain information of

the global cognitive movement throughout interaction on GC software. We built on the two types (basic or active) of

nger actions to say that the cognitive process within GC could be seen in two interrelated domains of manipulation :

the construction domain, where students basically refer to tap and hold which are the basic or isolated ways of

constructing geometric objects (point, line, circle, shape etc.) with a touch interface. The relational domain is a

combination of this constructional and the performed touchscreen that includes drag, ick, free or rotate. The chart

below illustrates how we can move from a global observation (timeline) to a descriptive one and focusing on some

cognitive process concerning the two domains of touchscreen.

CHAPITRE 2. SEMI-PLENARIES

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59

Even though in the relational domain students also construct geometric objects we observed (Arzarello, Bairral &

Dan, 2014) that it is in this particular domain where they show more interacting and reecting about the construction.

Due to the nature of the geometrical proposal tasks we identied the predominance of touchscreen types on the

relational domain and touch such drag free, ick or rotate occurred few times. The usage of drag to approach was

dominant.

The dragging to approach works as a refreshing, a quite stabilizing and reecting area for deep understanding

of the geometric properties that emerge from the manipulation on drag free or other way of touchscreen. Since the

drag to approach is an active action (Yook 2009) it seems to be an appropriated moment to improve justication and

proving.

While in construction domain students act as discrete observation (focused on some specic construction or constructed object or even doing some touch on the screen) in the relational domain their manipulation seemed more

focused on their questioning, conceptual understanding and other emergent demands concerning their manipulation

as a whole construction.

Manipulation on construction domain seems focused on only predetermined motion although motion through

relational manipulations provides motion open in a sense that they can generate more unpredictable processes. By the

way, we still have to go further on the issue of open motion. To summarize the reection above we illustrate how we

related the two domains of touchscreen with geometrical thinking and the motion through touchscreen.

For the second teaching experiment, two students, X and Y use a single tablet : they are asked to open a le where

they nd the situation of g. 1 in a DGS that allows dragging several points simultaneously. Student X can change

the length of the segment AB. When doing this, she sees that the circle changes also : in fact its radius has the same

length as AB (but this is not made explicit). Student Y can change the length of the segment CD. When doing this

he sees that the line moves : in fact its distance from the center O of the circle is the same as the length of CD (but

this is not made explicit).

The goal for X is to change the length of AB so that the circle and the line intersect, while that for Y is to change

the length of CD so that the two gures do not intersect : the two goals are so conicting. After they have played

they are asked to explain together when X wins and when Y wins. The result is the statement that a line intersects a

circle if and only if its distance from the center is not greater than the radius. In general, we can suitably design the

tasks, so that two students can work together on a problem (and one shared tablet), where each of them has a specic

goal to achieve. Sometimes the two goals are conicting ; like in the example (2-players game) sometimes they share

the same goal (collaborative game).

Chapitre 2

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We would say that cognitive process within GC could be seen in two intertwined domains of manipulation (Arzarello

& al. 2014) : the construction domain (it refers to tap and hold which are the basic or isolated ways of constructing

geometric object, and the relational domain (it is a combination of the constructional and the performed touchscreen).

Although students had dealing naturally with the device, their manipulation apparently was related with the software

constrains (or advantages) or with the proposal task. By the way, we still have to go further on the issue the two

domains of manipulation on GC software.

For the TE 1 and 2 we think that manipulation that promotes open motion (relational ways of touching) can be

appropriate to provide new epistemological challenges regarding geometric knowledge and dierent ways of proving.

Since the drag to approach is a relational action it seems to be an appropriated moment to improve justication and

proving within mathematics classrooms using touchscreen devices. But we would say that, depending on the aim of

the teacher, the nature of the task is important and the teacher may let students work freely on the task and using

naturally their own way of touch.

The result of the exploration in TE3 brings to some conjecture of the type : why is the requested construction not

possible ? Or when can player X lose ? This approach changes the task design and also the logic and epistemological

background behind the exploration. In particular the game-approach (Gura and Maschler, 2008) is very appealing

for students and the rst results of the teaching experiment are showing how it helps them in making explicit the

geometrical properties they enter into through this approach.

REFERENCES

Arzarello, F., & al. (2014). Moving from dragging to touchscreen : geometrical learning with geometric dynamic

Teaching Mathematics and its Applications 33(1) : 39-51. doi : 10.1093/teamat/hru002

Arzarello, F., & al. (2013). Ways of manipulation touchscreen in one geometrical dynamic software. International

Conference on Technology in Mathematics Teaching (ICTMT11), Bari, Itlia.

Arzarello, F., & al. (2002). A cognitive analysis of dragging practises in Cabri environments. ZDM 34(3) : 66-72.

Boncoddo, R., Williams, C., Pier, E., Walkington, C., Alibali, M., Nathan, M., Dogan, M.F. & Waala, J. (2013).

Gesture as a Window to Justication and Proof. Proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the North American

Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. M. C. S. Martinez, A. Chicago, IL,

University of Illinois at Chicago : 229-236.

Gura, E.-Y. and Maschler, M. B. (2008). Insights into Game Theory. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Hostetter, A. B. and M. W. Alibali (2008). Visible embodiment : Gestures as simulated action. Psychonomic Bulletin

& Review 15(3) : 495-514.

Park, Doyun, Lee, Ji-Hyun, & Kim, Sangtae. (2011). Investigating the aective quality of interactivity by motion

feedback in mobile touchscreen user interfaces. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 69(12), 839-853.

doi : 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031

Yook, HJ. (2009). A study on the types of interactive motions in Mobile touch interface. PhD Dissertation. Hongik

university, Korea.

software.

CHAPITRE 2. SEMI-PLENARIES

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Thierry Dias

Haute Ecole Pdagogique, Lausanne

Rsum : Le propos de cet article est d'interroger le mode d'existence des objets mathmatiques au sein de situations d'apprentissages

scolaires spciques proposes des lves ayant des dicults ou des troubles de l'apprentissage. Ce contexte est choisi pour son eet

de loupe sur un environnement scolaire plus ordinaire galement porteur de ce type de problmatiques pdagogique et didactique. Nous

prsenterons les environnements d'apprentissage que nous proposons aux lves an qu'ils s'appuient sur une diversit empirique dans leurs

mises en actes susceptibles la fois de rvler leurs connaissances mais aussi de faire exister de faon explicite les objets mathmatiques

qui sont les enjeux de savoirs de ces situations. Concernant les liens entre les objets mathmatiques et la ralit, nos travaux s'inscrivent

dans un double ancrage pistmologique et didactique, ils s'appuient sur la dimension exprimentale des mathmatiques (Dias, 2008) et

sur son tude au sein de situations d'apprentissages ddies la mise en vidence des potentiels d'acquisition et de comprhension de tous

les lves.

Nous n'inscrivons pas nos travaux dans une cole de pense pistmologique concernant la ralit des objets mathmatiques (empirisme ou platonisme), nous prfrons laisser la question ouverte sur ce sujet. Nous nous contenterons

de dire que non seulement les dbats sur ce sujet ne sont pas clos, mais aussi qu'ils ne concernent pas seulement les

mathmatiques. Dans la suite de cet article, nous utiliserons la dnition de l'objet comme ce qui est plac devant,

ce que l'on vise, soit pour l'atteindre soit pour le connatre. Nous posons ds lors le problme de la reprsentation de

ces objets dans un langage (les exprime-t-il ou les dtermine-t-il ') et donc de leur mode d'existence : des constructions

de l'esprit humain (Gardies, 2004) ou des idalits (Desanti, 1968).

Notre tude fait rfrence au contexte scolaire dans lequel le mode d'existence des objets mathmatiques nous semble

trs spcique. Ainsi, mme si nous revendiquons un ancrage pistmologique pour mieux comprendre les rapports que

les individus entretiennent avec les mathmatiques, nous n'tablissons aucun a priori au sujet du lien avec la ralit des

objets de cette discipline. Nous essayons plutt de comprendre comment les mathmatiques peuvent faire l'objet d'une

didactique prenant en compte la dimension exprimentale et ainsi analyser la dialectique sensible/thorique relative

ses objets de savoir (Dias, 2008). Selon nous, recourir la dimension exprimentale c'est permettre de nombreux allers

et retours entre des objets sensibles (plus ou moins familiers) et des objets thoriques (plus ou moins formaliss) par

des confrontations (adquates ou non), des vrications, des argumentations (prouver, convaincre). Les va-et-vient se

font entre les faits objectifs et les savoirs conceptuels par divers processus tels que l'interprtation et la modlisation.

Nous explorons la mise en uvre d'environnements didactiques propices aux expriences des sujets, en pariant sur

leur rencontre possible avec la diversit des phnomnes empiriques puis sur leur capacit comprendre notamment

par le biais de la stabilisation des invariants dans les actes, les signes et les objets rencontrs. Ces rencontres et

leurs consquences tant inscrire dans une dialectique exprience/intuition (Gonseth, 1936). Selon nous, expriences

individuelles et expression langagire sont des supports pour les manifestations des intuitions . Le divers empirique

dont nous parlons doit se comprendre comme un ensemble d'lments symboliques d'abord mis disposition des

lves, mais galement progressivement enrichi par les actions et les expressions langagires qui les accompagnent.

Phnomnes et faits sont le substrat de cette diversit empirique qui ne se limite donc pas aux objets rels puisqu'il

s'tend aux expriences de pense toujours envisageables dans de tels contextes d'apprentissage.

Nous nous accordons dire que l'existence des objets mathmatiques relve pour partie des interprtations que

les sujets en font : les lvent agissent sur des signes, sur du matriel et ventuellement en parlent. Le professeur qui

sait des choses sur ces actes ou ces mots dcide (ou non) de qualier de mathmatique ces actes et ces mots, et ainsi

participe au processus d'exhibition des savoirs.

Notre objectif est de montrer que, pour des lves catgoriss en dicult , leur potentiel apprendre en

mathmatiques est d'une certaine manire sous-estim dans les activits qui leur sont gnralement proposes en

classe. Des activits que l'on peut caractriser globalement comme des tches relativement ordinaires (souvent peu

Chapitre 2

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problmatises) privilgiant des supports crits (sous forme de ches), et qui orent une schmatisation (Descaves,

1992) trs formelle des concepts mathmatiques. L'cueil principal tant que cette schmatisation reste trop souvent

non transparente pour les lves ainsi privs de la dimension signicative et donc assez facilement prisonniers de

techniques ou de savoir-faire assimilable des outils d'application. En surcrot de cette non transparence, les formes

symboliques formelles utilises par l'enseignement ne sont souvent pas mises en lien avec les faits empiriques qui

permettraient aux lves d'accder un degr minimal de comprhension des enjeux de ces tches scolaires.

Nous savons que les lves ayant des besoins spciques que nous rencontrons dans l'enseignement spcialis

entretiennent des relations particulires avec les objets mathmatiques qu'ils ne reconnaissent et n'utilisent souvent

que trs mal dans les tches ordinaires qui leur sont proposes. Ainsi, mme si les connaissances sont bien l pour de

nombreux lves, la reconnaissance par le professeur de ces acquisitions est dciente : ils ne montrent pas toujours ce

qu'ils savent.

En orant une rencontre mdiatise avec les objets mathmatiques sous forme d'un environnement proposant un

ancrage esthtique et technologique, nous esprons restaurer ces potentiels de dveloppement mais galement permettre aux lves d'en prendre connaissance. Les situations didactiques que nous mettons en uvre proposent des

interactions entre des individus, des choses, et des signes sur ces choses. Pour nous, le dveloppement des connaissances

dans un tel contexte doit tre assimil un processus dynamique garantissant sans cesse le pari de l'ducabilit.

Les tches que nous mettons disposition des lves relvent selon nous de la terminologie de situations puisque

ce sont des environnements matriels et symboliques adapts suscitant des relations et des interactions entre les

protagonistes. On peut raisonnablement parler de situations d'apprentissages car elles sont reproductibles et permettent

moyen terme l'acquisition ou pour le moins l'utilisation de connaissances. Du fait de leur problmatisation, les tches

comportent la fois un certain nombre de contraintes (par exemple des questions) mais galement des ressources

permettant leur rsolution. Le rle de l'enseignant accompagnateur relve le plus souvent d'un tayage discret et adapt

(Dias & Tiche, 2012) aux dicults des lves, et doit garantir essentiellement l'absence de dcrochage dnitif dans

la rsolution des problmes rencontrs. Nous pouvons rsumer cela en trois temps :

nous proposons aux lves des milieux matriels (smiotiques) spciques et adapts nous paraissant susceptibles

de provoquer des expriences et des crations personnelles et/ou collectives,

nous ajoutons parfois dans ces environnements des contraintes spciques au cours de la rsolution,

nous observons et interagissons avec les propositions faites par les lves.

Nous travaillons essentiellement avec des constructions gomtriques dans l'espace an d'ancrer les expriences

dans des dimensions esthtiques et culturelles porteuses de sens et de plaisir pour les lves, et dans une dimension technologique (galement culturelle) toujours motivante et souvent facile dvoluer (Durand Guerrier, Dias &

Pelay, 2010). Nous avons par exemple choisi plusieurs situations de manipulation et construction autour des polydres

rguliers dont la densit didactique a t montre (Dias, 2011). La mise en uvre dans le contexte scolaire spcique a

elle aussi fait l'objet de travaux d'tudes (Serment, 2012a, 2012b), et de recherche (Dias & Serment, 2013). chaque

exprimentation mene, que ce soit en classe, en formation ou avec un public plus large, nous avons constat que

les protagonistes de ces interventions taient mme de convoquer une certaine notion de ralit dans leurs actes et

dans leurs mots. Cette notion de ralit ou d'adquation matrielle ne se limite pas aux objets matriels,

mais comprend les objets mathmatiques susamment familiers pour le sujet pour que les rtroactions du milieu,

conscutives ses actions, lui fournissent des informations ables sur lesquelles s'appuyer pour mettre des conjectures

et/ou s'engager dans un processus de preuve.

Comme nous l'avons annonc ds le dbut de cet article, nous ne souhaitons pas prendre partie dans la dualit

historique et ontologique des objets mathmatiques opposant irrmdiablement le nominalisme matrialiste et le ralisme platonicien. Nous inscrivons nos recherches dans l'ide d'un processus dynamique ; d'une dialectique reliant le

sensible au thorique (Dias, 2009). La ralit peut s'envisager comme un univers de signications possible, qu'elle soit

objective ou seulement de pense. Ainsi, la notion de rel peru nous parat limitative et nous lui prfrons celle de

CHAPITRE 2. SEMI-PLENARIES

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rel partag (Lelong, 2004) dont le point de dpart n'est pas forcment sensible. A minima, la seule volont de faire,

l'intention de ralisation de quelque chose est dj une manifestation de ralit. Ce rel est dit partag car il est

replacer dans le cadre spcique d'une communaut d'individus (d'lves par exemple si on s'en tient au contexte

scolaire) qui collaborent dans leurs actes et leurs mots en vue de catgorisations permettant l'laboration de concepts

(Descaves, 1992). la manire de Granger (1999), nous pensons que la ralit doit tre entendue comme la notion de

vracit : les choses et les penses sont, ou peuvent devenir.

L'ide du rel partag est associer avec celle de la co-construction dans les interactions de connaissances et

nous semble particulirement approprie pour dcrire et comprendre ce qui est en jeu dans des situations d'enseignement/apprentissage autour des notions mathmatiques. Nous sommes conscients que la diversit empirique que les

enseignants doivent proposer leurs lves est une question professionnelle didactique dlicate qui peut entraner des

situations de dstabilisation pdagogique. Cependant, le but que nous ne cessons de poursuivre dans nos recherches

est entirement ddi l'tude des potentialits apprendre de tous les lves, cette n justie quelques moyens. . .

Bibliographie

Desanti, J.-T. (1968). Les idalits mathmatiques. Paris : Le Seuil.

Descaves, A. (1992). Comprendre des noncs, rsoudre des problmes. Hachette Education.

Dias, T. (2008). La dimension exprimentale des mathmatiques : un levier pour l'enseignement et l'apprentissage

(thse de doctorat). Universit Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon. Retrieved from http ://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel00635724/

Dias, T. (2009). L'apprentissage de la gomtrie dans la scolarit obligatoire : une dialectique entre objets sensibles

et objets thoriques. In . La pense sauvage (Ed.), Nouvelles perspectives en didactique des mathmatiques.

Dias, T. (2011). la recherche des polydres rguliers. Nouveaux Cahiers de La Recherche En ducation, 14(1),

29-48.

Dias, T. & Serment, J. (2013). Jeux de constructions gomtriques dans l'espace. Prsent aux Journes Internationales de Etudes Scientiques, Chamonix.

Dias, T., & Tiche Christinat, C. (2012). Spcicits des situations didactiques dans l'enseignement spcialis.

Prsent Espace Mathmatique Francophone, Enseignement des mathmatiques et contrat social, Genve.

Durand-Guerrier, V., Dias, T., & Pelay, N. (2010). Mathmatiques et ralit, une problmatique centrale dans

l'apprentissage des mathmatiques l'cole., Des mondes bricols ', Arts et sciences l'preuve de la notion de

bricolage.

Gardies, J.-L. (2004). Du mode d'existence des objets de la mathmatique. Paris : Vrin

Gonseth, F. (1936). Les mathmatiques et la ralit. Paris : Blanchard.

Granger, G.-G. (1999). La pense de l'espace. Paris : Odile Jacob.

Lelong, P. (2004). Le rel et les concepts en mathmatiques : une stratgie de cration. In Le rel en mathmatiques.

Paris : Agalma.

Serment, J. (2012a). Sections du cube en version gante. Math-Ecole, 218, 35-39.

Serment, J. (2012b). Les constructions gomtriques dans l'espace pour l'apprentissage de la gomtrie (mmoire

de master of arts en enseignement spcialis). Haute Ecole Pdagogique du canton de Vaud de Lausanne, Suisse.

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Chapitre 3

other disciplines / Les mathmatiques et

leur enseignement en lien avec les autres

disciplines

3.1 Working Group 1 : Mathematics and its teaching in relation to other

disciplines

Gail FitzSimons* and Javier Dez-Palomar**

*Melbourne University, **University of Barcelona

There were 12 presentations, grouped according to their logic.

Toril Eskeland Rangnes : Critical learning in and between practices.

Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup & Lars Gustafsson : Analysing and construing mathematics containing

designing ac-

Petronilla Bonissoni, Paolo Longoni, Gianstefano Riva, Ernesto Rottoli :

by experimental approaches.

et pratique scientique en

Marta Ginovart

Ordinary dierential equations and individual-based simulations to deal with the modeling of

Luis Menezes, Vronique Delplancq, Graa Castanheira : Classe de mathmatiques, ralit et communi-

cation.

Panagiota Kotarinou & Charoula Stathopoulou : Teaching hyperbolic geometry through drama and ICT.

S. Attisano, L. Bisello, A. Boggio, A. Loiero, S. Rossi : Deux savoirs en miroir : les proceds mathmatiques

Gail FitzSimons :

Chapitre 3

et la

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The CIEAEM 66 Discussion Paper reminded us that implementing interdisciplinarity within schools is not easy

for individual teachers because of the constraints of the education system. For example, the organization of school

timetables/courses works against the coherent system necessary for dealing with such complexity. Predetermined

curricular structures and the pressures of teachers' daily work can impact on the decision to adopt an interdisciplinary

pedagogical approach. The Discussion Paper also reminded us that cooperation between disciplines, each carrying

viewpoints on both the studied objects and the methodologies, requires attention to the specic features of each

subject.

The questions posed for this sub-theme were revised as follows :

What are the advantages and possibilities, also disadvantages and threats, entailed for mathematics in interdisciplinary approaches ?

What challenges does this raise for students and teachers ?

How can mathematics interact with other disciplines to support the understanding of a multi-dimensional problem ?

In this Working Group, mathematics was seen in relation to humanities, science, arts & media, society, workplaces,

& itself. Mathematics was taken to be a human activity, modeling, both theoretical & contextual, & mathematics

education.

The advantages and possibilities entailed for mathematics (education) in interdisciplinary approaches in relation

to students were

as a means for discussing realities (critical reections),

improved attitudes to mathematics,

a broader and more positive understanding of mathematics,

an awareness and experience of mathematics in other disciplines.

In relation to teachers and teaching, interdisciplinary approaches, to

provide a meaningful context for the learning of both disciplines,

enable a move away from traditional teaching, and

help teachers to identify human practices outside of the mathematics classroom as potentially mathematical.

Disadvantages and threats entailed for mathematics (education) in interdisciplinary approaches included losing

the mathematics in the teaching and having too little knowledge about the other discipline, and/or simplifying too

much so we may lose some of the mathematical sense of using real complex situations to teach mathematics.

Challenges of mathematics (education) in interdisciplinary approaches included

overcoming the disconnection of mathematics (e.g., teaching a course of calculus without applications).

making the most of cases brought into the teaching ; making connections clear and explicit.

constraints of the ocial decisions : decisions can be made by authorities without insight into actual teaching

conditions.

the inuence of ocially recognised textbooks, with their pseudo-contextualised problems

constraints on conditions and practices in the system and in school : a lack of resources (e.g., computers &

preparation time), a lack of professional development, and even not valuing professional development at all.

where is teacher authority located in inter-disciplinary work ?

who has ownership in these projects ?

what will happen after the project is nished'

vocational maths requires the teaching and learning of theoretical and contextual maths.

having a goal about mathematical objects' learning when using modelisation.

how to encourage a critical thinking among students.

how to use real situations in which mathematics is not evident, and not lose mathematics in the learning process.

How to interact with other disciplines to support the understanding of a multi-dimensional problem.

connect to students' out of school experiences : they can inform the teaching.

respect is important for all forms of external knowledge bases, personal, professional, scientic, cultural, . . .in a

two-way process.

acknowledge the complexity of other disciplines : there are dierent criteria for what counts as a good model ;

acknowledge that not all share a mathematical world view

learn about other disciplines : co-operate with others than mathematics teachers, use tasks from other subjects,

recognise the two-way process ; boundary objects are important.

use the textbook in new ways as inspiration, along with other sources, but not losing important parts of the

required curriculum ; change already existing tasks ; critically discuss existing tasks with students.

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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consider gender and cultural aspects ; it is important to vary contexts and avoid non-inclusive contexts.

67

Many thanks to all our participants, presenters, and especially Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup and Anna

Nowak for their excellent presentation at the nal reporting session, including Lisa's Mind Maps.

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Toril Eskeland Rangnes

Bergen University College, Norway.

Rsum : Cet article explore l'apprentissage lorsque des lves en 8

struction dans le but d'apprendre les mathmatiques. L'tude est ralise en Norvge. Travailler avec les mathmatiques dans les direntes

matires ou pratiques scolaires tant l'cole que l'entreprise, peut rendre les lves conscients des similitudes et dirences des mathmatiques accomplies dans des contextes dirents. Les conversations des lves sont analyses et discutes en rapport au dialogisme de

Bakhtine. Une conclusion indique que l'apprentissage dans chaque pratique et entre les pratiques ore un potentiel pour dvelopper une

rexion critique des lves par rapport la faon dont les mathmatiques sont eectues dans le cadre et en dehors de l'cole.

th grade students

company with a purpose of learning mathematics. The study is performed in Norway. Working with mathematics in dierent school

subjects or practices, such as school and enterprise, can make students conscious of similarities and dierences between doing mathematics

in dierent contexts. Students conversations are analysed and discussed in relation to Bakhtin's dialogism. A nding indicates that learning

in and between practices provides potential for pupils' critical reections in relation to how mathematics is performed in and outside school.

Introduction

The aim in this paper is to explore the potential of learning to be critical, when the aim is to learn mathematics in

and between dierent practices and reports on part of the project Learning Conversation in Mathematics Practice 1 .

The data is from 8th grade (about 14 years old) students conversations with each other, with their mathematics

teacher and with the carpenter in a construction company. The assignment given to the students by the teacher and

the construction company was to construct a 3D model of a rorbu, a combined boathouse and seaside cottage that is

a popular holiday home in the students neighbourhood. Initially, the construction company sent the students several

construction drawings (scale 1 :100) of rorbu of dierent sizes. These were to be used as a basis for the students' own

construction drawings (scale 1 :50) including their suggestions for possible room plans. The group took their nished

construction drawings back to the company, and discussed it with a carpenter. Back in the classroom, the students

then produced a 3D model at a scale of 1 :25 based on their construction drawing. This project was carried out in

both mathematics and arts and crafts lessons. The students encountered two kinds of mathematical practices : that of

the construction company, which is guided by production, eciency and protability ; and that of the school, which

is governed by mathematical learning goals as dened in the curriculum and implemented by the teacher (Rangnes,

2012).

Learning science and mathematics through cooperation with institutions and workplaces outside the schools is

encouraged in the Norwegian curriculum (Ministry of Education and Research [KD], 2006). Politically, this has been

stressed as a way to make mathematics relevant, to concretize mathematics, to learn mathematical concepts through

experience of mathematics in use, and to encourage students to continue studying mathematics (KD, 2010). These

ideas about the importance of cooperation and the aims of such a cooperation have been manifested in an agreement

between employers' organizations, trade unions, the Ministry of Education and Research, and universities.

On the other hand, the Norwegian curriculum (KD, 2006), stresses that a democratic society needs citizens who

can understand mathematics and be critical users of mathematics. Therefore, learning to be critical is essential in

mathematics education. Skovsmose (2005) describe that to be critical in mathematics education can be a matter of

reecting on mathematical tools, reecting on the usefulness of the results and reecting on mathematics in use. It

is also a matter of considering how mathematics impacts on our lives. In the eld of negotiation, researchers explain

learning to be critical in this way : Challenging one's own experiences and viewing them critically, becoming a selfconscientious and self-questioning learner, and being suspicious of one's taken-for-granted assumptions all fall within

the domain of critical learning (Mazon, 2012, p.114). There is potential for learning to be critical to occur when

students get the opportunity to challenge their own experiences, through, for instance, participating in dialogues with

participants from dierent practices. From a Bakhtinian dialogical perspective, the aim for learning to be critical can

be : not to make students have the same understanding as the teacher, but rather to engage them in historically valuable discourses, to

become familiar with historically, culturally, and socially important voices, to learn how to address these voices, and to develop responsible

replies to them without an expectation of an agreement or an emerging consensus (Matusov, 2011, p. 115).

1.

A research project leaded by Professor M. Johnsen-Hines and funded by the Research council of Norway.

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Students' movements in and between practices are explored by Johnsen-Hines (2010, p. 114) as a learning loop,

giving an opportunity to explore the potential of learning to be critical as students become familiar with dierent

cultural voices.

A learning loop illustrates that learning is taking place in as well as between the dierent contexts. Learning is

taking place when the organised activity is ongoing, but can also take place in front of and after the activity (JohnsenHines, 2010). This occurs when students are in school, for example, and refer to the construction company and vice

versa.

The Bachtinian perspective is used to understand better the students' dispositions to reect and to critically

question their participation in mathematical activities. To study the potential for learning to be critical also requires

an investigation of the available space for students' critical reection on mathematics as well as how mathematics is

performed in dierent practices.

Theoretical framework

In this study, Bakhtin's dialogism has been used as theoretical framework and as an analytical tool. In Bakhtinian

dialogism, an utterance will always be an answer and will also demand an answer. It involves a statement and an

evaluation. In a student's utterance, the voices of other persons can be identied ; for example teachers, peers or

parents. According to Bakhtin (1986), the voices of others in an utterance can be described as polyphony of voices.

Bakhtin never explicitly denes polyphony (Morson & Emerson, 1990) but rather describes polyphony as a space in

which dierent opinions, understandings and linguistic settings are expressed. The voices can be identied through

choice of theme, expressivity and purpose. For example, a meeting between the students and the carpenter can be

seen in the light of polyphony. The carpenter was informed about the purpose for the visit ; the student should learn

about the mathematics he used in his work. He talked about the mathematics (theme) but used words (linguistic) and

tools which were dierent to the ones that the students were familiar with in school. He told about his use of X and

Y in special cases when he was working with scales. The students asked if he used algebra, a word he did have not

in his vocabulary, as he said. He demonstrated his architect's scale, a tool for working with scaling which was a new

tool for the students. The carpenter's talk was inuenced by school mathematics, his vocational mathematics learning

experiences and his work. Through his talk the polyphony could be identied through his choice of theme, words and

tools.

The utterances have to be seen in relation to the context : social, cultural and historical (Bakhtin, 1986). An

utterance in dierent mathematics practices such as a mathematics classroom and a construction company, will use

language that has been shaped by underlying history and culture. Moreover, the language used is developed on the

basis of the practices' aims and motives. Within the practices, participants develop social norms regarding which

language they use, which tools are allowed, and which approaches are best (Rangnes, 2012 ; Wedege, 1999). According

to Bakhtin (1986), polyphony includes carnivalism. For example, a student can use his teacher's or other authorities'

words and everybody perceives that actually he is questioning the ongoing practice. This is evident in the present

study when after the teacher and the students had drawn a full size model of a TV on the wall with a pencil (they

were designing furniture for the 3D-model), the teacher told them to erase it. A student suddenly took the role of

an adult. He knocked at an imaginary door, opened it and asked what are you doing here ' and turned around,

before answering as a student : we just have mathematics with Linn (the teacher). Both the teacher and students

immediately recognised the voice of the principal and had a good laughter. In this act the student could question the

principal's or other authorities' thoughts about how to work with mathematics in school. But he also, with humour,

questioned what they really were doing in mathematics lessons with Linn. By using humour, he could critically reect

Chapitre 3

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on his learning about what constituted an appropriate mathematics lesson without being rude. According to Bakhtim,

carnevalism often includes humour and to be understood the utterances have to be interpreted within the context.

From a dialogic perspective dierences between voices are considered as providing opportunities to open up the

meaning making for critical discussions and learning. The aim is not the same as in the dialectic perspective, which

is to overcome dierences through synthesis into something new, which can encourage uniformity (Barwell, 2012). In

a dialogical perspective, one can identify areas of potential for learning to be critical by identifying tensions between

voices. Alr and Skovsmose (2006) argue that criticism, if it is directed at one's own or others' work, reects engagement

and a willingness to participate. Thus, students' criticism can be considered a basis for taking ownership and making

choices.

Method

In the project Learning Conversation in Mathematics Practice, teacher educators / researchers cooperated with

teachers in a municipality and local enterprises in order to learn more about practical learning in mathematics (Hana,

Hansen, Johnsen-Hines, Lilland, & Rangnes, 2013). Student teachers actively participated in developing the teaching

plan as well as implementing the plan. Some of them participated in the research project even after their graduation.

One of these graduates chose to cooperate with a construction company. At the teacher's request, I acted as her

conversation partner during the teaching project. The teacher clearly had the main responsibility for designing the

teaching plan and implementing it. In the classroom, my role as a researcher was explained to the students as that

communication with me was allowed, but the teacher was the one with the responsibility and authority.

Two researchers (Gert Hana and the author) video- and audiotaped the students' projects. The excerpts presented

in this paper are from the students' visit to the construction company and from the lessons after the visit when the

students were working on their 3D models. Rangnes (2011) demonstrates how the instructions given by the teacher

and the carpenter diered with regard to how to solve practical and mathematical problems. The students were put

into a situation where they had to decide for themselves how to proceed. Together with their teacher they developed

new norms for how to work with mathematical learning in a practical context (Rangnes, 2012). This paper focuses

on the students' critical voices in relation to their practical work, voices that can be dicult to perceive because the

criticism is often implicit.

In accordance with Bakhtin's dialogism, the unit of analysis is the utterance. In earlier research (Rangnes, 2012)

I describe the utterance as existing on two levels. On the rst level the utterance is a meaningful unit in the context

in which it is uttered, for example a word or a sentence which is connected to utterances from other participants

in the conversation. These utterances can also be a gestures or written texts such as construction drawings. On the

second level, the utterance can be a conversation unit, where the conversation is connected with or has voices from

other conversations, for example those associated with the construction company. Utterances at both levels can refer

to earlier and potential future conversations inside and outside school. The potential for critical learning with respect

to Bakhtin's dialogism exists in the tension between voices, both in utterances on level one and level two. With that

in mind, I have identied utterances in the data in which the tensions between voices are evident. In order to identify

dierent voices, I have analysed the themes, expressivity and purpose. The analysis is also inspired by Gee (2005), who

stresses that studying the language entails more than just description ; it is a matter of shedding light on, and searching

for conrmations of, how and why the language functions as it does when it is in use. Language is political ; through

language, position, power and authority are coordinated (Gee, 2005). Thus, in this context an analysis of the utterances

will also be to analyse the coordination of power and authority. The analysis presented in this paper provides a basis

for a discussion of how to handle the dierences between the way mathematics is done in various practices in dierent

contexts with learning mathematics in school. To ensure the validity of the ndings, the transcripts have been read

by the teacher responsible for the project and possible interpretations have been discussed within the research group

as well as with the teacher.

The students were presented with the teacher's idea about learning mathematics in cooperation with the construction company. Before the visit, the teacher emphasized that the carpenter was a specialist in mathematics in his work.

At the company ocs, the carpenter informed the students about how he worked and how he used mathematics, and

demonstrated the rulers and mechanical tools for measuring and drawing angles that he used when making construcCHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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tion drawings. He also told the students how he used software to make 3D pictures and calculate the cost of materials

and work on a building project. The teacher emphasized in communication with the carpenter and the students that

the students' work was to be realistic ; they were to follow the rules that applied to the building industry, both the

national laws and municipal regulations. Every group (4-5 students in each) had prepared sketches of a rorbu that

exceeded the oor space allowed by the local council regulations. The carpenter then said : You have drawn 80 square

metres. That's ok for calculating when you are just going to do something, but if you are going to make a realistic

model, decrease it to max 50. This is acceptable in a regulated area.

The carpenter's uttered about how to make it realistic as opposed to just doing something. In this way he makes

visible how he views working with a model in school, as opposed to how it is done in his profession. A tension between

the voice of school mathematics, where students are working with construction drawings for practice ; and the voice

of the company where the workers have to make construction drawings for actual buildings, can be traced in the

carpenter's utterance. The aim of the activity needs to be considered to be of critical importance which demands

action.

Later at school, the students constructed their models, using school compasses and rulers to draw outlines on

cardboard before cutting and assembling the parts. To construct something using a compass and ruler based in

Platonists ideas about the perfect circle indicates an accuracy which is not realistic in reality. The tools at school

diered from the mechanical tools the carpenter had demonstrated. This can be illustrated by an interaction that

occurred while Jonas and Daniel were measuring and cutting with their eyes xed on the model :

Daniel Is it really so dicult to make a model' Dont we have computers to make such things nowadays'

Jonas Yes, we do actually ! But, we will make it without one ! We are out of date !

Daniel The teachers dont keep up with modern times !

Jonas No !

Daniel problematizes the cumbersome way they had to execute the building of the model : he considers that it

has to be possible to do tasks like the one they are struggling with on computers. In Norway the expressions such as

Jonas' out of date and Daniel's don't keep up with modern times are typically those of adults, and are unexpected

coming from these young men. The utterances indicate humour, a kind of carnivalistic speech. Implicitly, they are

taking a stand ; they are making their criticism of how things are done in school visible. When Jonas says We are

going to make it without one (computer), he also makes his acceptance of the cumbersome way they are working at

school clear. Their conversation, which is both a criticism and an indication of acceptance, can be seen as polyphonic.

The boys make visible the dierence between the way they do the work in school, compared to the way they expect

the work to be done outside school. This expectation may have been inuenced by the carpenter's demonstrations of

the tools he used in his daily work.

The next excerpt was recorded on the day they nished their practical work with the 3D model. They made

furniture, including a TV screen which they decided should have a 32-inch screen. During the process, they discovered

that this was the length of the diagonal, and the teacher and the student discussed what the length and width could

be. Daniel expressed three times with some variations that there had to be a formula for calculating the length when

you know the diagonal. The teacher then demonstrated and helped them to nd the length using Pythagoras' theorem.

In the end, when the students were cleaning up, Jonas showed his partner the calculations he had done, together with

the teacher, and the result, a little TV :

Jonas All this I had to do before I could make that little TV !

Daniel Yes, you are completely insane !

Jonas's utterance about all the work he had done can be viewed as expressing his pride in his mathematical acChapitre 3

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complishment using Pythagoras to create the TV. It can simultaneously also express a criticism of how cumbersome

the process of making a cardboard TV model can be - practical mathematics in mathematics is certainly not always

practical. Similarly, Daniel's utterance Yes, you are completely insane ! is polyphonic. For people of this age, completely insane can mean something very positive, so admiration could be the basis for Daniel's utterance. However,

it may also contain the same critical reection as Jonas expressed, suggesting that Jonas is completely mad to put in

so much work, for so little outcome. Both proud and critical voices can be identied in both utterances.

Understood from a critical learning perspective, this conversation is related to the boys' earlier reections on tools

and the use of mathematics. The interpretation could be that Daniel and Jonas are trying out dierent positions and

stances in the practice in which they are participating. They can be viewed as being in a process of developing the

necessary language for critical reection related to how mathematics is used. This reection was not made explicit

in their communication with the teacher. The dierences between doing mathematics in and outside school were

problematized by both the carpenter and the students, but not by the teacher. The aim of the activity will inuence

the accepted and preferable way of execute the mathematics in the activity. However, it is likely that the teacher's aim

that the students should learn mathematics through cooperation with the construction company, may not have been

the same as that of the students and the carpenter. Consequently, these dierent perspectives become blurred because

they are not openly discussed, and can make it dicult for students to see the usefulness of mathematics because school

mathematics only gives the impression of being useful in that it is useful only for learning school mathematics, not

useful for doing work. However, the students' work in this project indicates potential both for learning mathematics

and for open discussions about how mathematics learned in school is or could be useful, how mathematics can be used

for dierent purposes and why mathematical tools are dierent in dierent practices.

Closing remarks

The connections between the mathematics used in dierent practices seem to be complex, more complex than

is evident in the government policies directing the implementation of these cooperations. Students in this research,

demonstrate a capacity to participate in critical discussions about this issue. Teachers will often seek to convince

students of the importance of mathematics as it is taught at school. This reects a narrow understanding of what

this learning could or should be. For learning to be critical to take place, it is important to understand how students'

reections and awareness about mathematics for dierent purposes can inuence their mathematical learning and

motivation for learning. How would students respond to an open discussion about this issue' More research may reveal

that they are empowered if they are taken seriously and are invited into meta-level discussions about mathematics

in dierent contexts for dierent purposes. The students' reections in this study also touch upon a more central

question : What is the purpose of school mathematics ' how should the subject prepare the students for their future

lives as democratic, responsible citizens and workers ?

REFERENCES

Alr, H., & Skovsmose, O. (2002). Dialogue and learning in mathematics education : intention, reection, critique.

Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin : University of Minnesota Press.

Barwell, R. (2013). Formal and informal language in mathematics classroom interaction : a dialogic perspective.

In A. M. Lindmeier & A. Heinze (Eds.), Proceedings of 37th conference of the International Group for the Psychology

of Mathematics Education (PME), vol. 2, pp. 73-80.

Hana, G., Hansen, R., Johnsen-Hines, M., Lilland, I., & Rangnes, T. (2013). Learning Conversation in Mathematics

Practice School-Industry Partnerships as Arena for Teacher Education. In A. Damlamian, J. F. Rodrigues & R. Strer

(Eds.), Educational Interfaces between Mathematics and Industry 147-155. Cham : Springer International Publishing.

Gee, J. P. (2005). An introduction to discourse analysis : theory and method. New York : Routledge.

Johnsen-Hines, M. (2010). Interpretative research as collaborative inquiry. In B. Sriraman, C. Bergsten, S. Goodchild, G. Palsdottir, B. D. Sndergaard & H. L (Eds.), The rst sourcebook on nordic research in mathematics education : Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark and contributions from Finland (s. 109'123). Charlotte, N.C. : Information

Age Publishing.

Ministry of Education and Research/Kunnskapsdepartementet. [KD]. (2006). Lreplanverket for kunnskapslfte

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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73

(LK06). Lreplan for grunnskole og videregende opplring. Hentet 13. March, 2012 fra http ://www.udir.no/Lareplaner/Kunnskap

for-opplaringa/Samarbeid-med-lokalsamfunnet/. Oslo : KD.

Ministry of Education and Research /Kunnskapsdepartementet. [KD]. (2010). Realfag for framtida, strategi for

styrking av realfag og teknologi 2010-2014. Hentet 01.08.2013 fra http ://www.regjeringen.no/upload/KD/Realfagstrategi.pdf.

Oslo : KD.

Matusov, E. (2011). Irreconcilable dierences in Vygotsky's and Bakhtin's approaches to the social and the individual : An educational perspective. Culture & Psychology, 17(1), 99-119.

Mazen, A. (2012).Transforming the negotiator : The impact of critical learning on teaching and practicing negotiation. Management Learning, 43(1), 113-128. doi : 10.1177/1350507611416567

Morson, G. S., & Emerson, C. (1990). Mikhail Bakhtin : creation of a prosaics. Stanford, CA : Stanford University

Press.

Rangnes, T. E. (2011). Between school and company : A eld of tension, In M. Pytlak, E., Swoboda &T. Rowland

(Eds.), Proceedings of the seventh congress of the european society for research in mathematics education, CERME 7,

(s. 1501-1510). Rzeszw, Poland : European society for research in mathematics education.

Rangnes, T. E. (2012). Elevers matematikksamtaler, lring i og mellom praksiser. Doctoral disertation. University

of Agder.

Skovsmose, O. (2005). Travelling through education : uncertainty, mathematics, responsibility. Rotterdam : Sense

Publishers.

Wedege, T. (1999). To know or not to know mathematics' That is a question of context. Educational Studies in

Mathematics, 39(1-3), 205-227.

Chapitre 3

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latine en tant qu'exercice de la pense

S. Attisano, L. Bisello, A. Boggio, A. Loiero & S. Rossi

Liceo Classico Vincenzo Gioberti, Turin

Rsum : Notre exprimentation interdisciplinaire qui a confront une matire humaniste et une matire scientique nat de l'exigence

de dpasser le prjug des deux cultures spares voire antagonistes. Rconcilier l'enseignement des deux disciplines s'est traduit par

une tentative de dveloppement des processus logiques ncessaires aussi bien pour la version de la langue latine aux langues romanes (en

l'occurrence l'italien) que pour la rsolution de questions mathmatiques mme complexes. Le champ d'application de ce prsuppos a t

une activit d'atelier en classe o les tudiants ont traduit partir du latin mdival et rsolu certaines Propositiones ad acuendos juvenes

d'Alcuin ( ixe sicle). Il en a dcoul une didactique intgre dans laquelle comme pour la paideia classique tous les savoirs et les arts

concourent la formation harmonieuse de l'individu.

Abstract : Our multidisciplinary experimentation, putting a scientic subject and a humanities one in front of each other, was born

from the need of overcoming the two cultures" prejudice, seeing them as separated, if not even antagonizing. Match the teaching of these

two subjects was an attempt to develop logical processes, requisite both in the translation from latin to roman languages (specically,

italian language), and in the resolution of complex mathematical problems. The proving ground of this assumption was an atelier organized

in the classroom, where students translated from medieval latin and solved some of the Propositiones ad acuendos juvenes, by Alcuino

(IX century AC). What emerges is an `integrated" educational activity in which, as in classical paideia, all skills and arts concur to an

individual's harmonic development.

Introduction

Dcloisonner les savoirs, en les faisant sortir de leur isolement ; en entrecroiser les paradigmes, et en mme temps

conjurer la fragmentation des matires scolaires : tels sont l'enjeu et le but que depuis longtemps le systme scolaire

s'est imposs. C'est notamment dans cette direction que le projet propos deux classes du Lyce Gioberti de Turin

a t conu, d'autant plus que le POF (Projet de l'Ore de Formation) de notre Institut ore une approche innovante

quant l'enseignement de la langue latine, c'est--dire une tude qui, partir du texte, en tire la rgle a posteriori,

moyennant une dmarche inductive. Car cette mthode ne mne pas tant la traduction, qu' la comprhension et

la rexion sur la langue en tant que telle.

Les problmes mathmatiques en latin soumis aux lves des classes I I et I M, extraits des Propositiones ad

acuendos juvenes d'Alcuin (IX sicle), exercent cette fonction : en dehors du cadre d'un apprentissage donn et

standard (dans la forme du cours frontal, ils vhiculent un problem solving, qui dpasse parfois les connaissances

thoriques des lycens au niveau de la traduction, et nanmoins leur permet de mieux raisonner sur les pratiques

de fonctionnement de la langue. Chaque groupe a tch de dtecter ses propres stratgies d'approche textuelle, an

d'aboutir la comprhension et la formulation d'un problme mathmatique. Langue et contenu ont ainsi eu une

ecacit comparable, en dcelant un aspect d'emploi "concret" de la langue latine, nalement moins abstraite et plus

proche de la ralit de ceux qui vont apprendre.

La conception et le droulement du projet, relatif aux mathmatiques au Moyen Age, occupent trois mois, et la

premire ide remonte l'automne 2013. C'est alors que le proviseur, Madame Anna Boggio - une mathmaticienne

-, propose aux enseignants du Lyce Gioberti un atelier exprimental. Elle dfend ce choix didactique travers

la dnition du latin comme mathmatiques du langage , une comparaison axe sur une hypothse selon laquelle

la rigueur logique, comme la gomtrie du raisonnement , sont des lments incontournables pour traduire cette

langue classique. La forme oprationnelle du programme, soit les mathmatiques et la vie quotidienne au temps de

Charlemagne, se concrtise dans la prsentation d'un texte qui s'inscrit dans le haut Moyen Age, un texte qui sera

travaill dans le cadre d'un atelier scolaire. Le texte choisi, les Propositiones d'Alcuin, sera traduit en italien plutt

navement, tant donn que les lves n'ont pas encore appris toutes les rgles grammaticales, puisque les classes

impliques dans le projet sont deux premires suprieures. Les problmes seront ensuite rsolus sous la direction du

professeur de mathmatiques, dans le cadre d'heures de prsence simultane en classe des enseignants de latin et de

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

Lyon

75

mathmatiques. Ce qui reste l'horizon c'est la conception du latin comme "mathmatiques du langage", qu'on essaie

de soumettre une sorte de stress test, par un atelier de traduction en classe.

En ce qui concerne la perspective des sciences humaines, une raison linguistique susamment puissante, il s'ajoute

une seconde raison d'ordre historique, c'est--dire le fait que l'examen d'un texte en latin postclassique peut montrer

aux tudiants l'volution de la langue d'un point de vue empirique, de faon ce qu'ils prennent conscience des

modications intervenues au l du temps et en remarquent la transformation en langues romanes, d'autant plus que

les deux classes appartiennent une section linguistique. On atteindra ainsi deux buts : saisir d'abord le processus

historique qu'a conduit du latin aux langues romanes (en soulignant leur lien) et combattre le prjuge qui enferme

le latin dans le statut de langue inerte, morte, le latin crit x et g par les humanistes, propos duquel Eugenio

Garin, un grand philosophe italien du sicle pass, dclarait : lorsque se formait le latin codi par les humanistes, une

langue morte naquit .

Toutefois, ce qui a contribu de manire dcisive lancer le projet c'est l'aspect didactique, qui est troitement

li l'opportunit d'un travail cohrent entre collgues qui se soutiennent mutuellement. En eet, la mise en oeuvre

du principe de la peer cooperation entre humanistes et scientiques a ouvert des pistes nouvelles en abordant les

questions, a dcouvert des points de vue indits sur les matires et sur les mthodes adopter. Par exemple, les

enseignants de latin ont constat quel point la nettet, la prcision mentale et l'approche rsolutoire des problmes,

typiques des mathmaticiens, ont contrebalanc la tendance oppose complexier, multiplier les possibilits de

rponses de la part des littraires.

Cette collaboration a engendr un exprience russie de confrontation entre disciplines, ainsi qu'une nouvelle mise

en scne pdagogique, o les matires s'avrent complmentaires dans leur diversit : un rsultat qui dmentit l'ide

reue des deux cultures opposes. D'ailleurs, comme nous l'enseignent la lecture des textes classiques de la pense

scientique ou la philologie, il est dicile d'imaginer quelque chose de plus potique que la description faite par Galile

des taches solaires (Messager Cleste), comme la cosmologie de Kpler ; l'inverse, que pourrait-on concevoir de plus

rigoureux qu'tablir critiquement un texte, opration propre la critique gntique des textes (en Italie, inaugure

par Gianfranco Contini, avec sa critica delle varianti ) ?

Du point de vue de l'enseignement des mathmatiques, ce projet a mis en lumire la capacit de rsoudre spontanment des problmes lis la vie quotidienne de la part des tudiants dpourvus d'outillage thorique.

Une fois le projet accompli, les lves ont compris quel point il est ncessaire de systmatiser les techniques de

rsolution des problmes travers les mthodes algbriques canoniques, celles qui sont prvus par les programmes

scolaires. Compte tenu du rle des enseignants, on peut faire un bilan portant sur l'enjeu d'associer l'objet de ses

observations (la dynamique directe de la classe qui travaille sur les problmes) pour les confronter les mthodes

didactiques prvues traditionnelles et armes.

L'enseignement des mathmatiques impose une recherche d'innovation mthodique continue, qui puisse attirer vers

la discipline ceux qui apprennent, mme les moins motivs. Au sein de cette recherche, l'approche multidisciplinaire

qu'on vient d'illustrer va s'inscrire, parce qu'elle a permis de tester une stratgie d'apprentissage indite. La leon

traditionnelle a t bouleverse : la place de dvelopper un argument partir de ses principes thoriques, et appliquer

aprs coup la thorie au problmes particuliers, par contre on a d'abord pass au crible et trait les solutions possibles

des problmes, et seulement ce moment l on a expliqu le cadre thorique.

La collaboration avec les enseignants de latin et histoire renforce le statut d'une didactique le plus possible multidisciplinaire.

Conclusion

Le projet multidisciplinaire a donn lieu un travail partag, qui d'une part a amen les lves dcouvrir des

horizons indits ; d'autre part, les enseignants ont labor de nouvelles mthodes didactiques.

L'activit exprimentale a impliqu dans l'ensemble 52 lves et 4 enseignants, deux de latin et deux de mathmatiques. Il a exig 4 heures de cours en classe, durant lesquelles les enseignants ont interagi la fois entre eux et avec les

classes. Sa mise en oeuvre a eu l'articulation suivante : prsentation, soumission des problmes en latin et traduction,

rsolution des problmes et enn modlisation mathmatique.

Par la suite, en dehors des heures de cours, on a procd la ralisation d'une vido pour illustrer l'exprience et

permettre tous les participants de se la remmorer. A la n du projet, les enseignants et les lves ont t invits

s'exprimer, en donnant une opinion ce sujet.

Les consquences didactiques : les opinions des enseignants et des lves

Chapitre 3

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76

2. ils ont travaill de manire cooprative, partags en groupes o chacun a eectivement eu un rle actif dans la

rsolution des problmes ;

3. aprs la conclusion du projet, on a cens, au niveau de la classe, des attitudes marques par une plus haute

conance rciproque, due au fait que les lves se sont mieux connus et par consquent ils ont pris une dmarche

plus collaborative et solidaire entre eux ;

4. ils ont dcouvert une plus grande disponibilit acheter les ds et rvlent une attitude plus conante et

dtache face aux dicults.

Les lves se sont dit d'accord en exprimant une opinion favorable au travail exprimental, d'autant plus que,

quand on leur a demand de formuler un jugement de synthse ce propos, ils ont ach des opinions qu'on

peut runir en 4 thmes fondamentaux :

Thme

Coopration

Satisfaction

Opinion

1- Ce projet a t trs amusant parce que nous avons ralis quel point ces

deux matires

2- Nous avons fait de notre mieux et ensemble, comme dans une quipe, nous

avons atteint notre but

3- Il a t intressant de remarquer comment deux matires que nous croyions

loignes peuvent tre relies entre elles

4- Au dbut, ce projet ne me plaisait pas vraiment, le latin n'est pas ma matire

prfre et on ne peut pas dire que je sois bonne en mathmatique ; pourtant,

quand j'ai vu sous mon nez le texte de latin et qu'on m'a demand si j'acceptais

le d de traduire et ensuite de le rsoudre, je n'ai pas pu refuser : un peu parce

que j'ai toujours t curieuse et un peu parce que les ds m'attirent comme

un aimant

5- J'ai compris l'importance de ces deux matires et surtout de l'utilisation de

la logique pour ces deux activits si direntes mais pourtant si proches l'une

de l'autre

6- J'ai apprcie l'aide rciproque prsente dans mon groupe

7- Le projet sert mieux se connatre, nous-mmes et nos camarades, et il

permet aux professeurs d'valuer le niveau de la classe

8- Je crois que le groupe avec lequel j'ai travaill est parti du mauvais pied

mais par la suite nous sommes srement tous donns du mal

9- Cette activit a t trs amusante ; une exprience qui a contribu rapprocher les personnes des dirents groupes et par consquent toutes la classe

10- Travailler en groupe a t une des meilleures choses car ainsi nous tions

plus motivs

11- Le travail en quipe nous a beaucoup aid car non seulement nous avons

rsolu le problme avec plus de facilit mais nous avons pu aussi compter sur les

autres, en outre, chacun d'entre nous faisait quelque chose de spcique pour

lequel il tait dou et aidait les autre en cas de dicult

12- Je suis prte m'impliquer encore plus si j'en ai de nouveau la possibilit

13- J'ai eu la possibilit de me mettre l'preuve et de dmontrer mes capacits

14- Si l'on part du fait que le latin et les mathmatiques sont deux des matires

les plus diciles et que mises ensemble, elles pourraient tre mortelles, participer ce projet a t non seulement intressant mais aussi amusant

15- C'est une exprience trs intressante et constructive : non seulement nous

avons d rechercher des informations travers les moyens mis notre disposition mais nous avons aussi appris collaborer avec nos camarades de groupe,

compter sur eux en dveloppant ainsi une grande conance leur gard

Lyon

77

Rfrences

Alcuino di York (2005).

Giochi matematici alla corte di Carlomagno. Problemi per rendere acuta la mente dei

Pisa, ETS.

Boyer, C.B. (1968/1976) Storia della matematica , trad. it. Milano, ISEDI, 1976.

Snow, C.P. (1956/2005). Le due culture, trad. it. Venezia, Marsilio, 2005.

Franci, R. (1996). L'insegnamento dell'aritmetica nel Medioevo, Itinera Mathematica , Siena, Centro Studi della

Matematica Medievale, 1-22, 1996.

sitographie :

http : //mathcity.altervista.org/Dallas toria/algebra.pdf

http : //areeweb.polito.it/didattica/polymath/htmlS/inf o/CapitoloP rimo/Alcuino/Alcuino.htm

http : //php.math.unif i.it/archimede/archimede/f ibonacci/catalogo/roero.php

Chapitre 3

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78

deal with the modelling of bacterial growth for use in classroom activities

Marta Ginovart

Department of Applied Mathematics III, Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya

Rsum : L'tude de la croissance bactrienne ore d'excellentes possibilits de combiner des exercices de laboratoire, la modlisation

mathmatique et l'analyse de donnes bas sur un modle. L'objectif des tches conues axe sur la reprsentation, l'identication et

l'analyse des direntes phases (variations de taux de croissance) dans une croissance bactrienne (dcalage, acclration, exponentielle,

retard, xe et baisse) au moyen de deux mthodes de modlisation, ordinaire quations direntielles et simulations individuelles. Les

lves ont eu l'occasion d'tudier la croissance d'une population bactrienne partir de deux points de vue dirents, un modle continu

et dterministe par rapport un modle discret et stochastique, qui ont enrichi le processus de connexion des mathmatiques l'tude des

systmes de vie.

Abstract : Investigation of bacterial growth provides excellent possibilities to combine laboratory exercises, mathematical modeling

and model-based data analysis. The aim of the tasks designed focused on the representation, identication and analyses of the dierent

phases (variations of the growth rate) in a bacterial growth (lag, acceleration, exponential, retardation, stationary and decline) by means

of two modeling methodologies, ordinary dierential equations and individual-based simulations. The students had the opportunity to

investigate the growth of a bacterial population from two dierent perspectives, a continuous and deterministic model versus a discrete

and stochastic model, which enriched the process of connecting mathematics with the study of life systems.

Introduction

Application of mathematics in the microbial eld is very fruitful in obtaining a deeper insight into the process

of microbial growth. And vice versa, using this microbial system as an example of where to apply the concepts and

tools developed in mathematical subjects provides good opportunities to asses and compare modeling methodologies.

There is an interesting review on the growth of bacterial cultures written 65 years ago by J. Monod (1949) showing

some fundamental and basic ideas in an attempt to characterize, by means of parameters and continuous functions,

microbial populations living in a liquid medium. The rst variables used for the description of the temporal evolution

of a bacterial system can be cell concentration, as the number of individual cells, or bacterial density or bacterial

biomass, as the dry weight of cells, per unit volume of a culture. With these variables the concepts of division rate

and growth rate can be taken into account.

Let x(t) be a time-dependent variable describing the variation of a certain substance. The instantaneous rate of

dx(t)

dt)

the process is the derivative of x(t), dx(t)

dt , and the specic rate of this variation, (t), is dened as (t) = x(t) .

If x(t) denotes the cell concentration in a bacterial culture then the growth rate is dened as the increase in cell

concentration per unit time, while the specic growth rate is the increase in cell concentration per unit time per cell. A

d

ln x(t). Only when the average size of the bacterial cells

simple calculation shows that if x(t) is positive then (t) = dt

does not change in the time interval considered, the increase in bacterial density or bacterial biomass is proportional

to the increase in cell concentration. However, it is known that the average size of the cells may dier from one phase

to another of a growth cycle or depend on the environmental conditions where the bacteria are growing. Thus, the

two variables, cell concentration and bacterial density, are not always equivalent in the description of the system.

This distinction has sometimes been ignored, causing confusion or misunderstanding in certain contexts. In fact, one

variable or the other may be more important depending on the topic to be studied. For instance, cell concentration is

necessary in problems where division is concerned, when only few microbes are involved, where the discrimination of

the dierent types of microbes is crucial, or if the information regarding the composition of the population is signicant.

On the other hand, in some issues involving microbial chemistry, metabolism and nutrition, the noteworthy variable

can be biomass or microbial density. The use of the variable total biomass (as a real variable) or the variable total

number of cells (as an integer variable) for the formulation of models to represent these bacterial systems is linked

to the perspective of the system that we have and the modeling methodology used for its study. Thus, taking into

account the purpose of the study, the election of the one or the other can be justied. Although the two variables are

not equivalent, it is convenient to express growth rates in the same units (i.e., number of doublings per hour) in both

cases. These denitions involve the implicit assumption that in a growing culture all the bacteria are viable (capable

Lyon

79

of division). Nevertheless, these assumptions appear to be fairly good assumptions when homogeneous populations

are considered in homogeneous environmental conditions, but not in other situations where there appear gradients of

nutrient, clusters or aggregations of microorganisms, or other type of heterogeneities in space or time.

In the growth of a bacterial culture, a succession of phases may be conveniently distinguished, characterized by

variations of the growth rate :

i Lag phase (growth rate null),

ii Acceleration phase (increases),

iii Exponential phase (constant),

iv Retardation phase (decreases),

v Stationary phase (null),

vi Phase of decline (negative).

This is a general and somewhat combined representation of the growth of a microbial culture (Monod, 1949),

although any one or several of these phases may be absent. Under suitable conditions, the lag and acceleration phases

may often be suppressed, the retardation phase is frequently so short as to be almost imperceptible, and the stationary

phase can exit for short or very long periods of time, depending on the strategies of the microbes when faced with

stress or non-optimal conditions. On the other hand, more complex bacterial growth cycles can be observed in diverse

environmental conditions.

Each mathematical model is congured by taking into account a set of assumptions (not always explicitly stated).

For instance, dierential equations necessarily incorporate a set of assumptions about the system to be modelled,

and when the discrepancies between those assumptions and the reality are too big they become unsuitable for the

purpose for which they were formulated. In biology, in general, and in microbiology, in particular, the real systems are

extremely complex, so the models for studying them must inevitably include simplifying idealizations. In addition, if

the design of the dierential equations is not simple enough their resolutions can become very tricky, or maybe only

numerical resolutions can be carried out. Some of the procedures involved in those cases are not available for students

in certain academic levels. In order to tackle more realistic approximations of complex systems and to take advantage

of computers, in the 1990s a new method of modeling appeared with both a philosophy and perspective dierent

from the classic modeling used up to then, the so-called individual-based models (IBMs), known as well as biological

agent-based models. IBMs are models in which the individuals that make up the system are treated as autonomous and

discrete entities, focusing on the characterization of these entities by means of rules of behaviour, which allow these

elements to interact among themselves and with the environment in which they exist. This type of computational model

requires dierent simplications from those assumed by continuous models, and is a good modeling alternative for

dealing with the study of complex systems (Jacobson & Wilensky, 2006),specic aspects connected with biosystems

in general (Grimm & Railsback 2005), and with microbes in particular (Ginovart, Lpez & Valls, 2002 ; GomezMourelo &Ginovart, 2009 ; Hellweger & Bucci, 2009). Arguments for microbial IBMs include the ability to resolve

population heterogeneity (intra-population variability), complete life cycles, and individual behaviour adapted to

internal and external conditions, to link mechanisms at individual level (bottom) to population level (up) behaviour.

The behaviour exhibited by bacterial populations, their statistical indicators and the cause-eect relationship with

respect to the environment are properties that must emerge from the aggregation of the activities and interactions of

all the microorganisms (individuals).

Experiences in the design and use of these computational models allows us to identify guidelines to work successfully

within the framework of an IBM project in academia (Railsback & Grimm, 2011 ;Ginovart, Portell, Ferrer-Closas &

Blanco, 2011, 2012), and to facilitate progressive incorporation of IBMs into curricula, complementing other existing

modeling strategies more frequently used in classroom (such as dierential equations). For instance, a set of diverse

modeling activities for the study of a predator-prey system for a mathematics classroom in the rst year of an

undergraduate program in biosystem engineering have been recently implemented with success (Ginovart, 2013).

Chapitre 3

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80

Continuing in the line of combining dierent modeling approaches in teaching and learning in a life science context, a

set of modeling activities has been designed to deal with bacterial systems, specically to tackle microbial growth in

an environment where a population of bacteria can use a sole nutrient. The aim of the tasks designed for this study

focused on the representation, identication and analyses of the dierent phases in the bacterial growth (variations of

the growth rate) by means of two modeling methodologies. Firstly, various ordinary dierential equations were proposed

to deal with the bacterial growth, some of which were solved by hand and others with the help of the mathematical

software Maple. Secondly, a very simple IBM was designed and implemented in the specic multi-agent programmable

modeling environment NetLogo (Wilensky, 1999) in order to achieve a set of individual-based simulations of the

behaviour of the bacterial population developing in a medium with nutrient. The results accomplished with these two

modeling approaches and the possibilities oered for each model to characterize the dierent bacterial phases were

assessed and compared.

The participants in this study were a group of 30, third-year students of a Bachelor's degree in the eld of Biosystems

Engineering at the Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, in the Barcelona School of Agricultural Engineering (Spain).

The prior coursework for these students was related with the following compulsory subjects of 6 ECTS each : Mathematics I and II, Physics I and II, Chemistry I and II, General Biology, Microbiology, Statistics, among others, which

guarantee a good knowledge of the bacterial system to be modelled and the basic mathematical tools. The activities

planned took place in the context of the compulsory subject 'Programming and problem solving for engineering' in the

sixth semester. In the context of Mathematics II (second semester) this group of students were previously familiarized

in the resolution of ordinary dierential equations and in the recognition, creation and description of IBMs, carrying

out dierent modeling activities designed for the study of predator-prey systems (Ginovart, 2013). In 'Programming

and problem solving for engineering', the students were training in the use of the multi-agent programmable modeling

environment, NetLogo, a free tool accessible on the Web. They were able to pass from the level of being users of

simulators already prepared in this framework to the level of developing and implementing their own simple models in

this platform (constructing their own simulators).With the designed teaching material and with a computer to perform

the resolutions of the ordinary dierential equations with Maple and the individual-based simulations with NetLogo,

the students were capable of answering questions and completing exercises to achieve the learning goals. Graphical

representations of the growth curves obtained and their derivatives, jointly with the calculation of the corresponding

specic growth rates, congured the set of results that they analysed and discussed. Students' responses regarding the

modeling of bacterial populations and the two distinct methodologies applied for the study of the dierent growth

phases, were collected via open-ended questionnaires in a nal written report and face-to face dialogues during the

development of the sessions in the computer lab.

Discussion

Bacterial systems can be studied by formulating simplied representations of these systems using mathematical

equations. The assumptions of the models must be substantial enough to generate simple formulations and to keep

the mathematical equations analytically or numerically resolvable. The assumptions are symbolized through variables

characterizing the state of the whole system and assuming typical behaviours of the microorganisms. In this sense,

continuous models are more like a macro perspective of a system limited to descriptions of properties at this level, and

not always able to represent heterogeneity. Some classical models used frequently in academia fail in the representation

of the diverse bacterial growth phases. As real bacterial life is characterized by the presence of non-continuous events,

IBMs have been shown suitable for its representation, using the mathematics of discrete events rather than rates or velocities, and taking into account the intrinsic variability of the system (in composition, space and time). This peculiarity

of IBMs was exploited and illustrated when dealing with the growth of a bacterial population, enabling the representations of the dierent growth phases. Although IBMs are quite complex to develop because computer-programming

abilities are required, the use of platforms already prepared and designed specically for their implementation, such as

NetLogo, helped with the programming, implementation and execution of the bacterial models created by the students.

From the responses collected during the activities, it can be said that the students recognised the two viewpoints as

complementary to each other and convenient for the study of this microbial system. They had the opportunity to

investigate the growth of a bacterial population from two dierent perspectives, a continuous and deterministic model

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versus a discrete and stochastic model, which enriched the process of connecting mathematics with the investigation

of life systems.

REFERENCES

Gmez-Mourelo, P., & Ginovart, M. (2009). The dierential equation counterpart of an individual-based model for

Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 58, 1360-1369.

Ginovart, M., Lpez, D., &Valls, J. (2002). INDISIM, an individual based discrete simulation model to study

bacterial cultures. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 214, 305-319.

Ginovart, M., Portell, X., Ferrer-Closas, P., &Blanco, M. (2011). Modelos basados en el individuo y la plataforma

NetLogo. Unin-Revista Iberoamericana de Educacin Matemtica, 27,131-150.

Ginovart, M., Portell, X., Ferrer-Closas, P., &Blanco, M. (2012). Modelos basados en el individuo : una metodologa

alternativa y atractiva para el estudio de biosistemas. Enseanza de las Ciencias, 30, 93-108.

Ginovart, M. (2013). Discovering the power of individual-based modeling in teaching and learning : the study of a

predator-prey system. Journal of Science Education and Technology (in press) doi : 10.1007/s10956-013-9480-6.

Grimm, V., & Railsback, S.F. (2005). Individual-based modeling and ecology. Princeton : Princeton University

Press.

Hellweger, F.L., & Bucci, V.(2009). A bunch of tiny individuals : Individual-based modeling for microbes. Ecological

Modelling, 220, 8-22.

Jacobson, M.J., & Wilensky, U. (2006). Complex systems in education : Scientic and educational importance and

implications for the learning sciences. The journal of the learning sciences, 15, 11-34.

Monod, J. (1949). The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Review of Microbiology, 3, 371-394.

Railsback, S. F., & Grimm, V. (2012). Agent-Based and Individual-Based Modeling : A Practical Introduction.

Princeton : Princeton University Press.

Wilensky, U. (1999). Netlogo. Evaston, IL : Center for Conected Learning and Computer-Based Modelling, Northwestern University. http ://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/.

yeast population growth.

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Panagiota Kotarinou, Charoula Stathopoulou

University of Thessaly, Greece.

Rsum : Le prsent article dcrit les expriences des tudiants de premire, acquises par une exprimentation pdagogique qui

concerne la dnition axiomatique de la gomtrie hyperbolique par le modle de Poincar. Nous avons cre des activits thtrales (Drama

in Education techniques) pour stimuler les tudiants, tandis que nous avons fait usage des TIC et de la littrature mathmatique pour

qu'ils comprennent le modle de Poincar.

Abstract : The present paper describes the experiences of 11th grade students gained through a teaching experiment regarding ax-

iomatic denition of Hyperbolic Geometry through Poincar model. We designed activities through 'Drama in Education' (DiE) techniques

to stimulate the students, while we made use of ICT and 'mathematical literature' in order for them to understand the Poincar model.

Introduction

The teaching of Geometry at school imposes, as an absolute and undeniable truth, that Euclidean geometry is

the model, which interprets and represents our space (Thomaidis, 1992). The teaching of non-Euclidean geometries

would help students recognize that there are several other geometries and spaces other than the Euclidean ones

and to realize that mathematics is not an absolute truth (Kazim, 1988, cited in Thomaidis & al., 1989). Directing

students to investigate properties of other geometries in order to see how the basic axioms and denitions lead to quite

dierent and often contrary results helps students to gain an appreciation of the Euclidean geometry as one of many

axiomatic systems (NCTM 1989, cited in Gray & Sarhangi, n.d.). Comparisons between similar geometrical concepts

in the various axiomatic systems contribute to a better understanding of these concepts (Lnrt 2007, 2004).

The Hyperbolic Geometry has been chosen for introducing students to non-Euclidean geometries, because it is

the closest in the Euclidean geometry paradigm, including changes in only one of its postulate, the famous fth

postulate (Dwyer, Pfeifer, 1999). Oering a world in which all shapes are altered, Hyperbolic Geometry can help

students reect on the denitions of geometric objects and thus to understand the typical denitions of shapes (Austin,

& al. 1993).

The teaching of Hyperbolic Geometry is usually implemented through models such as the hemispheric Poincar

model (Lnrt, 2004b) or the Poincar disk (Dwyer and Pfeifer, 1999 ; Krauss, Okolika, 1977). As a teaching means for

understanding the Poincar disk, the use of new technologies is recommended through relevant software as Geometer's

Sketchpad (Dwyer and Pfeifer, 1999 ; Gray and Sarhangi) or Interactive Java software NonEuclid ( Joel Castellanos

et al, 1993), as well as the paintings of the famous Dutch painter Cornelius Escher (Menguini, 1989, cited in Furinghetti

and Somaglia, 1998).

In this paper a teaching experiment about axiomatic foundation of Hyperbolic Geometry and its basic notions is

presented which was held through its model of Poincar disk and Gray's (1989) model Cold Plate Universe (cited in

Stevenson & Noss, 1998) which helps us in teaching to address the fact that equal shapes do not necessarily coincide.

In our teaching experiment we used Drama in Education conventions to motivate and actively engage all of the

students, with the students having to create Radiobroadcasts concerning Platterland a land with Poincar disk

shape. In order for the students to conceive Poincar model and thus key elements of Hyperbolic Geometry and for

them to be able to present them through radiobroadcasts we exploited the Java applet by Joel Castellanos, and the

book Flatterland by Ian Stewart, as well as the Escher paintings Circle Limit I, II, III.

Empirical data for the research presented in this paper arose from our endeavors towards exploring the dynamics

of Drama in Education Techniques in teaching Geometry in high upper school.

The research was carried out in a group of 26 eleventh grade students in an urban elementary school in the greater

area of Athens, and took place in the academic year of 2010-11.

The use of ethnographic research techniques (i.e. Participant observation and interviewing) helped us to gather

empirical evidence concerning students' experiences, while all students' presentations were videotaped and analysed.

In terms of the research methods used, we designed and implemented an interdisciplinary didactical intervention,

based on a teaching experiment methodology (Chronaki, 2008). The teaching experiment (25 teaching periods) -titled

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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Is our world Euclidean '- is focused on a detailed design of the teaching of the axiomatization of Euclidean and

Non-Euclidean geometries as well as the history of Euclid's fth postulate. The present paper describes the part which

refers to the axiomatic foundation of Hyperbolic Geometry.

The teaching experiment was carried out by the researcher in teaching role (rst author in this paper) in 6 teaching

periods, in Geometry, Literature and Greek Language classes. The teaching aims were to enable students : a) perceive

the axiomatic foundation of Hyperbolic Geometry, b) perceive the role of the postulates in an axiomatic system, c)

redene Euclidean Geometry by comparing the similarities and dierences of Hyperbolic Geometry with the Euclidean

one, d) perceive the role of a model in mathematics and e) challenge students' stereotypical images about Geometry.

During the Literature class (3 hours) a digital presentation with historical data, key concepts and theorems of

Hyperbolic Geometry, elements of the Poincar model as well as works of Escher, was conducted by the researcher. A

discussion with students followed about the notion of an axiomatic system, about its consistency, the independence of

the axioms, and the meaning of a model of an axiomatic system. Subsequently, students in groups studied excerpts from

the chapter 'Platterland' from Ian Stewart book 'Flatterland' concerning Poincar model of Hyperbolic Geometry, in

order to prepare a radio broadcast with the same name issue. In Geometry class (1 hour) students used ICT (Interactive

Java software NonEuclid by J. Castellanos, Joe Austin, Ervan Darnell, and Maria Estrada) for visualizing the

Poincar model, the axioms and basic concepts of this non-Euclidean Geometry. The students worked on computers

with worksheets, in groups of two or three and explored the Poincar model by drawing points, lines, segments,

angles and perpendicular to a given straight line. They also measured segments and angles and wrote their comments

about the construction of cycles, line segments of equal length and of the measurement of the sides and angles of a

triangle. Finally the axiomatic foundation of Hyperbolic Geometry was held through the model. Then in Modern Greek

Language class, students' teams prepared, wrote and presented their own texts for the radio broadcasts concerning

Hyperbolic Geometry and its Poincar model.

Results

The learning of Mathematical notions

Regarding students' understanding the Poincar model of Hyperbolic Geometry, analysis of worksheets suggests

that students conceived basic notions such as the line, line segments and their measurement, the circle, the apparent

shortening of the line segments of specic length as they move away from the center of the disk, the angle and its

measure and the triangle and the sum of its angles. The students gave correct answers to most questions related to the

aforementioned notions : We drew line segments of the same length and noticed that the line segment seems smaller

near the circumference, in contrast to the segment that is near the center of the circle .

Following the analysis of the six radio broadcasts texts that students prepared about Hyperbolic Geometry, we

observe that two teams did a full description of the Poincar model, while the remaining teams referred to only a

few concepts, those that they considered important or had been impressed by. In three radio broadcasts students

referred to Platterland's shape which had the shape of Poincar disc : I was impressed that in Platterland there are

only two dimensions and that while from far away the country seems to have a certain extent, when actually reaching

there you realize that it is innite

a straight line, in their own world we perceive it as an arc that intersects the circumference at right angles .

In one

broadcast the particular shape of the circle is emphasized : In Hyperbolic Geometry the center of the circle tends to

its circumference, yet its radii again are equidistant and also that parallel lines are not equidistant (2 teams) : The

distance between parallel lines is not constant . Finally in all broadcasts students talk about the apparent decrease

in the length of segment while in two about the alternative 5th postulate : From a point not on a straight line an

innite number of parallels lines passes through it .

Two months after the activities sixteen students were asked questions about hyperbolic Geometry (in 16 semistructured interviews) for the retention of knowledge from the use of the specic tools to be examined. From their

responses it seemed that students were so impressed by the Poincar disk that they identied it with hyperbolic space.

The majority of students responded that they were impressed by the shape of the lines in Poincar disk (11 replies)

and the apparent change of segments of the same length (6 replies) : As the objects of Platterland remove to innity,

they shrink, although this can not be perceived by a person moving in Platterland, because as the object shrinks, at

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the same time the meter shrinks too. So in every measurement we have the same result .

with surprise the sum of the angles of a triangle in Poincar disc : In Euclidean it is 180, in Hyperbolic it is more

than 180, and the non existence of the square : Especially this nding adout the square ; we will never forget that

there is no square , while some students highlight the importance of the fth postulate : Changing the 5th postulate,

essentially changes the whole theory of geometry .

Mathematics as a creation under constant negotiation : Being actively involved in the teaching of Hyperbolic

geometry provoked students' perception about mathematics as a science of the absolute truth. Their involvement in this

procedure helped students perceive Mathematics as corrigible and as a creation under constant negotiation, modifying

thus their epistemological beliefs about mathematics and provoked the dominant belief that Euclidean geometry is

the only model which interprets and represents our real world, shaking thereby other certainties : Finally there are

and other views and we cannot say which is absolutely right and which not .

Concluding remarks

Analysis of our research data suggests that DiE and ICT acted as mediating tools for the mathematical knowledge

to be developed in a class of high school students who were involved actively and eectively. More specically, ICTs

have helped students visualize the Poincar model and through it understand key elements of Hyperbolic Geometry.

Overall, based on the whole of the research the following conclusions were drawn, not to be analyzed on the present

paper : Drama helps the association of the various components of the curriculum and also creates a teaching context

which promotes students' motivation and engagement in learning, highlighting values as cooperation, creativity and

fun, which are aligned with students' values. It sets up classroom social norms that create opportunities to students

for cooperation, interaction and the communication of ideas. It fosters students' creativity and personal expression

through mathematics and cultivates and reinforces the development of students' social skills and abilities necessary

for the construction of a responsible citizen in a democratic society.

Interdisciplinary projects as described above about Hyperbolic Geometry through Drama conventions can promote

participatory performance and also give a context that oers innovative and creative ways for the students to modify

their epistemological conceptions about Geometry and mathematics in general.

REFERENCES

Alkistis, K. (2000). Drama in Education. Athens : Ellinika Grammata.

Austin, J., Castellanos, J., Darnell, E., Estrada, M. (1993). An Empirical Exploration of the Poincar Model for

Hyperbolic Geometry. Mathematics and Computer Education, 27(1).

Chronaki, A. (2008). The teaching experiment. Studying learning and teaching process. In V. Svolopoulos (Ed.),

Connection of educational research and practice (pp.371, 401). Athens : Atrapos.

Dwyer, M. & Pfeifer, R. (1999). Exploring Hyperbolic Geometry with the Geometer's Sketchpad. Mathematics

Teacher, 92(7), 632-637.

Furinguetti, F., Somaglia, A. (1998). History of Mathematics in School across Disciplines. Mathematics in School,

27(4), 48-51.

Gray, J. (1989). Ideas of space : Euclidean, Non-Euclidean and Relativistic. Oxford : Clarendon Press.

Gray, A. & Sarhangi, R. (n.d.) A Proposal for the Introduction of Non-Euclidean Geometry into the Secondary

School Geometry Curriculum. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http ://pages.towson.edu/gsarhang/Modules%20for%20NonEuclidean%20Geometries.html

Thomaidis, J. (1992). The School Geometry, the notion of space and the non-Euclidean Geometries. Euclid C, 32,

23-42.

Thomaidis, J., Kastanis, N., Tokmakidis, T. (1989). The relations between the History and Didactics of Mathematics. Euclid C, 6(23).

Kazim, M. (1988). Non-euclidean geometries and their adoption from the school system. In ICME 6, in H.P.M.

symposium Non-euclidean geometries and their adoption in the school systems. Budapest, Hungary (July 27 to August

3).

Krauss, P. A. & Okolica, S. L. (1977). Neutral and Non-Euclidean Geometry - A High School Course. Mathematics

Teacher, 70(4), 310-314.

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Lnrt, I. (2007) Comparative Geometry in General Education. Proceedings of CIEAEM 59, Dobogok, Hungary

(July 23-29).

Lnrt, I. (2004). Sing Mathematics together : Thoughts on the future of a school subject. For the Learning of

Mathematics, 24(2), 22-26.

Menguini, M. (1989). Some remarks on the didactic use of the history of mathematics. In L., Bazzini and H.G.,

Steiner (Eds.), Proceedings of the First. Italian - German Bilateral Symposium on Didactics of Mathematics. Pavia.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (1989). Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for school Mathematics.

Reston, VA : NCTM.

Stewart, I. (2002). Flatterland, Like Flatland, Only More So. Athens : Travlos.

Stevenson, I. and Noss, R. (1998). Supporting the Evolution of Mathematical Meanings : The Case of Non-Euclidean

Geometry. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 3(3), 229-254.

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in adults' workplace competences

Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup, Lars Gustafsson

Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Stockholm University ,

Faculty of Education and SocietyMalm University

Rsum : Cet article prsente une tude conduite dans une classe de mathmatiques multilingue, o les direntes ralits sont analyses

en utilisant les concepts de discours et d'agence. Les donnes d'une tude ethnographique prcdente sont utilises, en observant comment

les direntes expriences des lves fonctionnent en apprennent la mathmatique. Nos rsultats dmontrent comment les expriences hors

de l'cole sont utilises dans leur apprentissage des mathmatiques. Ces expriences se rfrent aux traditions sudoises de l'enseignement

dans l'cole primaire, o par exemple les contes sont utiliss. Consacrant du temps la communication, et aux activits o les lves ont

la possibilit d'apporter une contribution au contenu mathmatique et au savoir partag dans la classe, parait rendre les lves objectifs

vis--vis des ides mathmatiques. L'inclusion des questions et rponses des lves dans les pratiques de classe, ont soutenu les lves tant

apprenants actifs. En eet, l'agence dicte des tudiants ont maintenu un discours de dialogue dans la mathmatique scolaire.

Abstract : In this proposal we describe a study within the theme of Mathematics and its teaching in relation to other disciplines..

We present ndings on mathematics containing activities in adults' workplace competences. Our interest lies in a broad spectrum of aspects

where mathematics is not viewed as possible to obtain in a pure sense but is interwoven and contextualised within workplace activities. We

adopt a model where the institutional framing is emphasised : a learning design sequence (Selander, 2008). Coordinating with multimodal

social semiotics, we have examined the video data and interviews with an interest in mathematical notions, interpersonal aspects, and the

role of communicative resources including artefacts. In a previous study, adopting the same analytical framework, we introduced a theme

on measuring which is here followed up when we present a construed theme within what Bishop (1988) labels designing : Forming as

functionality and aesthetics (a tentative name). In this paper, we mainly present ndings from analysis of data from a coachworks garage

where a worker is xing a bump on a car. We claim that the outcomes from our analyses hold aordances for school mathematics in general

and for pre-vocational studies specically.

Introduction

A main assumption in this paper is that school as an institution has a lot to learn from workplaces. We adopt a view

where mathematics is not only applied at workplaces but also is developed in workplaces (Wedege, 2013). The latter

is in line with this paper when we strive to learn from adults' competences and workplace activities, as well as not to

take school mathematics as a given in our analysis. Our aim for this paper was to construe a theme of mathematics

containing activities concerning adults' designing activities (see Bishop, 1988) within the sectors of vehicles/transport

and nursing/caring. Drawing on Evans, Wedege, and Yasukawa (2013) we adopt a broad notion of adults including

a wide range of ages. In a previous study we analysed data from two workplace activities : Lorry loaders loading a

trailer and a nurses' aide putting a cast on a patients' thumb and arm (Bjrklund Boistrup & Gustafsson, 2014). In

this study we mainly draw on data from a coachworks garage. Drawing on FitzSimons, Coben, & O'Donoghue (2003)

the learning in the settings where we collected the data, can be labelled as informal adult mathematics education

(IFAME) , which includes lifelong learning processes concerning every person's knowing and attitudes deriving from

experiences in various situations throughout life.

Research on workplace mathematics has been described as a eld with dierent research interests (e.g., FitzSimons,

2013 ; Evans & al., 2013). One research interest in the literature is to identify mathematical notions within workplace

activities. In the early years researchers presumed that mathematics was easily observable and visible in workplaces, and

frequently such studies resulted in lists of mathematical contents described in school mathematics terms (Fitzgerald,

1976). Many of these studies have been criticized for having been conducted with a mathematical gaze (e.g., Dowling,

1998) where school mathematics is imposed analytically on workplace activities. Research on workplace mathematics

has, during recent years, been dominated by socio-cultural perspectives. Increasingly sensitive methodological tools

have been used to reveal the complexity of mathematical practices at work. In ndings it is frequently described that

mathematics in work is often hidden in activity, culture, social practice, and artefacts. This has been given as a main

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explanation to why it is so dicult to classify these mathematical practices in school-mathematical terms and, by

doing so, even the complex use of mathematics in workplaces is reduced in such analyses to simple computations,

measurements, and arithmetic (e.g., Hoyles, Noss, & Pozzi, 2001).

Bishop (1988) identied six pan-cultural activities which have supported and shaped the development of mathematics : counting, locating, measuring, designing, playing, and explaining. Here we focus mainly on designing, which

Bishop describes as concerning objects created by people. Designed objects include artefacts and technology which are

created in all cultures for home life, for trade, for games, etc. The actual nished product is not important mathematically, but what is important in relation to mathematics education are things like the plan, the structure, the imagined

shape, the perceived spatial relationship between object and purpose, and the abstracting process. Design as a concept

is also developed into a design theoretical perspective on learning (Selander, 2008). When discussing designing as a

human activity, Selander, similarly to Bishop, refers to it as technology and its role in shaping the environment, and

the aordances this creates for people. Designing is then much more than what a professional designer is doing or

not. On a daily basis, for example, humans are engaged in redesigning when using artefacts in unexpected ways ; for

example adopting a rope as a measuring device. In a workplace, redesigning and designing (innovations) take place

when previous methods prove not to be sucient for a new task and there is a need for new developments (Ellstrm,

2010). Both Selander and Bishop emphasize aesthetic aspects of designing where adornments is an explicit example.

Selander (2008) presents a design theoretical perspective on learning, drawing on a multimodal approach. Here

learning and knowing are discussed in terms of sequences of activities related to transformations and formations of

communicative modes (e.g., speech, body movements, pictures), not as momentary activities. Moreover, learning and

knowing are not conceptualised with school as a main frame, but as something always being present, in informal,

semi-formal as well as formal settings. He presents three learning design sequences : informal, semi-formal and formal.

Figure 3.3

The informal situation could be a workplace, where the obvious aim is not formal learning but performing worktasks. The formal model by Selander refers to a school, university, or any setting where the stated aim and organising

of the practice is learning. We have chosen to adopt the semi-formal model (Figure 1) in this study. The informal model

is relevant for a study of learning and knowing mathematics at a workplace. However, we nd the semi-formal model

more suitable for our purpose, since we, as researchers, changed the situation when we were present, and even more

when we posed meta-reective questions during the lming of the activity. The starting point to the left in the model is

a setting (in our case a workplace) with institutional norms aecting what takes place and what is counted as relevant

knowing. Both the primary transformation unit located in the middle of the model (the actual work) and the secondary

transformation unit located to the right in the model (answering our questions) were relevant for our analysis. The

transformations took place when the worker communicated through her/his actions, engaging with dierent artefacts,

and then described and explained the process through speech, gesture, and so forth. We coordinated our analysis

with three meta-functions of communication (van Leeuwen, 2005) : the ideational meta-function, related to human

experiences and representations of the world (the content) which provides a possibility to analyze the content in a

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communication ; the interpersonal meta-function where relations between people involved in the activity are addressed,

and the textual, which according to a multimodal approach concerns the roles of dierent modes (speech, actions etc).

In the case study we present here, our data consist of videos and audios from a visit to a garage where we followed

the worker, Ben. We made both observations when watching and lming, and interviews when posing questions to

Ben about his actions. Ben rst told us about his work in general and then he started with the task at hand which was

xing a car which had a bump on the rear. Ben told us that a car with a bump normally is more damaged than the

customer thinks and that it is important to check the chassis as well ; in this case he needed to straighten the frame

on which the body panels were positioned. Here we focus on the actual bump and Ben's panel beating.

In our analytical process, we have watched the lm several times with discussions in between. Our rst notes

included short transcripts of what was taking place and also questions and interpretations. Our individual notes were

then merged into a joint document where we separated more neutral descriptions from interpretations and tentative

analysis. When we watched the lm again we paid attention to what the lm communicated to us as researchers while

operationalising the framework described above. Several themes of mathematics containing activities were possible to

construe and coordinate with Bishop's activities, and here we focus on Designing, in which we focused on the worker's

activities of forming e.g. part of a car panel. . .

In the following, we present a theme within Bishop's designing activity which is a result of our analytical process.

The construed theme is Forming as functionality and aesthetics. We describe the main ideas of the analysis where

we operationalise the meta-functions and where we also coordinate with the model of a learning design sequence by

Selander (2008) with words in italics.

Ideational meta-function : We analyzed the data focusing on human experiences and representations of the

world (the content) in relation to Bishop's mathematical designing activity. For Ben's assessment on what needed to

be done, his previous experiences were important. Our analysis is that he measured up visually (mode), and with

his actions (mode) through his perception of touch. Then he planned how to design his work of forming the panel.

This design plan was then transformed into drawings (mode) on the plate and into actions (mode) where he used

workplace specic tools/artefacts (resources) to form the plate. Transformations like this were repeated many times

with dierent kinds of designing actions taking place. When Ben explained his actions to us, he meta-reected and

his actions where represented by modes like speech and gaze.

Interpersonal meta-function : When analyzing the data for social interactions, one thing we noticed was a

working-plan (resource) specifying what an assessor intended should be done on the car. Ben, on the other hand, had

the power to make his own assessment and aect the working-plan to make a change and reduce or increase the price

for the customer and the insurance company. These decisions were mainly a matter of functionality, the car must work,

and aesthetics, it should look good enough. Ben also expressed interest in his work which he shared with his peers.

Textual meta-function : We analyzed the data for what roles resources could play in the designing activity of

forming. A resource with many roles was a tool, a spoon, i.e. a breaking bar formed as a bowed chisel, which was

used in the forming process. It could to some extent be a surface to which the form of the panel was adjusted. It also

provided force when it was used for prizing and it helped Ben to reach behind the plate. Another textual aspect was

that Ben needed to know about the material of the plate, and in what order to straighten parts of the bump, and

what might happen if it was warmed up. Important was that the bump should be looking normal again (aesthetics)

and the plate must be strong enough (functionality).

Institutional norms : The purpose of this activity was clear, xing the bump, and the interwoven and contextualized mathematics was part of the fulllment of the purpose. The workplace specic resources also constituted parts

of the institutional framing, such as the working-plan which steered the work Ben was performing. Another norm,

however, was that the worker could aect this plan.

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Concluding remarks

In the oral presentation we will connect this theme of designing to a context with a nurses' aide who puts plaster

on a boy's arm, where the forming similarly concerns both functionality and aesthetics. In the theme we present

here, Forming as functionality and aesthetics, it is possible to identify several notions of Bishop's mathematical

designing activity. It is clear that Ben makes a plan for the forming and here the imagined shape is important. The

structure in the designing Ben performs concerns the structure of the bump with its parts and the perceived spatial

relationship between object and purpose is present throughout the process. We regard themes like this as alternatives

to supercial contexts in school tasks, where the complexity of adults' workplace activities is not reected. In this way,

the institution of school mathematics has a lot to gain from studies like this, e.g. when contextualising mathematics

in the pre-vocational studies (see also Wedege, 2013).

REFERENCES

Bishop, A. J. (1988). Mathematical enculturation. A cultural

Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Bjrklund Boistrup, L. & Gustafsson, L. (2014). Construing

Dordrecht :

Journal. Special Issue.

Dowling, P. (1998). The sociology of mathematics education : Mathematical myths/pedagogic texts. London : Falmer

Press.

Ellstrm, P-E. (2010). Practice-based innovation : A learning perspective. Journal of Workplace Learning, 22,(1/2),

27-40.

Evans, J. ; Wedege, T. & Yasukawa, K. (2013). Critical perspectives on adults' mathematics education. In K.

Clements, A. J. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick, F. K. S.Leung (Eds.), The Third International Handbook of Mathematics Education, 203-242. Dordrecht : Springer.

Fitzgerald, A. (1976). School mathematics and the requirements of industry. The Vocational Aspect of Education,

28(70), 43-49. doi : 10.1080/10408347308000621

FitzSimons, G. E. (2013, in press). Mathematics in and for work in a globalised environment. in CIEAEM 65

Proceedings, Quaderni di Ricerca in Didattica/Mathematics (QRDM).

Hoyles, C., Noss, R., & Pozzi, S. (2001). Proportional reasoning in nursing practice. Journal for Research in

Mathematics Education, 32(1), 4-27.

FitzSimons, G. E., O'Donoghue, J., & Coben, D. (2003). Lifelong mathematics education. In A. J. Bishop, M. A.

Clements, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick & F. K. S. Leung (Eds.), Second International Handbook of Mathematics Education,

103-142. Dordrecht : Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Selander, S. (2008). Designs for learning. A theoretical perspective. Designs for Learning, 1 (1).

Van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Introducing social semiotics. London, UK : Routledge.

Wedege, T. (2013). Workers' mathematical competences as a study object : Implications of general and subjective

approaches. Adults' mathematics : WP 2.

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Petronilla Bonissoni, Paolo Longoni, Gianstefano Riva & Ernesto Rottoli

Laboratorio Didattico di Matematica e Filosoa, Presezzo (Bergamo), Italy

Abstract : This presentation develops three fragments of our didactic experience, according to the Pierre Cartier's idea that aim of

The rst fragment conjugates the feedback loop with the idea of challenging students by side, because the fact of seeing the issues

from an another point of view can open a plurality of potentially signicant paths.

The second fragment stresses a lack of feedback loop between opposed attitudes can lead the teacher to a much rigid didactic history,

not open minded and dynamical, not always available to novelties the variety of contests suggests.

The third fragment seeks to link the feedback loop to the integration between the strength of individual knowledge and the general

aspirations and interests.

Reecting now, in the era of globalization, on our experience, we believe that the idea of trace drawn from Lvinas, represents the new

form of modulation of the idea of feedback loop. It implies to come out the rigidity of the customary and sole road, and it wants to be an

element of coagulation of the pluralities that realities generate.

Le rapport entre les mathmatiques et les ralits est depuis toujours objet d'un dbat riche de conits et de

suggestions. Dans notre prsentation, aprs une brve rexion sur aspects gnraux concernant ce rapport, nous nous

concentrons sur quelques aspects didactiques. Nos observations s'inspirent de la suivante armation de Pierre Cartier :

But des mathmatiques est de crer un retour, un ordre, une boucle de rtroaction entre les mathmatiques et le

rel . . . [Cartier, 2000].

Elle dpasse les questions ontologiques et introduit dans un domaine de pense dynamique qui permet de mettre

en vidence aspects cratifs et gnratifs. Les interactions et les rtroactions entre les mathmatiques et le rel guident

les mathmatiques dans un parcours travers dirents paysages, o elles essaient dirents moments, qui nous

synthtisons de la manire suivante :

1. moments de crativit, lorsque l'intuition et la situation conduisent l'illumination de la dcouverte ;

2. moments de gnration, o les proprits et les symtries sont tires et organises en structures ;

3. moments d'utilit, lorsque la pense mathmatique sert construire, gouverner, amliorer outils de production

et de contrle ;

4. moments de rsonance, dans lesquelles l'incomprhensible ecacit des mathmatiques s'accorde avec l'volution des processus naturels.

Le fait de laisser de cot, dans l'enseignement, le point de vue souvent dominant de mathmatiques seulement rigides,

logiques, abstraites, permette de les voir presque comme un corps dynamique palpitant, qui volue en continue ; un

corps qui montre faons de sentir qui changent dans le temps. Ceci est d'autant plus signicatif dans la priode actuelle,

o les mathmatiques sont traverses par un sentiment d'inquitude, caus par les nouveaux ds. . .

le fragment

L'objectif de notre prsentation est mettre en vidence quelques formes de mise en uvre de cette ide de boucle

de rtroaction, en nous rfrant aux ralits didactiques. Pour cela, nous avons entrepris un chemin travers trois

fragments de nos expriences d'enseignement. En chacun nous avons identi une dirente conjugaison de l'ide de

boucle de rtroaction

1. Dans le premier fragment la boucle de rtroaction est conjugue avec l'ide d'aronter les questions de cot ,

une conjugaison qui concerne en particulier les stratgies d'enseignement.

2. Le deuxime fragment souligne qu'un manque de rtroaction entre attitudes opposes peut conduire l'enseignant

une histoire didactique trop rigide, en soulevant questions lies principalement la formation des enseignants.

3. Le troisime fragment relie la boucle de rtroaction l'intgration entre la force de la connaissance individuelle

et les aspirations et les intrts gnraux, en mettant en jeu questions socio-politiques.

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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Mohamed est un enfant (sept ans) en deuxime anne du Primaire. De la premire il a montr des graves dicults

avec l'avant et l'aprs l'gard soit de successions numriques, soit d'autres successions, comme, par exemple, les

jours de la semaine. Ces dicults compromettaient l'avancement mme des activits du compter et des activits de

la somme et de la soustraction. Cependant, lorsque l'enseignant a utilis le jeu du cacher, Mohamed a commenc

excuter sommes et soustractions avec succs : il excute sommes et soustractions, mme s'il conserve les dicults

avec les successions. Les dicults de Mohamed semblent indiquer une situation pas prvue par nous : l'existence de

dirents constructions mentales qui soutiennent les mmes oprations mentales. C'est une situation qui doit tre

analyse de manire plus approfondie et qui pourrait conduire repenser habituelles procdures d'enseignement.

Cette situation didactique nous conduit une particulire interprtation de l'ide de boucle de rtroaction. Le jeu

du cacher que l'enseignant a utilis ct des mthodes programmes pour introduire l'addition et la soustraction,

est un exemple d'utilisation de la capacit de arontare i problemi di lato [Renzo Piano, 2013], of challenging

students sideways [Mason, 2009]. Aronter les questions de cot est voir ces questions d'un autre point de vue,

qui peut ouvrir parcours potentiellement signicatifs. De cette faon, aronter les questions de cot implique que

l'attention la multidimensionnalit des ralits dans l'enseignement rencontre souvent une pluralit de parcours qui

peuvent concourir l'objectif .

Aronter les questions de cot partage avec la boucle de rtroaction :

1. la conscience que les ralits ne se laissent pas enfermer dans une structure rigide et prdnie,

2. l'opposition la vision de l'enseignement comme une invitation prendre cette mme, unique route, toujours

bonde [Bauman]

3. la mance l'gard de la formalisation excessive dans la pratique de l'enseignement des mathmatiques.

Le deuxime fragment se rfre deux attitudes qui se sont opposes en Italie :

d'une part les dfenseurs de la centralit de la formalisation dans l'enseignement, qui suivent des chemins uniquement dicts par la structure formalise, linaire et cohrente des mathmatiques ;

au contraire, nous avons suivi des propositions alternatives, fondes sur l'activit, sur la crativit, sur la dcouverte.

En repensant notre exprience, nous mettons en vidence quelques risques lis ces deux attitudes : le fait de

privilgier la rigueur et la perfection de la construction mathmatique a parfois communiqu l'enseignement un

caractre totalisant. De l'autre ct, la deuxime attitude a couru le risque de morcellement : elle s'est disperse

parfois en approches dpourvues de rfrences ables, grains de poussires de ralits, pas toujours fondues dans une

image unitaire.

L'opposition rigide entre ces direntes attitudes certainement s'chappe l'ide de boucle de rtroaction. Cette

opposition a contribu crer rigidits au sein du monde de l'cole et de consquence certaines ralits didactiques

sont emprisonnes dans l'histoire vcue par les enseignants. cet gard, nous somme en train de laborer des

considrations spciques concernant les activits de familiarisation avec le concept de fraction [Bonissoni et al., 2014].

Dans le troisime fragment nous rchissons sur le rle des aspirations sociales dans les processus d'enseignement

et d'apprentissage.

Nous faisons rfrence deux propositions didactiques, que nous avons frquemment utilis dans la salle de classe :

l'introduction des concepts de quantit, de multiplication et de fraction, d'aprs les indications que Davydov a

dvelopps et essays partir des annes soixante dans une cole exprimentale Moscou ;

le chemin didactique concernant l'enseignement des probabilits, construit par De Finetti et dvelopp partir

des annes soixante, dans le cadre du processus d'innovation de l'cole italienne.

Nous avons fait coexister ces propositions direntes, en tant que toutes les deux sont indications ecaces et senses .

A l'gard de l'ecacit, qui dans l'enseignement des mathmatiques est une question centrale et objet d'un dbat ample

Chapitre 3

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et controverse [Mason, 2009], elle est le rsultat, dans notre exprience d'enseignement, d'une boucle de rtroaction

dans la quelle les activits dans la salle de classe, le bon sens des enseignants et les rponses des lves ont interagi.

Une attention particulire est ici accorde celles que nous appelons indications senses , ou l'adjectif sens

est utilis pour souligner la recherche de claires directions de sens. Les deux expriences d'enseignement mentionnes

ci-dessus, sont nes et ont t mises en uvre en contextes absolument dirents, mais elles trouvent un sens commun

dans cette caractristique : la force des savoirs individuels s'intgre avec aspirations et intrts gnraux.

Davydov est russis intgrer et traduire en propositions didactiques, des nergies et des tensions qui avaient

caractris la socit sovitique : l'esprit des mathmatiques russes du XXe sicle, sa traduction dans le domaine de

l'ducation par Kolmogorov, les propositions de l'cole psychologique de Vigotsky, la rexion sociolinguistique de

Bakhtin et ainsi de suite.

De Finetti a transfr dans une proposition didactique unitaire ses intuitions uniques et profondes concernant le

concept de probabilit et l'esprit de recherche et d'innovation qui a caractris longtemps l'cole italienne.

Dans toutes les deux indications il y a un aspect universel qui les a connotes comme repres gnraux. Elles sont

senses parce qu'elles ont t gnres dans un processus d'intgration entre conscience mathmatique et aspirations

sociales. Il est prcisment dans ce processus d'intgration que l'ide de boucle de rtroaction s'est ralise.

La trace

Le rle central que les aspirations sociales ont dans notre interprtation du terme indications senses , nous conduit

repenser les expriences du troisime fragment : elles ont t dveloppes pour la plupart au cours de la deuxime

part du XXe sicle, une priode qui concluait l'ge des idologies, de la vrit, de la socit solide ; une ge qui avait

trouv dans les vrits mathmatiques le modle auquel se rfrer. Nos observations retaient les caractristiques de

cet ge. Mais aujourd'hui nous vivons dans la socit globalise, dans laquelle les diversits entrent continuellement en

contact ; elles s'inuencent, en contribuant donner la socit la caractristique de liquidit. Cette liquidit souvent

est perue comme perte de structure : elle s'accompagne a inquitude et change profondment la perception du rapport

entre les mathmatiques et les ralits . . .

L'inquitude croissante qui prend la place de la scurit des chemins suivis dans notre exprience, force rechercher

une ide faible pour redessiner les chemins didactiques. Nous retrouvons cette ide dans deux caractristiques du

concept de trace tir de Lvinas : le binme prsence/absence. L'absence implique d'aller au dehors de la rigidit de

la mme, unique route , qui doit tre forcment embouque, et elle laisse la place chemins de recherche plus libres.

La prsence, d'autre cot, garde la dimension de repre, comme lment de coagulation des grains de poussires que

la pluralit des contextes et des ralits engendre.

L'ide de trace enferme l'espoir que l'analyse de la complexit qui est intrinsque la dualit prsence-absence

permette d'identier lments paradigmatiques de structuration dans la complexit d'une socit globalise.

Dans notre atelier sur la familiarisation avec les fractions, la dimension de repre qui est caractristique de la trace

se manifeste dans l'acte lmentaire et fondamental d'associer la comparaison entre deux quantits homognes avec

une couple de nombres naturels [Bonissoni et al., 2014].

L'ide de trace se mle avec les ides de boucle de rtroaction et de aronter les questions de cot , en

partageant avec elles lments de similitude et de complmentarit qui peuvent contribuer constamment repenser les

approches didactiques. Ces ides peuvent aider viter que l'histoire didactique de l'enseignant soit bloque dans

les expriences passes ; elles contribuent faire que cette histoire soit ouverte et dynamique, toujours disponible aux

nouveauts que les direntes contextes proposent.

La socit actuelle est parvenue la globalisation grce la puissance des moyens digitaux et, jusqu'ici, elle a

trouv surtout dans le domaine conomique-nancier des raisons pour la dvelopper. Mais aujourd'hui cette socit est

force de faire face aux nombreuses, diverses et parfois contradictoires aspirations sociales qui parcourent le processus

mme de la globalisation.

Les ides de trace , de boucle de rtroaction , de aronter les questions de cot peuvent devenir un instrument

qui conduise l'ducation scolaire dvelopper sa attention au global, en entreprenant l'acheminement d'une manire

positive des direntes aspirations sociales. En particulier l'enseignement des mathmatiques, qui sont caractrises

par l'universalit de leur langage, peut fournir des repres au sein de la liquidit de la globalisation, en donnant lieu

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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des processus de rtroaction, en dvoilant parcours potentiellement signicatifs et en dcelant des traces ecaces et

senses.

REFERENCES

Bauman Z., Mazzeo R. (2012). Conversazioni sull'educazione. Erickson Editore, Trento.

Bonetto M., Bonissoni P., Ravasio N., Soentini D., Rottoli E. (2002). A teaching experience : the game of hiding.

CIEAEM 54, Vilanova i la Geltr.

Bonissoni P., Longoni P., Riva G., and Rottoli E. (2013). Nuages Didactiques. Cieaem et Groupes de Travail

Globaux et Permanentes. CIEAEM 65, Torino.

Cartier P. (2000). Mathmatiques et Ralit. Universit de tous les savoirs. Confrence du 14 janvier 2000.

http ://www.youtube.com/watch'v=ISuxxPCBVXY

Ciliberto M. (2013). Se l'intellettuale balla da solo. L'Unit 3 novembre

Lvinas E. (1982). La trace de l'autre in En dcouvrant l'existence avec Husserl et Heidegger, Vrin, Paris, pp.

187-202

Mason J. (2009). Mathematics Education : Theory, Practice & Memories over 50 years. Published in S. Lerman

and B. Davis (Ed.), Mathematical Action & Structures of Noticing. Sense Publishers, Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei.

Piano R. (2013). http ://www.chetempochefa.rai.it, 13 ottobre.

Pirandello L. (1927). Sei personaggi in cerca d'autore : commedia da fare. Bemporad e glio editori. Firenze.

Schlegel A., Kohler P.J., Fogelson S.V., Alexander P., Konuthula D., and Tse P.U. (2013). Network structure and

dynamics of the mental workspace. PNAS October 1, 2013 vol. 110 no. 40 16277-16282.

Wheatley G.H. (1998). Imagery and Mathematics Learning. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics. Vol. 20,

2&3, pag.65-77.

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pre-service teachers

Javier Diez-Palomar, Joaquin Gimenez, Yuly Marsela Vanegas, Vicen Font

University of Barcelona, Spain

Rsum : Dans cet article, nous prsentons le cas d'un groupe d'enfants qui sont confronts leurs conceptions antrieures sur la

ottabilit. Les mathmatiques ressortent de leur discussion avec l'enseignant et les animateurs. L'analyse de cet pisode nous amne

discuter avec les futurs enseignants des ds lors de la connexion des mathmatiques avec les autres disciplines, dans une perspective de

modlisation (Garcia, Gascon, Ruiz et Bosch, 2006). Nous sommes galement intresss voir les changements possibles sur les positions

des professeurs de maths du primaire et du secondaire.

Abstract : In this paper we introduce the case of a group of children being confronted to their previous conceptions about oatability.

Mathematics emerges from their discussion with the teacher and the facilitators. Analysing this episode leads us to discuss with prospective

teachers the challenges when connecting mathematics with other disciplines, as a modeling perspective (Garcia, Gascn, Ruiz & Bosch,

2006). We are also interested to see the possible changes on math teacher positions from Primary to Secondary School.

Theoretical network

Steiner & Vermandel (1988) more than twenty years ago already claimed that mathematics education appears to be

connected to other disciplines of the human knowledge. In this paper, we assume that Mathematics is a human activity

focused on solving problematic situations of the real world, and focusing on emerging objects within mathematical

practices. Thus, in our perspective, we assume that pre-service teachers need to develop a critical thinking based upon

didactic analysis of teaching processes that considers ve levels or types of analysis (Godino, Batanero & Font, 2007) :

1. identifying mathematical practices ;

2. developing congurations of objects and mathematical processes ;

3. analysing didactic trajectories and interactions ;

4. identifying the system of rules and meta-rules ;

5. assessing the educational competences of the teaching process.

In this presentation, we concentrate on modeling perspective by analysing possible Research Study Trajectories

(Barquero, Bosch & Gascon, 2006).

Methodology

In this paper we want to discuss a case study to illustrate how to encourage future teachers to identify (and design)

practices potentially mathematical, by analysing congurations of objects and mathematical processes in order to be

more critical on their task design or implementation, drawing on Godino et al (2007) theoretical approach. In the

case study we are discussing here, Courtney (a middle-age teacher) use examples of the real life to challenge children's

[mis] conceptions about oatability. She uses mathematical objects (size, weight, volume, etc.) to challenge 11 years

old children to think about their previous ideas. Data comes from a lesson videotaped. We presented this video to a

group of future teachers in the Faculty for discussion. We draw on children' dialogues and interactions to discuss how

Courtney' questions lead children to dealt with cognitive conicts, and how they solve them at the end of the lesson.

Using Godino's et al (2007) analysis, we provide future teachers with tools for investigating classroom practices, in

which they are able to conduct a detailed analysis (both descriptive and explanatory) of the teaching and learning

process. To this end it is necessary, rstly, to develop and apply descriptive and explanatory tools that enable teachers

to understand and respond to the question : what has happened here, and why ? Secondly, according to Godino et

al (2007) there is a need to develop and apply criteria of 'suitability', which somehow connects with the questions

mentioned above. Drawing on Godino's approach, we say that an analytical tool is adequate when it is 'suitable' to

allow teachers to understand the practice that they are observing / discussing. Thus, using the 'suitability' criteria

enable teachers to evaluate (analyse) a classroom practice, which may serve as a 'guide' for improving that practice.

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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Findings

Let's explain the experience that had been analysed. The journey begun with the teacher and the facilitators (two

teenagers from the community) introducing the topic of the lesson. Courtney said : 'Today we are going to discover

what is oatability' Children felt excited and curious. The teacher continued : look, many years ago there was a man

named Archimedes. Anybody knows who Archimedes was ' No answers. Courtney explained that Archimedes was a

man living in the Ancient Greece, who was well known because his discoveries. She narrated the story of Archimedes

and the King crown, and how Archimedes was able to gure out that the crown was in fact not made in gold, but

mixed with other metals. Starting from this point, Courtney introduced the activity of the day : why some objects

oat while others sink to the bottom of a bucket of water ?

Figure

3.4 (left) The 3 possibilities regarding objects' oatability and Figure 2b (right) Children' objects classication according their oatability.

During interaction and intentional analysis, future teachers explain that the teacher objective seemed to be to

introduce Archimedes' principle to the children. Thus, it appears a nice discussion about such interdisciplinary historical

approach. In fact many future teachers don't know the relation between oatability forces as a physical problem and the

emergence of equivalence volume problem as a mathematical issue. Such parenthesis, gives opportunities for epistemic

and philosophical reection. It is also discussed some ideas coming from Archimedes' pursuit concerning geometrical

analysis, legacy and inuence in Engineering and Mechanisms Design (Paipetis & Ceccarelli, 2010).

Next, when analysing media tools and their inuence, it's observed that Courtney and the two other facilitators

provided recipients with water to the children, as well as a collection of objects : cloves, a drill, an empty can, an empty

plastic bottle, an orange, a cork, a boat made of aluminium foil, a big ball of aluminium foil, a small ball of aluminium

foil, a volcanic stone, a pumice, a sponge, a fork, and a melon. The question Courtney raised to the children was :

which of these objects will oat and which ones will sink ? There were 3 dierent possibilities : (1) oat, (2) totally

sink, or (3) sink halfway (see gure 2a). Children rst had to decide what would happen with all the objects. They

had pictures to paste them on the case they though it would occur. For example, if they thought that orange will

sink, then they would take the picture of the orange and paste it on the picture representing an object in the bottom

of the bucket. Figure 2b show their nal decisions. During epistemic and cognitive analysis, future teachers found that

the teacher started to ask questions to the children, inquiring them about dierent situations. For instance, if we

have a bottle of water, what do you think it would happen to it ? It will sink down the bucket or it will go halfway ?

Some children replied : It will oat, it will oat ! Then the children pasted the picture of the bottle in the window,

on the picture representing an objected oating. The lesson continued with the rest of the objects. At some point,

Courtney asked what would happen with the can. Nayara said : The Trina . . .it would go halfway under the water.

So, Courtney replied : Look. . .the Trina why you have pasted it in the picture representing objects that go halfway

under the water ? Susanne answered : I do not know. . . ; and Courtney continued : Why you think ? At this point,

Nayara claimed : Because it is made of metal, so it's heavier ? OK. . ., said Courtney, and the melon Why you

pasted it on the picture representing objects that would sink to the bottom ? Isabel said : Because it is heavy, I

would say.

The discussion continued for a while. During the interaction analysis, future teachers recognized that the teacher

was making questions and children were answering them, sometimes guessing sometimes knowing for sure their answers.

After that, Courtney proposed to take the actual real objects and experience whether or not they really sink or oat

Chapitre 3

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Courtney : Just one question. . .why did you paste the big drill in the picture of the objects sinking to the bottom,

and the cloves in the one representing objects that sink halfway under the water'

Isabel : Because the size !

Children, teacher and facilitators move to the bucket full of water.

Courtney : Would you try with a clove ? What would happen to the big clove (the drill) and to the small clove ?

There [pointing to the window with the classication] you have classied them according to their size, right ? You said

that the big clove (the drill) will sink, while the small one will go halfway under the water, isn't it ? Can we check it `

[Children introduce both cloves in the bucket]

Nayara : Uh ! The two of them sink down.

When analysing the case, future teachers observe that the children realized that the size of the object does not

matter in terms of considering if it would oat or not. The same happened to other characteristics. A table 1 is

presented to the future teachers organized to see the changes of ideas before and after the experiment.

Answer

a priori

Objects sink down because its size. Bigger objects are more likely to

sink that small ones.

Porous objects sink because they have holes and

the water lls the holes.

Gravity provokes objects

to sink.

weight.

Some objects made with

the same material oat,

while others does not.

sizes sink down under the water. The size is

not related to oatability.

They observed a sponge, a pumice and a

volcanic rock. The pumice, despite its holes,

oated. Having holes is not enough to explain

why some objects sink while others do not

sink.

Children observed the both the volcanic stone

and the pumice fell down out of the water,

when someone drops them. However, if we

drop them on the water, the volcanic rock

sinks, while the pumice oats. Gravity does

not explain oatability.

After dropping the melon in the water, children observed that it oated, despite its

weight. Thus oatability does not depend on

weight.

Children observed that the fork, and the ball

made of aluminium sink, while the boat made

of aluminium oated. Hence the material is

not connected to oatability.

Epistemological

sion

Size

dimen-

/ Gravity

Weight / Mass

Material

Table 3.1 Children prior thinking and answers after the experiment

This table helps the group of future teachers to reect about cognitive and epistemic changes observed as a learning

trajectory for children. Finally, another discussion is to observe how mathematics objects as volume emerge in absolute

connection to physical object as forces.

Conclusion

We have evidences (not described here because the lack of space) that future teachers assumed that children learn

mathematics when they are able to recognize and verbalize the rules and meta-rules characterizing mathematical

objects, processes and systems (at least in such examples). This is a dicult work that has been largely studied in the

past. In our case we can also notice the central role played by interactions in the whole picture. Children are being

challenges by Courtney. The future teachers assume that teacher confronts them to unexpected situations. Learning

then becomes situated in particular situations. Situated learning is also a contribution emerging from previous research

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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(Lave & Wenger, 1991). Children need to go to the real world and experiment themselves in order to discover situations

that may led them to modify their previous conceptions (about oatability in our case). In the discussion mathematics

emerge as connected to other disciplines (as physics, etc.), while teaching mathematics also needs from the knowledge

coming out from psychology, pedagogy, sociology, etc., as stated by Steiner.

What can we learn from this case study, in terms of teacher training ? According to Godino and colleagues (Godino,

Batanero & Font, 2007) mathematics education should provide pre-service and in-service teachers (and other professionals working in the eld of education) with tools to identify mathematical practices, and to develop congurations

of objects and mathematical processes, by analysing didactic trajectories and interactions. The analysis driven gives

the future teachers with tools for redesigning mathematical tasks as research study trajectories.

Acknoledgment

The work presented was realized in the framework of the Project EDU2012-32644 Development of a program by

competencies in a initial training for Secondary School.

REFERENCES

Garca, F. J., Gascn, J., Ruiz Higueras, L. & Bosch, M. (2006). Mathematical modeling as a tool for the connection

38(3), 226-246.

Barquero, B., M. Bosch y J. Gascn (2006). La modelacin matemtica como instrumento de articulacin de las

matemticas del primer ciclo universitario de Ciencias : estudio de la dinmica de poblaciones, in L. Ruiz Higueras, A.

Estepa y F. J. Garca (eds.), Matemticas, escuela y sociedad. Aportaciones de la Teora Antropolgica de lo Didctico,

Jan, Publicaciones de la Diputacin de Jan, Servicio de Publicaciones - Universidad de Jan, pp. 531-544.

Batanero, C., & Font, V. (2007). The Onto-Semiotic Approach to Research in Mathematics Education. ZDM. The

International Journal on Mathematics Education, 39(1-2), 127-135.

Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. University of Cambridge

Press. Cambridge.

Paipeitis, S., Ceccarelli, M.(Eds.) (2010). The Genius of Archimedes - 23 centuries of inuence on mathematics,

science and engineering. Kluwer. Dordrecht.

Steiner, H.G & Vermandel, A. (1988) : Foundations and methodology of the discipline of mathematics education.

Proceedings of the TME Conference. Antwerp, Belgium.

of school mathematics, ZDM International Journal on Mathematics Education,

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Gilles Aldon, Rjane Monod-Ansaldi & Michle Prieur

Institut Franais de l'ducation, cole Normale Suprieure de Lyon

Abstract : In inquiry based approaches in sciences, mathematics is usually present but often ignored or underestimated. Mathematical

knowledge can be identied at dierent levels to allow teachers and students to become aware of the implementation of this knowledge

in scientic work. Building on observations made under the project "Development of scientic culture, equal opportunities" in schools of

the city of Dijon, we derive a typology characterizing the role of mathematics in science courses at dierent levels . We show through

examples that it is possible to mobilize mathematical knowledge at various levels to conduct scientic approaches and give meaning to the

mathematical knowledge mobilized.

Rsum : Dans les dmarches d'investigation en sciences, les mathmatiques sont gnralement prsentes mais souvent ignores ou

sous-estimes. Les savoirs mathmatiques peuvent tre convoqus des niveaux dirents qu'il s'agit d'identier et de dnir pour permettre

aux enseignants et aux lves de prendre conscience de la mise en uvre de ces savoirs dans un travail scientique. En nous appuyant sur

des observations ralises dans le cadre du projet "Dveloppement de la culture scientique, galit des chances" conduit dans des coles

de la ville de Dijon, nous dgageons une typologie caractrisant la place des mathmatiques dans le cours de sciences dirents niveaux.

Nous montrons alors sur des exemples qu'il est possible de mobiliser les savoirs mathmatiques des niveaux divers pour conduire des

dmarches scientiques et donner du sens aux connaissances mathmatiques mobiliss.

Introduction

In inquiry based learning in sciences, mathematics is usually present but often ignored or underestimated. Whether

mathematical knowledge can be used at dierent levels, it is often dicult to identify for students and for teachers

where this knowledge is available in scientic work. In this communication we will show where and how it is possible to

construct mathematical knowledge in such inquiry based learning process. This work draws on observations and analysis

made in the context of the project Dveloppement de la culture scientique, galit des chances (Development of

scientic culture, equal opportunities), where teachers and researchers work in a design-based research methodology

(Wang & Hannan, 2005). Such a methodology enables us to build usable and useful resources by combining scientic

approaches and problematics coming from teachers. In this paper we will describe the context and will show how

mathematics can be a part of the construction of scientic methodologies and, reciprocally, how scientic approaches

can give opportunities to learn mathematics and to build mathematical knowledge.

The teaching curriculum in French primary schools in sciences involves the discovery of living beings and the

study of their functioning. These requirements in terms of content and methods lead teachers and students to conduct

experimental procedures on living organisms, especially involving growing plants. But, what are the characteristics of

experiments on living things' Living organisms have characteristics that aect their study in experimental biology. Indeed, due to size, variability and complexity, conceptualization and modeling of living matter is dicult (Coquid et al,

1999). Already in 1965, Canguilhem (Canguilhem, 1965) drew attention to specicity, individualization, irreversibility

and the entirety of living organisms.

Some of the characteristics of living organisms are studied in the curriculum of primary school in France. The

concepts of stages of development and growth are related to the evolution over time of living beings (irreversibility).

Relationships between living beings and their environment are addressed by the study of nutritional needs and interactions between organisms and their environment. Specicity is seen through the diversity of life, by comparing

several species. However, individualization and entirety are not addressed directly. Taking into account the variability

of living organisms led to work with several species, and several individuals for each species. For all these reasons,

plants represent the material of choice for school experiments.

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Methodological problems arising when experimenting with plants

In primary school, experimental activities linked with the study of the plants' life cycle are often made for the

reasons noted previously and bring to light a number of methodological problems linked to life's characteristics. It

implies making choices related to the variability of life, inter- and intra-species. In order to assure the reproducibility

and the signicant character of results, it is necessary to ask questions about the number of trials and the data

processing. Providing an observer, and taking into account the variability of individuals, led to the multiplication of

tubes, bottles and plants raised during the experiment. The implementation involved organization of all experimental

equipment in the space of the classroom. A comparative analysis was based on rigorous experimentation at any time,

considering the treated plant and its control in the same way. We oer these examples for 6 to 10 year old pupils and

show how mathematical tools are involved in this comparative study.

In the study of plants' water requirements, 6 year old pupils focus on the variable watering. They observe and

compare the transformation of watered and non-watered plants over time. To identify the studied variable, they use

signs : the diagram of a drop of water means that a plant is watered, a cross means that it is not watered. This code,

which connects the signier and the signied, is used on plant pots in the classroom (g. 1) and also in the pupils'

drawings. A sorting activity is oered to pupils : they separate into two collections a set of cans bearing the signs.

The absorption of water by a seedling with and without roots has been studied by 10 year old pupils by putting

seedlings in test tubes and measuring at regular periods the water level in the tubes. In this way, they determine water

absorption by plants and calculate this decrease by subtracting the height of the water from the height of initial water.

The calculation and comparison of results between a seedling with and without roots requires working in the same

measurement system and considering unit conversions if dierent choices were made between measurements.

These examples illustrate the dierent mathematical tools that have to be used in order to build a comparative

study : coding, sorting, choice of unit of measurement, conversions, calculation, . . .

But also, working on living beings requires working over a length of time : taking measurements, making observations, drawings, and writing an explanatory text which requires the careful choice of particular moments which will be

important to describe the evolution and the dynamic of the plant. To eectively conduct such experiments, students

need to nd their bearings in time.

The question is whether the concepts used in biological experiments are already present, or have to be consolidated

or built for students. We propose a typology characterizing the role of mathematics knowledge in science courses at

dierent levels and illustrated by observations made in class.

We distinguish ve levels of mobilization of mathematical knowledge in investigative approaches that can be all

or partly present in a scientic activity, each of these levels is, of course, connected directly to the development of

knowledge :

The rst level concerns the use of naturalized mathematical knowledge that is used transparently, naturally by

the students and not pointed out by the teacher ; for example, in a class of 10 year old pupils counting seeds placed

in a saucer to follow their germination or, for 6 year old pupils, sorting watered and non-watered pots. The level

"in-depth" concerns knowledge already institutionalized but not yet naturalized. The level of construction allows

pupils to give sense to their mathematical knowledge by linking the technical functioning to their sense of a scientic

context. The last two levels, although very infrequently observed, are often potential inquiry activities. An a priori

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Level

0 - Use

1 - In-depth

2 - Construction

3 - Questioning

4 - Revelation

Characterization

To use naturalized mathematical knowledge

To manipulate knowledge in the process of

naturalization

To be part of the sense construction of a notion

which is in the process of naturalization.

To interrogate mathematical knowledge

through its use in scientic knowledge.

To build a new mathematical concept in order

to advance in the scientic question.

100

Example in grade 5

To count sprouted seeds.

To use a a double-entry table.

To use subtraction to describe a

growth rate.

To deal with data coming from

experiences with growing plants.

To understand relationships between a shadow's measure and a

plant's measure.

analysis of the given situation can help to highlight this knowledge and to include it in the learning objectives. In

each of the experiences related to the variability of living organisms, the number of germinated seeds was dierent

and the issue of a representative sample arises. Should we consider the mean, but what is the impact on the mean

of the extreme values ? Should we remove the sample outliers ? With what arguments ? Dialogue between disciplines

can then make sense and the mathematical treatment of data can draw on scientic arguments. The transition to an

abstract representation of the height of water collected during the melting of an ice cube over time illustrates this

investment of the level of revelation ; children know how to copy on a sheet the water depth using the drawing of a

test tube, and the accumulation of drawings shows the evolution of the observations made by each of the experiments.

Comparison of dierent representations allows them to compare the rate of melting in each experiment (Fig 3.6).

These examples show that it is often possible at dierent levels to reach mathematical knowledge and bring students

into a true co-disciplinarity in which mathematics is a tool whose development can be based on investigations carried

out in science. The term co-disciplinarity was originally proposed by Blanchard-Laville (2000), in the framework of

research in science education, to describe complementary perspectives on the objects studied by promoting synergy

between the topics. It was taken by Chevallard (2004) to characterize learning approaches that respect and articulate

the epistemological positions of several disciplines (Chevallard 2004).

Conclusion

The same approach can be productive and meaningful not only in science but also in mathematics, each discipline

utilized in the study of a shared object, aording the opportunity to learn in a co-disciplinary approach. We believe

that this co-disciplinary approach can help engage students in solving complex problems, particularly in the case of

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REFERENCES

Blanchard-Laville, C. (2000) De la co-disciplinarit en sciences de l'ducation. Revue Franaise de Pdagogie, 132,

p 55-66.

Canguilhem, G. (1965). La connaissance de la vie. Paris : Vrin (2e d. 1980).

Chevalard, Y. (2004). Vers une didactique de la codisciplinarit - Notes sur une nouvelle pistmologie scolaire.

Communication aux Journes de didactique compare 2004 (Lyon, 3-4 mai 2004). Version retouche du 19 mai 2004.

Disponible sur Internet : http ://yves.chevallard.free.fr/spip/spip/recherche.php3'recherche=codisciplinarit%E9 (consult le 24 octobre 2013).

Coquid, M. (2000). Le rapport exprimental au vivant. Mmoire d'Habilitation diriger des recherches. Universit

Paris Sud, juin 2000.

Wang, F., & Hannan, M. J. (2005). Design-based research and technology-enhanced learning environments, Educational Technology Research and Development, 4, 5-23.

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Gail E. FitzSimons

University of Melbourne

Rsum : L'enseignement, l'apprentissage et le faire des mathmatiques dans le cadre du travail orent un exemple paradigmatique

dans le cadre du thme Mathmatiques et leur enseignement en relation avec d'autres disciplines . Je m'appuierai sur le travail de Bernstein

(2000) pour thoriser une recontextualisation dans l'enseignement professionnel en gnral, et dans l'ducation mathmatique dans ce cadre

en particulier, et nalement j'en tirerai quelques implications pour les mathmatiques scolaires.

Abstract : The teaching, learning, and doing of vocational mathematics at work oers a paradigmatic example relevant to the theme of

Mathematics and its teaching in relation to other disciplines. I will draw on the work of Bernstein (2000) to theorise recontextualisation

in vocational education in general, and vocational mathematics education in particular, and nally draw some implications for school

mathematics.

Introduction

With few exceptions, doing mathematics at work is necessarily inter-disciplinary. Across a wide range of industries

and occupations, people are required to use, develop, and communicate mathematical ideas and concepts with others

who have diering expertise, experience, and interests, including in mathematics itself. Problems requiring mathematical thinking and calculations are usually embedded in physical or intellectual tasks, rich in context, with a range of

constraints that are sometimes mutually contradictory. Problems always need a workable answer, and usually within

a short space of time. Some problems arise within a logic of production (Ellstrm, 2010), where speed, accuracy, and

consistency are needed and valued ; when, for example, a breakdown in machinery or communication has occurred.

Other problems arise within a logic of development (Ellstrm, 2010), where questioning, creativity, and innovation are

required and valued. In any case, to help solve such workplace problems, workers have to recontextualise the mathematics inherent in their task in order to act and to communicate with others where necessary. Other people involved

or interested in the process need to understand their arguments and actions, and to be able to form a meaningful

response through further communication or action ; workers may also need to justify their mathematical reasoning to

themselves, albeit tacitly.

The institution of mathematics education faces several paradoxes. Ocial statements attempting to justify mathematics education usually include reference to its potential usefulness for the individual at work, and in society more

generally. Individual students are often expected to achieve procient levels in specied areas of mathematics in order to gain employment or progress to further education prior to employment. However, visitors to workplace sites,

including prospective and current mathematics teachers, as well as vocational college students and their teachers,

even mathematics education researchers, often nd it dicult to actually see any mathematics beyond number and

measurement (e.g., Nicol, 2002 ; Williams & Wake, 2007). Moreover, it is common for employers to lament the fact that

new employees are not adequately prepared mathematically for the work they are expected to do. On the other hand,

there have been many studies that have demonstrated the actual complexity of mathematical thinking embedded in the

work of people, from low-skilled to highly paid professionals. (See, e.g., FitzSimons 2002, 2013, 2014a, 2014b ; Hoyles,

Noss, Kent, & Bakker, 2010 ; see also Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86(2), 2014, Special Issue : Characterising

and developing vocational knowledge). Yet, in conversation most people deny that they in fact use much, if any, of

the mathematics they learned at school or university at work or elsewhere. How and why do such gaps in perception

occur ? How might they be overcome ?

Research on the preparation of vocational students could oer a possible solution. Vocational teachers are expected

to have comprehensive knowledge of, and ideally considerable practical experience in, the vocational area in which

they teach. In addition, vocational teachers are generally required to undertake study on pedagogic principles relevant

to both their subject matter and their post-compulsory students. According to Bernstein (2000), pedagogic relations

can take place not only within designated formal or informal educational settings, but can also be used to address

cultural practices and experiences in other settings. In these, there is a purposeful intention to initiate, modify,

develop or change knowledge, conduct or practice by someone or something which already possesses, or has access to,

the necessary resources and the means of evaluating the acquisition (pp. 199-200).

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In this paper I intend to relate Bernstein's theories to the workplace and vocational education for what they might

oer the teaching of mathematics in inter-disciplinary contexts. Following Hordern (2014), teaching in vocational

education in the professions, para-professions (e.g., laboratory or engineering technicians), trades and crafts provides

a useful example of what it means to teach in a multi-disciplinary environment. I will discuss the concepts of what

is regarded as vocational knowing and recontextualisation in vocational education. I will then use the vocation of

mathematics teaching as a familiar example of recontextualising in the context of what is regarded as mathematical

knowing in the education sector. I will discuss an example of how professional mathematicians recontextualise and

create mathematics in inter-disciplinary settings. This will be followed by an example of vocational students learning

to become laboratory technicians. Finally, I will draw implications for formal mathematics education.

What is Recontextualisation ?

Bernstein (2000) theorised principles underlying the pedagogising of knowledge and its transformation in dierent

contexts. He identied rules operating at three levels : (a) the macro, political institutional or systemic level of

curriculum and qualications determination, (b) the meso, school level of organisation of teachers' (& hence students')

work, and (c) the micro, classroom level of interaction between students and teachers. At the macro level are what

Bernstein termed distributive rules, distributing dierent forms of knowledge to dierent groups of people. Bernstein

made a distinction between what he called classes of thinkable (mundane) and unthinkable (esoteric) knowledge. At

the meso level, recontextualising rules regulate the formation of pedagogic discourse. This recontextualising principle

selectively appropriates, relocates, refocuses and relates other discourses to constitute its own order (p. 33). To

illustrate the distinction between an original discourse and its recontextualisation, Bernstein gave the example of the

real workplace discourse of carpentry being transformed into the imaginary school discourse of woodwork. Similarly,

the academic discipline of mathematics through its recontextualisation is transformed into the discourse of school

mathematics. Finally, at the micro level, evaluative rules shape pedagogic practice in the context of acquisition, such

as the mathematics classroom. These three levels are inter-related. There are possibilities for contestation and control

over the selection of mathematics content, the pedagogies employed, and the formal and ongoing informal evaluation

of students (FitzSimons, 2002). One of the critical features of vocational knowledge, and hence vocational pedagogy,

is the structure and relationships between various forms of knowledge that coexist at work.

Bernstein's (2000) analysis of the structure of knowledge takes two forms : vertical discourse (related to unthinkable,

esoteric knowledge), and horizontal discourse (related to mundane, thinkable knowledge). Vertical discourse refers to

disciplinary knowledge, such as formal academic mathematics, and is described as being theoretical, conceptual, and

generalisable knowledge ; coherent, explicit, and systematic, with strong boundaries between itself and other disciplines.

Consisting of specialised symbolic structures of explicit knowledge, the procedures of vertical discourse are linked to

other procedures and thus allow the integration of knowledge through the integration of meanings beyond relevance

to specic contexts. On the other hand, horizontal discourse refers to contextual knowledge, such as the mathematics

used and developed in the workplaceor what I have described as workplace numeracy (FitzSimons, 2008, 2010)which

is generally weakly classied and submerged within the goals and objectives of the job or task at hand. Workplace

numeracy is practical knowledge, informed by the accumulated mathematical knowledge and the richly contextualised

experience of work, over the history of the occupation and within the specic worksite, often undertaken in complex

and/or contradictory contexts. It may be developed in response to an experienced need or a potential, imagined

reality. As a horizontal discourse, workplace numeracy is specic, locally useful knowledge ; a set of strategies which

are local, segmentally organised, and likely to be oral, local, context dependent and specic, tacit, multi-layered, and

contradictory across but not within contexts (Bernstein, 2000, p. 157). Compared to school mathematics, there are

weak boundaries between workplace mathematics (or numeracy) and other workplace knowledges, and this is likely to

contribute to its relative invisibility to outside observers and the workers themselves.

Bernstein (2000) described mathematics as being a vertical discourse, in that the accumulation of knowledge is

hierarchical, while having a horizontal knowledge structure in its collection of various internal languages of description

for its subelds (e.g., algebra, probability, topology). There are clearly dened and accepted rules for making decisions

based on mathematical thinking and reasoning, and there are strict conditions imposed by the research community

of mathematicians for the acceptance, or non-acceptance, of globally new mathematical knowledge. In the workplace,

each discipline involved will have its own rules, some much weaker than mathematics, and these dierences must be

understood and resolved in the multi-disciplinary context of work, and consequently in vocational pedagogy.

Referring to the dierent types of knowledge structure found in formal education and elsewhere, Bernstein (2000)

described regions as being constructed by the recontextualisation of disciplinary singulars, such as mathematics,

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which are protected by strong boundaries and hierarchies. Regions are the interface between disciplines. . . and

the technologies they make possible (p. 52). Professions such as engineering, medicine, business, and architecture

are examples of regions where mathematics plays a signicant theoretical roleas it does in related para-professions

(e.g., technicians) and trades, but also in a much more concrete and practical way. This is where relevant vocational

knowledge comes into direct relation with mathematics to form what is known as vocational mathematics, albeit at

dierent levels of academic challenge and complicatedness, but with the same requirements for being usable and error

free.

Workplace activity necessarily involves meaningful communication taken in its broadest sense of verbal, non-verbal,

visual, graphical, gestural, etc. between various stakeholders such as managers and sub-ordinates, customers and

suppliers, and co-workers. Following Bernstein (2000), a pedagogic relation requires the evaluation of the acquirer's

response by the transmitter. However, unlike school, at work the relation has the possibility of two-way transmission

and evaluation of information, as specialised expertise may be more widely distributed : for example, workers having

particular experience with materials, tools, or other technologies that managers or customers do not. In practice,

workers at all levels draw on their formal education and recontextualise this knowledge, along with their repertoire of

personal experience and the collective reservoir of workplace shared knowledge, in the particular context of the actual

work problem with which they are confronted. This is framed by explicit and implicit workplace organisational practices

(Ellstrm, 2010) and regulation (e.g., occupational health & safety, legal working conditions, accountability), as well as

available tools and artefacts such as machinery, texts, forms to be completed, and accessible electronic communications.

Based on interviews with twelve vocational teachers from the automotive, engineering, and hospitality industries in

Sweden, Lindberg (2003) described vocational knowing as a situated judgement consisting of several dierent aspects :

(a) tools, both intellectual and physical ; (b) materials and their properties ; (c) methods and techniques ; (d) planning,

including a sensualized idea of the task and the organisation of work ; and (e) ethics, including aesthetics and economic

awareness. The last category also includes patient/client/customer awareness (Bjrklund Boistrup & Gustafsson, 2014 ;

Johansson, 2014).

Hordern (201'4, p. 25) described vocational education as bridging the gap between disciplinary and practical

knowledge, forming a region of vocational knowledge. If this vocational knowledge is largely academic, theoretical,

and conceptual, as in the professions, the region will be primarily multi-disciplinary knowledge. The complexity

of vocational pedagogy is exacerbated by the fact that the curricular content and pedagogy must simultaneously

meet the demands of disciplinary knowledge and the demands of practice. Hordern observed that all vocational

teachers must recontextualise both the formal theoretical knowledge of the discipline or craft (epistemic knowledge )

and how that knowledge is valued and actually used in practice (social & cultural knowledges ). Critically, in doing

this, teachers need to enable their students to follow exactly the same principle in the workplace : to be able to

recontextualise their own theoretical knowledge, understanding the rules for its appropriate use and argumentation

(conceptual knowledge ), and at the same time to understand and recontextualise the rules governing the specic

vocational practice (contextual knowledge ). Vocational students, as well as their teachers, need to be able to recognise

the dierent knowledge structures, as they move between generalities and particularities (or vertical discourses &

horizontal discourses) in their concept development. They need to be aware of these dierent knowledge structures

when recontextualising knowledge and communicating meaningfully with others at work'including correctly using all

forms of mathematical reasoning : abductive, inductive, and deductive. Whereas scientic reasoning tends to draw on

inductive and deductive reasoning, abductive reasoning occurs more commonly in workplaces. It is where people make

comparisons between selected, salient features from a range of similar and/or counter cases, as well as from personal

experience, to address the case in hand'similar to a doctor making a diagnosis, or a detective working on a case, or

lorry loaders making decisions on how to place the load in the optimal position. (See Holton, Stacey, & FitzSimons,

2012, for elaboration of these three types of reasoning.)

Knowing in the discipline of mathematics is characterised by abstract thought, and by elegant proofs, peer reviewed by knowledgeable mathematicians in the particular subeld. Knowing in school mathematics is characterised

by performance on tasks whose answers are generally known in advance. Partial credit may be given for incorrect or

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incomplete answers provided that some semblance of correct working is shown. In the classroom, when the mathematical topic concerned is already in focus, verbal and other communication means may be used to persuade, explain,

convince, etc. the mathematics teacher, and/or one's classmates who share similar mathematics backgrounds. Clearly,

knowledge of the discipline of mathematicsideally acknowledging its historical contexts and its fallibilityand the concepts and techniques required for high stakes assessment are important. In the classroom, practical activities ormore

problematicallythe mostly imaginary, heavily truncated, stories about work and life may be used as aordances to

learning or as motivation. Links to actual contexts are limited, and often transparently unreal to students. Mathematical assessment is likely to be focused on facts, skills, conceptual understandings, reasoning, justication, proof, and

so-called applications to other contexts.

Following Tall (2013), mathematical thinking develops through three worlds of mathematics : (a) the practical

mathematics of shape and number, with experiences in shape, space, and arithmetic (embodied operations) ; (b)

theoretical mathematics with a focus on properties, leading to Euclidean proof and algebra, and denitions based on

known objects and operations ; and (c) formal mathematics, working with properties proved from given axioms and

denitions, and formal objects based on formal denitions. Each world is valuable in its own right. Although invisible in

most workplaces, the logic and mathematical power of formal mathematics underpin technologies of management and

production : for example, extending human capabilities in the realms micro- and nano-technology, extreme speeds,

temperatures, distances, etc. Formal mathematics enables, among other things, predictive modeling and analysis

in business analytics, nancial mathematics, communications and transportation, complex systems, and computer

systems (SIAM, 2012). The more easily visible theoretical mathematics, with its symbolic algebra and geometry, can

be seen in the functioning and design of spreadsheets, three-dimensional machining, and quality control statistics,

for example. Finally, the conceptual embodiment of shape and space, the operational symbolism of arithmetic, with

ubiquitous forms of measurement (formal and informal) are the most easily visible forms of practical mathematics.

The initial preparation of mathematics teachers at all levels generally requires that they have what is ocially

deemed an adequate qualication in mathematics, complemented by relevant qualications in pedagogy in mathematics appropriate to their intended sector of education. Returning to the ve intended outcomes of vocational education,

identied by Lindberg (2003) and listed above, how might these aspects relate to the vocation of mathematics teaching ' In order to make their many and varied situated judgements, often under extreme pressures of time, mathematics

teachers need a working understanding of the intellectual and physical tools (theoretical knowledge bases and technologies) of mathematics and of mathematics education. They also should have knowledge of the materials they are

working with (students, individually and collectively), be able to identify and enact appropriate pedagogical methods

and techniques. As is the case for other professionals, they need to be skilled in planning, including anticipation of their

tasks throughout each day, from the micro scale within each class to the organisation of their own work within their

particular system of education. Finally, they need to develop and rene their own system of ethics, including a respect

for their students' cultures and life experiences ; also being aware of and helping students to consider their possible

futures. All of the teacher's repertoire of generic disciplinary knowledges and site-specic contextual knowledges come

into play as they recontextualise selections from the discipline of mathematics in ways that are (ideally) meaningful

to their students. One valuable outcome would be to enable them not only to be successful in formal assessments but

also to recognise potentially mathematical ways of working to solve novel and evolving problems at work, and then

transform their mathematical knowledge to act in creative and powerful ways.

Many resources of time and money are spent in preparing people to teach mathematics. However, the assumption

underlying most systems of mathematics education is that students will be able to recontextualise their mathematical

knowledge unproblematically in situations outside of the school system. By contrast, the vocational sector is focused

on helping students to integrate the disciplinary knowledge structures with actual current workplace practice and

these knowledge structures. As future workers, students will also need to reconcile a range of apparent contradictions

present in most if not all day-to-day workplace activity.

Nakagawa and Yamamoto (2013) discussed the importance of collaborative work in their account of teams of

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ematicians to take account of the intuition and expertise of industry personnel which enables insights based on careful

observations of phenomena relevant to the current problem. The authors stressed that such insight should be enhanced

by mathematical reasoning. This is followed by bilateral communication where the phenomena are translated into

mathematics and vice versa. This means that the engineers need to understand the real problems on site, express

them in the language of physics, and suggest possible model equations in conversation with the mathematicians. This

forum for communication through the interpretation of phenomena is extremely important in order that engineers

and mathematicians may reach a common understanding of the nature of the problem and the mathematical components (p. 428). For their part, the mathematicians must be able to fully comprehend what the engineers have told

them as contextual knowledge, within the knowledge structure of physics, and then be able to recontextualise that

knowledge within the knowledge structure of mathematics, in what Nakagawa and Yamamoto term a logical path

which, they observe, is enhanced by high levels of communication. In their analysis of the data, the engineers must

make reasonable and quantitative interpretations of [the] observations carried out on-site (p. 428), which the authors

claim is the essence of the phenomena. This is followed by manufacturing theory which is the integration of logical

paths from the viewpoints of operation and economic rationality on site (p. 428). Finally, activation to mathematics

is where the new knowledge needed to solve the novel problems is the motivation for the mathematicians to launch

(globally) new mathematics research elds. Nakagawa and Yamamoto stressed the importance of mathematicians and

engineers from academic and industrial elds being able to thoroughly discuss the phenomena in question, dening

suitable targets and milestones throughout the project, and mutually conrming their work progress. Such valuable

teamwork requires considerable eort by each person to improve their own personal qualication to show that they

are the right person to work in this role under these conditions. In other words, professional mathematicians need

to be able to recontextualise their existing mathematical knowledge and create new knowledge, while exercising their

personal and communicative skills to the utmost. That is, mathematicians draw on both epistemic and social and cultural knowledges. I argue that other workers must also do the same when they recontextualise their own mathematical

knowledge to solve problems at work. How do vocational students enrolled in applied science programs learn how to

recontextualise their mathematical and statistical knowledges ?

In the Netherlands, vocational education for upper secondary students takes place both at work and at school.

Bakker and Akkerman (2014) adopted a boundary crossing approach in order to assist vocational laboratory technician

students to integrate the mathematics and statistics learned at school with work-related knowledge. Their intervention

involved three vocational students, their regular teacher, and two supervisors from a hospital laboratory. The topic

was method comparison, which makes considerable use of statistics and is commonly used in clinical chemistry. The

focus of the project was to test the stability of measurement machines and the reproducibility of the measurement

method. This context of hospital laboratory testing clearly has potential life and death implications for the patients

concerned, and serious consequences for all the professional and para-professional sta involved in the process. The

authors characterised their boundary crossing approach by three related principles.

1. In order to assist students to reect on their existing knowledge, as the basis for being able to transform it in

the workplace, the researchers encouraged students to formulate questions, ask them at the workplace, and then

report the responses back at school.

2. The research promoted the active involvement and engagement of the vocational mathematics teacher and the

hospital supervisors, who took part in a school meeting, supporting the students to integrate their school and

workplace knowledges ; this collaboration also benetted both the teaching and hospital sta.

3. The research made use of a previous student's (school) report on this method comparison project as a central

boundary object (see, e.g., Akkerman & Bakker, 2011), which had the advantages that the supervisors were

already familiar with this report and the current students could use it as a model for what was expected of them

in their assessment.

Bakker and Akkerman (2014) made several observations about this research. First, that it helped the students

to become more aware of the distribution of knowledge in the workplace, which is particularly important for novice

workers as they learn how to nd answers to their questions and from whom. The interactions between supervisors and

teachers also led to improved communications, leading to deeper understandings on both sides through, for example,

discussions on the curriculum and textbooks, and suggestions for regional meetings between the two groups. Second,

that the boundary crossing approach is only one way to promote integration of dierent types of knowledge, and

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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other approaches with similar goals, such as that of Hahn (2014,) where Masters business studies students engaged

in a simulation of statistically-based decision making, are possible. Third, that such collaborative work, conducted

between mathematics teachers and teachers of practical subjects, could be possible in general education. Fourth, that

this study is an illustration of workplace knowledge that is highly codied, explicit, and decontextualised. Or, in

Bernstein's (2000) terms, part of a vertical discourse. Finally, reasoning of various kinds is crucial in the workplace,

and Bakker and Akkerman stressed that vocational students across dierent sectors need to learn to reason within a

web of dierent types of knowledge, such as practical, mathematical, and statistical.

Discussion

In the workplace, many people use mathematical thinking, reasoning, calculations, etc. unremarked by themselves

or others, on an everyday basis as a normal part of their activities. Mathematics is rarely visible because it is just

one of many options for addressing the task at hand, and not the goal as in school. It is also hidden or crystallised in

the ubiquitous use of technology (electronic & traditional) in contemporary workplaces. For the most part, workplace

mathematics does not look like school mathematics but it must be eective and accurate within the context and

parameters of the particular situation, even as new unforeseen events unfold. Mistakes can be catastrophic (FitzSimons,

2014b). Workplace mathematics research (Bjrklund Boistrup & Gustafsson, 2014 ; Johansson, 2014) demonstrates how

workers in nursing/caring and transportation recontextualise conceptual mathematical ideas in ways that maintain

delity to the discipline, while at the same time meeting the contextual exigencies of practice, which very often

involve time and money constraints. On the surface, the mathematics observed does not in any way resemble school

mathematics. However, these workers have successfully recontextualised and transformed their formal mathematical

knowledge together with their extensive practical experience to achieve their goals of satisfactory outcomes for patients,

customers, and management in their respective sites. What are the implications for vocational and school mathematics

education's What are the implications for mathematics teachers ?

Research by LaCroix (2014) showed that young adults returning to study in order to qualify for a metal trades

apprenticeship had little diculty in understanding and using the school mathematics required, but often experienced

diculties in recontextualising that mathematics in the specic trade context of the problems they were asked to solve

in the mathematics classroom. One possible reason is that the mathematics instruction was conducted prior to the

practical trade instruction, and the students were unaware of the practicalities in working from actual specications,

and in using artefacts and other aordances typically used on the job. In other words, they could not recontextualise the

conceptual mathematics in the vocational contextual context, since the latter had not yet been developed. In LaCroix's

study, supporting this recontextualising and integration of knowledge fell to the mathematics teachers and remedial

teachers after the students experienced problems, rather than being addressed at the curriculum development stage.

The same problem often occurs for vocational mathematics teachers who have no relevant industrial experience and

lack appropriate contextual knowledge. They are thus unable to assist their students to recontextualise and transform

their own knowledges.

The examples of the Japanese professional mathematicians and the Dutch vocational laboratory technician students

suggest that conscious reection by teachers and students, along with practical experience of using mathematics in

widely varying real contexts drawn from students' other studies or life experience (not just dierent words in a textbook

problem) could assist in this endeavour. As in the workplace, this requires a respectful attitude towards other disciplines

or actual contexts with a sincere determination to understand perspectives other than the mathematical. Just as

intending mathematics teachers require specialised preparation to recontextualise mathematics for their prospective

students, students at all levels also need this support from mathematics education to enable them to appropriate and

transform their own mathematical knowledge at work.

Teachers' goals are to enculturate their students into aspects of the discipline of mathematics, situated within

Tall's (2013) three worlds of practical, theoretical, and formal mathematics. Following Bernstein (2000), teachers'

aims are to recontextualise selections from the discipline : to relocate, refocus and relate other discourses to constitute

what is known as school mathematics. In their day-to-day acts of recontextualisation, teachers use the physical and

intellectual cognitive resources at their disposal (epistemic knowledge), along with the social and cultural knowledges

specic to their particular teaching situation. These recontextualisation skills require teachers to develop three kinds of

inter-related knowledges and understandings : of the individual student and their particular needs (evaluation, in Bernstein's terminology), pedagogic discourse (recontextualisation), and the school system, including ocially mandated

assessment requirements (knowledge distribution).

However, a major issue is that, outside of the school system, most people are required to collaborate with others

Chapitre 3

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who are not specically focused on the mathematics. This would require a radical change to the predominant approach to mathematics education : (a) at all levels of school and university mathematics teaching, (b) in initial and

continuing mathematics teacher education, and (c) in the institutional organisation of and meetings between academic

mathematics educators. It would require a massive broadening from the generally inwards focus on the mathematics

important as that isto extend to serious and respectful interactions, if not collaborations, with other members of

the community who play signicant roles for the future development and well being of current students in every sector

of education.

Conclusion

Doing mathematics at work is necessarily a multi-disciplinary or polycontextual activity. This paper has addressed

the question of how mathematics knowledge is recontextualised at work and in vocational mathematics education to

ensure the availability of valuable and relevant knowledge in students' workplace practices. Curriculum selection, pedagogy, and assessment (from classroom to international tests) should be informed by nuanced, theoretically well-founded,

sociocultural and cognitive research into contemporary workplace mathematics, and this requires a determination to

look beyond the discipline of mathematics and current structures of the institution of education.

Students in mathematics classrooms, especially but not only, at the post-compulsory level, need to develop an

understanding of the problems of recontextualisation that may occur in a multi-disciplinary environment. This is

particularly important where there are diering, and often competing, kinds of knowledge structure to be resolved.

However, the papers presented at CIEAEM 66 have illustrated that very young children are also well able to work

in an inter-disciplinary context : In fact, this appears to be the most natural way for them to learn mathematics.

The teaching of mathematics at all levels should take seriously the problem of recontextualisation to help students

integrate meanings across dierent mathematical subelds and in a variety of actual contexts. The fact that so many

mathematically well-educated people have diculty in seeing the mathematics at work is not an indication that there

is no no mathematics being done. Rather, it is a strong indication of the disconnection between mathematics at school

and the world beyond. One way to overcome this problem is to extend formal mathematics education to include a

focus on the skills of recontextualisation. An obvious way to work towards this goal is to ensure that students (and

their mathematics teachers) gain experience in working respectfully in a multi-disciplinary way, within the and beyond

school gates.

This article is written as part of the research project Adults' Mathematics : In Work and for School, awarded to

Prof. Tine Wedege and led by Lisa Bjrklund Boistrup, supported by the Swedish Research Council, 2011-2014. Many

thanks to Lisa for her helpful comments on an earlier version.

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Akkerman, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary crossing and boundary objects.

81,132-169.

Bakker, A., & Akkerman, S. F. (2014). A boundary-crossing approach to support students' integration of statistical

and work-related knowledge. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86, 223-237

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity : Theory, research, critique (Rev. ed.). Lanham, MD :

Rowman & Littleeld.

Bjrklund Boistrup, L. & Gustafsson, L. (2014). Construing mathematics-containing activities in adults' workplace competences : Analysis of institutional and multimodal aspects. Adults Learning Mathematics-An International

Journal, 9 (1), 7-23.

Ellstrm, P.-E. (2010). Practice-based innovation : A learning perspective. Journal of Workplace Learning, 22,

27-40.

FitzSimons, G. E. (2002). What counts as mathematics' Technologies of power in adult and vocational education.

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FitzSimons, G. E. (2008). Mathematics and numeracy : Divergence and convergence in education and work. In C.

H. Jrgensen, & V. Aakrog (Eds.) Convergence and Divergence in Education and Work. Studies in Vocational and

Continuing Education series, vol. 6 (pp. 197-217). Zurich : Peter Lang AG.

FitzSimons, G. E. (2010). Lifelong learning : Theoretical and practical perspectives on adult numeracy and vocational

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FitzSimons, G. E. (2013). Doing mathematics in the workplace : A brief review of selected literature. Adults

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in Didattica (Mathematics) (QRDM),23(2), 68-77.

Hahn, C. (2014). Linking academic knowledge and professional experience in using statistics : A design experiment

for business school students. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86, 239-251.

Holton, D., Stacey, K., & FitzSimons, G. (2012). Reasoning : A dog's tale. The Australian Mathematics Teacher,

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LaCroix, L. (2014). Learning to see pipes mathematically : Preapprentices' mathematical activity in pipe trades

training. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 86, 157-176.

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Learning Mathematics'An International Journal, 8 (1),

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Michle Gandit, Christine Kazantsev, Hubert Proal, Dominique Spehner

IREM de Grenoble, Universit de Grenoble, France

Rsum : Ce texte prsente une ingnierie didactique sur deux sujets d'astronomie, les satellites de Jupiter et la rtrogradation de Mars,

qui s'adresse, sous des versions adaptes, aux lves de Seconde (15-16 ans) ou aux tudiants en master Enseignement des mathmatiques.

Il s'agit d'engager une rexion sur la modlisation et la simulation, mais aussi sur les acquisitions des lves ou des tudiants, amens

faire des mathmatiques dans un contexte inhabituel, situ la fois en mathmatiques et en sciences physiques.

Abstract : We propose a teacher education engineering about astronomy : the four largest satellites of Jupiter and the downgrading

teachers. The main targeted competency is modeling real world situations. An important goal is to engage the students in making sense of

mathematics (and physics) in a dierent framework.

Ds et enjeux

Concernant l'enseignement actuel des mathmatiques en France, Andler (2014), s'appuyant sur les rsultats des

tudes PISA 2012 (OCDE, 2014), relve comme problmes majeurs de notre enseignement, d'une part, le manque

de sens [qu'il porte] au del de l'acquisition de techniques , d'autre part, le fait que sa philosophie privilgie [. . .] la

reproduction plutt que le dveloppement de l'autonomie des lves .

Des changements importants, relativement l'enseignement des sciences, sont pourtant dj intervenus dans les

programmes actuels du collge et du lyce, faisant suite aux prcdents rsultats d'tudes PISA (OCDE, 2006) et au

rapport Rocard & al (2007). Celui-ci mettait dj en avant la ncessit de renouveler l'enseignement des sciences

l'Ecole, en le fondant sur la pratique par les lves de dmarches d'investigation. Plusieurs recherches ont dj eu lieu,

concernant la formation des enseignants des disciplines scientiques sur ce point (Gandit & al, 2011 ; 2013 ; Triquet &

al, 2012) et d'autres sont en cours.

Ces programmes achent des ambitions en ce qui concerne l'initiation des collgiens ou des lycens des pratiques

de modlisation mathmatique ou de simulation numrique. Ainsi, le B.O.E.N. n6, du 28/08/2008, cite (p. 4) : Les

mathmatiques fournissent des outils puissants pour modliser des phnomnes et anticiper des rsultats, en particulier

dans le domaine des sciences exprimentales et de la technologie . Plus prcisment, ces ambitions se donnent voir,

entre autres, dans les contenus enseigner, tels que la statistique et les probabilits, mais aussi dans les dispositifs mis

en place, tel que l'enseignement d'exploration Mthodes et Pratiques Scientiques (MPS) en Seconde ou la description

de la troisime comptence du Socle Commun en n de collge. L'enseignement MPS (B.O. spcial n 4 du 29 avril

2010) a pour objectif d'initier les lves la pratique scientique - interdisciplinaire - dans le cadre d'un projet, sans

obligation de traiter des contenus imposs ; les comptences et qualits valoriser dans ce cadre sont l'autonomie,

l'initiative, l'engagement dans une dmarche scientique, le travail d'quipe, le raisonnement et la communication

crite et orale .

Nanmoins, malgr cette volont institutionnelle ache et les recherches menes en ducation, la formation actuelle

des enseignants et des tudiants des masters enseignement prend encore peu en charge les questions lies la modlisation et la pratique interdisciplinaire.

Ce texte, ainsi que l'atelier qu'il prsente, se situent la fois dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche, soutenu

nancirement par la Rgion Rhne-Alpes et dans celui du travail du groupe MPS de l'IREM de Grenoble, convergeant

tous deux vers la mise en uvre en classe d'une pratique scientique, incluant la modlisation.

Nous prsentons une ingnierie didactique destination d'lves de Seconde (15 ans), dans le cadre de l'enseignement

d'exploration MPS et, dans une seconde version, destination d'tudiants en premire anne de master Mtiers de

l'Enseignement, de l'Education et de la Formation (parcours mathmatiques) dans le cadre d'une Unit d'Enseignement

(UE) intitule modlisation. Cette UE est constitue de deux modules de 30 heures, l'un traite essentiellement des

contenus des programmes des classes de terminale, surtout sur le thme des probabilits et statistiques, le second aborde

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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une rexion didactique sur la modlisation par l'tude de problmes, ancrs dans le rel : des manipulations (non

informatiques) sont demandes au dpart, il est possible de mettre en uvre ces problmes en classe, leur traitement

passe par une utilisation de logiciels.

Partant d'une tude des dirents modles du monde proposs au cours des sicles, nous avons labor une suite de

situations de recherche pour les lves (nous dsignerons par ce terme aussi bien les lves de lyce que les tudiants de

master), portant en particulier sur les satellites de Jupiter - tude l'appui de textes historiques de Peiresc et Galile

- ainsi que sur la rtrogradation de Mars - explique pareillement par les deux modles hliocentrique et gocentrique.

Ceci conduit questionner les lves sur la ncessit de modliser, le choix des hypothses de construction d'un modle,

les qualits demandes un modle (simplicit, exactitude) et l'intrt de conserver parfois un modle trs loign de

la ralit, mais simple, si les rsultats qu'il donne sont acceptables.

Depuis l'Antiquit jusqu'au XXme sicle, les astronomes ont d imaginer des stratagmes ingnieux pour dterminer certaines distances astronomiques, de manire indirecte, partir de l'observation du ciel l'il nu ou avec des

lunettes, des tlescopes. Cette ingnierie, en deux parties, propose aux lves de retrouver certains de ces stratagmes

ou mthodes utiliss par les astronomes anciens. La seconde partie, sur la rtrogradation de Mars, ne s'adresse qu'aux

tudiants en master.

Nous ne donnons ci-dessous que quelques lments de l'analyse pralable de cette ingnierie, faute de place.

Cette partie de l'ingnierie se dcompose en quatre phases.

L'objectif de la premire phase est de dcrire le mouvement apparent, vu depuis la Terre, des quatre satellites

de Jupiter - Io, Europe, Ganimde et Callisto - pour ensuite dboucher sur un modle permettant de reprsenter ce

mouvement. Une introduction historique reprenant les observations ralises par Peiresc en 1611 permet une premire

rexion sur la nature des relevs et leur utilisation possible. Les premires conceptions (Robardet & Guillaud, 1997)

peuvent ainsi merger sur le mouvement de ces satellites. On demande ensuite de reproduire ces observations aux mmes

dates et heures que Peiresc en utilisant un logiciel de simulation astronomique (plantarium virtuel), Stellarium. Une

question se pose, laquelle Stellarium semble avoir rpondu : comment prdire la position de ces satellites un instant

donn ? Les tracs eectus par Peiresc, sur ses relevs sur papier quadrill, laissent deviner une courbe qui relie les

direntes positions de chaque satellite par rapport Jupiter. Ces courbes peuvent-elles tre traces par nos moyens

informatiques modernes '

La conjecture que chacune de ces courbes est une sinusode rsulte assez facilement des documents tablis par

Peiresc, en 1611 ou par Galile en 1613 (Brmond, 2010). Il reste cependant dterminer comment tracer de telles

sinusodes, autrement dit, comment dterminer les paramtres qui dterminent leur forme. C'est le dbut de la deuxime

phase. Ce modle hypothtique, selon la dnomination utilise par Robardet et Guillaud (ibid., p. 127), qui a de

fortes chances d'apparatre avec des tudiants en master, pourra ensuite tre valid implicitement (Johsua & Johsua,

1987) par utilisation de Stellarium. Cependant, avec des lves de Seconde, il est ncessaire de travailler auparavant

l'objet sinusode. Cette tude peut se faire exprimentalement, par utilisation d'un logiciel qui permet de reprsenter

graphiquement la fonction qui tout nombre rel x associe a.sin(x+), en faisant varier les paramtres a (amplitude,

qui est une longueur), (pulsation, qui se mesure en radians par seconde et a donc une dimension qui est l'inverse d'un

temps) et (la phase, qui s'exprime en radians). Nous utiliserons le logiciel Xcas , qui permet la cration de curseurs

destins faire varier ces paramtres. Une fois travaille graphiquement cette famille de fonctions - notamment le rle

des paramtres dans la forme de la sinusode - il faut tablir un lien entre a, , , x et les grandeurs variables dans

le phnomne tudi. Les investigations s'appuient sur des outils de natures direntes, tels que les documents tablis

par Peiresc (ou Galile), le logiciel Stellarium, un logiciel de calcul formel multifonction tel que Xcas (ou GeoGebra)

(disposant d'un tableur et d'un grapheur). Cette deuxime phase se termine par la reprsentation graphique, pour

chaque satellite de Jupiter, de la fonction du temps qui reprsente l'loignement du satellite par rapport Jupiter

( un coecient de proportionnalit prs) et la validation de ce modle par le placement de points obtenus grce

Stellarium.

A partir du relev des rayons des trajectoires et priodes trouves pour chaque satellite, la troisime phase dbute

par la question de savoir s'il existe une relation entre le rayon R et la priode T . Ces valeurs, dtermines exprimentalement, uctuent suivant les lves ; on peut proposer de faire une moyenne, aprs avoir cart les valeurs aberrantes.

Il s'agit alors d'analyser les rsultats exprimentaux pour vrier l'existence d'une relation entre R et T (la troisime

3

loi de Kpler : R

T 2 =constante). Le modle est ici postul ; il n'est pas tabli exprimentalement (ibid., 1987). C'est l'observation et la manipulation des nombres qui sont ici vises, en mathmatiques. Un dbat sur le choix d'une mthode

Chapitre 3

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permet de montrer l'intrt d'utiliser un tableur pour retrouver, de faon mthodique, une relation de proportionnalit

entre une puissance de R (d'exposant dterminer) et une puissance de T (d'exposant dterminer aussi). Cette phase

s'achve sur le prolongement donner ce travail, les questions souleves : la vrication de cette loi avec d'autres

plantes, l'tablissement de cette loi par analyse dimensionnelle, la question de la valeur de la constante (est-elle la

mme pour toutes les plantes et leurs satellites '), l'adquation de ce modle au rel. . .

La quatrime phase est constitue de la communication scientique relative cette tude, qui permet une valuation

de cette premire partie de l'ingnierie. Il est demand chaque lve de construire - et de prsenter - destination

d'un public extrieur la classe, une partie d'un expos cohrent sur l'tude ralise, les mthodes employes, les

rsultats obtenus, les questions qui restent poses. Avec les tudiants de master, cette phase se complte d'une rexion

sur l'aspect didactique portant sur la dvolution du problme (Brousseau, 1985), la dsignation du phnomne, la

transmission du modle et sa validation qui demeure implicite (ibid., 1987), dans notre cas, puisque l'on s'est content de

vrier la correspondance du modle avec quelques expriences. Pour qu'elle devienne explicite, la validation opratoire

doit se faire partir d'un dbat sur plusieurs modlisations plausibles (ibid., 1987). Ce dernier point constitue l'objectif

vis dans la deuxime partie de l'ingnierie.

La rtrogradation de Mars

Le phnomne de la rtrogradation de Mars est prsent aux lves, de mme que les deux modles, hliocentrique

et gocentrique, dans un contexte historique. La question pose est de savoir si ces deux modles peuvent expliquer

le mouvement de rtrogradation de Mars. Les tudiants doivent concevoir une activit de classe, de niveau collge

(Grauss & Billard, 2005) pour faire comprendre le mouvement apparent rtrograde de Mars. De la rponse oui

la question prcdente, il s'ensuit une rexion sur la validation d'un modle (Danielson & Graney, 2014).

Conclusion

Au moment de l'criture de ce texte, cette ingnierie n'a pas encore t exprimente dans ces versions. Des versions

antrieures (Gandit & al, 2014), mises en uvre avec des lves de Seconde, ont amen diverses modications.

L'exprimentation est en cours actuellement en Seconde (3 groupes de 22 lves, enseignant expriment, 6 sances) et

aura lieu mi-avril en master (24 tudiants, enseignante exprimente, 8 heures). Des enregistrements vido des sances

seront raliss, notamment avec les tudiants. Des lments d'analyse seront proposs au cours de ce colloque. Ils

devraient montrer la dicult des tudiants mobiliser des concepts mathmatiques, ds lors que ceux-ci ne sont pas

points dans la tche, mais aussi la matrise accrue de ces concepts par le fait que ceux-ci sont rencontrs dans un

contexte inhabituel et servent traiter un problme ancr dans le rel. C'est en eet l'hypothse que nous cherchons

tester, nous appuyant sur d'autres enseignements dj eectus, dans un contexte interdisciplinaire.

Comme nous l'avons vu, les prconisations ocielles, tant europennes que nationales, lancent un d extrmement

ambitieux qui consiste s'appuyer sur la modlisation pour comprendre et agir sur le monde qui nous entoure, tout en

alimentant une dmarche mathmatique. Pour que celle-ci ne soit pas creuse, il faut une collaboration des dirents

acteurs, des direntes disciplines an de former les enseignants la comprhension scientique des problmes, des

modles et de la modlisation. C'est un des objectifs du projet soutenu par la Rgion (que nous avons voqu). Il est

ncessaire que cet objectif s'inscrive fermement dans le projet des Ecoles Suprieures du Professorat et de l'Education.

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NOW : A Renewed Pedagogy for the Future of Europe. Retrieved March 2010, from http ://ec.europa.eu/research/sciencesociety/document_library/pdf_06/report-rocard-on-science-education_fr.pdf, consult le 27 janvier 2014.

Triquet, E., Gandit, M., Guillaud, J.-C. (2012) Dmarches scientiques, dmarches d'investigation en sciences

exprimentales et en mathmatiques : volution des reprsentations d'enseignants dbutants de l'IUFM l'issue de

la formation. In B. Calmettes (Ed.), Dmarches d'investigation : rfrences, reprsentations, pratiques et formation,

84-111. L'Harmattan.

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Kjellrun Hiis Hauge

Bergen University College, Norway

abstract : Risks are an intrinsic element in modern society and are frequently debated. Decisions on risks are often based on risk

assessments, where impacts of unfortunate events are quantied together with their probabilities. Such assessments give the impression of

controlling the uncertainty of unpredictable futures, while simplications and assumptions may turn assessments irrelevant for complex risk

issues. Critical citizenship thus benets from understanding characteristics of societal risks and of the associated mathematized assessments.

In this paper I investigate students' informal knowledge related to risk when 50 students in lower secondary school (13-14 year olds) discuss

whether their local oshore area should be opened to petroleum exploitation. The students express insight in conicting values, the

complexity of the problem and that certain features of the future cannot be known or are associated with stochasticity. I discuss the

signicance of their capabilities for critical citizenship and how such discussions can facilitate understanding the limitations of quantied

risks

Introduction

Risks (social, economic, environmental, etc.) are an intrinsic element in modern society, and they are unpredictable

and uncontrollable (Beck, 1992). Dening whether a certain risk is may vary considerable from one person to another.

Furthermore, risk assessments are necessarily based on simplications and assumptions when risk issues are complex,

implying that the assessment is uncertain itself. Decisions on risks are therefore often a mix of (uncertain) facts and

socio-political values (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993). Yet, risk is often dealt with as a techno-economic problem with

an appearance of objective quantities. Public hearings on risk issues are quite common to make decision processes

democratic. This means that critical citizenship requires recognition of such attributes to mathematized knowledge.

The decision on whether to open the Lofoten area in northern Norway to oshore petroleum exploitation is an

example of a complex and political contagious risk issue. The area is known for its stunning beauty, its rich marine

fauna and the thousand year old tradition of drying cod for international trade. The oshore area also contains promising petroleum reservoirs. There have been public hearings on expert reports on possible consequences of petroleum

production in the area, including impact assessments on the environment, tourism and local development. Yet, reports

have been criticized to lack transparency regarding uncertainty in assessments (Blanchard et al., 2013 ; Hauge et al.,

2013), and the process for being based too much on expert knowledge and less on local knowledge and social values

(Blanchard et al., 2013). The translation of petroleum related risks to mathematically expressed statements is argued

to inuence what is considered relevant to discuss, both among experts and in the public, repressing relevant aspects of

the inherent risk (Hauge et al., 2013). An engineers' approach to risk assessment is normally related to a cost-benet

analysis to balance a company's monetary risk and the workers safety, while the same approach may not be that

relevant for decisions when other sorts of values are included, e.g. the iconic value of Lofoten.

The philosophy of post-normal science embraces the idea that uncertainty and values should be put to the centre of

societal debates when issues are complex, facts are in dispute and values are conicting (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993).

Funtowicz and Ravetz (1993) argue that situations with these characteristics, as the Lofoten case, are socio-political

and ethical issues rather than problems which scientists can solve alone. Decision making process should therefore

include citizens. These ideas resonate with ideas from critical mathematics education. One is that mathematics has a

formatting power in society (Skovsmose, 1992). Another is a democracy's need for critical citizenship and citizens'

ability to reect on the use of mathematics in society (Skovsmose, 1992 ; Snchez Aguilar & Molina Zavaleta, 2012).

A common perspective is that experts and non-experts (or teachers and students) can learn from each other, and that

conicting views and values should be respected (Snchez Aguilar & Molina Zavaleta, 2012 ; Vithal, 2012 ; Funtowicz

& Ravetz, 1993).

There are several documented examples where classroom situations have been created in order to facilitate mathematical reections of socio-political issues (see for example Gutstein, 2013 ; Varley Gutirrez, 2013 ; Barbosa 2006).

These examples have in common that the students were able to perform relevant computations to develop valid mathematical arguments. Risk issues are often too complex for students to develop alternative mathematical approaches

to a risk assessment that can pinpoint socio-political consequences of assessed risks. In such cases I have argued that

critical citizenship would benet from recognising central characteristics and consequences of mathematized risk, in

accordance with post-normal science (Hauge, 2013).

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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This paper presents ndings on students' capabilities related to reective knowing that we nd important for

understanding complexity, uncertainty and conicting values associated with a risk issue. A research team visited

Lofoten and set the stage for two classes to discuss oil exploitation in their local area. Although these students had not

worked on the petroleum issue in school, the vigorous debate in their everyday surroundings had given them background

experiences. This paper focuses on and discusses how students express informal knowledge and capabilities related to

risk and the signicance of their capabilities for critical citizenship.

Method

A research team from Bergen University College set the stage for discussing petroleum production among 50

lower secondary school students (13-14 year olds) in Lofoten. Their teachers were invited to collaborate on developing

activities and planning the school day, but they limited their input to suggesting aspects of the teaching material.

Scenario-based tools (van Notten et al., 2005) were used to catalyse discussion. Three anticipated future scenarios

were given to the students : 1) full oil exploitation in Lofoten, 2) oil exploitation prohibited and 3) oil exploitation step

by step. Each scenario was presented on a sheet of paper with three headlines, representing three key aspects of the

public debate : Fisheries, Economy, Nature and Culture. Under each headline we put one or two keywords/questions,

depending on the scenario, for example : more jobs, or oil drilling on shing grounds ? These keywords/questions

were intended to spark ideas and at the same time invite the students to contribute with their own ideas and issues.

The students rst worked in groups developing arguments defending or challenging their scenario and adding aspects.

The data used for this analysis are the audio-taped plenary discussion (1.5 hours) following the group session. The

names in the excerpts are not their real names.

The methodological stance is inspired by critical mathematics education and the philosophy of post-normal science

(Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993). The analysis focuses on complexity, uncertainty and conicting values, as these are

regarded as key attributes to risk issues. A complex system is here dened as a system with many components where

there also is a rich pattern of interconnections between the components. The Lofoten area, with its nature, inhabitants

and human activities is a complex system.

The literature on post-normal science emphasizes important interdependencies between uncertainty, complexity

and conicting values (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). The predictability of a complex system is limited since claims

about interconnections will be associated with uncertainty. Also, the higher the stakes of the conicting values are,

the more important becomes the uncertainty. If there were no conicting benets in a policy decision, the associated

uncertainty to the knowledge base would be insignicant. As these are essential attributes to quantied risks, they are

also essential for mathematics education dealing with real world problems.

The analysis is based on adapted grounded theory, where the intention of the analysis was to see how the data

reects complexity, uncertainty and values related to the risk issue, but where the categories for these were decided after

a look at the data. The categories used for the analysis are the following. Uncertainty is categorised through explicit

and implicit uncertainty. The rst refers to expressions which include statistical concepts or everyday concepts for

uncertainty. The second refers to disagreements on facts or their interpretation during the discussion. Characteristics

of expressed uncertainty are also interesting to include in the analysis, for example whether it refers to stochasticity

or uncontrollable uncertainty. Complexity is distinguished between explicit complexity and implicit complexity. The

rst denotes a situation where a student explicitly refers to the complexity of the system. The second denotes a

situation where the students' response to each other's arguments together reveals a rich pattern of interconnectedness.

Conicting values are distinguished between the benet (or value) of concern and arguments that either suggest values

in conict or whether they are compatible values.

Analysis

In the following, excerpts from the plenary discussion are presented. The above categories are used to get insight

in how the students recognise and cope with uncertainty, complexity and conicting values.

The rst excerpt is from the very beginning of the plenary discussion, after the students have been working in

groups with dierent scenarios and just after the research team has provides information on how to proceed with the

plenary discussion. For clarication : Scenario A refers to full petroleum exploitation. Excerpt parts are deleted where

one of the researchers (mostly myself) I more or less repeat the last student or ask whether there are other opinions

on the issue an. The skipped parts are marked with .

Chapitre 3

Lyon

1 Tom :

2 Roy :

3 Roy :

4 Kjellrun :

5 Roy :

6 Melissa :

7 Anne :

8 Joe :

9 Anne :

10 Mary :

11

12

13

14

15

Kjellrun :

Mary :

Kjellrun :

Mary :

116

Yes. We have scenario A. We support full oil exploitation in Lofoten. The economic. To. Economic

sustainable development. More job opportunities mean more revenue. And it's like, the more oil

drilling here in Lofoten, the more people and residents will come, and then we need to expand.

And that will cost money, so we get the revenue. And yes, it's, well.

We also have scenario A. And we've concluded that there also will be an increased oil spill contingency.

Because, right now, if there would be an oil spill, then we're not. We're pretty much well placed,

but we're not totally cool.

Yes. Are you thinking about something else than oil exploitation ?

Yes, also if it's, the probability is very low, but if a boat goes ashore, and the oil is spilled, then

it's good to have a somewhat increased oil spill contingency.

There will be job opportunities, but in the end we will run out of oil, so it isn't very sustainable.

Eventually it's over. And then we lose the jobs again. So, yes, you get jobs for a while. But it ends,

and then it's not so sustainable over time.

It was just that we agreed that there would be more people, and that there would be more jobs

and income and stu. But then, it's also. It's sustainable, you know, but I agree that it's going to

end, eventually, but that will take a while, you know, before it happens.

I think that if the job opportunities end, then I think we would go for more tourism, and that we

would spend the income on getting more shopping malls, parks, things that bring the tourists here.

[Inaudible. A student speaks, who has not given permission to tape him.]

In my opinion, we could rather. Oil installations, rather subsea installations, then they won't show

as much, and that would be better, if you don't see it. And then it may not be as damaging.

The sh may be frightened o, and tourism may decline. And the sheries may be aected, sort

of.

Can you say something about why tourism will decline ?

No, we haven't discussed it very much, I think. I don't really. It's sort ofBut you can think of something yourself, you know.

Yeah. Actually, I don't really know.

Roy :

I do. Most of the tourists come to [the students' hometown] because, you know, they want to view

the scenery, and the sh. But, if we assume scenario A, it will be crowded with oil platforms out

there, and if we then go to [the students' hometown] and, sort of, see how it looks here, then the

oil platforms are likely the rst thing we see. News on the debates, and how it ended up. And there

won't be many who will come to see the oil platforms. . . Yeah.

The very rst benet addressed in the classroom discussion is the job opportunities, as Tom expresses that more

job opportunities means more revenue. It is not clear what the signicance of revenue is. It might be the prosperity

of the individual worker, but since he refers to more people, the necessity to expand and therefore we will get

the revenue, it suggests that he sees the resulting tax income as a support to the development of his hometown.

Roy adds another value to opening the area to petroleum exploitation : [. . . ] that there also will be an increased oil

spill contingency. Roy's arguments (input 2, 3 and 5) can be interpreted as references to pristine waters as a value.

Although Roy doesn't spell it out, he may also be concerned about the Lofoten coastline when he says We're pretty

much well placed, but we're not totally cool.

Melissa (6) expresses the rst conicting view. She may see job opportunities as a value, but when she states that

there will be no more oil and then we lose the jobs again she expresses a disagreement to whether the limited time

frame for jobs can be regarded as a benet. Anne (7) then expresses that she partly agrees, but she seem to argue

that the time frame is still worth it : that will take some time before it ends. Joe (8) responds to Melissa and Anne

by suggesting that the tax income from the oil industry could be used to generate new work places within tourism :

we would spend the income on getting more shopping malls, parks, things that bring the tourists here. Joe presents

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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117

tourism as a value and argues that the oil industry can be of support to tourism. His argument indicates that there is

no value conict between the oil industry and job opportunities in other sectors.

Anne (9) supports the idea that there is no conict between an oil industry and tourism, but from another angle :

that since the subsea installations won't show as much, they won't harm tourism. The scenery is thus implicitly

expressed as a value for tourism. However, Mary (10) adds a perspective supporting that there is a conict between

oil exploitation and tourism, and she introduces the sheries as a value at stake : The sh may be frightened o, and

tourism may decline. And the sheries may be aected. Roy (15) explains the present values for tourism : they want

to view the scenery and the sh, but that these values are at stake because of oil platforms.

The main values presented in this excerpt are the job opportunities provided by the oil industry, tourism or sheries.

Implicitly the value of job opportunities is connected to the development of the area. They all seem to acknowledge

tourism as a value for their hometown. Some students express a conict between sectors, while others argue that

there is no conict. This disagreement is an implicit expression of uncertainty about impacts of an oil industry. Roy

(5) makes explicit uncertainty statements related to oil spills and stochasticity : if there would be an oil spill and

the probability is very low. Another implicit uncertainty expression is the disagreement between Melissa (6) and

Anne (7) on whether the time span is signicant for job opportunities in the area. The excerpt also provides explicit

uncertainty statements in the form of if (3, 5, 8, 9, 15) and may. Mary (10) uses the word may multiple times.

This uncertainty may refer to unknown consequences, either because she herself does not know or because this is

unknowable. Uncertainty can also be linked to the dierent futures and solutions the students may picture : While

Anne (9) talks about subsea installations, Roy (15) may refer to visible platforms.

Several of the above uncertainties can be related to assumptions. When Melissa (6) states that in the end we will

run out of oil she questions the assumption that oil exploitation will be signicant for job opportunities. Anne (7)

defends its signicance, and Joe (8) follows up by suggesting that the tax income from oil exploitation can be used

to generate jobs within tourism. Thereby, both Anne and Joe defend the assumption. Since this disagreement is not

settled, the assumption remains uncertain. Another example of an assumption is when Mary (10) uses may in The

sh may be frightened o. Her concern that tourism may decline. And the sheries may be aected rests on the

assumption that the sh are frightened o.

Throughout the excerpt the students more or less explicitly express viewpoints pro and against petroleum production. The students address several values at stake, which at times are argued to be either compatible or in conict

with each other. They experience that their own arguments can be questioned, implying that they are associated with

uncertainty, and they respond by explaining their arguments in further detail and presenting more layers of values. The

value of tourism can be regarded as one layer, while the specic attributes about Lofoten that tourists value is another

layer of values. This experience is valuable for critical citizenship not only because the students exercise developing

arguments, but also because they experience a typical backdrop of risk assessments : that risks have multiple layers,

that issues are connected and that questions related to risk may be impossible to answer.

In the continuation of the previous excerpt, the students present their arguments in more detail, uncovering new

layers of values.

16 Joe :

I would think that if they stop coming here because of the scenery, they will start

coming because of the town. And that, if we then increase shopping malls and shops,

stu like that, then they would rather come here to visit the town, rather than to

look at the scenery.

17 Melissa :

And then it's possible to have those below the sea surface, but, then someone said,

it was kind of, tourism is not only to watch, they come to sh too, and stu. And

regardless whether we keep them subsea, the sh might be scared o, and stu, and

then we can't do it. And, it's a tourist attraction, to catch sh.

18 Melissa :

Many come to sh. And then, and then there's no point in coming if there's no sh.

19 Lisa :

And when there's, you know, a world championship in the cod sheries, and we have

subsea platforms, then it might not thrive so well, because it is very selective on where

it spawns. And if the machines are in the way, then it will go somewhere else to spawn.

Joe (16) responds to Roy's (15) argument about the platforms aecting the scenery by elaborating his previous

argument (8) by suggesting that shopping malls and shops, those kinds of things could attract tourists instead of

the scenery. Melissa (17) counter argues that tourists come to sh too. Lisa (19) introduces another layer of values

and risks when she argues that the installations may aect the cod's spawning, although she expresses that this is

Chapitre 3

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uncertain : it's not so certain that it will thrive so well. The well-being of the cod and its spawning grounds are here

expressed as values at stake, suggesting that this will aect the sheries.

The students continue to question each other's arguments after these excerpts. For example, Melissa and others

argue that their hometown is too small for attracting tourists who enjoy shopping, while others argue that the shopping

malls are also for making the people in their hometown happy. Their own arguments are also sometimes rened : While

Anne supports the positive impacts of oil exploitation throughout the discussion, she also adds that there is a possibility

that the oil price will decrease so that it prevents the positive eects.

The students continued to discuss o record during the break, and Melissa is the rst speaker when they return :

20 Melissa :

We came up with a point. You talked about getting a shopping mall here. It's the same

thing as if you should remove the Eiel Tower in Paris and rather build a shopping

mall. Then tourism there would drop at once, and the same can happen here. That

if we get big oil installations and a shopping mall, and we only have industry here,

then it will drop here, too.

[several minutes of discussion]

21 Roy :

I think personally, that change is the best for [their hometown] right now. We need

to take a few chances, because now we have lived on sh and dried sh, and tourists,

for many, many years - and we are committed to try, at least ' to try to become a city

- it is a good thing. Maybe people think it's cool. We can- There will be a shopping

mall. And then when you want to go out for a walk, there are still mountains, and

everything else you can go to. It's not like we're going to remove mountains. We're

not going to blast them to create a shopping mall.

Melissa's comparison with the Eiel tower is powerful. She suggests that Lofoten's scenery and pristine nature has

a strong iconic value, which will be harmed if shopping malls are built and industry developed. As a contrast, Roy

aspires to this sort of change. Although he recognizes that people value the mountains, he calls for a new identity for

his hometown when he suggests abandoning tourism and dried sh. He expresses a wish for his hometown to become

a city - a change he associates with a risk he is willing to take. It is likely that he sees this change associated with the

oil industry.

These two statements are perhaps the clearest expressed opposite views on values during the discussion. While

Melissa indicates that she values the past and present Lofoten, perhaps to an extent where she is not willing to take

any risks from oil exploitation, Roy explicitly expresses a willingness to take chances in order to achieve change. In risk

discussions, such viewpoints are crucial for understanding the issue. Quantitative risk assessments may be irrelevant

for people who value something so much that they are not willing to take any chances. On the other hand, people

who wish for a certain change will probably accept a relatively high level of risk. Then there are people who wish

to learn more about the risk issue or wish to scrutinize a mathematized risk assessment because they disagree with

the conclusion. A discussion like the described one can be helpful for achieving insights in values, uncertainty and

complexity that is helpful for these purposes.

In addition to having expressed and responded to each other's arguments related to values and uncertainties, the

students have also experienced complexity of the issue. Each time an argument is rened or an element added, a

new uncertainty is introduced. For example if you cannot see the installations will they aect tourism' Will the sh

spawn other places' Will it thrive ? Will shopping malls attract tourists ? Will the shopping malls be big enough for

tourists ? Who are the shopping malls for ? Later in the discussion the students also question whether their home

town has sucient space for shopping malls or whether mountains or shorelines need to be sacriced. And what about

the bankruptcies in the existing shopping mall, will future shopping malls be possible ? What happens if there is an

oil spill' Will tourism fail' Will sh die ? Will the sheries be aected or will sucient survive ? Will the quality of

sh decline ? Will oil contingency be able to prevent a disaster ? Will oil exploitation provide job opportunities and

the other goods if the oil price decreases ? And later in the discussion, the students started questioning whether oil

exploitation actually would make people move to their hometown.

The students introduced all these elements, which are components of a system of nature and society : sh, scenery,

mountains, tourists, job opportunities, oil prize, shopping malls, oil spills etc. Through arguments and statements, the

students made links between these components, and through counter arguments they introduced uncertainties about

these links. Thus, the discussion as a whole implicitly reects complexity. The discussion provided an arena where

the students together constructed an image of complexity, and the students thereby experienced being exposed to the

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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119

Discussion

Taken together, the students deal with complexity when they picture how petroleum exploitation might change

Lofoten, and their hometown in particular. They link a range of issues together and they associate the majority of

these issues with uncertainty. The students' value questions are explicit or implicit during the whole discussion. They

are quite knowledgeable about the issue and are also able to draw on their local knowledge. One of their teachers

exclaimed after the plenary discussion that We learned a little, too, of how things can be done, not to mention what

lies in these eighth graders. So it has been very good.

I see such discussions as developmental for critical citizenship in several ways. First, the students exercise discussion :

listening to others, waiting for their turn, building and expressing their arguments and responding to others' viewpoints

and statements. Such capabilities are paramount for critical citizenship (Johnsen-Hines & Alr, 2012). The discussion

also provided an arena were conicting views and values were evident, but yet respected, a quality which has been

highlighted in critical mathematics education (Snchez Aguilar & Molina Zavaleta, 2012 ; Vithal, 2012).

Second, they experience that real-world problems can be complex and associated with uncertainty and conicting

values (Funtowicz and Ravetz, 1993). In our case, the students are not familiar with these concepts, but they critically

reect when questioning claims and assumptions and when discussing conicting values. In our opinion, this supports

the students' awareness of what is at stake and why there is disagreement. Introducing the students to the concepts

of uncertainty, complexity and conicting values together with performing a meta-discussion on their own discussion

might have strengthened this awareness.

Third, the public discussion includes controversies over mathematically expressed statements. We did not present

charts or assessments to the students, but I suggest that developing capabilities to recognise uncertainty, complexity and

conicting values are crucial for understanding risk issues. The classroom discussion could function as a preparation for

discussing such characteristics in relation to some mathematically expressed information or statements : what political

decision it supports, who it aects, how the information is useful and how the mathematized problem is limited

due to assumptions and uncertainties (Hauge 2013). In this way, students get acquainted with common attributes

to mathematized information in public debates on risks and how mathematically expressed risk has the power to

format our understanding of the risk issue (Skovsmose, 1992). In addition, such discussions can be used to learn how

mathematical concepts, as for example probability, risk, stochasticity, mean, variance, are used in public debate.

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Lus Menezes*, Vronique Delplancq*, Graa Castanheira**

* Instituto Politcnico de Viseu, ** Escola Bas./Sec. A. Botelho

Rsum : Cette tude se concentre sur une exprience d'enseignement exploratoire des mathmatiques (EEM), ralise avec des lves

de 5me anne, dans laquelle on tablit une forte connexion avec la ralit et on intensie la capacit de communication des lves, tout en

promouvant la rsolution de problmes et le raisonnement mathmatique. Les leons de mathmatiques sont organises en quatre phases :

(i) Lancement de la tche aux lves ; (ii) Dveloppement de la tche ; (iii) Discussion de la tche ; et (iv) Systmatisation de l'apprentissage

mathmatique. An de prparer la discussion de la tche, l'enseignante a mis en

uvre

ont leur premier contact avec les rsolutions de leurs collgues : ils peuvent poser des questions et enregistrer des commentaires dans les

feuilles exposes. Cet article prsente les rsultats d'une leon sur les pourcentages, dans laquelle les lves ont travaill la tche intitule

Rabais au Bit-@-Byte . L'analyse de cette tche ainsi que les rsultats des tches similaires de la ralit eectues tout au long de l'anne

scolaire montrent que le modle d'enseignement exploratoire des mathmatiques (EEM) permet des amliorations dans l'apprentissage des

mathmatiques au niveau des concepts et aussi des capacits transversales comme le raisonnement, la communication et la rsolution de

problmes mathmatiques.

Mots-cls : Enseignement exploratoire des mathmatiques ; communication ; ralit ; tches.

Abstract :

This study focuses on an inquiry-based teaching experience in mathematics, with 5th grade students in which we

have established a strong connection with reality and intensied student's ability to communicate, while promoting problem solving and

mathematical reasoning. Mathematics lessons are organized into four phases : (i) Launching the task for students ; (ii) Development of the

task ; (iii) Discussion of the task ; and (iv) Systematization of mathematical learning. To prepare task discussion, the teacher implements

a gallery of tasks through which students have their rst contact with their colleague's resolutions : they can ask questions and make

comments in the presented sheets. This article presents the results of a lesson on percentages, in which students worked on the task

entitled Discount at Bit- @ - Byte. The analysis of this task and the results of similar tasks of reality made throughout the school year

shows that the inquiry-based teaching allows improvements in mathematics, namely learning concepts and capabilities such as reasoning,

communication and problem solving.

Keywords : Inquiry-based teaching ; communication ; reality ; tasks.

Introduction

La recherche de nouvelles mthodes d'enseignement promotrices d'apprentissages mathmatiques solides et ajusts

au citoyen du XX( Ime) sicle est constamment au centre des recherches en ducation mathmatique (D'Ambrsio,

2011 ; Menezes, Guerreiro, Martinho & Toms Ferreira, 2013 ; Ponte & Merc, 2011). Parmi les ides consensuelles

sur l'enseignement mathmatique dans les premires annes de scolarit, se trouve la relation de la mathmatique

la ralit et le dveloppement de la communication interpersonnelle, comptence de nature interdisciplinaire, visant

l'apprentissage avec comprhension (Imm, Fosnot, Dolk, Jacob & Stylianou, 2012). Le rle de la communication

interpersonnelle dans le processus d'enseignement-apprentissage des mathmatiques est largement dbattu (Alder

& Proctor, 2011) mais moins dans le contexte de EEM, en situations o les lves s'occupent de tches associes

la ralit. Notre tude prsente une recherche sur la pratique de classe de l'enseignant. Elle vise comprendre

le fonctionnement et l'organisation d'un modle d'enseignement exploratoire des mathmatiques et son impact sur

l'apprentissage des lves. L'accent est mis sur la communication interpersonnelle et les tches mathmatiques autour

de la ralit des lves.

La Mathmatique est ne en rponse de l'Homme aux problmes qui se posaient dans sa vie quotidienne. La

relation de la Mathmatique la ralit est l'essence mme de cette science. La mathmatique, comme les autres

domaines du savoir, a volu au cours des temps. Aujourd'hui, elle n'est pas une science sur le monde, naturel ou

social, comme le sont les autres sciences, mais une science qui travaille avec les relations abstraites. Bien que la plupart

de ces connaissances se soit dveloppe sans aucun lien avec le quotidien, sa capacit modeler la ralit est puissante

(Davis & Hersh, 1995). Au niveau scolaire, la valorisation de la relation de la Mathmatique la ralit des lves

n'a pas t des plus courantes. La Mathmatique Moderne a cherch resserrer le lien de la Mathmatique scolaire

la Mathmatique des mathmaticiens, au dtriment de la relation avec la ralit. Les rsultats scolaires, surtout

Chapitre 3

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122

dans les premires annes de scolarit, ont t dcevants (Ponte, 2003). Ces constatations sont en grande partie

l'origine de l'Ethnomathmatique qui privilgie le travail mathmatique en troite relation avec la culture des enfants

(D'Ambrsio, 2011). Favoriser cette relation permet aux lves d'attribuer un sens ce qu'ils apprennent : ils partent

de situations concrtes vers des objets et des relations mathmatiques abstraites. Dans cette perspective, le rle de la

communication du professeur et des lves est radicalement dirent puisque l'enseignant se doit d'tre plus l'coute

des lves an d'intgrer leur discours dans un tout cohrent, visant l'apprentissage (Martinho & Ponte, 2009 ; Menezes

et al., 2013 ; Sierpinska, 1998).

Nombreux auteurs soulignent la ncessit de classes o les lves sont engags dans l'excution et la discussion des

tches, particulirement des situations relles, au lieu d'couter simplement l'enseignant (Menezes et al., 2013 ; Ponte

& Merc, 2011 ; Stein et al., 2008). La leon de mathmatiques dans l'approche exploratoire est gnralement organise

en trois phases : de lancement, d'exploration et de discussion et systmatisation (Stein et al., 2008). Menezes et al.

(2012) proposent quatre phases : la dernire se divise en discussion de la tche et systmatisation de l'apprentissage.

Cette option se justie par la nature dirente et les objectifs de chacune : la premire est plus axe sur la tche

tandis que la deuxime se centre sur l'apprentissage des mathmatiques. Ces auteurs proposent une caractrisation

des actions d'EEM directement lies l'apprentissage des lves et la gestion de la classe.

Introduction de la

tche

Gestion de la classe

Stipuler des timings pour raliser le travail

les lves :

Familiariser avec le contexte de la tche

claircir l'interprtation de la tche

tablir des objectifs

tche :

Dnir des formes d'organisation du travail

(individuel, en duo, en petits groupes. . .)

Organiser le matriel de la classe

Der de faire le travail

Ralisation de la

tche

par les lves :

groupes :

Suggrer des reprsentations

Mettre en vidence les ides productives

Demander des claircissements et des justications

des lves :

Faire attention de ne pas valider au dbut la

correction mathmatique des rponses des

lves

Fournir le matriel au groupe

la prsentation par les lves :

Soliciter des registres crits

Fournir le matriel utiliser

Donner du temps pour prparer la prsentation

Identier et slectionner les direntes rsolutions (avec des erreurs exploiter, plus ou

moins compltes, avec des reprsentations

relevantes)

Dnir une squence des rsolutions slectionnes

Lyon

Discussion

tche

de

la

des prsentations des lves :

prsentation et la discussion :

Demander des explications claires des rsolutions

Demander de justier les rsultats et les

formes de reprsentation utiliss

Discuter la dirence et l'ecacit mathmatique des rsolutions prsentes

au cours de la discussion :

les ides prsentes ou d'claircir des doutes

Inciter l'analyse, la confrontation et la

comparaison entre les rsolutions

Identier et discuter des erreurs mathmatiques des rsolutions

Systmatisation

des apprentissages

mathmatiques

123

par les lves

Rorganiser l'espace pour la discussion

Promouvoir une attitude de respect et d'intrt envers les dirents travaux prsents

Justier les raisons de ne pas prsenter certaines rsolutions

Promouvoir et grer les participations des

lves lors de la discussion

dures relatives aux sujets mathma- systmatisation :

tiques suscits par l'exploitation de la Orienter les lves au moment de la systmatisation collective

tche :

Identier des concepts mathmatiques, clarier leur dnition et exploiter des reprsentations multiples

Identier des procdures mathmatiques,

clarier les conditions de leur application et

revoir leur utilisation

Institutionnaliser les ides ou les procdures relatives aux capacits transversales suscites par l'exploitation de la

tche :

Renforcer les aspects-cls pour leur

dveloppement

ou informatique (tableau, tableau interactif, transparent, ache. . .), par l'lve ou le

professeur

Demander le registre crit dans les cahiers

des lves

concepts mathmatiques, procdures ou capacits transversales travaills prcdemment

Quel que soit le modle de classe adopt en cours de mathmatiques, la communication est toujours un lment

important du processus (Menezes et al., 2013). Dans sa pratique professionnelle, l'enseignant se doit de dvelopper

des comptences communicatives interpersonnelles qui vont lui permettre de, bien sr, transmettre clairement des

informations et d'en vrier leur perception par les lves tout en crant, chez ceux-ci, de la disponibilit la rception

de cette information grce un regain d'intrt, d'attention et de motivation. Les conditions d'coute sont optimises.

Cependant, on observe souvent, dans ce contexte particulier, une relation de type symtrique et complmentaire (Haler,

1995), o l'lve s'ajuste aux initiatives de l'enseignant, seul responsable de l'change en classe.

Dans l'enseignement exploratoire, l'lve est prpar couter les autres et interagir ecacement. Il est au centre

Chapitre 3

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associ la mise en uvre de stratgies communicatives adaptes aux besoins de l'lve fait partie ainsi des objectifs

principaux de l'enseignant (Abrami et al, 1996 ; Martinho & Ponte, 2009 ; Menezes et al., 2013). Les paramtres

contrler sont les bruits, le feedback et l'coute active dans le but de runir toutes les conditions ncessaires

l'acquisition des comptences prtendues. Dans l'EEM, la dimension interpersonnelle de la communication prend

vraiment toute son importance : outre un change d'information correct dans un environnement appropri, le noyau

de la communication se situe au-del des processus de codage et de dcodage de messages. Par itrations successives,

les lves vont construire la comprhension par la ngociation de sens et, ainsi, apprendre les mathmatiques (Menezes

et al., 2013 ; Stein et al., 2008 ; Zolkower & Shreyar, 2007).

Dans cette perspective, l'enseignant est oblig d'adapter ses stratgies communicatives an de gnrer un climat de

conance tout au long de l'apprentissage et de dvelopper une attitude positive dans sa classe. Il doit slectionner les

moyens pour s'ajuster l'volution de la communication. Il doit ainsi grer les relations de groupe (intragroupes et aussi

intergroupes), ce qui oblige le respect d'autrui et des opinions, parfois divergentes, dans une dmarche constructive

(Alder & Proctor, 2011). De cette faon, il participe l'amlioration de l'estime de l'lve, l'armation de soi et la

sensibilisation l'importance de la qualit de la communication grce la collaboration et l'interaction. L'apprenant

est amen la formulation successivement plus exacte et prcise de son raisonnement, jusqu' l'nonc de la proposition

de rponse, tout en rchissant sur sa participation et sur l'acte communicatif en gnral. Dvelopper et assurer des

conditions optimales de communication en salle de classe apparat ainsi clairement un outil pdagogique essentiel

dans le processus d'enseignement-apprentissage. De faon plus large, cette approche constitue donc aussi un moyen

de construire une socit dmocratique (en relation avec la ralit), soucieuse d'une argumentation valide et contre la

domination d'une autorit quelconque.

Prendre le temps d'tablir une communication interpersonnelle ecace dans une salle de classe favorise le respect,

la motivation, l'empathie, la prise de dcision et le sentiment de progrs. Il s'agit d'un moyen de lutte ecace contre

le dcrochage scolaire et l'chec grce au dveloppement de comptences transversales (Dor-Ct, 2007).

Ce jeu de comptences polyvalentes (communiquer-cooprer) se dveloppe pleinement lors de l'utilisation de la

galerie (Fosnot & Dolk, 2002) ; tous les lves contribuent au partage des tches, tout en poursuivant un objectif

commun : celui d'laborer des solutions des problmes concrets tout en rsolvant les conits relationnels. Elle permet

de dvelopper des comptences communicatives qui, tout en le servant, vont au-del de l'apprentissage mathmatique

puisqu'elles sont interdisciplinaires (Imm et al., 2012). Cette mthodologie oblige tenir compte des interlocuteurs,

des codes utiliss et de leur contexte, adapter sa communication tout en dcodant ce que dit l'autre et en vriant

la perception de l'information, tant de la part des lves que de l'enseignant (Adams, 2005). On peut dnir la galerie

comme un support et un moyen d'appui la pense mathmatique puisque les lves ont la possibilit d'examiner les

rsolutions de leurs collgues et d'tre en meilleures conditions pour participer la discussion collective. La galerie

permet aux lves :

D'articuler leur raisonnement oral et crit avec comme objectif de faire comprendre aux collgues leur cheminement ;

De formaliser et systmatiser ce raisonnement jusqu' parvenir l'nonc de la rgle gnrale ;

D'argumenter face la classe, tout en acceptant les critiques constructives ;

D'acqurir de la rigueur dans l'expression.

Les lves pourront de cette faon tre mieux accompagns dans la construction de leur savoir, en interaction avec

les autres, comme dans la ralit, le dveloppement de la science mathmatique. Ainsi, ils prennent les mathmatiques

comme une activit sociale et dveloppent leur intrt et motivation. L'tude que nous prsentons s'est articule autour

de l'introduction de la galerie au cours des activits en classe, dans le but de favoriser les changes communicatifs

constructifs.

Prsentation de l'tude

Exprience d'enseignement.. Cette tude est fonde sur une exprience d'enseignement et vise remdier aux

dicults en mathmatiques des lves qui se situent au niveau des comptences communicatives (de nature interdisciplinaire) et de leur carence reconnatre le lien du sujet avec le quotidien. L'hypothse de dpart est que

l'enseignement des mathmatiques bas sur la promotion de la communication interpersonnelle entre l'enseignant et

les lves, d'une part, et entre les lves, d'autre part, dans un cadre exploratoire et en relation avec les contextes rels,

en utilisant la galerie, favorise l'apprentissage mathmatiques avec comprhension (qui inclut des sujets mathmatiques

et comptences comme la communication, le raisonnement et la rsolution de problmes). L'exprience est assure par

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125

l'une d'entre nous (GC), enseignante de mathmatique dans une cole de 400 lves situe dans une zone agricole au

nord du Portugal. Elle a mis en uvre pendant un an, dans une classe de 17 lves de la 5me anne, un EEM avec

l'intention de dvelopper la communication mathmatique des apprenants.

Le plan d'intervention a dbut par un diagnostic des comptences communicationnelles autour de situations

mathmatiques des lves et d'une rexion sur les pratiques de communication de l'enseignante. L'analyse des tests

diagnostiques rvle des limitations dans l'expression des ides et du raisonnement mathmatique des lves ainsi

que la ncessit, pour l'enseignante, de repenser l'organisation de son travail en classe autour de tches d'exploration

stimulantes, en connexion avec la ralit, les moments de communication orale et crite, le questionnement des lves

et surtout la promotion de la discussion en classe. La leon a t organise selon les quatre phases proposes par

Menezes et al. (2012) ; la galerie a t introduite avant la discussion collective.

Mthodes. La mthodologie de recherche est surtout qualitative, mais inclut quelques donnes quantitatives rsultant de l'application de deux tests (un au dbut et un la n). En plus de ces instruments de collecte de donnes,

des leons ont t enregistres en audio et les rsolutions des lves ont t recueillies. Pour valuer la communication

orale, des grilles d'observation ont t appliques.

Rsultats

Dans cette section, nous prsentons les rsultats obtenus dans un cours o l'enseignante essaie de travailler la

notion de pourcentage. Deux objectifs directement lis ce concept sont prsents dans le plan de leon : Calculer

et utiliser des pourcentages ; rsoudre des problmes comportant des nombres rationnels non ngatifs . En parallle,

et en raison des proccupations lies au dveloppement des comptences de communication des lves ( l'crit et

l'oral), trois autres objectifs sont formuls :

Pour atteindre ces objectifs, l'enseignante a choisi une tche qui, bien qu'elle ne soit pas relle, peut tout fait

exister dans la ralit : Rabais au Bit-@-Byte, en relation avec des rabais sur du matriel informatique : l'objectif

est de mettre en relation le prix d'un ordinateur, la valeur des rductions et les dlais. Il s'agit clairement d'un

thme proche des proccupations des apprenants, reli leur vie quotidienne, o un magasin applique des rductions

successives sur le prix du matriel informatique (Figure 1). L'enseignante, en raison de sa connaissance des lves et de

leur apprentissage, va anticiper les dicults dans la rsolution de la tche. Pour elle, il est courant que les tudiants

pensent que d'une remise de a% , suivie par b% corresponde un rabais de (a + b)% .

Rabais au Bit-@-byte

Dans la boutique Bit-@-Byte, un notebook cote 800 e. Le premier jour de chaque mois, la boutique rduit de 10% le prix, par

rapport au prix antrieur.

la n de combien de mois le prix de l'ordinateur peut tre

infrieur la moiti de la valeur de dpart ?

Quel rabais, approximativement, doit tre pratiqu tous les mois

pour qu'un ordinateur de 950 ecote moins de 400 e partir du

4me mois ?

La tche Rabais au Bit-@-Byte .

La premire proccupation de l'enseignante est d'assurer un environnement d'apprentissage appropri. Dans cet

objectif, au cours du Lancement de la tche, elle veut crer de bonnes conditions de travail aux lves et contrler

tout ce qui peut perturber la ralisation de la tche : les divers bruits, l'organisation de la salle et le matriel.

Aprs avoir constitu les groupes, l'enseignante eectue une srie d'actions pour garantir l'appropriation de la

tche et promouvoir aussi l'adhsion des lves au travail. Elle commence par demander une lecture individuelle en

silence, qui est suivie de la lecture de l'nonc haute voix. Ensuite, les lves sont invits expliquer, sous la forme

de narration, en quoi consiste le problme. La professeure incite au partage d'informations et essaie de ne pas montrer

immdiatement son accord ou dsaccord sur ce qui est dit. Elle organise, de cette faon, le feedback de la comprhension

des lves sur la tche raliser et prpare les lves l'coute active :

Enseignante Que faut-il faire ?

Adriana Nous voulons connatre le prix de l'ordinateur . . .

Gustavo . . . la n de combien de mois le prix vaut moins que la moiti de 800, c'est--dire moins de 400. . .

Chapitre 3

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126

Ins Ensuite, nous devons trouver le rabais, la n de 4 mois, qui permet que la valeur soit la moiti de 950

Z Ici, on veut le contraire. . .

Enseignante Explique a, Z.

Z Donc, en 1er , on veut savoir la n de combien de mois la valeur est rduite de moiti et nous connaissons

dj la rduction. Maintenant, on veut le rabais, connaissant le nombre de mois ncessaires, 4, pour que la valeur soit

rduite de moiti.

Alors que les groupes se mettent au travail pour faire le Dveloppement de la tche l'enseignante circule entre

eux an d'valuer la comprhension du problme, en accompagnant le raisonnement des lves grce des questions

ou en suscitant le rappel de connaissances dj acquises :

Joo Nous devons retirer 10% 800. . .

[L'enseignante s'aperoit que les lves ont not 800-10%]

Enseignant Pourquoi crivez-vous cela ?

Tiago Parce que, ici, on dit qu'on retire 10% ; cela va coter moins cher.

Enseignante Oui, c'est vrai. Que signie 10% ?

Joo C'est le rabais.

Enseignante Oui. Mais que signie 10% ou 15% ou 50% par exemple ?

Joo Si c'tait 50%, on dcompterait la moiti.

Enseignante De combien serait la rduction ?

Tiago De 400

Enseignante Pourquoi ?

Tout en observant les lves, l'enseignante rchit sur les rsolutions avec lesquelles elle va commencer la discussion,

celles qui seront prsentes et la squence des prsentations. Ce travail se poursuivra dans la galerie qui vise stimuler

la discussion collective ainsi que dvelopper la pense critique des lves. La galerie permet la mise au point des

stratgies de travail et de la construction des solutions. Les lves sont ainsi arrivs la conclusion que montrer

simplement leur accord ou leur dsaccord en ce qui concerne les propositions prsentes dans la galerie ne susait

pas leur progression. Ils ont galement senti la ncessit de justier leur rponse. L'achage des travaux de groupe

suscite de nouvelles rexions ainsi que de nouveaux changes entre les lves qui, naturellement, se questionnent sur

les propositions exposes. La Figure 2 montre une rsolution qui a t expose dans la galerie. Dans cette rsolution,

les lves du groupe n'ont pas compris que la rduction de 10% n'est pas toujours sur le premier prix (et donc xe),

mais sur les nouveaux prix de l'ordinateur. Les camarades de classe se sont aperus de l'erreur et l'ont souligne :

La galerie fait penser , fait crire et fait parler . Au bout de 10 minutes, les lves sont invits regagner

leur place. La professeure lance alors le dbat, avec la discussion de la tche. Dans cette phase, qui oblige une

attention permanente de tous, l'enseignante s'eorce de promouvoir la qualit mathmatique des prsentations (en

demandant aux lves des explications et justications) ainsi que promouvoir les interactions entre lves dans le

CHAPITRE 3. WORKING GROUP 1

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127

dbat d'ides mathmatiques (en invitant plusieurs lves au dbat). L'pisode suivant, dans lequel le groupe d'lves

qui avait commis une erreur (Figure 2) est tenu de prsenter la classe son travail, illustre la valeur des discussions

mathmatiques en vue de l'apprentissage des mathmatiques et le rle cl que l'enseignant joue dans cette activit :

Enseignante Voulez-vous partager avec nous votre solution pour la premire partie du problme ? Comment y

tes-vous parvenus ?

Gustavo Je pense que nous nous sommes tromps. . .

Enseignante Pourquoi ?

(. . .)

Z Parce que c'tait bien mais, ensuite, au lieu d'utiliser la valeur la n du 2me mois, ils ont rutilis la valeur

du 1er mois.

Enseignante C'est cela ? (et elle se tourne vers le groupe)

Joo Oui. Ici (en pointant la feuille expose), nous aurions d refaire le compte.

Enseignante Expliquez-nous cela.

Gustavo Quand j'ai vu les autres travaux, j'ai compris que nous aurions d calculer 10% de 720 et ensuite

aussi. . .

Enseignante Vous tes d'accord ?

Adriana Oui ! Nous expliquons ici pourquoi.

Enseignante Et donc, pourquoi ?

Adriana Parce que 10% de 720 n'est pas 80, et, ensuite, 10% de 640 n'est pas non plus 80.

Tiago Non, c'est chaque fois moins. . .

(La professeure prote de l'opportunit que les relations tablies entre les pourcentages sont toujours les mmes

mais que la valeur nale dpend de la valeur sur laquelle elle retombe.)

Enseignante Explique cela.

Tiago Si a cote moins, le rabais est aussi moindre.

Enseignante Mais le % se maintient. Explique cela mieux.

L'enseignante commence la phase de systmatisation de l'apprentissage avec la formulation de la question :

Alors, qu'avons-nous appris ou rappel dans cette tche ? . Elle commence par couter des lves. Ensuite, elle veut

qu'ils fassent un eort d'abstraction et gnralisent la notion de pourcentage.

Enseignante Trs bien. Que veut dire, alors, 10% ?

Maria C'est le % du rabais. . .

Enseignante Oui, dans ce cas. De faon gnrale ?

Z Cela veut dire que le dcompte serait de 10 si le prix est 100

C'est une phase de la classe dans laquelle l'enseignante veut faire des registres qui systmatisent ce qui a t appris

sur les pourcentages, comment les calculer et les reprsenter. Avec l'aide des lves, elle crit sur le tableau : 10% d'une

valeur est la mme chose que 10% x valeur ou 0,1 x valeur ou 10/100 valeur . A ce moment, l'enseignante reprend

le discours de la classe et ne formule pas beaucoup de questions par rapport l'tape prcdente.

Conclusions

L'exprience d'enseignement, base sur l'enseignement exploratoire des mathmatiques, qui met l'accent sur la

communication interpersonnelle et la connexion avec la ralit, permet aux lves de faire l'apprentissage des mathmatiques et, en mme temps, de dvelopper la capacit communiquer en mathmatiques, principalement oralement

(Dor-Ct, 2007 ; Menezes et al., 2013) ainsi que leur raisonnement et leur capacit rsoudre des problmes.

Contrairement l'apprentissage des concepts spciques (comme c'est le cas de la notion de pourcentage examin

dans ce texte), qui ont une occurrence plus localise dans le temps, la comptence de communication des lves a besoin

de plus de temps pour se dvelopper. La tche Rabais au Bit-@-Byte , ralise la n de l'anne scolaire, dmontre

dj l'amlioration de la capacit communiquer et rchir mathmatiquement, puisque l'enseignant organise des

espaces pour que les lves participent la discussion en classe (Martinho & Ponte, 2009) ; Menezes et al., 2013. La

galerie, qui prcde la discussion collective, est aussi importante parce que les lves sont mieux prpars pour la

discussion puisqu'ils ont dj eu connaissance du travail des autres.

Comme il s'agit d'une recherche sur la propre pratique, la progression des lves est accompagne d'un dveloppement des pratiques de communication de l'enseignant, le conduisant se concentrer sur la pense des lves comme

point de dpart pour la construction de la connaissance mathmatique (Martinho & Ponte, 2009 ; Zolkower & Shreyar,

2007). Le bon fonctionnement de l'EEM, parce qu'il est soutenu par une gestion trs ecace de la communication,

Chapitre 3

Lyon

128

dpend en grande partie de l'expertise de l'enseignant. Comme pour les lves, le dveloppement de la comptence de

communication chez l'enseignant exige beaucoup de temps.

La ralisation d'expriences d'enseignement sur la propre pratique permet de produire des connaissances locales,

utilises par les enseignants dans pour amliorer l'apprentissage de leurs lves (comme cela s'est pass dans cette

exprience), mais aussi des connaissances plus gnrales pour le dveloppement de l'enseignement exploratoire des

mathmatiques et de l'utilisation de la communication interpersonnelle dans le processus d'enseignement-apprentissage.

Cependant, ce travail montre aussi que, pour le jeune chercheur (comme c'est le cas de la troisime auteure de

cet article), concilier l'enseignement (particulirement lors de l'introduction d'une nouvelle mthodologie) avec la

recherche est parfois dicile. Par consquent, nous prconisons l'tude du dveloppement du modle exploratoire des

mathmatiques par des equipes d'enseignants et de chercheurs plus expriments des tablissements d'enseignement

suprieur.

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Menezes, L., Canavarro, A. P., Oliveira, H. (2012). Teacher practice in an inquiry-based mathematics classroom.

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Ponte, J. P. (2003). Investigao sobre investigaes matemticas em Portugal. Investigar em Educao, 2, 93-169.

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International Journal on Mathematics Education, 43, 847-859.

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the mathematics classroom (pp. 30-62). Reston, VA : NCTM,

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coopratif, thories, mthodes, activits.

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Chapitre 4

mathematics / Logiques dans les pratiques

mathmatiques

4.1 Working group 2 : Logic(s) when doing (performing) mathematics

Ana Serrad Bays*, Uwe Gellert**

*University of Cadiz, **Frei Universitt Berlin

The four sessions of the Working Group 2 were organized to look for an equilibrium of time for the presentation of

twelve papers and time for the discussion among the twenty-seven participants. The papers were grouped in advance

to envision an idea of evolution from the reality of the classroom (session 1), to the reality of the content, the problems,

the tasks, the situations (session 2), to the reality of teachers and researchers (session 3) and to more abstract and

general theoretical issues (session 4).

With the aim of facilitating the participation of all the members of the working group, dierent strategies were

used : personal introduction of the participants, discussion about the organisation of the working group and alternative

formats of the nal report, feedback for clarication of central ideas immediately after the presentation of papers, small

group discussions on issues that connected individual presentations with suggestions from the discussion document,

summaries of group discussions. . .However, it was often dicult to connect the ideas presented in the papers with the

open questions from the discussion document. In particular, two of the questions in the discussion document, What

is role of logic in reasoning ? and Is it necessary to include a course on logic in university teacher training ?, were

not taken up explicitly in the presentations of our working group.

In contrast, two of the questions of the discussion document were discussed in the second session : What are the

links with the arguments, evidence ? and What are the links between reality and the mathematical object ? The rst

question revealed dierent cultural conceptions of the word evidence, more or less related with the mathematical

conception of proof and demonstration. It became clear that evidence is used dierently in dierent languages,

particularly when the philosophical roots of the concept were put aside. The second question expressed the diculties

of relating reality to mathematics, and how the dierent papers conceive the problems as a lens to see the reality.

The mathematical problems introduced during the paper presentation seemed to crystallize the central ideas of the

respective papers. This idea was taken up by the ve members of the team that prepared the nal report for the last

day of the conference. The discussion of the group was summarized by the title : Mathematics and realities through

the lens of the problems.

During the discussion of the second session, it was furthermore expressed how dierent epistemological perspectives

confront reality and mathematical objects. Along all four sessions, dierent tasks and situations were presented that

tried to coordinate reality with mathematical reality from a pedagogical and/or didactical point of view. Those

attempts drew on : reality, realistic ction, ction, fairy tales, mathematical ction and mathematical reality. The

presentation of Ana Serrad discussed the question Can I know which language my friend speaks when I only count

the vowels ?, which emerged from the reality of her students. The question was intended to propose the students ?

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own mathematical/statistical questions to be engaged in, to identify the obstacles that emerge in this process and to

conjecture about evolutions in the development of hypothetical thinking in an informal modelling process (Serrad,

2014). The complexity and possible diculties of a modelling process were also analysed by Aldon, Durand-Guerrier and

Ray (2014). Viviane Durand-Guerrier presented two situations, drawing on Brousseau's work on didactical situations.

The rst situation was a problem in elementary number theory (Find all the integers that are sums of at least two

consecutive numbers !) which students needed to mathematize what has been labelled vertical mathematization in

Realistic Mathematics Education (RME). Durand-Guerrier concluded and discussed after her presentation that this

situation oered ample opportunities for the students to work within the abstract world of mathematical symbols. The

importance of students' work with symbols was underpinned by Daniela Sanna (2014), who presented several problems

that could facilitate the students' spontaneous use of abstract algebraic symbols. Aldon et al.'s second situation showed

the transformation of a classical problem of regions in a disc, i.e. a mathematical reality to a realistic ction presented

in the problem of the artist. On the basis of this problem, the authors envisage that the alternatives for the horizontal

mathematization of the problem will be suciently open to encourage discussion in the classroom.

The possibilities and constrictions of students' interpretation of another situation were analysed in the Fairy

tale problem (Pavlopoulou, Patronis and Andrikopoulou, 2014). When clarifying the ideas presented by Kalliopi

Pavlopoulou with the working group, a discussion emerged about how the teacher's action could have transformed the

magic logic of a fairy tale in the mathematical logic of a problem. This is a case of horizontal mathematization, from

a pedagogically designed context to mathematical logic.

The analysis of the logical dimensions in Pavlopoulou et al. distinguishes between the dierence of solving a ctional situation and a mathematical ctional situation. In the context of classroom teaching, such an analysis often

concentrates on epistemological, psychological and didactical issues, without considering a sociological perspective

on cultural dimensions of logic in society and the mathematics classroom, provided by David Kollosche (2014). A

sociological approach towards the use of logic faces the challenge of questioning the power and control executed by

groups of people and the emancipation and subjection of individuals. The questioning of the ideological use of mathematics, when mapping between the reality of mathematics and the social reality, allows Straehler-Pohl, Gellert and

Bohlmann (2014) to relate mathematics to the ethical dilemmas of consumerism. After Uwe Gellert's presentation, it

was asked whether we could think that mathematics may provide the solution to that kind of dilemmas. The discussion

claried that mathematics does not seem to be of direct help to untangle the dilemma of consumerism. However, in

mathematics education at classroom level, mathematics can be used in a way that a deconstruction of ideological

messages becomes possible, fostering the emancipation of the students. Meaney's (2014) plenary presentation, which

referred to the Barbie doll and to Lego constructions, discussed further examples for the importance of mathematics

in deconstructing ideologies. Taken together, the dierent papers presented the challenges of creating meaningful tasks

and situations relating to dierent epistemological, psychological, didactical or sociological dimensions.

In his plenary presentation, Drijvers (2014) proposed the construction of meaningful tasks on the basis of the

RME design principles of guided reinvention, guidance, didactical phenomenology and emergent modelling. Pauline

Lambrecht (Henry and Lambrecht 2014), in contrast, proposed the construction of didactical engineering as based on

a process introduced by Artigue, which distinguishes four phases : preliminary analysis, a priori analysis, a posteriori

analysis, and evaluation. Particular attention was paid to the second phase, a priori analysis, by the presentation

of Jarmila Novotn (Novkov and Novotn, 2014). The presentation developed a priori analysis of a mathematical

problem of the area of a coloured quadrilateral within a triangle. The discussion in the working group focussed

on similarities and dierences with other formats of didactic analysis, such as lesson studies, and on the need of

developing a posteriori analyses and evaluation. Teachers' structural diculties to develop accurate a priori and a

posteriori analyses were evidenced in a helicoidally sense of facilitating the development of mathematical content

knowledge. Furthermore, the importance of research for a priori analysis was highlighted.

Meaningful tasks can create tensions between those actors that negotiate the meaning of the tasks (pupils, students,

teachers, educators, researchers, [parents]). For instance, tensions can obviously appear between the students and the

teacher. Another example is the question of if and how an integrated mathematics curriculum can be benecial for

children's learning as an integrated mathematics curriculum explicitly provides demonstrations of how mathematics

is used in the real world, as presented by Audrey Cooke (2014). Nina Bohlmann (Bohlmann, Straehler-Pohl and

Gellert, 2014) presented research in the context of in-service teacher education, where the reality of mathematics

word problems created an explicit tension between students and teachers. Accepting word problems as a reality of

the mathematics classroom (and of assessment), how can all students get access to the code by which these tasks are

designed Mathias Front and Marie-Line Gardes (2014) presented research about possible tensions between students,

teachers, educators and researchers in didactic engineering. In their project, they envisage, among others, a proposition

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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for organizing the curriculum. The results of their on-going project might provide an approach to the question posed

in the discussion document What kind of teaching could allow the acquisition of reusable logic skills ? Although this

question has been indirectly discussed in the four sessions of the working group, the feeling of the group is that we have

not been discussing the core of the sub-theme 2 as it has been proposed in the discussion document. We think that

entering in a fruitful discussion about the theme of Logic(s) when doing (performing) mathematics needs additional

time for reection and discussion about : Which realities inuence teaching and learning ? How do logic and logical

reasoning shape our reality ? and, How is the learners ? logical thinking developed by mathematical education [along

the curriculum] ?

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Mathias Front*, Marie-Line Gardes**

*ESPE de l'Acadmie de Lyon, S2HEP, Universit Lyon 1.

**I3M, Universit Montpellier 2.

Rsum : L'ordre culturel en usage dans l'enseignement des mathmatiques est en volution. Ceci entraine une transformation de

l'environnement de l'enseignant qui peut sembler susante pour que ses pratiques dans la classe puissent se mettre en accord avec les

recommandations institutionnelles concernant la rsolution de problmes. Mais, ceci peut-il rellement se produire ? Nous prsentons, dans

ce texte, les travaux actuels du groupe DREAM-ResCo, qui portent un projet de construction d'ingnieries didactiques ayant pour but de

questionner un enseignement fond sur les problmes de recherche et port par la dimension exprimentale de l'activit mathmatique. Ces

ingnieries s'appuient sur des travaux antrieurs sur les situations de recherche et leur intgration dans les ressources d'un enseignant. Elles

visent proposer des lments sur la diusion des comptences travailles dans ces activits de recherche aux autres cadres de l'activit

mathmatique et construire des propositions d'organisation du curriculum fortement en appui sur ces situations de recherche.

Abstract : The cultural order in use in mathematics education is changing. This leads to a transformation of the teacher's environment.

This may seem sucient for the rapprochement between classrooms' practices and institutional recommendations for problem solving. But,

can this actually happen ? We present in this text, the current work of DREAM- RESCO team, which carry out a project of teaching

design the aim of whom beeing questionning teaching methods based on problems called research problem and, consequently, on the

experimental dimension of mathematics. These engineering are based on previous work on research situations and their integration into

teacher's resources. They aim to provide evidence on how skills developed in these research activities can spread other mathematical

activities ; they also build proposals for teaching organization, strongly based on these research problems.

Introduction

Depuis les annes 1970, le type de relation au savoir qui doit vivre dans la classe de mathmatiques ne cesse d'tre

au cur des rexions des didacticiens, et des mathmaticiens qui se sont intresss la question. Des propositions de

dispositifs visant une volution de pratiques trop axes sur la seule prsentation des savoirs ont vu le jour. Mais force

est de constater que l'volution est lente. A. Berth, en 1995, analysait, comme suit, les freins une transformation

des points de vue :

Jusqu' ces dernires annes, l'ordre de prsentation des concepts dans les classes de mathmatiques se

conformait des ordres acadmiques issus de la gense des savoirs par l'histoire et la culture (phylogense).

Aujourd'hui les programmes laissent une marge de libert aux professeurs pour adopter, semble-t-il, un

ordre compatible avec la gense des savoirs partir de la problmatique de celui qui apprend (ontogense).

N'y a-t-il pas cependant un ordre culturel en usage ? Si sa lgitimation n'est plus acadmique, quelle estelle ? Le dcalage entre les dirents ordres ne pose-t-il pas un problme de gestion aux enseignants ? si

les enseignants faisaient de tels choix, leur charge serait trop lourde et ils se marginaliseraient par rapport

ce qui est attendu par le systme . (Berth, 1995, p. 84)

Pour reprendre cette dicile question de la construction par les enseignants d'un ordre de prsentation des concepts

non antagoniste avec le dveloppement des savoirs de leurs lves, nous envisageons ici la question du point de

vue des potentialits des situations s'appuyant sur les problmes de recherche. De nombreuses expriences ont eu

lieu depuis prs de trente ans, tant au collge, qu' l'cole lmentaire et au lyce, tant en France qu' l'tranger,

concernant la mise en uvre de problmes de recherche en mathmatiques dans des contextes de classe (Arsac,

Germain & Mante, 1991, Peix & Tisseron, 1998, Schoenfeld, 1999, Grenier et Payan, 2003, Arsac & Mante, 2007,

Harskamp & Suhre, 2007, Dias, 2008), dans des contextes interclasse, comme la rsolution collaborative de problmes

propose par le groupe ResCo de l'IREM de Montpellier (Sauter & al., 2008) ou l'extrieur de la classe travers

des expriences comme MATh.en.JEANS, stages Hippocampe (Tisseron, Feurly-Reynaud & Pontille, 1996, Duchet

& Mainguene, 2002, Bressaud, 2012). Les tudes ont montr que ces expriences permettent des apports en termes

d'apprentissage de dmarches : dveloppement d'heuristiques, laboration de conjectures, mobilisation d'outils de

contrle et de validation, etc. Toutefois, bien que de telles situations de recherche continuent vivre, et malgr

les recommandations institutionnelles, elles ne se sont pas gnralises et elles n'inuent que trs lentement sur les

pratiques ordinaires. L'accent mis principalement dans l'approche des problmes de recherche sur le dveloppement

de comptences transversales lies au raisonnement, en laissant au second plan les apprentissages sur les notions

mathmatiques en jeu, a sans doute t un frein ce dveloppement. Ce positionnement peut rentrer en conit avec

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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certaines contraintes institutionnelles qui psent sur les professeurs, en particulier en ce qui concerne l'avancement

dans le programme. Par ailleurs, la part importante de la dimension exprimentale, utilisant ou non les technologies,

dans le travail de recherche bouscule les reprsentations des mathmatiques que peuvent avoir certains enseignants.

Or la dimension exprimentale de l'activit mathmatique est centrale dans les situations utilisant des problmes de

recherche. Elle est dnie par Durand-Guerrier (2007, p. 17), comme le va-et-vient entre les objets que l'on essaye

de dnir et de dlimiter et l'laboration et/ou la mise l'preuve d'une thorie, le plus souvent locale, visant

rendre compte des proprits de ces objets . Dans le cadre de l'tude d'un objet mathmatique, cette dimension

rend compte du travail de dcouverte, des actions sur l'objet, de l'mission de conjectures, des premires constructions

thoriques et surtout des allers-retours entre ces direntes phases. Cette dimension exprimentale prend en compte

la fois des dmarches heuristiques et les concepts mathmatiques en jeu, comme l'a montr (Gardes, 2013). Elle est

une des dimensions premires ds que l'activit propose aux lves s'oriente vers la recherche de problmes mais elle

reste pour l'instant peu familire des pratiques enseignantes. De ce point de vue, l'environnement culturel se rvle

d'une stabilit redoutable.

Questions de recherche

Depuis 1995, les attentes de l'institution ont continu voluer dans le sens d'une intgration de la rsolution de

problmes dans les pratiques. Les travaux en didactique sur les situations de recherche se sont paralllement ans.

La place et le rle des problmes de recherche dans la classe de mathmatiques ont t rinterrogs, notamment en

ce qui concerne les apprentissages des concepts mathmatiques. Il est possible, dsormais, d'envisager de proposer des

dispositifs d'enseignement fonds sur les situations de recherche qui ne marginalisent pas les enseignants par rapport

ce qui est attendu par le systme. Compte-tenu des lments prcdemment dcrits, un tel dispositif doit investir

direntes dimensions et en particulier : une lgitimation renouvele de l'activit mathmatique et des savoirs produits

lors de cette activit, la construction d'un nouveau rapport au savoir, le dploiement de nouvelles comptences dans

les activits de recherche et leur diusion aux autres cadres de l'activit mathmatique (appropriation et mise en vre

de connaissances, de techniques, communication et rdaction de rsultats et de preuves, etc.). Le groupe de recherche

DREAM-ResCo, compos d'enseignants-chercheurs en mathmatiques, de formateurs d'enseignants et d'enseignants,

dveloppe une ingnierie pour la mise en place et l'tude d'un tel dispositif. En appui sur des exprimentations, elle

doit apporter des lments de rponse aux questions suivantes : Comment les savoirs construits lors des situations de

recherche prennent-ils leur place dans la progression du temps didactique 1 ? La crativit et l'invention mathmatique

dveloppes dans les problmes de recherche modient elles l'image des mathmatiques chez les lves (et leur envie

de faire des mathmatiques), chez les professeurs ? Comment les lves rinvestissent-ils dans d'autres cadres les

comptences et les connaissances dveloppes dans les activits de recherche de problmes ? Une progression annuelle

fonde sur la mise en uvre de situations de recherche en classe est-elle envisageable ?

Au-del des travaux prcdemment voqus sur les problmes de recherche, l'ingnierie dveloppe s'appuie sur

quelques lments cls. Au niveau pistmologique, le groupe DREAM a produit une ressource dans un cadre thorique

adapt (Aldon et al., 2010), des analyses nes de situations parti- culires (Front, 2012 et Gardes, 2013) et galement

un outil qui permet de s'assurer de la proximit des ralisations d'un utilisateur de la ressource aux intentions des

auteurs (Aldon, Front & Gardes, (soumis) ). Ces outils utilisent dirents cadres thoriques : Thorie des Situations

Didactiques (Brousseau, 2004), structuration des milieux d'une situation (Margolinas, 2004), gense documentaire

(Geudet & Trouche, 2008). Au niveau mthodologique, nous avons choisi d'adopter la mthodologie de recherchedesign (Design-Based Research) de Wang et Hannan (2005) qui permet, en particulier, d'envisager une dmarche,

ancre dans la thorie et dans la pratique, collaborative et participative, qui se dveloppe au niveau d'une communaut

de chercheurs et de praticiens et d'une communaut d'apprenants. Dans cette approche les chercheurs sont en troite

relation avec les praticiens et les interactions, incontournables dans ce type de recherche, sont intgres dans la

thorisation du processus de recherche. Concernant la communaut de praticiens, il s'agit de proposer des ressources

et des modalits d'action permettant l'laboration et la mise en uvre d'un projet d'enseignement s'appuyant sur

des situations de recherche. L'ingnierie contient galement la mthode pour l'tude de cette introduction dans la

1. C'est le temps qui se mesure par les avances dans l'exposition du savoir. A ne pas confondre avec le temps d'apprentissage, propre

l'lve.

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communaut de praticiens. Concernant les apprenants, la mthode prvoit l'tude des actions des praticiens dans le

systme didactique aussi bien du point de vue de la mise en uvre des situations de recherche que de celui de la

construction des savoirs dans le cadre du projet d'enseignement s'appuyant sur ces situations. La gure 4.1 reprsente

la rpartition des tches de chaque communaut et leurs interactions dans un cycle de la recherche-design .

Rappelons que la dmarche est par dnition itrative comme le prcisent Wang et Hannan (2005, p.9) :

Design-based research is also characterized by an iterative cycle of design, enactment or implementation,

analysis, and redesign.

Sur cet aspect, Basque (2009, p.26) ajoute que chaque cycle implique aussi une opration continue d'valuation

formative an de guider la prise de dcision au fur et mesure du droulement de la recherche .

Concrtement, nous envisageons une exprimentation en trois tapes. La premire consiste, d'une part questionner un ensemble de squences d'apprentissage fondes sur les problmes de recherche, travail en partie eectu

dans la ressource labore par le groupe DREAM (Aldon et al., 2010), et d'autre part tenter de structurer une

progression annuelle dans une classe pilote dont le professeur est un praticien et membre de l'quipe DREAM-Resco.

Les interactions entre les chercheurs et le praticien, lors de cette premire tape, ont permis l'laboration de nouveaux

documents. Les gures 4.2, 4.3 et 4.4 en sont des exemples. La gure 2 propose des liens entre des problmes issus

de la recherche (en jaune), des problmes proposs par l'enseignant (en violet) et des thmes mathmatiques des

programmes de collge et lyce en France.

Dans le cadre d'un projet d'enseignement fond sur les situations de recherche de problmes, les liens avec les

savoirs mathmatiques en jeu dans la recherche sont fondamentaux. Le document suivant (gure 4.3) envisage les

problmes comme autant de nuds dans le rseau des savoirs 2 .

2. En suivant Conne, nous concevons les problmes et les savoirs en lien, comme insrs dans des rseaux : En fait les problmes ne

se laissent pas identier ni isoler comme cela, ils ne vont jamais seuls, on a toujours aaire des chanes de problmes s'organisant en

rseaux, l'image des rseaux de savoirs qu'ils reprsentent , (Conne, 2004).

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La gure 4.4 propose un zoom sur un problme de recherche particulier 3 et les savoirs en lien. L'nonc de ce

problme est le suivant :

Est-il possible de trouver deux nombres entiers a et b, distincts, tels que

1

a

1

b

= 1 ? Et avec

1

a

1

b

1

c

Lors de cette premire tape de l'exprimentation, les interactions entre les chercheurs et le praticien ont galement

permis la construction d'un premier cahier des charges. L'objectif tait de dgager les premiers lments autour de

bonnes pratiques, de gestes professionnels, de suivi des ressources, etc., en s'appuyant sur une mthodologie rexive

(Gueudet & Trouche, 2008).

En 2014-2015, la deuxime tape de l'exprimentation, doit permettre de s'assurer, de la faisabilit d'une tude

approfondie une chelle suprieure. Nous nous appuierons sur le rseau des Lieux d'ducation Associs 4 et en

particulier le collge-lyce Paul Valery Ste et le collge-lyce Ampre Lyon, ainsi que sur d'autres tablissements

dont au moins un professeur est enseignant associ l'IFE ; au total quatre collges et trois lyces seront impliqus

dans la recherche. Lors de cette seconde tape de l'exprimentation, les observations et analyses, dans un contexte

se rapprochant de celui de la classe ordinaire, doivent aboutir la rdaction d'un cahier des charges beaucoup plus

dtaill et oprationnel pour la mise en place de la dernire tape de l'exprimentation : en appui sur les ingnieries

prcdemment construites, le suivi d' lves dans des classes ordinaires et le suivi de cohortes d'lves dans les

classes des professeurs pilotes et des professeurs du second cercle des LA, seront conduits.

3. De nombreuses exprimentations en classe ont permis de constater une modication du systme de connaissances mathmatiques

d'lves et la possibilit d'institutionnalisation de savoirs, notamment en calcul numrique et en calcul littral.

4. Les lieux d'ducation associs l'IF sont des lieux o des quipes de terrain travaillent en collaboration avec des chercheurs. Ils

construisent ensemble un projet de recherche qui est signiant pour l'ensemble des acteurs impliqus. Le dveloppement des LA est au

cur du projet scientique de l'IF.

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Figure 4.3 Problmes de recherche et nuds de savoir, en lien avec les programmes de la classe de quatrime en

France

Conclusion

Nous avons dj mens des travaux sur la mise en uvre dans une classe ordinaire de situations de recherche ainsi

que des expriences de diusion de situations de recherche dans le cadre de la formation continue des enseignants dans

les acadmies de Lyon et de Montpellier. Le projet propos permet maintenant une tude une chelle suprieure. Il doit

statuer sur la viabilit des propositions d'organisation du curriculum fortement en appui sur les situations de recherche

mais galement proposer des lments sur la diusion des comptences travailles dans ces activits de recherche aux

autres cadres de l'activit mathmatique et ceci sur des eectifs d'lves consquents. Compte tenu des questions

de recherche poses, des rsultats sont attendus tout au long des deux prochaines annes d'exprimentation. Ils

permettront d'changer sur une approche qui doit rintroduire de la consistance mathmatique dans les enseignements.

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Basque, A. (2009). Un modle de formation intgrant le mentorat, la pratique en milieu de travail, la communaut

de praticiens-apprenants en ligne et la co-modlisation des connaissances pour des programmes d'tudes universitaires

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Kalliopi Pavlopoulou*,Tasos Patronis**, Maria Andrikopoulou**

*School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens

**Department of Mathematics, University of Patras

Rsum : On a donn des lves d'un Collge Exprimental Athnes un scenario qui combine la syntaxe mathmatique avec des

signications sociales et une dose d'humour critique. Les lves devaient dcoder un message relatif aux rgles de la priorit des oprations

algbriques, travers d'un texte-adaptation d'une histoire de J. Thurber. Le scnario a introduit les lves une activit de caractre

socio-mathmatique et plus que la moiti de la classe a russi la tache donne.

Abstract : A scenario combining mathematical syntax with social meaning and a sense of humor was given to classes of 7

th

grade, in

an experimental school of Athens. The students should decode a message related to priority of algebraic operations, through a text adapted

from a story of J. Thurber. The scenario led the students to a socio-mathematical kind of activity and more than half of them to fulll the

given task.

A theoretical distinction

Imaginary stories and tales have been used several times in teaching mathematics. They usually attract attention

of young children, but it does not seem to exist a general agreement about their pedagogical value. Being considered as magic contexts, their use has been criticised as oering a non realistic mathematical pedagogy (Streeand,

1984/1985). Freudenthal (1982) has also discussed the impact of magic contexts on children's thought in relation

to the well known phenomenon of L'Age du Capitaine, thus indicating that the didactical contract need not be

considered as the only possible cause of children's illogical reaction.

Instead of classifying mathematical pedagogies with respect to their claimed philosophy, we may focus on their

actual teaching-learning process and its relation to the motives and goals of teaching : if these are all situated outside

the teaching-learning process, then we speak of an instrumental educational frame ; while if at least a part of motives

and goals lies inside the teaching-learning process, we speak of a critical-hermeneutic educational frame since the

teaching and learning involves some reection and understanding of what is actually learned and why. By leaving

aside questions of meaning, instrumental educational frames are perhaps responsible for rote learning and for the

well known responses to meaningless mathematical scenario such as L'Age du Capitaine (see, for example, Patronis,

1996).

Our experiment

Our scenario (in two versions) borrows some elements from the story The Thirteen Clocks of James Thurber .

More specically, the following text was proposed as a scenario to a class of 7th grade from an experimental school in

Athens :

In games and contests time must always be determined. How much time do I need to nd a thousand sapphires ?,

asked the prince Zorn of Zorna. If days of your life have to be taken away, you also need to rest somehow Then this

terrible adventure will take eleven times the days of a week, if you rst add to them one day and a half and then

subtract a three days weekend., said Golux after three minutes of reection. But be aware of the calculations :

SUMAL the thing we have got from the Duke for doing such work easily does not do anything more than what you

tell it to do !. All right,replied the prince, whatever I say to SUMAL I am going also to write down, so that I see

what am I asking the SUMAL to do.. What did Zorn of Zorna write down on his paper ?

This was the nal form of the text, as result of a pilot research before our main experiment. This scenario is

coherent with Thurber's own attitude and sense of humour ; he addresses his story to both children and adults,

critically integrating elements from the past and present. Thus, following the critical humouristic spirit of Thurber,

we developed the above Golux sentense as a meta -magic one, rather than a mere rule in some magic language game.

This means that the text includes (in an open and implicit manner) some ethical social reason of the proposed magic

formula : people deserve rest and recovering within the risks and anxiety of today life.

A second, shorter, version was proposed to another class of 7th grades from the same school, as follows :

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In games and contests time must always be determined. How much time do I need to nd a thousand sapphires ?,

asked the prince Zorn of Zorna. In order to nd the required time, subtract twice the number of days of a week from

the number of hours of a full day, and divide the result by two., said Golux. But be aware of the calculations :

SUMAL the thing we have got from the Duke for doing such work easilydoes not do anything more than what you

tell it to do !. All right, replied the prince, whatever I say to SUMAL I am going also to write down, so that I see

what am I asking the SUMAL to do.. What did Zorn of Zorna write down on his paper ?

a to see how would the students react to an imaginary story as above and whether they would conceive the rst

version of the scenario as symbolizing a current social situation ;

b to see if the students would address a pragmatic critique to the given mathematical scenario (in both versions) ; and

c to examine in what extent the students would be able to express a part of the text into mathematical operations,

without following a linear reading of the text.

The second version (in fact an elusive puzzle) aimed, more specically, to test students' critical competence : would

they question the puzzle's unspecied data ?

In what concerns the rst version, some students did a critical reading of the text and sometimes extended the

story. These students also did many comments on the scenario of the problem stated :

The formulation appeared to them as unusual for a mathematical problem and the nal question was not clear

for them. This question should be formulated as : How many days needs Zorn to nd the sapphires ?, a student

said.

Although they expressed their criticism at the beginning, most of the students have been involved in the scenario

and they attributed to SUMAL not only the role of a calculator but also that of a robot-servant ! So, they wrote

the instructions to SUMAL either by using an algorithmic procedure, by reversing the sequence of the operations

in the verbal formulation : add 7 with 1,5 and then subtract from the sum the number 3. Finally, multiplicate

the result by 11. or, by giving instructions refering to needs of daily life : Prepare the table because I'm hungry

now !

There was a questioning about the phrase subtract a three days weekend : some students said that it is not

necessary to subtract a three days weekend because SUMAL works without being tired, so it does not need to

relax, so I don't subtract. But, if Zorn has to do this work, he needs a relaxation . . ..

General results

The rate of absolute success (right decoding and right result) in the rst version of the scenario was more than

50% (14 to 27 students). Also, 3 of the 27 students decoded perfectly the series of operations, but they arrived to a

false result due to multiplication of 11 by a decimal number. Not correct answers were given by 9 to 27 students. Only

4 to 27 did a linear reading and 5 students misunderstood the formulation by answering : 11 (7 + 1, 5) 3 = 90, 5

days.

One third of the students criticized the second version of the scenario as incomplete or incorrect, since there is no

information about units of time. However, another third produced the result 5 without any comment, while others

chose arbitrary units (e.g., hours).

First version of the scenario

Arithmetical data in symbolic form do not appear in the text and students are not used to solve such problems

in mathematics. However, most students did not follow a number consideration strategy (Garofalo, 1992), but they

insisted to understand the scenario.

The most usual type of students' responses show a partial understanding of the text :

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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a A linear reading of the text, given in verbal form, and linear translation in symbolic form : 117 = 77days+1.5 =

78.5 3days= 75.5 days

b Students rarely understand the text as a whole unity, but conceive it in fragments. Some students did the translation

step by step :

add to them one day and a half 7 + 1.5 = 8.5 eleven times the days of a week. . . 11 8, 5 = 93, 5

subtract a three day weekend 93, 5 3 = 90, 5

Second version of the scenario We observe four categories of responses in the second version of our scenario.

Some students responsed by giving two or more possible answers, so they may belong to more than one of the following

categories :

1.

Rational/Pragmatic critique :

about one third of the students red critically the formulation of the problem by

judging it as incorrect or incomplete :

We don't know what 5 is. It could be seconds, minutes, years, days, weeks, years. For this reason it's impossible

to know how much time Zorn of Zorna would need to nd the sapphires.

2.

3.

Homogeneous units :

about half of the students. Among them 9 students did successfully the translation to symbolic form, but found

a result 5 :

[24 (2 7)] : 2 = 5 or 24 14 = 10, 10 : 2 = 5

Also, 6 students assigned (arbitrarily) a unit of time to their results (most of them used hours and only one used

minutes).

Some students were led by the scenario to turn the given (absolute) numbers into their

equivalents in hours or days, thus obtaining impossible solutions :

From hours we cannot subtract days, so if 1 day has 24 hours, 14 days have14 24hours = 408 hours (false,

due to calculation), 24 - 408 = impossible. . .

[(24 7) 2] 24 = (168 2) 24 = 336 24 = 312.

As a rst result we observed a strong interest of students in the given text. Students' reactions lead us to continue

a research with other scenario concerning the teaching of mathematics in Elementary and High School, in interaction

with the teaching of literature. Although some of the students' responses show a non-mathematical involvement in the

scenario, the same students performed mathematical calculations and produced mostly logical arithmetical answers.

In this sense we have here a complex socio-mathematical activity, similar to that of popularization of mathematics.

It is also interesting that in case of the second version, one third of the students questioned the unspecied data.

Moreover, some students were led to turn the given (absolute) numbers into their equivalents in hours or days, thus

potentially arriving to negative numbers.

As regards our aims in general we note that more than half of our students were able to translate successfully a

verbal message into mathematical operations, and only a small part followed a linear reading of the text. A systematic

work with texts like this could help students, more generally, in the transformation of natural language to symbolic

expressions and vice versa a procedure needed in problem solving and meaningful learning of mathematics.

REFERENCES

Freudenthal, H. (1982). 'Fiabilit, Validit et Pertinence - Critres de la Recherche sur l'Enseignment de la Mathmatique', Educational Studies in Mathematics, 13, 395-408.

Garofalo, J. (1992). 'Number-consideration strategies students use to solve word problems', Focus on Learning

Problems in Mathematics, 14, 2, 37-50.

Patronis, T. (1996). 'Scene-Setting versus Embodiment : common sense as part of non-institutionalised knowledge',

Proceedings of CIEAEM 47.

Streeand, L. (1984/1985). 'Search for the roots of ratio', Educational Studies in Mathematics, 15 (327-348) and

16 (75-94).

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Nina Bohlmann, Hauke Straehler-Pohl, Uwe Gellert

Frei Universitt Berlin

Rsum : La ralit dans la classe de mathmatiques est toujours une ralit porte avec un regard mathmatique. Quand les

mathmatiques sont mis en action, la ralit ne reste pas la mme. Cette ltration de la ralit apparat comme un mcanisme intgr

aux mathmatiques l'cole produit par un principe de recontextualisation. Lorsque les apprenants ne reconnaissent pas ce processus, ils

sont en danger de mconnatre la fonction didactique de la ralit de l'apprentissage des mathmatiques et, par consquent, ne sont pas en

mesure de produire un texte lgitime dans le contexte de la classe. Nous soutenons pour faire face au dilemme de la ltration de la ralit

comme une ncessit structurelle des mathmatiques l'cole et de prendre ce dilemme comme un point de dpart pour trouver des moyens

de production pour aller de l'avant. Une stratgie visant orir l'galit des chances pour l'apprentissage des mathmatiques est d'largir

la prise de conscience de la ltration de la ralit et de la transformer en un outil pour les tudiants, qui restent habituellement dans le

non-dit et donc la comprhension des rgles est rserve quelques-uns, qui peuvent utiliser cet outil pour les placer dans une position

d'apprenants mathmatiquement capables . Lors de l'laboration d'une stratgie pour rendre le processus de ltration de la ralit

visible, nous avons t inspirs par le travail de De Freitas (2008), et nous avons fait participer les lves une activit de dconstruction

des ralits direntes dans un ensemble de trois activits mathmatiquement similaires, mais dans des contextes totalement dirents les problmes de mot. Nous discutons de cette activit et nous examinons de manire critique la faon dont la ltration de la ralit peut

tre rendu visible pour les tudiants.

Abstract : Reality in the mathematics classroom is always a reality under a mathematical gaze. When mathematics is brought into

action, the reality does not remain the same. This reality ltration appears as an in-built mechanism of school mathematics as it is produced

by the recontextualisation principle. When learners of mathematics do not recognize this process, they are in danger of misunderstanding

the didactical function of reality for the learning of mathematics and, thus, are not able to produce legitimate text. We argue for facing the

dilemma of reality ltration as a structural necessity of school mathematics and for taking this dilemma as a point of departure for nding

productive ways forward. One strategy to provide equal opportunities for mathematics learning is to broaden the awareness of reality

ltration and to convert it into a tool for the students, that usually remains in the unspoken and hence reserved to just some, who can use

this selectively distributed tool to position themselves as 'mathematically able' learners. In developing a strategy for making the process

of reality ltration visible, we were inspired by the work of De Freitas (2008), and we involved students in an activity of deconstructing

the dierent realities in a set of three -mathematically similar, contextually totally dierent- word problems. We discuss this activity and

critically examine how reality ltration can be made visible to the students.

Introduction

Where school mathematics is taught by modelling and applications, by context tasks and mathematics in everyday

context, a mathematical gaze is thrown on reality. This particular gaze brings about a requirement for recognition

of some selected elements of reality and a suppression of all others. Experiences of life very seldom provide adequate

means for such recognition. In this way, the gaze decontextualizes reality and recontextualizes its selected elements in

pedagogic practice. As Bernstein (2000) argues, the recontextualising principle as a key organizer of school mathematics practice is hardly known to all those learners of school mathematics whose orientation to meaning can be described

as contextual rather than as decontextual, as concrete rather than as abstract. When learners of mathematics do not

recognize that 'in the classroom' reality is always a reality under a mathematical gaze, they are in danger of misunderstanding the didactical function of reality for the learning of mathematics and, thus, not able to produce legitimate

text (e.g., Gorgori, Planas and Vilella 2002). In this way, context problems bear the danger of marginalizing students' experiences of life, of mythologizing the relation between mathematics and life, and of jeopardizing disciplinary

mathematical learning (Dowling 1998). Therefore, it has been argued (e.g., Bourne 2004, Jablonka and Gellert 2012,

Cooper and Dunne 2000) that it is necessary 'and possible' to make the recontextualisation principle, to some extent,

visible also for those learners, who do not enter schools already equipped with the prevalent recognition rules. But

how can this be achieved ?

Reality ltration

As argued above, reality in the mathematics classroom is a reality under a mathematical gaze. When modelling

and application tasks are designed, this happens under the primacy of fostering the learning of mathematics. When

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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mathematics is brought into action, the reality does not remain the same. Skovsmose discusses an experience with

a teaching project 'Family support in a Micro-Society' where students are rst involved in formulating principles

according to how they want to distribute child benets among families (cf. Skovsmose, 1994, ch. 9). He reports how

'[t]he ethical principle, which might have guided the initial considerations [of the students], becomes substituted by

the technical administration of the system' (Skovsmose 2008, p. 166f.). He calls the repression of the ethical principle

by means of mathematisation an 'ethical ltration' (p. 167). For Skovsmose, a critical approach to mathematics

education addresses this phenomenon 'as a general feature of bringing mathematics into action' (p. 167). According to

De Freitas (2008, p. 87), even politically delicate contexts, such as working with statistics of homeless people, gender

and racial bias, run the risk to become reduced to 'extremely inadequate and often unethical representations of the

'real' experience of those under study' in the mathematics classroom.

Similar to the ethical ltration eect caused by mathematisation, a reality ltration eect is produced by the

recontextualisation principle. The subordination of reality to the learning of mathematics is an inherent characteristic

of the structure of school mathematics. There seems to be reason to talk about the impossibility of real-life problems

in mathematics classrooms (Gerofsky 2010, Lundin 2012). Reality ltration appears as an in-built mechanism of school

mathematics. We argue for facing the dilemma of reality ltration as a structural necessity of school mathematics and

for taking this dilemma as a point of departure for nding productive ways forward.

Accepting that the recontextualisation of 'reality' in school mathematics and the eect of reality ltration are

structural necessities of mathematics education, we conclude that one strategy to provide equal opportunities for

mathematics learning is to broaden the awareness of reality ltration and to convert it into a tool for the students.

A tool that usually remains in the unspoken and hence remains reserved to just some, who can use this selectively

distributed tool to position themselves as 'mathematically able' learners.

In developing a strategy for making the process of reality ltration visible, we were inspired by De Freitas (2008)

who introduced future mathematics teachers to an activity of re-writing textbook problems, making them aware of and

critical about the 'real' as it was presented in the problems, by shifting contexts of context tasks while maintaining the

mathematical structure unchanged. We transposed this activity in order to make it applicable for the work with sixthgrade students (11'12 years old). De Freitas' focus is on the potential of this activity for fostering critical awareness. In

our case, the critical awareness that we aim to foster is not directed towards political issues, but conned to a critical

awareness of the implicit principles of school mathematics. However, as we have argued above, this can be seen as a

political issue in itself.

In a professional development workshop, we involved mathematics teachers, which are used to work with underprivileged learners, in an activity of context variation. Together with the teachers, we developed a set of three word

problems that can be considered as variations of reality concerning one abstract problem of proportional reasoning.

The phases of a trac light are such that with every green phase, 14 people can cross the street. For the nal of

the UEFA Euro 2010, 269 people want to cross the central crossing at Brandenburg Gate to reach the central public

viewing on time for the kick-o. How many green phases are needed, so that all supporters can cross the road'

A sign in a lift at an oce block says : This lift can carry up to 14 people. In the morning rush, 269 people want

to go up in this lift. How many times must it go up ? (This was the original problem, on which the context variation

was based. It is discussed in Cooper and Dunne 2000)

In the morning, ve coaches reach the valley station of the cable car that supports the ski runs. 269 skiers leave

the coaches in order to take the cable car to the mountain station. A sign at the cable car says : This cable car can

carry up to 14 people. How many cable cars are needed at least to bring all skiers to the top'

One of the teachers from the professional development workshop designed a group-work activity in which dierent

groups of students worked on the dierent contexts. The groups prepared posters to present and justify their solutions.

After all presentations had been nished, the teacher started a whole-class discussion, shifting the focus on the relation

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between the word-problem's gaze on reality and the students' knowledge of these realities. In our paper presentation,

we will discuss excerpts from the whole-class discussion. The research question that guides our analysis is : How do

teachers transfer the context variation activity into the classroom and how do their students react ? In the remainder

of this paper, we summarise our preliminary ndings.

Findings

From the presentations of the student-groups, we can conclude that in each group were at least some students that

were able to execute a reality ltration and solve the problem in a way that was desired by the teacher. Also, the

groups worked according to the 'goldilocks principle' (Gates and Vistro-Yu 2003, p. 53) 'not too much, but not too

little realistic considerations' in their solutions and all produced the desired solution of 20. However, one has to be

careful to conclude from the fact, that all groups (as a collective) realised a reality ltration, to the assumption that

this process has been visible for all students within each group. Kotsopoulos (2010) demonstrates how group work can

be 'not collaborative' particularly for those students who are 'perceived as 'not getting it' or holding back the group's

progress' (p. 133).

The whole-class discussion of contexts A and B can be seen as good examples of how reality ltration can be made

visible to all students. Once the teacher had opened the space to formulate a critique on the problems' gaze on reality,

a wide variety of students showed up and articulated a whole range of realistic considerations that, however, have to

be suppressed, if one wants to come to a mathematical solution. The teacher makes explicit that this gaze is no natural

force, but has a social location, namely 'people who have invented these problems in these situations' (Teacher). The

students can, then, take part in an exercise of deconstructing the inventors' gaze. The cascades of student-utterances

without any interference of the teacher are not regular characteristics of German mathematic classrooms (Begehr

2004) and hence can be interpreted as a sign for a remarkable dissolution of power within this exercise. It seems that

a space in the mathematics classroom has been opened in which students could yield their knowledge about their lives

in a legitimate and appreciated way.

This process collapsed dramatically during the discussion of the third context, which had initially been designed

as the context with the least frictions between the real and the mathematical. The students' contributions, each of

them pointing towards the same deconstruction that had been appreciated before, was followed by a refutation from

the side of the teacher. Instead of valuing the students' consideration, she started to narrow the scope of reality down

to the particular situation, where the reality has to follow the rules of the word-problem.

We concede that our own initial conception of the method of context variation within the professional development

workshop might have played a role in this nal development that undermines our own aims : We proposed to design

three problems with a gradual progression concerning the degree of realistic (im)possibility. The teacher seemed to have

picked this up and put particular emphasis on it, as she formulated the aim of nding out, which of the problems was

the most realistic for the whole-class discussion. Finally, it appeared that she acted under a pressure to demonstrate

that the nal context was the most realistic and hence was not letting the students proceed in their exercise of

deconstructing the gaze of school mathematics.

REFERENCES

Begehr, Astrid (2004) Teilnahme und Teilhabe am Mathematikunterricht : Eine Analyse von Schlerpartizipation.

[Passive, Active, and Interactive Participation in Mathematics Classrooms : An Analysis of Participation]. Berlin :

Freie Universitt Berlin.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity : theory, research, critique. Lanham : Rowman and

Littleeld.

Bourne, J. (2004). Framing talk : towards a 'radical visible pedagogy'. In J. Muller, B. Davies & A. Morais (Eds.),

Reading Bernstein, researching Bernstein (pp. 61-74). London : RoutledgeFalmer.

Cooper, B., & Dunne, M. (2000). Assessing children's mathematical knowledge : social class, sex and problemsolving. Buckingham : Open University Press.

De Freitas, E. (2008). Critical mathematics education : recognizing the ethical dimension of problem solving.

International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 3(2), 79-95.

Dowling, P. (1998). The sociology of mathematics education : mathematical myths/pedagogic texts. London : RoutledgeFalmer.

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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Gates, P., & Vistro-Yu, C.P. (2003). Is mathematics for all ? In A.J. Bishop & al. (Eds) Second international

(pp. 31-74). Dordrecht : Kluwer.

Gerofsky, S. (2010). The impossibility of 'real-life' word problems (according to Bakhtin, Lacan, Zizek and Baudrillard). Discourse : Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(1), 61-73.

Gorgori, N., Planas, N., & Vilella, X. (2002). Immigrant children learning mathematics in mainstream schools. In

G. de Abreu, A.J. Bishop & N.C. Presmeg (Eds.), Transitions between contexts of mathematical practices (pp. 23-52).

Dordrecht : Kluwer.

Jablonka, E., & Gellert, U. (2012). Potential, pitfalls, and discriminations : curriculum conceptions revisited. In

O. Skovsmose & B. Greer (Eds.), Opening the cage : critique and politics of mathematics education (pp. 287-307).

Rotterdam : Sense.

Kotsopoulos, D. (2010). When collaborative is not collaborative : supporting student learning through self-surveillance,

International Journal of Educational Research, 49(4-5), 129-140

Lundin, S. (2012). Hating school, loving mathematics : on the ideological function of critique and reform in mathematics education. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 80(2), 73-85.

Skovsmose, O. (2004). Towards a philosophy of critical mathematics education. Dordrecht : Kluwer.

Skovsmose, O. (2008). Mathematics education in a knowledge market : developing functional and critical competencies. In E. de Freitas & K. Nolan (Eds.), Opening the research text : critical insights and in(ter)ventions into

mathematics education (pp. 159-174). New York : Springer.

handbook of mathematics education

Chapitre 4

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4.5 Des problmes pour favoriser la dvolution du processus de mathmatisation : un exemple en thorie des nombres et une ction raliste

Gilles Aldon*, Viviane Durand-Guerrier**, Benoit Ray***

*IF - cole Normale Suprieure de Lyon, France

**Universit de Montpellier 2, France

***Lyce franais de Tunis, Tunisie

Rsum : La modlisation est un processus complexe et souvent dicile pour peu que les phnomnes tudis soient issus de situations

relles. C'est pourtant un travail important du mathmaticien qui mrite d'tre abord dans l'enseignement des mathmatiques. Dans le

processus de recherche de problmes dans l'enseignement, nous avons test la fois des noncs poss au sein des mathmatiques et d'autres

poss en dehors des mathmatiques qualies de ctions ralistes (pour lesquelles un problme insr dans un contexte ctionnel permet

la mise en uvre d'un processus de modlisation par les lves). Nous faisons l'hypothse que la rsolution de problmes relevant de l'une ou

l'autre de ces deux catgories participe la fois au dveloppement de comptences meta-mathmatiques et de connaissances mathmatiques.

Abstract : Modeling is a complex and dicult process as long as the studied phenomena come from real situations. However it's

an important part of the work of mathematicians that needs to be addressed in the teaching of mathematics. We have experienced two

dierent types of problems, the rst within mathematics and the second in form of realistic ctions , that is to say, a problem inserted

in a ctional context allowing a modeling process. We hypothesize that the solving of both types of problem is involved in construction of

meta-mathematical skills as well as mathematical knowledge.

Introduction

Depuis de nombreuses annes les quipes DREAM (Dmarches de recherche pour l'enseignement et l'apprentissage

des mathmatiques, IREM de Lyon) et Resco (Rsolution collaborative de problmes, IREM de Montpellier) travaillent

conjointement l'introduction de problmes de recherches dans le cours de mathmatiques. Le travail de l'quipe

DREAM s'appuie sur l'ensemble des travaux dvelopps autour du problme ouvert au sein de l'IREM de Lyon depuis

plus de vingt ans, ainsi que sur les travaux de recherche dvelopps au LEPS sur la dimension exprimentale des

mathmatiques dans la perspective de leur apprentissage (Dias & Durand-Guerrier, 2005) ; l'quipe DREAM a

produit un cdrom, EXPRIME (Aldon & al. 2010) prsentant, dans le cadre des recherches du groupe, sept situations

de recherche pour la classe. Le dispositif de rsolution collaborative de problmes de l'quipe ResCo (Sauter & al.

2008) repose sur des changes entre des classes qui cherchent rsoudre le mme problme, pos sous une forme non

mathmatique. Pendant cinq semaines, les lves changent des questions, des rponses, des ides, des procdures et

des conjectures. Les deux premires semaines sont consacres l'exploration du problme et aux premires pistes vers

une mathmatisation. Une relance recentre les recherches sur un problme mathmatique commun, travaill pendant

les deux semaines suivantes. La session se termine par la rdaction d'un compte-rendu individuel de la recherche qui

va alimenter le dbat de clture de la cinquime semaine. La spcicit de ce dispositif conduit proposer des noncs

originaux rpondant un certain nombre de contraintes et que nous appelons ctions ralistes . Nous prsentons

brivement nos hypothses et le cadre de notre travail.

A la suite de nombreux travaux de didactique des mathmatiques conduits depuis les annes 1980, les prconisations

institutionnelles en France mettent en avant depuis plusieurs annes la ncessit de mettre la rsolution de problme

au cur de l'activit mathmatiques et de proposer en classe des problmes issues d'autres domaines disciplinaires ou

de la vie courante pour permettre aux lves de donner du sens aux mathmatiques tudies. S'inscrivant dans cette

dynamique, et prenant acte du constat de la dicult d'une mise en uvre gnralise par les enseignants de telles pratiques, nous dveloppons des situations au sens de Brousseau (2004) et proposons des formation visant accompagner

les enseignants mettre en place des activits de rsolution de problmes en classe (Aldon & Durand-Guerrier, 2009).

Un des enjeux des situations que nous laborons est de proposer un vritable travail de mathmatisation, c'est dire

une dvolution du choix des outils qui pourront tre utiliss pour avancer dans la rsolution des problmes. Deux types

de situations ont t labores et testes : d'une part des situations pour lesquelles le questionnement est interne aux

mathmatiques (Gardes, 2013) et d'autre part des situations poses sous une forme non mathmatique en laissant

CHAPITRE 4. WORKING GROUP 2

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147

la responsabilit des lves une phase de mathmatisation pralable la rsolution mathmatique du problme. Dans

cette communication, nous nous intressons plus particulirement au processus de mathmatisation dans le cas de

deux situations. La premire situation est issue du cdrom EXPRIME (Aldon & al. 2010) qui prsente 7 situations

mathmatiques, leurs analyses et leurs dclinaisons dirents niveaux d'enseignement. La deuxime situation est un

exemple de ction raliste dveloppe dans le cadre du dispositif de rsolution collaborative de problme.

Le premier exemple, tir du cdrom Exprime, concerne le problme mathmatique suivant :

Trouver tous les nombres entiers qui sont la somme d'au moins deux nombres

entiers naturels conscutifs.

L'nonc du problme en thorie lmentaire des nombres

Un objectif de notre travail est de reprer les connaissances mathmatiques qui peuvent tre mobilises dirents

niveaux de classe dans une situation didactique (Brousseau 2004) labore pour permettre aux lves de rentrer

dans une vritable recherche s'appuyant sur des connaissances naturalises et permettant de construire de nouvelles

connaissances dans le va et vient entre l'exprience sur des objets en cours de construction et les thories sous-jacentes

Dans ce qui suit, nous montrons direntes approches possibles et les connaissances mobilises ou mobiliser pour

prolonger le raisonnement.

Une exprimentation numrique peut rapidement conduire la conjecture que les puissances de 2 ne seront pas

atteintes ; cette approche met en uvre des connaissances sur les calculs de sommes d'entiers tant d'un point de vue du

calcul mental que du calcul rchi. L'utilisation de la calculatrice peut faciliter les contrles. Cette approche est trs

fconde pour trouver la conjecture mais insusante pour la dmontrer. La mathmatisation du problme passe alors

par le choix d'autres outils. Une rsolution algbrique cherchant construire une formule explicite de la somme de

deux entiers conscutifs, de trois entiers, etc. conduit trouver exprimentalement la forme de chacune de ces sommes

et rciproquement de montrer que tous les nombres de cette forme sont atteints ; par exemple, avec deux nombres

conscutifs, on atteint tous les impairs :

n + n + 1 = 2n + 1 est impair

si p est impair, p = 2n + 1 = n + (n + 1).

Avec trois nombres conscutifs :

(n 1) + n + (n + 1) = 3n et les multiples de 3 sont atteints

si p est un multiple de 3, alors p = 3n = (n 1) + n + (n + 1)

S'engager dans cette stratgie conduit d'une part dgager des sous-problmes, se poser le problme de la

dmonstration, de la preuve, de la rciproque, observer des invariants et/ou des relations de rcurrence conjectures

et construites sur les rsultats de l'exprience. Les connaissances mathmatiques en jeu et qui sont travailles sont

nombreuses : l'utilisation de la lettre pour dsigner un nombre, des lments de calcul algbrique, les dcompositions

des nombres entiers naturels, les entiers pairs, impairs et leur caractrisation algbrique , oprationnelle oppose

la caractrisation numrique, la divisibilit et les multiples d'un nombre, l encore regard d'une faon algbrique. Ces

connaissances aermies par les aller-retour avec l'exprience sont alors susantes pour construire une dmonstration

de la conjecture, pour peu que la formule de Gauss de la somme des n premiers entiers naturels : Sn=1+2+3+. . .+n

soit connue (nous donnons la preuve correspondante en annexe 1).

Cette analyse (incomplte, puisqu'on pourrait aussi analyser les apports de technologies, calculatrices, tableurs,

etc. dans la recherche) met en vidence la ncessaire mathmatisation du problme pour aller au-del des simples

constats. Cette mathmatisation peut utiliser des outils mathmatiques et des comptences varies et le problme

conduit les lves manipuler leurs connaissances et les approfondir.

Pourquoi des ctions ralistes ?

Comme nous l'avons dit en introduction, le dispositif de rsolution collaborative de problme prsente l'originalit

de faire travailler des classes en rseau sur une dure de cinq semaines en mettant en place dans une premire phase

un jeu de questions rponses entre deux ou trois classes comme prliminaire un travail de mathmatisation. Le

Chapitre 4

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148

travail mathmatique est alors engag par le biais d'une relance envoye aux lves par un enseignant chercheur

membre du groupe. De ce fait, les problmes qui sont proposs chaque anne ne sont pas poss directement sous forme

mathmatique, si bien qu'une fois envisag un problme mathmatique ou une famille de problme mathmatique

pour la session de formation annuelle, se pose la question de sa contextualisation en prenant en compte plusieurs

contraintes :

1. La contextualisation doit dissimuler susamment le problme mathmatique pour qu'il ne soit pas identi

immdiatement par les lves (autrement dit, on ne va pas se contenter d'un simple habillage du problme).

2. Une exploration par un moteur de recherche classique ne doit pas conduire immdiatement au problme ; le

problme doit donc tre nonc sous une forme originale.

3. Le problme doit pouvoir tre pos avec prot des lves ds le dbut du collge jusqu' la n du lyce 5 .

4. Le champ des possibles pour la mathmatisation du problme est susamment ouvert pour que le jeu des

questions rponses soit riche et pertinent ; autrement dit, dirents problmes mathmatiques peuvent merger,

que les lves peuvent tous envisager selon le niveau de classe.

5. La relance doit pouvoir tre comprise par les lves comme rpondant certaines de leurs questions et comme

xant de manire non articielle certains des lments du problme.

La prise en compte de l'ensemble de ces contraintes et l'observation naturaliste de notre manire de travailler

cette laboration nous a conduits introduire la notion de ction raliste pour dcrire des situations rpondant

autant que faire se peut l'ensemble de ces caractristiques.

L'exemple du problme propos par ResCo en 2009-2010 va nous permettre d'illustrer ce qui prcde. Le problme

mathmatique initial est le problme classique du nombre de rgions dans un disque :

On place n points sur un cercle. Combien de rgions dtermine-t-on l'intrieur

de ce cercle en joignant les points deux deux ?

L'nonc du problme mathmatique initial

Plusieurs contextes possibles ont t envisags pour aboutir une ction raliste. Finalement, c'est l'ide de la

ralisation d'une uvre contemporaine qui a t retenue et qui a permis de faire merger le problme de l'artiste

sous la forme suivante, comme il a t prsent aux lves.

Un artiste contemporain veut raliser une uvre sur un support rond, en plantant des clous sur le pourtour et en tendant des ls entre les clous. Il se propose

de peindre chaque zone d'une couleur dirente. De combien de couleurs aurat-il besoin ?

L'nonc du problme de l'artiste

Le problme de l'artiste a t construit pour remplir les contraintes identies ci-dessus ; sa mise en uvre dans

deux sessions de rsolution collaborative (novembre-dcembre 2009 (16 classes de la 6me la Terminale) et en janvierfvrier 2010 (22 classes de la 6me la seconde)) a conrm que c'tait bien le cas. En eet, les lves ne reconnaissent

pas immdiatement le problme mathmatique sous-jacent (critre 1) ; nous nous sommes assurs que la recherche sur

Internet ne renvoyait pas ce problme (critre 2) ; il peut tre propos de la 6me la Terminale (critre 3) voire

mme au-del. En outre, le champ des possibles pour la mathmatisation est susamment ouvert et le jeu de questions

rponses est consistant (critre 4) ; par exemple : a) le support est un disque, ou un autre objet rond (sphre, tore

etc.) - b) on choisit ou pas de nglige la taille des objets (les clous sont assimils des points, les ls tendus sont des

segments de droite) ou pas - c) chaque clou est reli tous les autres, ou pas - d) les clous sont placs de manire

rgulire sur le bord du disque ou non - e) il existe ou il n'existe pas de points communs plus de deux cordes etc.

Selon les valeurs prises par les variables indiques, on aboutit des problmes mathmatiques dirents ; toutes

ces variables ont donn lieu des questions pertinentes d'lves ; en prenant en compte les contenus de ces changes,

5. C'est dire pour des lves de 11 ans (dbut du collge) 18 ans (n du lyce).

Lyon

149

la relance (voir annexe 3) a x les valeurs de ces variables an de conduire au problme classique de rgionnement du

disque (on cherche le nombre maximal de zones), ceci de manire non articielle (critre 5). L'analyse des changes de

questions et de rponses est dtaille dans Ray (2013) ; elle montre qu'une dvolution du processus de mathmatisation

a eectivement eu lieu lors de cette premire phase de recherche : sans qu'un modle unique ne soit impos, un travail

sur la reprsentation des objets rels a fait merger plusieurs candidats-modles (mme s'ils restent incomplets et pour

la plupart implicites).

Conclusion

Les deux types de situation que nous avons prsents correspondent deux approches complmentaires du jeu

qui se joue dans la confrontation un problme susceptible de relever d'un traitement mathmatique. Dans les deux

cas, le choix des problmes et l'organisation du travail des lves sont contrls minutieusement an de permettre la

dvolution du processus de mathmatisation. Les exprimentations faites tant avec les problmes de EXPRIME ou les

ctions ralistes labores par ResCo tendant montrer que le rapport des lves aux mathmatiques volue pour se

rapprocher de ce qui est prconis par l'institution en accord avec les rsultats des travaux internationaux de recherche

en ducation mathmatique sur la rsolution de problmes. Pour prolonger ce travail, des questions concernant les

apprentissages des mathmatiques se posent encore, notamment : les problmes de recherche qui dveloppent une forme

d'acquisition des savoirs font ils progresser les lves dans les autres domaines de l'activit mathmatique ? Comment

les lves rinvestissent-ils dans d'autres cadres les comptences et les connaissances dveloppes ?

REFERENCES

Aldon, G., Durand-Guerrier, V. (2011). Exprime, une ressource pour les professeurs. In Kuzniak, A., Sokhna,

M. (Eds) Actes du colloque Espace mathmatique francophone : Enseignement des mathmatiques et dveloppement :

enjeux de socit et de formation, Universit Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar

Aldon, G., Cahuet, P.-Y., Durand-Guerrier, V., Front, M., Krieger, D., Mizony, M., & Tardy, C. (2010). Exprimenter des problmes de recherche innovants en mathmatiques l'cole. Cdrom, INRP.

Brousseau, G. (2004). Thories des situations didactiques. La pense sauvage, Grenoble.

Dias T., Durand-Guerrier V. (2005) Exprimenter pour apprendre en mathmatiques, Repres IREM, 60, pp. 61-78

Gardes M-L. (2013) tude de processus de recherche de chercheurs, lves et tudiants, engags dans la recherche

d'un problme non rsolu en thorie des nombres. Thse de doctorat. Universit de Lyon 1.

Ray, B. (2013) Les ctions ralistes : un outil pour favoriser la dvolution du processus de modlisation mathmatique. Une tude de cas dans le cadre de la rsolution collaborative de problme. Mmoire de Master 2 Recherche

Histoire, Philosophie et didactique des Sciences, Universits Lyon 1 et Montpellier 2.

Sauter M., Combes M.-C., De Crozals, A., Droniou J., Lacage M., Saumade H., Thret D., (2008) Une communaut

d'enseignants pour une recherche collaborative de problmes,Repres IREM. 72., 25-45

N tant un entier naturel, on cherche s'il existe deux entiers naturels a et b tels que

N = Sa+b1 Sa1

Ce qui conduit

2N = (a + b)2 a b a2 + a = b(2a + b 1)

Si b est pair : 2a + b 1 est impair.

Si b est impair : 2a + b 1 est pair.

Par consquent, les deux entiers b et 2a + b 1 ne sont pas de mme parit et comme leur produit est gal 2N ,

cela entrane que N possde un facteur premier impair : N n'est donc pas une puissance de 2.

Rciproquement, 2N est le produit d'un nombre impair et d'un nombre pair et 2N = b(2a + b 1)

si i < p alors il sut de poser b = i et p = 2a + b 1 , soit a = (p b + 1)/2

si i > p alors il sut de poser b = p et i = 2a + b 1, soit a = (i b + 1)/2

Chapitre 4

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150

La conjecture est ainsi compltement dmontre, et cette dmonstration donne un procd pratique pour dterminer

a et b entiers naturels tels que N = a + (a + 1) + (a + 2) + + (a + b 1).

Montpellier, le 24 janvier 2010

Le problme de l'Artiste

Dans toutes les classes, vous avez dj bien travaill sur le problme de l'Artiste que nous vous avons propos et

plusieurs pistes possibles ont t envisages.

On voudrait pouvoir donner une rponse prcise l'Artiste an de l'aider faire ses choix pour raliser son uvre.

Pour cela, on se propose de traiter mathmatiquement le Problme de l'Artiste.

Dans ce but, je vous propose de considrer que :

1. Le nombre de couleurs est le nombre de zones.

2. On cherche une solution gnrale, c'est--dire qu'on cherche le nombre maximum de zones en fonction du nombre

de clous.

3. Le support de l'uvre est un disque et les clous sont rpartis sur sa circonfrence.

4. La taille du support est susante pour que l'on puisse ngliger la taille des clous et l'paisseur des ls. Par

consquent, on assimile les clous des points, et les ls tendus des segments de droite.

Je vous souhaite tous et toutes une trs bonne poursuite de la recherche.

Viviane DURAND-GUERRIER

Universit Montpellier 2

Dpartement de Mathmatiques

Lyon

151

4.6 Proposition d'ingnierie pour l'tude de la proportionnalit par confrontation la non-proportionnalit via des manipulations

Valrie Henry, Pauline Lambrecht

UNamur et CREM (Belgique)

Rsum : La thse de Pauline

Lambrecht

ce, par l'introduction de manipulations et la confrontation la non-proportionnalit. Ainsi, l'observation de la variation du volume d'un

cylindre en fonction de sa hauteur dans un premier temps et en fonction de son diamtre dans un second temps amne les lves construire

les caractristiques d'un phnomne proportionnel par comparaison avec un phnomne qui ne l'est pas. Le cadre de la recherche ainsi que

quelques lments de la validation interne (analyses a priori et a posteriori ) sont abords dans ce texte.

Abstract : Pauline

Lambrecht's

thesis is based on a sequence intended to encourage proportionality's learning and this, by the

introduction of manipulations and comparison to non-proportionality. Thus, the observation of the volume's variation of a cylinder as a

function of its height in a rst time and according to its diameter in a second time leads students to build the characteristics of proportional

phenomenon compared with a phenomenon which is not. The research framework and some elements of the internal validation (a priori

and a posteriori analysis) are discussed in this text.

Prsentation du problme

Cet article prsente un travail de thse en cours l'UNamur en Belgique. L'ingnierie dveloppe dans ce cadre

est en lien avec une recherche mene au Centre de Recherche sur l'Enseignement des Mathmatiques (CREM) de

Nivelles en Belgique. Ces trois dernires annes, une quipe de chercheurs a mis au point des activits, appeles Math

& Manips, intgrant des manipulations destines diverses tranches d'ge de l'enseignement (2 ans et demi 18 ans)

[9]. L'intrt de cette recherche est de prsenter aux enseignants l'apport d'une activit exprimentale dans le processus

de construction des savoirs mathmatiques.

Ces squences d'apprentissage prsentent une forte composante a-didactique et visent provoquer chez les lves de

la curiosit par des exprimentations dont les rsultats semblent en contradiction avec leurs connaissances antrieures.

Elles doivent amener les lves entrer dans un processus de questionnement visant faire merger un modle qui

correspond au mieux la ralit de la situation.

La squence prsente dans cet article est l'une de ces activits. Elle est destine aux lves du dbut du secondaire

(12-13 ans) et propose de confronter une situation de proportionnalit une autre qui ne l'est pas.

Dans cette squence, le passage de l'exprimental aux modles mathmatiques se fait dans dirents contextes

an de favoriser le passage d'un registre de reprsentation smiotique un autre. En eet, l'activit exprimentale

dbouche ncessairement sur un relev d'informations qui doivent tre traites de diverses manires. Les rsultats sont

dcrits dans le langage courant, intgrs dans des tableaux de nombres et interprts sous forme de graphiques.

De nombreux documents ayant trait l'apprentissage de la proportionnalit ont t crits ces dernires annes

et ont nourri notre rexion. Ainsi, l'ouvrage de

et

[2] dcrit la

dicult de cette notion et prsente notamment une classication des problmes de proportionnalit. Dans la publication de

et

[13], on retrouve galement direntes procdures lies la proportionnalit.

tudie dans sa thse [10] les problmes de proportionnalit ainsi que l'utilisation d'un logiciel pour aider

l'apprentissage de la proportionnalit. Une tude belge mene par

&

[8] s'attache l'enseignement de la proportionnalit. Les auteurs ont rassembl dans ce document des donnes de diverses recherches en

didactique des mathmatiques et classent galement les problmes de proportionnalit suivant une typologie propose

par

(proportionnalit simple et directe, proportionnalit simple compose et proportionnalit multiple).

Plusieurs articles de revues ont galement trait la proportionnalit. Citons entre autres ceux de

[4] et de

et

[6] dans Recherches en Didactique des Mathmatiques et celui de

et

[11]

dans Journal for Research in Mathematics Education par exemple. Notons qu'un groupe international de la Psychology

of Mathematics Education s'intresse l'tude de la proportionnalit[8].

La plupart de ces textes soulvent la dicult de l'apprentissage de cette notion, souvent lie la multiplicit des

catgories de problmes. Notre angle de travail a fortement t inspir par la lecture de travaux relatifs la prgnance

Hersant

Vergnaud

Dupuis Pluvinage

Chapitre 4

Comin

Hoyles, Noss Pozzi

Lyon

152

du modle linaire (

[5]) dont voici un exemple : Mama put

3 towels on the clothesline. After 12 hours they were dry. Grandma put 6 towels on the clothesline. How long did it

take them to get dry ? 6 .

La squence labore vise ainsi principalement branler les conceptions initiales des apprenants par rapport la

rmanence du modle linaire.

Ds le dbut de ce travail, deux axes nous ont intresss. D'un ct, l'insertion de situations de non-proportionnalit

dans l'tude de la proportionnalit et de l'autre, l'intgration de manipulations pour les apprentissages lis la

proportionnalit. Cela nous a mens aux questions de recherches suivantes.

Une squence intgrant une situation de non-proportionnalit permettant la confrontation une situation de

proportionnalit est-elle un apport pour les apprentissages lis la proportionnalit ?

Une squence intgrant des manipulations permettant la confrontation aux perceptions initiales des lves est-elle

un apport pour les apprentissages lis la proportionnalit ?

Une squence intgrant situation de non-proportionnalit et manipulations permet-elle d'amliorer l'aptitude des

lves choisir un modle adquat pour traiter les diverses situations rencontres ? Et long terme ?

Nous sommes eectivement convaincus que tant les manipulations que la confrontation de la proportionnalit la

non-proportionnalit peuvent amener les lves un meilleur apprentissage de cette notion. C'est pourquoi la squence

d'apprentissage brivement prsente la section 4.6 a t mise au point

Cadre thorique

Brousseau

[3] et en

utilisant la mthodologie dcrite par

[1] comme prcis dans la section ci-dessous. De plus, notre travail

s'appuie sur la conversion de registre de reprsentation au sens de

[7].

Artigue

Duval

Artigue

Pour construire l'ingnierie dont il est question dans ce papier, nous avons suivi le processus prsent par

[1] pour lequel elle distingue quatre phases.

La premire concerne les analyses pralables. Comme nous l'avons soulign dans la section 4.6, de nombreux

travaux ont dj t mens quant l'apprentissage de la proportionnalit mais la lecture des travaux de

[5] sur l'illusion de linarit ainsi que le regard sur le contenu de dirents

manuels belges nous ont amens prciser notre approche.

La deuxime phase reprend la conception et l'analyse a priori. La thorie des situations didactiques de

[3] a guid l'criture de la squence d'apprentissage. Nous souhaitions notamment crer un milieu qui permette de

dvoluer la situation aux lves en tant confronts leurs prconceptions errones. Quelques composantes de l'analyse

a priori sont exposes dans la section suivante.

Les troisime et quatrime phases sont respectivement celle de l'exprimentation et celle de l'analyse a posteriori

et de l'valuation (validation). Dans notre cas, ces deux phases se sont rptes car, an de mettre au point cette

squence, nous l'avons teste de nombreuses fois en l'adaptant au fur et mesure des exprimentations. Des lments

de l'analyse a posteriori sont galement prsents par la suite.

Comme prsent la section 4.6, l'une des questions de recherche de la thse porte sur l'apport d'une situation de non-proportionnalit dans l'tude de la proportionnalit. Pour traiter cette question, nous avons notamment

mis en place un protocole d'exprimentation bas sur l'introduction de la squence dans certaines classes (classesexprimentales) tandis que d'autres classes (classes-tmoins) poursuivaient leur enseignement. Les enseignants de

deux coles ont accept de nous accueillir dans leurs locaux, ce qui a donn l'occasion de mener de nombreuses autres

exprimentations.

De Bock,

Brousseau

6. Maman a plac 3 serviettes sur la corde linge. Aprs 12 heures elles taient sches. Grand-mre a plac 6 serviettes sur la corde

linge. Combien de temps ont-elles pris pour scher ?

Lyon

153

L'activit propose amne les lves tudier la variation du volume d'un cylindre en fonction de sa hauteur dans

un premier temps et en fonction de son diamtre dans un second temps. Cela permet d'observer et de construire avec

les lves les caractristiques d'un phnomne proportionnel par comparaison avec un phnomne qui ne l'est pas.

Un enjeu important de l'activit est en eet d'tablir le lien entre phnomne linaire, tableau de proportionnalit et

graphique en ligne droite d'une part et phnomnes non linaires, tableaux de non-proportionnalit et graphiques de

fonctions non linaires d'autre part.

Une situation d'introduction permet aux lves de se familiariser avec le matriel et de mettre en vidence des

points essentiels d'une dmarche scientique : placement des repres, prcision, utilisation d'un matriel adquat, etc.

Ensuite, dans une premire partie, on demande de remplir un cylindre jusqu' certaines hauteurs aprs avoir estim,

pour chaque cas, le nombre de mesurettes ncessaires cette opration. Les lves crivent leurs rsultats dans un

tableau et il leur est demand de reprer et d'crire les dirents liens qu'ils observent entre les valeurs du tableau, en

les symbolisant par des ches.

Dans une deuxime partie, on propose de remplir des cylindres de diamtres simple, double et triple jusqu'

une mme hauteur aprs avoir demand, dans chacun des cas, une estimation du nombre de mesurettes ncessaires.

L'importance de la dmarche qui consiste ne faire varier qu'une seule grandeur la fois est explicite. De nombreux

lves s'attendent obtenir des rapports simple, double et triple comme lorsqu'ils font varier la hauteur.

nouveau, il est demand de placer les rsultats obtenus pour la variation du diamtre dans un tableau. Les liens

dcouverts entre ces direntes valeurs doivent tre mis en vidence an d'en dgager les valeurs correspondant des

diamtres par exemple quatre ou cinq fois plus grands de celui de dpart.

Pour chacune des deux situations, les lves placent les rsultats dans un graphique. Sur base des tableaux et

graphiques construits au cours de l'activit, l'enseignant institutionnalise les savoirs viss, au sens de Brousseau [3], en

ralisant une synthse qui met en vidence les caractristiques permettant de distinguer les phnomnes proportionnels

des autres.

La description complte de cette squence d'apprentissage se trouve dans le rapport de la recherche Math &

Manips du CREM [9].

Analyse a priori

Une analyse approfondie de la squence d'apprentissage a t mene avant de l'exprimenter dans les classes.

Comme il n'est pas possible de faire tat de l'entiret de cette analyse ici, nous avons choisi d'en prsenter deux

points importants.

Lors des deux phases adidactiques de la squence, la dvolution de la situation est prvue grce aux composantes

spciques du milieu : les ches de travail, le matriel reu et les dirents registres utiliss doivent permettre aux

lves d'accepter le problme comme leur. L'intention d'enseigner du professeur disparat ainsi, du moins en apparence.

Au terme de la squence, l'enseignant institutionnalise les savoirs en considrant trois facteurs. Il doit mener les

lves des manipulations la conceptualisation, leur faire direncier les deux modles issus des deux situations et

amener le vocabulaire adquat lors de la synthse.

Analyse a posteriori

Les nombreuses exprimentations ont permis de dgager divers lments lors de l'analyse a posteriori, trois en

ressortent.

Le premier concerne les ches de travail. Leur clart ainsi que le choix du vocabulaire ont d tre modis an de

permettre une meilleure dvolution de la situation.

Le deuxime lment touche aux dirents liens reprs par les lves dans leurs tableaux de rsultats. Dans celui

issu de la variation de la hauteur du cylindre, certains remarquent des liens de type multiplicatif et d'autres les carts

constants. Lors des premires exprimentations, les lves adoptaient implicitement ces carts constants comme une

proprit de la proportionnalit. Pour viter cette erreur, il a donc t ncessaire d'intgrer dans la squence une

discussion au cours de laquelle les lves conviennent avec l'enseignant que la multiplication est plus gnrale en ce

sens que les additions dpendent des valeurs initiales tandis que les liens multiplicatifs internes sont les mmes pour

tous les groupes, quelles que soient les valeurs de dpart. De plus, les liens de type multiplicatif permettent de trouver

la rponse pour n'importe quelle hauteur sans recourir aux tapes intermdiaires.

Chapitre 4

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Le troisime lment se rapporte aux estimations lors de la variation du diamtre d'un cylindre. Au cours des

premires exprimentations, il n'tait pas explicitement demand aux lves d'crire leurs estimations. Ils avaient

alors tendance occulter leurs ides premires, ce qui rduisait l'eet positif du conit cognitif induit par le milieu.

L'introduction d'un tableau dans les ches de travail permettant aux lves d'crire leurs estimations leur donne

l'occasion de se confronter la non-concordance des rsultats avec leurs prvisions. Cela les incite se poser davantage

de questions et chercher des justications aux rsultats obtenus.

Lyon

155

Artigue M. (1988). Ingnierie didactique. Recherches en didactique des mathmatiques, 9 (3), 281-308.

[2] Boisnard D., Houdebine J., Julo J., Kerbuf M.-P., Merri M. (1994). La proportionnalit et ses prob[1]

lmes.

[4] Comin E. (2002). L'enseignement de la proportionnalit l'cole et au collge. Recherches en Didactique des

[3]

Mathmatiques,

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

De Bock D., Van Dooren W., Janssens D. & Verschaffel L. (2007). The illusion of linearity. From

Analysis to improvement.

Dupuis C., Pluvinage F. (2003). La proportionnalit et son utilisation. Recherches en Didactique des Math-

matiques,

matiques,

Duval R. (1996). Quel cognitif retenir en didactique des mathmatiques ? Recherches en Didactique des MathGron

Stegen

Daro

C.,

P. &

S. (2007). L'enseignement de la proportionnalit : liaison

http://www.enseignement.be/download.php?do_id=2712&do_check= (HYPOThse)

primaire-secondaire.

Guissard M.-F., Henry V., Lambrecht P., Van Geet P., Vansimpsen S. & Wettendorff I. (2013).

Math

& Manips - Des manipulations pour favoriser la construction des apprentissages en mathmatiques, rapport

[10]

[11]

[12]

Hersant M.

Thse, Paris : Universit Paris 7 - Denis Diderot.

Hoyles C., Noss R. & Pozzi S. (2001). Proportional reasoning in nursing practice. Journal for Research in

Mathematics Education,

pp.4-27.

Post T., Cramer K., Harel G., Kieren T. & Lesh R. (1998). Research on rational number, ratio and

proportionality.

Proceedings of the twentieth annual meeting of the north american chapter of the international

[13]

Nowak M.-Th., Tran D., Zucchetta J.-F. (2001). La proportionnalit dans tous ces tats. Lyon : IREM de

Lyon.

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156

quantities

Ema Mamede*, Isabel Vasconcelos**

*Institute of Education - University of Minho, Portugal

**Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Bairro Rio Branco, Porto Alegre, Brasil

Rsum : Cette tude visant analyser comment la relation inverse entre la taille et le nombre de pices dans des situations de division

est li la notion de fraction sur le sens quotient et le sens partie-tout. Nous avons analys les rponses donnes par les enfants dans les

3me et 4me barres (8-10 ans) une enqute par questionnaire, qui a t rsolu individuellement. Les rsultats suggrent que les fractions

prsentes avec le sens de quotient promouvoir la comprhension de la relation inverse entre la taille et le nombre de pices plus que

ceux prsents avec le sens de partie-tout, ou mme avec la division partitif ou situations quotitives. Contrairement cela, des problmes

fraction d'quivalence avec des signications de partie tout obstacle cette comprhension. Les sens quotient et partie-tout permettent

le transfert de connaissances, la comprhension de la relation inverse entre la quantit est impliqu lors de la commande fraction. Dans les

situations de division, il existe une association signicative entre la division partitif et la division quotitive. Une analyse des justications

des enfants pour les rponses aux problmes tant donn nous permet de rassurer que les bonnes rponses n'ont pas t obtenus au hasard,

mais plutt sont pris en charge par le raisonnement correct sur les quantits impliques dans le problme.

Abstract : This study analyzes how the inverse relationship between size and number of parts in division situations is related to the

concept of fraction over the quotient and part-whole interpretations. A survey by questionnaire was carried out on 72 children at the 3rd

and 4th grades (aged 8-10). Results suggest that the fractions presented in the quotient interpretation promote more the understanding of

the inverse relationship between size and number of parts than when the part-whole interpretation is involved, or even when the partitive

and quotitive division situations are involved. Contrary to this, fraction equivalence problems with part-whole interpretation hinder this

understanding. Quotient and part-whole interpretations allow the transference of knowledge regarding the understanding of the inverse

relationship between quantities when fraction ordering is involved. In division situations, a signicant association is found between partitive

division and quotitive division. An analysis of the children's justications for the answers given to the problems enables us to reassure

that the correct answers were not obtained randomly, but rather are supported by a correct reasoning about the quantities involved in the

problems.

Theoretical framework

This study investigates the understanding of the inverse relationship between size and number of parts in partitive

and quotitive division situations and with fraction in part-whole and quotient situations, with 3rd and 4th grade

students. Considering the mathematical contexts approaching of the inverse relationship between quantities, fractions

and division situations are emphasized.

Several studies focused on the students' understanding of the inverse relationship between quantities. Some are

focused on the concept of division (see Correa, Nunes & Bryant, 1998 ; Squire, & Bryant, 2002 ; Correa, 2004 ; Spinillo

& Lautert, 2011 ; Mamede & Silva, 2012), others focused on the concept of fraction (see Behr, Wachsmuth, Post &

Lesh, 1984 ; Kornilaki & Nunes, 2005 ; Mamede, Nunes & Bryant, 2005 ; Nunes & Bryant, 2008 ; Magina, Bezerra &

Spinillo, 2009 ; Mamede & Cardoso, 2010 ; Hallett, Nunes, Bryant & Thorpe, 2012).

In order to understand the aspects involved in division situations (see Correa, Nunes and Bryant, 1998), it is

important to distinguish the dierence between partitive division and quotitive division. In partitive division, the

quantity is divided between the number of recipients, and the part received by each recipient is the unknown part

(e.g., John has 8 sweets to be shared between 4 children. How many sweets each child will receive ?). In quotitive

division, a quantity is divided and what each recipient will receive is already known ; what is left to know is the

number of recipients (e.g., Mary has 6 sweets and will give 2 sweets to each child. How many children will receive

sweets ?).

When the understanding of inverse relationship between divisor and quotient in division situations is investigated,

it makes sense to consider two kinds of tasks when one of the dimensions is held constant (dividend or divisor). For

the rst situation, the divisor can be held constant and the dividend can be changed. In this case, children must

understand that the bigger the whole, the bigger the parts are, if the number of parts is held constant. For the second

situation, the dividend is held constant and the divisor is changed. The divisor corresponds to the number of recipients

or the size of the quote. In either case, the inverse relationship is applied : the bigger the number of parts, the smaller

the size of the part, or vice-versa.

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Correa, Nunes and Bryant (1998) investigated the development of the concept of division by 61 children aged 5-7,

by analyzing how they understand the inverse relationship between divisor and quotient in partitive and quotitive

division tasks. Authors investigated how children understood the relationship of quantity between the three terms in

a division when the dividend was constant and the divisor changed. In partitive division, results showed that 30%

of the children aged 5 were able to put into words in their justications the inverse relationship between divisor and

quotient, when the dividend is held ; the same was observed in about 55% of the 6-years-old children and 85% for

the group aged 7. Regarding the mistakes made, the authors did not nd signicant dierences in 5- and 6-years-old

children, and the 7-years-old children had the smaller percentage of mistakes made. In quotitive division, the authors

showed results above expectations in dierent age groups : 50% of the 5-years-old children, 38% of the 6-years-old

children and 40% of the 7-years-old children assessed correctly the inverse relationship between divisor and quotient.

In the justications given by the 5-years-old children, about 30% referred incorrectly to the direct relationship between

divisor and quotient ; most of the 6-years-old children give logical-mathematical justications, but about half of them

inferred an incorrect direct relationship between divisor and quotient. The performance of 7-years-old children was

similar to that of 6-years-old children.

The investigation carried out by Kornilaki and Nunes (2005) involved two studies : one with partitive division

tasks and the other with quotitive division tasks, both with discrete and continuous quantities. The authors analyzed

whether children transfer their understanding of logical relationships of discrete quantities to continuous quantities

with 96 children aged 5 to 7 years. In the problems proposed, the number of recipients varied producing two conditions :

(1) in the condition of same divisors, the size of the divisor was the same ; and (2) in the condition of dierent divisors,

the number of recipients varied. The analysis detected that the condition of dierent divisors was clearly more dicult

than the condition of same divisors and that the inverse relationship between divisor and quotient is understood only

after the division equivalence principle. In partitive division tasks, 33% of the 5- and 6-years-old children's answers

were explained based on the more recipients, the more they have. Nevertheless, this answer decreased remarkably

with age, since only about 10% of the 7-years-old children used this incorrect reasoning. In quotitive division tasks,

about 50% of the 5- and 6-years-old children and 25% of the 7-years-old children's answers were explained based on

the more recipients, the more they have. This justication was used by 75% of the children who answered incorrectly.

Almost all children who answered correctly presented justications based on the inverse relationship between divisor

and quotient.

Kornilaki and Nunes (2005) argue that children understand more easily partitive division than quotitive division,

because they use term-by-term correspondence as the procedure to solve this type of division, once it is more simple

thinking about the inverse relationship than building each quote.

More recently, Mamede and Silva (2012) investigated children's understanding of partitive division with discrete

quantities with 30 children aged 4 and 5. In individual interviews, children were asked to make judgments in tasks

with inverse relationship between divisor and quotient when the dividend is the same. Tasks involved division of 12

and 24 discrete quantities by 2, 3 and 4 recipients. Results showed that children aged 4 and 5 have some idea about

the division, are able to estimate the quotient when the divisor changes and the dividend is constant, and are able to

justify their answers.

The inverse relationship between quantities is essential to understand the concept of fraction. However, this concept

is far from being easy for children. Research has been giving evidence that children struggles with the concept of rational

number (see Behr, Wachsmuth, Post & Lesh, 1984 ; Hart, 1981 ; Kerslake, 1986 ; Mack, 2001 ; Mamede & Cardoso,

2010 ; Monteiro & Pinto, 2005). Besides, there is still a lack of research focused on children's understanding of the

inverse relationship between quantities, which is essential for understanding the concept of fraction.

Information described by recent research (see Nunes, Bryant, Pretzlik, Evans, Wade Bell, 2004 ; Mamede, Nunes

& Bryant, 2005 ; Magina, Bezerra & Spinillo, 2009) consider that the conceptual knowledge of fractions supposes :

1. the invariance principle, that is, dividing a whole in equal parts, while maintaining the initial quantity ;

2. the ability of representation, of being written as ab , where a and b are whole numbers (with b 6= 0) and the same

symbols can represent dierent quantities (e.g., 12 of 8 and 12 of 12) ;

3. the understanding of equivalence logic ( 21 , 24 ,

3

6

4. the area of more diverse and complex interpretations than the operations performed by children with natural

numbers.

The literature presents dierent classications of interpretations or meanings for fractions. Kieren (1993, 1995)

distinguishes four categories known as sub-constructs which are relevant for the knowledge about fractions : (1) quotient ; (2) measure ; (3) operator ; and (4) ratio. Berh, Lesh, Post and Silver (1984) redened the previous classication

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158

establishing ve sub-constructs understood to be sucient to clarify the concept of rational number, which are :

1. part-whole ;

2. quotient ;

3. ratio ;

4. operator ; and

5. measure.

More recently, Nunes, Bryant, Pretzlik, Evans, Wade and Bell (2004) presented a classication based on situations

in which fractions are used, relying on the meaning of the magnitudes assumed in each case, considering :

1. part-whole ;

2. quotient ;

3. operator ; and

4. intensive quantities.

In the study reported here, this last classication was adopted, concerning quotient and part-whole interpretations.

Thus, for quotient interpretation or situation, ab can represent the relationship between the number of recipients and

items to be distributed (e.g., 23 can represent 2 chocolate bars to be shared fairly by 3 children), but it also represents

the quantity of an item received by each recipient (e.g., 32 corresponds to the amount of chocolate received by each

child). In the part-whole situation, ab represents the relationship between the number of equal parts in which the whole

is divided and the number of these parts to be taken (e.g., 23 of a chocolate bar means that this was divided into 3

equal parts and 2 of these parts were considered).

Studies focused on dierent meanings of rational number have suggested that these aect dierently how children

understand fractions. Some authors argue that the quotient meaning favors the understanding of inverse relationship

between numerator and denominator of the fraction (see Streeand, 1997 ; Mamede, Nunes & Bryant, 2005 ; Mamede,

2007). Nunes et al. (2004) suggest that this understanding is facilitated for quotient meaning because numerator and

denominator are variables of dierent nature.

Mamede, Nunes and Bryant (2005) investigated whether the fraction quotient and part-whole situations inuence

the level of the children's performance in problem solving tasks. Eighty children participated in the study aged between

6- and 7 year-olds, who have not had formal instruction on fractions, but some of them were already familiar with

the words half and forth part in social contexts. The authors analyzed how they understand fractions concerning

part-whole and quotient situations, in tasks related to equivalence, ordering, and labelling. Results indicated the

correspondence (association established between one part and each recipient) and division of an item in equal parts

as the most used procedures by children. Children presented success levels in ordering and fraction equivalence tasks

with quotient situations, suggesting that they have some informal knowledge on the logic of fractions, developed in

their daily life, without school instruction.

As little children understand the inverse relationship between quantities in division situations and understand the

logical invariants (ordering and equivalence) of fractions it particular situations, it is important to know how these

aspects are related. In this study, it is considered the hypothesis that children who understand the inverse relationship

between divisor and quotient in division situations present better performance on understanding inverse relationship

between size and number of parts of a fraction in part-whole and quotient interpretations.

Thus, this study aims to analyze how the inverse relationship between size and number of parts in division situations

is related to the concept of fraction with quotient and part-whole situations. One tried to address three questions :

1. How do children understand the inverse relationship between size and number of parts in partitive and quotitive

division situations ?

2. How do children understand this inverse relationship when fractions are involved in part-whole and quotient

situations ? And

3. is there a relationship between partitive and quotitive division situations and fractions in part-whole and quotient

situations ?

Methodology

Participants

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To assess the children's understanding of the inverse relationship between quantities in division and fraction situations, a survey by questionnaire was applied in the classroom to 72 children aged between 8 and 10 years, at the 3rd

and 4th grades from a public school in Braga, Portugal.

Tasks

The questionnaire included 22 tasks : 6 division problems (3 partitive division problems and 3 quotitive division

problems) ; 16 problems with fractions (8 problems in partwhole interpretation (4 of ordering and 4 of equivalence of

fractions) ; 8 problems in quotient interpretation (4 of ordering and 4 of equivalence of fractions)).

All fractions involved in the tasks were less than 1 and were the same for the problems presented in quotient and

part-whole interpretations. Tables 1 and 2 show an example of a task presented for each type of division and fraction

situation, respectively.

Division

Partitive

Quotitive

Problem

Mary and Louise have the same quantity of sweets. Mary will distribute her sweets by 3 children

and Louise will distribute hers by 4 children. Will the children at Mary's group receive more sweets

than, less sweets than, or the same quantity of sweets as the children at Louise's group ?

Explain your answer.

John and Paul bought the same quantity de marbles. John will put 3 marbles in each bag and

Paul will put 6 marbles in each bag. Will John need more bags than, less bags than, or the same

quantity of bags as Paul ?

Explain your answer.

Table 4.1

Problems

Part-whole situations

Quotient situations

Equivalence

Marco and Lara have each a pizza with the

same size. Marco divided his pizza into 5 equal

parts and ate one part. Lara divided her pizza

into 10 equal parts and ate two parts. Did

Marco eat more pizza than, less pizza than,

or the same quantity of pizza as Lara ?

Explain why.

Children share two same-sized cakes. Two girls

share one cake fairly ; three boys share the

other cake fairly. Does each girl eat more cake

than, less cake than, or the same quantity of

cake as each boy ?

Explain why.

Ordering

Ana and Rita have each a chocolate with the

same size. Ana ate 12 of her chocolate and

Rita ate 31 of her chocolate. Did Ana eat more

chocolate than, less chocolate than, or the

same quantity of chocolate as Rita ?

Explain why.

Two girls will share a chocolate bar and each

one will eat 12 of the chocolate. Three boys will

share a chocolate bar and each one will eat 13 of

the chocolate. Does each girl eat more chocolate than, less chocolate than, or the same

quantity of chocolate as each boy ?

Explain why.

Procedures

The questionnaire was solved individually and lasted for 40 minutes, being implemented and followed by the class

teacher. Each child received a booklet with one problem per sheet to be solved. In each problem, multiple-choice

questions were present, and the judgment for relative value of the quotients by using relations more than/ less than/

same quantity as was favored. Questions were presented to the class and read by the researcher using PowerPoint

slides. Each child had to indicate the right answer on the booklet. The tasks used were adapted from the studies of

Mamede, Nunes and Bryant (2005) and Spinillo and Lautert (2011).

Results

Results of the children's performances when solving the proposed tasks were analyzed, by assigning 1 to each right

answer and 0 to each wrong answer. Table 3 presents the mean of the proportion of the correct answers and standard

deviations, according to the type of problem.

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Quotient

Ordering Equivalence

.80 (.27)

.61 (.27)

Part-whole

Ordering Equivalence

.59 (.35)

.35 (.32)

160

Division

Partitive Quotitive

.43 (.40)

.46 (.40)

Table 4.3 Mean and (standard deviation) of the proportion of correct answers by type of problem.

Results suggest that, children seem to better understand the inverse relation between quantities when fractions in

quotient situations are involved. Results also suggest that quotitive division seems to be easier than partitive division.

The analysis by type of problem presented allows us to better understand the children's performance on the tasks

presented. Graphs 1A-B present, respectively, the distribution of the ordering and equivalence of fractions problems

correctly solved in quotient situation. Ordering problems seem to be more accessible to understand the inverse relation

between the numerator and denominator. About 56.2% of the children answered correctly to all ordering problems

and 78.1% solved correctly at least 3 of the 4 problems ; 13.7% got all equivalence of fractions problems presented in

quotient interpretation right, and 54.8% solved correctly 3 of the 4 problems of this type.

Figure

4.5 Distribution of correct responses in ordering and equivalence problems of fractions presented in partwhole situations.

The fraction problems presented in part-whole interpretation seem to turn the understanding of inverse relation

between the numerator and denominator even more dicult to children. Graphs 2A-B present the number of correct

answers obtained in ordering and equivalence of fractions problems in part-whole interpretation, respectively.

Figure

4.6 Distribution of correct responses in ordering and equivalence problems of fractions presented in partwhole situations.

In ordering problems presented with part-whole interpretation, only 23.3% of the children answered correctly to all

problems and about 56.2% answered correctly to 3 of the 4 problems presented. In equivalence problems, about 5.5%

of the children answered correctly to all problems and 24.7% answered correctly 3 of the 4 problems. Concerning the

division, children seem to struggle with partitive division situations on the inverse relation between quantities. Graphs

3A-B present, respectively, the number of correct answers in partitive and quotitive division problems. In partitive

division problems, the percentage of children who answered correctly all problems is about 24.7% ; 13.7% answered

correctly to 2 of the 3 problems, and 27.4% got only 1 problem correctly solved. In quotitive division problems, 26% of

the children got all problems correctly solved ; 17.8% answered correctly to 2 of the 3 problems ; and 24.7% answered

correctly only to 1 problem.

These results suggest that the exploration of fractions in quotient and part-whole situations and the partitive and

quotitive division situations contributes dierently for the understanding of inverse relation between quantities.

A correlational analysis was conducted to identify potential associations between the inverse relation of quantities

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Figure 4.7 Distribution of correct responses in partitive and quotitive division situations.

Quotient

Part-whole

Ordering Equivalence Ordering Equivalence

Ordering Quotient

1

Equivalence Quotient

.303**

1

Ordering Part-whole

.531**

.196

1

Equivalence Part-whole

.219

.206

.348**

1

Partitive division

.278*

.088

.424**

.337**

Quotitive division

.228

.099

.386**

.356**

*.p<.05 ; **.p<.001 ; Pearson's correlation coecient.

Division

Partitive Quotitive

1

.494**

established in ordering and equivalence fractions problems and in partitive and quotitive division problems. Table 4

summarizes the correlations registered for each type of problems.

It seems that there are dierences on how the interpretations of fraction (quotient, part-whole) aect the understanding of the inverse relationship between quantities. Children's performance in ordering and equivalence fractions

problems presented in the quotient interpretation are related to each other ; ordering problems in quotient interpretation are strongly related to the ordering ones presented in the part-whole interpretation. Possibly, this can be explain

by the double representation of a fraction in a quotient situation referred previously (as in a quotient interpretation

or situation, ab can represent the relationship between the number of recipients and items to be distributed, but it also

represents the quantity of an item received by each recipient). The ordering problems in quotient interpretation are

also weakly related to partitive division problems. The equivalence problems presented in quotient interpretation only

seem to be related to the ordering problems in quotient interpretation.

The ordering and equivalence problems in part-whole interpretation are related to each other, and are related to

partitive and quotitive division problems. It is noteworthy that the success in partitive division problems is strongly

related to the success in quotitive division problems. Maybe this phenomenon occurs because, at this age, children

already have some consistent knowledge on multiplicative structures deriving from formal instruction.

The written justications of the children's responses were analyzed to reach an insight on their reasoning. Systematizing these explanations, 5 categories of justications were addressed : 1) inverse relationship it attends to the

inverse relation between the quantities involved in the problem, producing a valid justication (e.g.,[. . .] because he

divided his pizza into 2 equal parts and she divided hers into 4 equal parts and hers become smaller.) ; 2) proportional

reasoning it comprises a establishment of a proportional relation between the quantities of the problem, producing a

valid argument (e.g., `They eat the same because there are 2 girls for 1 chocolate bar and the boys are the double of

girls and they have the double of chocolate bars.) ; 3 direct relationship it sets a direct relation between the quantities

(e.g., He eats more because he has more cake, thus he eats more cake.) ; 4) initial quantity - only corresponds to

the problem's initial quantity ignoring the relation between quantities (e.g., Both eat the same because he has one

pizza and she has one pizza) ; and 5) inconclusive/invalid - corresponds to all inconclusive, inappropriate, or blank

explanations. Table 4.5 summarizes the percentages of each type of argument used by the children, according to the

type of problem.

Children performed better on ordering and equivalence of fractions problems presented in quotient interpretation.

This interpretation seems to facilitate children's understanding of the inverse relation between quantities, allowing

them to solve correctly the problems and present a valid argument. Children's valid arguments were based on the

inverse relation between the quantities involved in the problem and on proportional reasoning, conducting the children

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Inverse relationship

Proportional reasoning

Direct relationship

Initial quantity

Inconclusive

Quotient (%)

Ordering Equivalence

91.8

56.2

1.4

15.1

2.7

13.7

1.4

6.8

2.7

8.2

Part-whole (%)

Ordering Equivalence

49.3

17.8

2.7

6.8

9.6

42.5

26.0

8.2

12.3

24.7

162

Division (%)

Partitive Quotitive

38.4

42.5

0

9.6

32.9

30.1

15.1

6.8

13.7

11.0

Table 4.5 Arguments used by the children according to the type of problems.

to correct responses. Figures 4.8 and 4.9 illustrate, respectively, examples of valid justications presented when solving

fractions problems, in quotient and part-whole interpretations.

They eat the same because there are three girls for one cake and the boys and the cakes are in double

Because girls are two for one (chocolate bar) and the boys are the double with the double of chocolate bars.

Figure 4.8 Valid arguments based on proportional reasoning when solving equivalence fraction problems in quotient

interpretation.

Marco divided his pizza into 2 equal parts and ate 1 part and Sara hers into 4 equal parts and also ate 1 part, but

Marco ate less because he only ate 14

Because Marco's pieces have double size of Rita's thus if Marco ate one and Rita ate 2, both of them had the same

amount.

Figure 4.9 Valid arguments presented when solving ordering and equivalence fraction problems in part-whole

interpretation.

Division problems also seem to help children to understand the inverse relation between quantities. However, in

these situations many children still establish a direct relation between quantities. These results suggest that the success

levels regarding the children's performances for the problems presented were not obtained randomly, since they seem

to be followed by explanations supported by valid arguments.

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Final remarks

Understanding the inverse relationship between quantities when fractions are involved is further facilitated when

quotient interpretation is involved rather than when the part-whole interpretation is involved. Consistent with previous

studies (see Mamede, Nunes & Bryant, 2005 ; Mamede, 2008), quotient interpretation still reveals to be important for

the understanding of inverse relation between quantities, regardless the age dierences of the children. As Mamede,

Nunes and Bryant (2005), also our results suggest that dierent fraction interpretations involve dierent levels of

understanding of the inverse relation between quantities for children.

The results of this study also suggest that children present higher comprehension levels about the inverse relation

between quantities in quotitive division situations than the ones involved in partitive division. Probably, this can be

explained by the use of sharing procedures in quotitive division situations. It is an interesting result, as previous

studies reported in literature can oer divergent results (see Correa, Nunes & Bryant, 1998 ; Kornilaki & Nunes,

2005). Correa, Nunes and Bryant (1998) investigated the understanding of inverse relationship between quantities

with 5-to 7-years- old children, and not with children who already had formal instruction on division and/or fractions.

Their results highlight that little children understand this inverse relationship between divisor and quotient, when

partitive division was involved. Also, the studies by Kornilaki and Nunes (2005) suggest that children have some

ideas on the inverse relation between divisor and quotient in partitive division tasks, when asked to judge the relative

size of the shared sets with 5- to 7-years-old children. The results of the present study suggest that 8- the to 10years-old children also understand the inverse relation between quantities, but quotitive division seems to play a role

facilitating this understanding. Perhaps, this might be due to the period of formal instruction to which these children

were exposed. Surprisingly, as fractions (that constitute another mathematical context where this inverse relationship

between quantities must be understood and applied) present success levels higher than the ones reported in division

problems.

The existence of associations between the kinds of problems where the inverse relation between quantities is involved

highlights that fraction ordering and equivalence problems, presented with quotient interpretation, are related to each

other ; and the ordering problems with this interpretation are also related to the ordering ones presented with partwhole interpretation. It may suggest that children have some facility in applying transversely this knowledge on these

kinds of problems. This facility in understanding inverse relation seems to happen also between division problems

and fraction problems with part-whole interpretation. It is important to highlight that division problems are strongly

related to each other, demonstrating some diculty in understanding inverse relation between quantities.

The eect existing between the relationships and the kinds of problems where the inverse relation between quantities

is involved must be looked more closely, in view of the exploration of these relationships in the classroom. Further

investigation is necessary about this topic, in order to stimulate this understanding in children at elementary school

education.

REFERENCES

Behr, M., Wachsmuth, I., Post, T. & Lesh, R. (1984). Order and Equivalence of Rational Numbers : A Clinical

Teaching Experiment. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 15 (5), 323-341.

Correa, J., Nunes, T., & Bryant, P. (1998). Young children's understanding of division : The relationship between

division terms in a noncomputational task. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 321-329.

Direco Geral de Inovao e Desenvolvimento Curricular (2007). Programa de Matemtica do ensino bsico.

Lisboa : Ministrio da Educao.

Fonseca, H. I. (2000). Os processos matemticos e o discurso em actividades de investigao. (Dissertao de

Mestrado, Universidade de Lisboa). Lisboa : APM.

Hallett, D., Nunes, T., Bryant, P., & Thorpe, C.M. (2012). Individual dierences in conceptual and procedural

fraction understanding : The role of abilities and school experience. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113,

469-486.

Hart, K. (1981). Fractions. In K. Hart (Ed.), Children's Understanding of Mathematics :11-16, (pp. 66-81). London :

John Murray Publishers.

Kerslake, D. (1986). Fractions : Children's Strategies and Errors - A Report of the Strategies and Errors in Secondary

Mathematics Project. Berkshire : NFER-NELSON.

Kieran, T. (1993). Rational and Fractional Numbers : From Quotient Fields to Recursive Understanding. In T.

Carpenter, E. Fennema and T. Romberg (Eds.),Rational Numbers - An Integration of Research (pp. 49-84). Hillsdale,

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Kieren, T. (1995). Creating Spaces for Learning Fractions. In T. Sowder and B.P. Schapelle (Eds.), Providing a

Foundation for Teaching Mathematics in the Middle Grades (pp. 31-66). Albany, New York : SUNY Press.

Kornilaki, E., & Nunes, T. (2005). Generalising Principles in spite of Procedural Dierences : Children's Understanding of Division. Cognitive Development, 20, 388-406.

Mack, N. (2001). Building on informal knowledge through instruction in a complex content domain : partitioning,

units, and understanding multiplication of fractions. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 32, 267-295.

Mamede, E. & Cardoso, P. (2010). Insights on students (mis)understanding of fractions. In : M. M. Pinto & T. F.

Kawasaki (Eds.), Proceedings of the 34th Conf. of the Int. Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol.

3, pp. 257-264). Belo Horizonte, Brasil : PME.

Mamede, E., Nunes T. & Bryant, P. (2005). The equivalence and ordering of fractions in part-whole and quotient

situations. In : H. L. Chick & J. L. Vincent (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Conf. of the Int. Group for the Psychology

of Mathematics Education (Vol. 3, pp. 281-288). Melbourne, Australia : PME.

Mamede, E. & Silva, A. (2012). Exploring partitive division with young children. Journal of the European Teacher

Education Network, (8), 35-43.

Monteiro, C. & Pinto, H. (2005). A Aprendizagem dos nmeros racionais. Quadrante, 14(1), 89-104.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Virginia :

NCTM.

Nunes, T., Bryant, P., Pretzlik, U., Evans, D., Wade. J. & Bell, D. (2004). Vergnaud's denition of concepts as a

framework for research and teaching. Annual Meeting for the Association pour la Recherche sur le Dveloppement des

Comptences, 28-31. Paris.

Ponte, J. P., Boavida, A., Graa, M. & Abrantes, P. (1997). Didctica da Matemtica. Lisboa : Ministrio da

Educao DES.

Spinillo, A.G. & Lautert, S. L. (2011). Representar operaes de diviso e representar problemas de diviso : h

diferenas ?, International Journal for Studies in Mathematics Education, 4(1), 115 134.

Streeand, L. (1997). Charming fractions or fractions being charmed ?, In T. Nunes and P. Bryant (Eds.), Learning

and Teaching Mathematics An International Perspective (pp. 347-372). East Sussex : Psychology Press.

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Hana Novkov, Jarmila Novotn

Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Education, Czech republic

Rsum : L'article est consacr l'analyse a priori qui est un des concepts cls dans la Thorie des situations didactiques (Brousseau,

1997). Dans cette thorie l'analyse a priori reprsente un des moyens de base dont l'enseignant dispose pendant la planication des cours

(Novkov, 2013). Dans cet article l'analyse a priori est prsente d'un point de vue dirent comme un outil qui aide la prparation,

la ralisation et l'analyse des rsultats dans la recherche en didactique des Mathmatiques. Son importance dans la recherche est illustre

par une recherche en cours qui est vise l'amlioration de la culture scolaire des lves dans le cas de la rsolution de problmes. L'tendue

de la contribution tant limite, nous prsentons un aspect de l'analyse a priori les stratgies de la rsolution du problme pos.

Abstract : The paper focuses on a priori analysis, one of the key concepts of the Theory of Didactical Situations (Brousseau, 1997).

According to this theory a priori analysis is one of the main tools a teacher uses when planning a teaching unit (Novkov, 2013). This

paper introduces a priori analysis in a dierent perspective - as a tool helping in planning problems, using them in lessons and in analyzing

results in mathematics education research. Its importance for research is illustrated on an example from an ongoing research focusing

on improvement of pupils' culture of problem solving. Because of the limited scope of this paper, only one aspect of a priori analysis is

introduced, namely problem solving strategies.

According to Brousseau (1997) and his Theory of Didactical Situations in Mathematics (TDSM) a priori analysis

is one of the tools available to a teacher when planning a lesson. Its objective is to predict as accurately as possible the

course of the relevant teaching unit, especially with respect to division of this unit into dierent phases, to potential

pupils' reactions and attitudes and the teacher's reactions (obstacles, misconceptions and mistakes, correction of and

further work with these mistakes), possible solving strategies (correct and incorrect), knowledge prerequisite for the

use of the dierent solving strategies. Thus a priori analysis provides the teacher with a lot of valuable information.

According to TDSM, a priori analysis is the condition for devolution and consequently for establishment of a-didactical

situation. In a posteriori analysis, a priori analysis is compared with experience from realization in the classroom.

Recommended changes are formulated.

Novkov (2013) shows how a priori analysis can be used by a teacher. This paper focuses on a priori analysis as a

tool for a researcher. We will show what role a priori analysis plays in an ongoing research project GAR P407/12/1939

Development of culture of problem solving in mathematics in Czech schools.

The goal of the research project is development of a theory of mathematics problem solving with focus on the role

heuristic strategies play in development of pupils' culture of solving mathematics problems KRP). KRP is understood

as a structure of internal factors that inuence a pupil's performance and success in problem solving. It consists of four

components : intelligence, creativity, ability to use existing knowledge, and reading comprehension skills (Eisenmann,

Novotn, Pibyl, 2014).

In a short-term (3 months) and long-term (13 month) experiment, pupils are introduced to heuristic strategies that

they rarely or never come across in usual lesson but are very eective and useful in problem solving (e.g. systematic

experimenting, analogy, graphical representation, use of auxiliary element see e.g. Behovsk, Eisenmann, Ondruov,

Pibyl, Novotn, 2013). The pupils are lead systematically to use of a suitable heuristic strategy when they come across

a problem they cannot solve using school solving algorithm.

For these ends the research team works on development of batteries of problems that can be solved eectively using

one of the above listed strategies. All these problems are carefully elaborated and commented upon and oer more

ways of solution. Selected problems are also subject to a priori analysis. The following text presents one example of

how a priori analysis is used in the above described project.

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We usually conduct a priori analysis with respect to the following aspects of the problem : nature of the assignment

(knowledge prerequisite to grasping the assignment, potential problems in comprehension of the assignment), thematic

unit, goal of the problem (didactical goal for the teacher and mathematical background that pupils are expected to

learn or develop when solving the problem), time needed for solution of the problem, class management, aids, variables,

pupils' reactions and attitudes, teacher's reaction, solving strategy (correct and incorrect), and prerequisite knowledge.

In our research it is necessary to know how the problem can be solved and whether there are some heuristic

strategies among the possible solving strategies. In the following text we discuss this aspect of a priori analysis.

Assignment : Triangle ABC in g. 4.10 has a unit area. Points P , Q, R, S divide sides AC and BC into three

equal segments. What is the area of the coloured quadrilateral ? (Horensk et al., 2007, p. 29/6)

Figure 4.10

1.1 Analysis of dierent solving strategies correct strategies

I.Direct method

a

Arithmetical solution

: We use knowledge of similarity of triangles ABC and P RC , ABC and QSC (see Fig. 4.10).

The ratio of similar triangles with coecient k equals k 2 .

Let us move trapezium P RSQ to the line above the trapezium (see Fig. 4.11). We move parallelogram RST B under

triangle U CV (see Fig. 4.12) ; thus we form three congruent trapeziums.

Prerequisite knowledge : triangle and its properties, translation, composition of gures.

Possible obstacles : correct division of the triangle, correct composition of a trapezium.

a

Graphical representation solution drawing II If we divide a triangle into nine congruent triangles as shown in Fig.

4.13, we discover that the trapezium is covered by three triangles and so its area is SP QRST = f rac39 = f rac13.

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Figure 4.11

Figure 4.12

triangle and its properties, fractions

correct determination of the area of the trapezium (relation whole part).

Prerequisite knowledge :

Possible obstacles :

Let us extend triangle ABC into parallelogram ABCD (see Fig. 4.14). Let us draw points E and F as intersections

of half-lines P R and QS with line segment BD. Line segments P E and QF divide parallelogram ABCD into three

congruent parts. Triangle QSC is congruent with triangle ERB . As trapezium ABRP together with triangle ERB

make one strip, the area of the strip equals union of this trapezium and triangle QSC . The area of trapezium P RSQ

equals to one half of area of the whole strip, therefore area of ABRP in union with QSC is twice the area of P RSQ.

Thus the area of the studied quadrilateral equals one third of triangle ABC .

construction of a parallelogram on the basis of a triangle.

correct determination of the area of the parallelograms and later of the required trapezium.

Prerequisite knowledge :

Possible obstacles :

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Figure 4.13

Figure 4.14

Instead of the scalene triangle ABC let us select a right triangle. It is right-angled at C (see Fig. 4.15). The

following holds :

SABC | =

ab

= 1, SQSC =

2

1

1

3a 3v

, SP RC =

23a 31 v

2

Thus :

4

av 1

av

1

av

=

9

2

9

2

3

2

In this computation we worked with a right triangle but we can use the same procedure for a scalene triangle ABC .

Also in this case triangles ABC , QSC and P RC are always equiangular (similarity coecients are the same as in the

special case). Thus also altitudes of these triangles are in the same ratio.

SRSP Q =

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Figure 4.15

: triangle and its properties, area of the right triangle, congruence of triangles.

The answer : The area of the coloured quadrilateral is 13 of the area of the triangle.

Prerequisite knowledge

The following is an example of an incorrect strategy that can be come across in pupils' solutions. It is common

that teachers cannot foresee all incorrect strategies their pupils will use. However, if the teacher/researcher consider

them before the lesson, they will nd it easier to react to situations when incorrect solving strategies are proposed by

pupils.

Extension into a parallelogram

This incorrect strategy comes out of the correct strategy b) Graphical representation solving drawing III. The

pupil nds out that the coloured part is one third of the area of the parallelogram. The triangle represents one half of

the area of the parallelogram. The pupil works analogically to calculate the area of the coloured part of the triangle

and divides 13 by 2. The result is then 16 .

2.Problem Kite

Assignment :Determine how much paper is needed for construction of a kite if its dimensions correspond to those

given in the picture (Fig. 4.16).

Figure 4.16

2.2 Analysis of dierent solving strategies correct strategies

I. Re-composition into a rectangle (Fig. 4.17)

We draw both diagonals. We make use of the property of line symmetry of a trapezium and translate the left part

of the trapezium to the right so that a rectangle with dimensions 10 and 30 is created.

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S = 10 30 = 300

The area of the kite is 300.

Figure 4.17

Prerequisite knowledge :

: multiplication if we do not have a calculator.

Possible obstacles

Let us circumscribe a rectangle to the deltoid. Its dimensions will be 20 to 30. Let us draw both diagonals of the

deltoid. We can see that its area is one half of the circumscribed rectangle. This is in fact the formula for calculation

of the area of a deltoid.

Figure 4.18

Prerequisite knowledge :

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Possible obstacles :

calculator.

171

realizing what part of the rectangle is the deltoid, correct multiplication if we do not have a

We use the horizontal diagonal to divide the deltoid into two tringles whose area is easy to calculate using the

formula for the area of a triangle.

S1 =

20 20

20 10

= 100, S2 =

= 200

2

2

S = S1 + S2 .

Figure 4.19

Another possibility is to draw both diagonals and to calculate the area of three (two congruent) triangles or four

(two and two congruent) triangles. The process is the same as shown above.

deltoid, triangles and its properties, the area of a triangle, the area of a right triangle,

multiplication.

correct visualization of the situation, correct multiplication of dimensions and addition of the

areas.

Prerequisite knowledge :

Possible obstacles :

Let us show here an example of a wrong strategy that can be come across in the pupils' solutions. The strategy

builds on strategy II. The pupils try to use the formula for calculation of the area of a deltoid but forget to divide the

product of diagonals by two.

Let us now compare this component of a priori analysis with results of pupils in one of the experimental classes.

They were 3rd grade lower secondary grammar school pupils (aged 13). The problems were solved by 28 pupils, who

were working on their own. They recorded their solutions into work sheets.

The problem was solved correctly by 14 pupils, incorrectly by 13 pupils. One pupil did not know how to solve the

problem. There were three correct solving strategies. In most cases (15) pupils used a solving strategy we had not

anticipated in our a priori analysis calculation after measuring the sides. However, this strategy resulted in a correct

answer of only 7 pupils. Others in consequence to inaccurate measuring did not reach the correct result. The pupils

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also used two correct solving strategies anticipated in a priori analysis : graphical representation - solving drawing II

(6 pupils) and graphical representation solving drawing III (1 case).

2. Problem Kite

The problem was solved correctly by 22 pupils. 13 pupils divided the kite into two triangles using the shorter

diagonal. 3 pupils divided the kite using the longer diagonal (strategy 3.1.3.), 6 pupils solved the problem using a

rectangle (strategy III). 6 pupils did not solve the problem correctly : 2 of were utterly helpless, 2 proceeded correctly

but made a numerical mistake in multiplication (incorrect number of zeros), 2 pupils calculated the area of one half of

the gure and forgot to multiply the result by two. The teacher was convinced the pupils had little diculty solving

the problem as it was the subject matter dealt with in mathematics lessons at that time.

Conclusion

A priori analysis is of great importance in the project both to the researchers and teachers : When selecting

and posing problems for experiments, the researchers need to analyse whether the selected or posed problems meet

the before dened criteria. In the here reported case it is important to check that the problem can be solved using

dierent strategies and that one of the above described heuristic strategies is much more ecient for its solution than

other strategies. A priori analysis also facilitates cooperation between researchers and teachers while planning the

experimental teaching unit.

As far as teachers are concerned, a priori analysis is an aid in planning the lesson in which the problem will be used.

It facilitates preparation of teaching aids, suggests how to present the problem to their pupils, outlines how pupils

might react to the problems, shows what correct and possibly incorrect strategies pupils might use when solving it.

Thus a priori analysis helps the teacher be ready for contingencies.

REFERENCES

Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of didactical situations in mathematics. Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers. French

version : 1998. Thorie des situations didactiques. Grenoble : La pense sauvage.

Behovsk, J., Eisenmann, P., Ondruov, J., Pibyl, J., & Novotn, J. (2013). Heuristic strategies in problem

solving of 11-12-year-old pupils. In Novotn, J., Moraov, H. (Eds.), Symposium on Elementary Maths Teaching

SEMT '13. Proceedings (pp. 75-82). Praha : UK-PedF.

Eisenmann, P., Novotn, J., & Pibyl, J. (2014). Culture of Solving Problems one approach to assessing pupils'

culture of mathematics problem solving. In Kovov, M. (Ed.), 13th Conference on Applied Mathematics Aplimat

2014 (pp. 115-122). Bratislava : STU.

Novkov, H. (2013). Analza a priori jako soust ppravy uitele na vuku. Scientia in educatione, 4 (2), 20-51.

Horensk, R., Molnr, J., Rys, P., & Zhouf, J. (2007). Potejte s klokanem kategorie Junior . Olomouc : PRODOS.

Acknowledgement

The research was supported by the project GAR P407/12/1939.

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4.9 Developing hypothetical thinking through four cycles of informal stochastical modelling

Ana Serrad Bays

La Salle-Buen Consejo, Puerto Real, Cdiz, Spain ;

Rsum : Nous prsentons une tche consistant en un processus de modlisation horizontal de la frquence relative d'apparition

de chaque voyelle dans les chanes de caractres avec quatre cycles : un modle pseudo-concret labor par un processus statistique de

recherche, une modlisation statistique et validation par l'analyse de animations numriques et le transfert une autre ralit. Chaque

cycle commence par une question o les tudiants ont gnrer leur hypothse. Un cadre bidimensionnelle a t construit pour analyser

l'hypothse des lves : le croissance de la pense cognitive hypothtique et le cadre de la description de la distribution de la frquence

relative stabilise. Les rsultats permettent d'identier les lves d'identit maturation cognitive sur la pense hypothtique avec un dessin

initial de leurs hypothse percevais de la ralit, la description verbale de l'hypothse de ce qui peut se produire lors de l'analyse des

animations numriques de donnes, le transfert de l'hypothse de l'quivalence de certaines proprits et processus, et la ncessit d'une

preuve de la Loi des Grands Nombres.

Abstract : We present a task consisting in an horizontal modelling process of the relative frequency of appearance of each vowel in

strings of characters with four cycles : a pseudo-concrete model developed through a statistical process of investigation, a statistical modelling

and validation through the analysis of digital animations and the transference to another reality. Each cycle begins with a question where

students have to generate their hypothesis. A bi-dimensional framework has been constructed to analyse students' hypothesis : the cognitive

grow of hypothetical thinking and the Stabilized Relative Frequency Distribution Description Framework. The ndings identify students

cognitive maturation on hypothetical thinking with an initial drawing of hypothesis as perceptions of the reality, the verbal description of

the hypothesis of what can occur when analysing digital animations of data, the transference of hypothesis about the equivalence of some

properties and processes, and the need of a proof of the Law of Large Numbers.

Introduction

The Spanish Curriculum of Compulsory Secondary School indicates that students of grade 9 (ages 14 and 15) should

formalize the notion of probability through the classical and frequentist approach of relative frequency estimations

(Batanero et al., 2013). In the Spanish curricular desing and its textbooks, this estimation is taken as denition of

the mathematical value, raising serious epistemological, ontogenic and didactic obstacles (Chaput et al, 2011 ; Serrad

et al, 2005). Obstacles that could appear, in a rst moment, when structuring the dierent notions of probability ; or

in a future, when understanding the random convergence with the aim of proving the Law of Large Numbers or the

Central Limit Theorem.

With the aim of trying to surpass these obstacles, other countries have opted for a progressive mathematization

of the notion of probability. In coherence with the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME), they propose beginning

through a horizontal mathematization, which refers to modelling the problem situation into mathematics (Drijvers,

2000). According to this modelling perspective the probability is dened as : the theoretical value of the degree of

condence that one can give to a random outcome obtained by the observation of a stabilized relative frequency when

the same random experiment is repeated a larger number of times under the same conditions (Chaput, Girard, &

Henry, 2011).

This perspective concurs with the general process of contemporary statistical thinking, and contributes to the learning of a modelling process through the development of statistical investigations. The concepts of sampling, variation

and distribution are key when engaging students in this modelling process (Wild, 2006). When modelling, students

are asked to reason about distributions, which imply establishing relations between the data (data distribution), the

population (distribution of probabilities) and the samples (sampling distribution). But, this kind of reasoning is introduced in the Spanish Curriculum three years later, in grade 11 (ages 17 and 18), in the context of Statistical Inference

(Batanero et. al, 2013).

As a consequence, we are exploring here the possibility of introducing the Stabilized Relative Frequencies Distribution (SRFD) in the context of Informal Inference Reasoning (IIR). Conscious of the importance that acquires

drawing hypotheses in Inferential Reasoning, in this paper we are interested in understanding the process of hypothesis

generation when involving students in a task consisting in an informal stochastical modelling process with the aim of

constructing the SRFD. This task would be the rst stage in a learning trajectory with the aim of proving the Law

of Large Numbers. Furthermore, we conjecture : a task that engages students in the informal statistical modelling

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process of growing samples may help them to cognitively mature their hypothetical thinking about the Law of Large

Numbers.

We consider statistical models as oversimplications of the reality, where all our statistical conceptions about the

problem to model are inuenced by how we collect data, analyse and interpret it. In coherence, when learning about

modelling, students need to engage in progressive and simultaneous investigative and interrogative cycles.

The investigative cycle cycle concerns the way one acts and what one thinks about during the course of a statistical

investigation with an adoption of the PPDAC model (Problem, Plan, Data and Conclusions) (Wild and Pfannkuch,

1999). Engaging on these progressive investigative cycles should provide students with the ability to learn about complex sequences of operations with data through action. And, in successive processes of interiorization, condensation

and reication what students initially conceive purely operationally can be conceived structurally at a higher level

(Sfard, 1991). One example, of interest in this paper, about the intricate interplay between operational and structural

conceptions of an object is the analysis about the relation between data and distribution presented by Bakker and

Gravemeijer (2004). They examined aspects as centre, spread, density (relative frequency) and skewness to structure

the relationship between data (individual value to operate with) and distribution (conceptual entity). This structure

can be read upward, from data to distribution, which leads to a frequency distribution of a data set. And in the downward perspective, from distribution to data, we use probability distributions to model data (Baker and Gravemeijer,

2004). Furthermore, the relationship between data and distribution provides a bridge between the relative frequency

distribution and the probability that can be conceived as equivalence in a system of increasingly sophisticated knowledge. Pegg and Tall (2005) dene equivalence when two-way relationships reveal the same general structure expressed

in dierent ways. For Pegg and Tall (2005), the equivalence stage is previous to a crystalline concept, where all these

equivalent ideas are seen as dierent aspects of the same underlying conceptual entity. In our study, the stabilized

relative frequency distribution should be seen dierent from the probability, but equivalent ideas underlying the same

conceptual entity that is the crystalline concept of the Law of Large Numbers.

Bakker and Gravemeijer (2004) presented a framework that structure the statistical concepts that provide equivalences between frequencies, stabilized relative frequency and distribution and probability. And, based on this framework

Ben Zvi, Gil and Apel (2007) constructed a new framework that allows analysing the cognitive aspects of the distribution in the context of the Informal Inferential Reasoning : reasoning about variability, distributional reasoning,

reasoning about signal and noise, contextual reasoning and graph comprehension. These two frameworks, provide

part of the picture underlying the conceptual structure of distribution, but are not adequate when thinking about,

exploring and describing distributions. In order to solve this problem, Arnold and Pfannkuch (2012) propose the Distribution Description Framework (DDF) organized by : (1) overarching statistical concepts that underpin distribution,

(2) characteristics of distribution, and (3) the specic features that are used when describing distributions. But, still

this framework does not provide any reference to concepts underlying sampling reasoning, crucial when structuring

data and distributions, as : sampling size, random process, distribution, intuitive condence interval and relationship

between sample and population (Dierdrop et al., 2012). With the aim of integrating those previous frameworks and

solving the problems observed, we propose a theoretical framework of the cognitive aspects related to sampling :

contextual knowledge (samples, population, sample size. . .), distributional (error, reliability, law of large numbers),

graph comprehension (smoothing), variability (tendencies, intuitive condence intervals).

The integration of the Distribution Description Framework (DDF) and the cognitive aspects of the sample led

us to propose the Stabilized Relative Frequency Distribution Description Framework (SRFD), in which we describe

theoretically the overarching statistical concept and the characteristic of the distribution : contextual knowledge

(population, sample, sample size, variable, interpretation and explanation), distributional (shape, skewness, error,

reliability, individual cases, law of large numbers), graph comprehension (decoding visual shape, unusual features,

smoothing, comparing samples), variability (spread, density, tendencies, intuitive condence intervals) and signal and

noise (centre, modal clumps).

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However, we consider that engaging students in successive investigative cycles, it is not enough to crystalline the

concept of the Law of Large Numbers. We think that students should be conscious of the interplay that exists between

the investigative and interrogative cycle (Wild and Pfannuck, 1999). The engaging in successive interrogative cycles

dened as generic thinking process, is a distilling and encapsulating of both ideas and information. When involved in

the interrogative cycle students are engaged in actions as generate, seek, interpret, criticise and judge the dierent

components of the Stabilized Relative Frequency Distribution. In this paper, we are interested in understanding the

process of hypothesis generation when involving students in an informal stochastical modelling process for constructing

the SRFD with the aim of proving in a future the Law of Large Numbers. Furthermore, we are interested in analysing if

engaging students in successive cycles of informal stochastical modelling process should provoke on them the cognitive

maturation of their hypothetical thinking. From the dierent theories of cognitive growth that oer dierent aspects

of the development over the longer term, we adapt Tall et al (2011) broad maturation of proof structures to the

cognitive maturation of hypothetical thinking. And in consequence, we present the framework for cognitive maturation

of hypothetical thinking : (Level 1) drawing hypothesis as perceptions of the reality ; (Level 2) verbal description of

hypothesis of what can occur ; (Level 3) hypothesizing about the properties of the concept to be dened ; (Level

4) hypothesizing about the equivalence of some properties and denitions of the concepts to be dened ; (Level 5)

crystallization the hypothesis of the concepts constrained by the need of a proof ; and (Level 6) announcing the

hypothesis of a deductive knowledge structure.

Methodology

To answer the main question of how students can develop the hypothetical thinking that should allow them to

construct the notion of SRFD for in a future prove the Law of Large Numbers, we carried out a design-based research

study of a task (e.g. Bakker and Gravemeijer, 2004). The task was designed to generate students' activity with the aim

of giving them the opportunity to encounter new statistical ideas and strategies, new modes of enquiry and develop

their hypothetical thinking. The main question of the task, or real problem, was : Can I guess which language is

speaking my friend only counting the vowels ? The problem generated three questions to be answered by the students

that guided their learning.

Problem 1 : Which vowels are not used when writing a mobile message ? The question was introduced to contextualize the task in an environment where students have to think why certain vowels are not used in Spanish when

writing a SMS or a Whatsapps. For example, the Spanish sentence Mi casa es blanca is written using sms language

as Mi cas s blnc, omitting those vowels that intuitively appear more often in our language. This intuition leads us

to think that students in this case may have an everyday sense of each vowel density in the sentences. These rst

intuitions about the density are a key aspect for constructing the notion of distribution (Bakker & Gravemeijer, 2004).

Problem 2 : Which problem can we plan to get to know what happens in Spanish ?

The question allowed to introduce students in an informal modelling process with three cycles : The cycle 1 consisted

in a pseudo-concrete model developed through a statistical process of investigation of the vowels that appear in chains

of characters. The learning objectives of this rst cycle were : (1) formulate questions related to a context with the

aim of converting those real problems in mathematical/statistical problems that could be mathematized through an

horizontal modelling, (2) formulate hypothesis about the answers of the mathematical/statistical problems posed, (3)

devise a data collection collection plan coherent with the analysis and procedures planned, and (4) gain appreciation

of the important role of sample size in statistical sampling, analyse and interpret the collected data using Geogebra.

The second cycle, is a statistical modelling process through the analysis of digital Java animations looking for

patterns when increases the sample size of characters ; The learning objectives of this second cycle were : (1) hypothesize

about what happens when the sample size of characters increase, (2) enhance the understanding of the sample size on

sample representativeness and variability, (3) increase recognition of the potential for bias due to poor sampling design,

(4) enhance understanding of the relative frequency and stabilized relative frequency distribution, (5) reduce mistrust

of single random sample, (6) develop facility with Java Animations for analysing data patterns, and (7) construct the

Law of Large Numbers through Java Animations.

The third cycle consisted in a validation of the model with other samples of characters. The learning objectives

were : (1) drawing hypothesis about what could happen with other samples of characters, (2) compare distributions

through Java animations, enhance recognition of the centre and spread aspects of the relative frequency distribution,

(3) validate and interpret the preliminary hypotheses using other samples, and (4) gain knowledge of bias error.

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Problem 3 : (cycle 4) Can we gure out which language is speaking a friend only by counting the vowels ? The

aim of this cycle is assessing if students are able to transfer the informal modelling process developed to solve this

problem.

The teaching experiment lasted 11 sessions of 60 minutes in which there were developed four cycles of large classes,

individual and small-group action. For each problem and cycle of modelling, the question was presented to the largeclass in order to decide which statistical problem pose. Individually, students were asked to hypothesize about the

answer of the problem posed. Then, in small-group, students were asked to confront their hypothesis to promote a

deliberative dialogue that guide the collection, analysis and interpretation of the data. Their interpretations were

presented to the large-class in order of drawing conclusions about the problem and structure the components of the

SFRD. Those conclusions opened new problems, new cycles of modelling, and new methodological cycles of large-class

discussion, individual reection, small-group action, large-class discussion.

On this study participated 49 students of grade 9 (ages 14, 15) composed by two groups of 25 (A) and 24 (B)

students from a Spanish Compulsory Secondary School in a low socioeconomic coast city. The four individual reections

of the students corresponding to their hypotheses about the answer of the problem posed were codied twice. The

rst codication consisted in discriminate in the students' individual answers the descriptions of the ve components

of the SRFD. The second one codied for each student the level of cognitive maturation of the hypothetical thinking

in relation with the Stabilized Relative Frequency Distribution to prove the Law of Large Numbers.

Results

Students were asked to draw their rst hypothesis when answering the problem 2. On one hand, the rst general

perceptions of group A students was that the letter with more density of appearance was the a. And, in coherence

with their perceptions, students posed the problem : Is the letter A the ones that more appears in Spanish ? And, in

consequence, when asked to hypothesize which was the answer of the question, all answer the letter a. We interpret

that students are in a level of maturation 1, because they were able of drawing hypothesis about the density of the

data as perceptions of the reality about the structure of the Spanish Language.

On the other hand, the students of group B doubted about the density of appearance of the vowel "a" and "e",

so they posed the question : "Which is the letter that is going to appear more ? " Students of group B were asked to

individually answer the question : "Which do you think is the answer to the statistical problem posed ? " We found

dierences on the language of the answer. Some students used a dubitative language, as : "I do not know exactly which

is going to be the answer [. . .] But, although I haven`t done the calculus, I think that the vowel that it is going to

appear more is 'a' " (Raquel, group B). We interpret the use of the dubitative language as a step forward the level

one because, when drawing her hypothesis as perceptions of the reality, she expresses the need of calculating before

answering. This answer should be interpreted as the need of the student of validating their hypothesis to answer the

problem, as logic of hypothesis, calculus, and solution. Other students' language was assertive. For example : "the

vowel more used in Spanish due to its frequency of appearance is the 'a' " (Esteban, group B) or "the answer of the

problem is going to guarantee . . ." (Esther, group B). We consider that the use of this assertive language can be an

expression of their pragmatic view of the reality, and their deterministic conception of the nature of mathematics. We

consider that this deterministic conception of the nature of mathematics it is going to constrain the possibilities of the

cognitive maturation of hypothetical thinking from the level 1 to upper levels, due to the diculties of hypothesizing

about the variability of the data and the contextual knowledge that allow students structure the SRFD.

In the second cycle of modelling there was a student that still used an assertive language when hypothesizing about

what happens when increasing the sample size. He answered : "Increases the number of characters that we have in the

text. Increases the relative frequency " (Alex, group A). The other students verbalize their hypothesis, with more or

less accuracy, using a dubitative language about how the distribution is going to vary in relation with the sample size.

Comparing with their rst hypothesis, they integrate the contextual knowledge looking for interpretations of the reality

and trying to venture the shape of the relative frequency distribution. We interpret that we can observe a cognitive

maturation on their hypothetical thinking. We interpret that except Alex, all the students have matured form the

level 1 to the level 2, because they use a dubitative language, and, at least, they present a contextual description of

the relative frequency consisting in the interpretation of the reality. We understand that some students have matured

from level 2 to 3, because they draw hypotheses about the shape of the distribution describing graphical properties of

the SRFD.

At the beginning of the third cycle of modelling, students were asked if they could validate the conclusions obtained

in stage two, through comparing samples using digital Java animations. The direct question posed aimed to answer

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yes or not. Almost half of the 49 students answer armatively. For example : "Yes, I can. Although in some texts

we are going to have a bigger relative frequency than in the others " (Alex, group A). We consider that Alex has still

diculties on deduce appropriate properties of the SRFD, that constrain the maturation of his hypothetical thinking.

In contrast, an example of the negative answer is : "we are still not able to validate the conclusion obtained, because

we have the same problems ; vary the sample size, the sample of texts, the frequency absolute and relative of vowels "

(Gloria, group A). We interpret the quotation of Gloria as her need of integrating three components of the SRFD : the

contextual knowledge, the distributional knowledge and the variation of data. When integrating these components,

the student might be involved in the maturation her hypothetical thinking from level 3 to 4 looking for the equivalence

of some properties of the SRFD.

In the last cycle students were asked to transfer their knowledge to solve the problem 3. Students were asked :

"which do you think that could be the answer of the third problem ? " The least students answered negatively describing

the dependence of the solution to the sample. For example : "No, because depending of the sample that we chose

we are going to have a dierent result " (Juan Manuel, group B). The student argues about how the solution is

constrained by the sample chosen in the modelling process. This constriction dicult student cognitive maturation

on his hypothetical thinking anchored in level 3. However we think that in the student description of "depending of

the sample", he expresses the need of understanding the sampling distribution. The majority of the students that

answered armatively used their perceptions about the reality or reasoned about the complexity of the problem to

solve and described the four cycles of the informal stochastical modelling process. These answers can be considered

maturation from the level 3 to 4 of their hypothetical thinking looking for the equivalence of properties of the SRFD.

Conclusions

Students were asked to solve a task related to the real problem (Can we gure out which language is speaking a

The students, when asked to solve this real problem, have been involved in

a horizontal statistical modelling process in which they have to convert the real problem in a statistical one. In this

process they developed their rst hypothesis about the distribution of the vowels in chains of characters.

When analysing students' individual hypothesis we have found maturation on their hypothetical thinking. Students'

perceptions of the reality about the density of the vowels in the structure of the Spanish Language has allowed

considering that most of the students are initially in the level 1. The maturation from the level 1 to 2, it is constrained

for some students by their deterministic conception of the nature of mathematics and the use of assertive language. We

think that the maturation from the level 2 to 3 occurs when the student describes the individual data related to reality

as independent properties of the contextual, distributional or graphical knowledge. The need of understanding the

contextual knowledge of sampling constrains that some students evolve from level 3 to 4. Nevertheless, the expression

of the complexity of the problem and the need of integrating the contextual, distributional or graphical knowledge

provoke in the students the maturation from the level 3 to 4.

These stages on maturation of the hypothetical thinking are coherent with the proposal of maturation of proof

structures introduced by Tall et al. (2011). And, it gives us information about the importance of introducing the hypothetical thinking on Compulsory Secondary School when developing structures of proof. However, involving students

only in this task is not sucient in a learning trajectory that aims to prove the Law of Large Numbers. We conjecture

that this proof should be made by a series of successive tasks in which students engage in reasoning about sampling and

distribution in statistical problem solving processes, then being involved in informal modelling processes of "growing

samples" with the aim of crystalline the notions of probability and sampling distribution, and nally prove the Law

of Large Numbers.

friend only by counting the vowels ? ").

References

Bakker, A., & Gravemeijer, K. P. (2004). Learning to reason about distribution. In D. Ben-Zvi, & J. Gareld

(Edits.), The Challenge of Developing Statistical Literacy, Reasoning and Thinking (pgs. 147-168). Dordrecht : Kluwer

Academic Publishers.

Batanero, C., Ortiz, J., Roa, R., & Serrano, L. (2013). La Statistique dans le Curriculum en Espagne. Statistique

et Enseignement , 4 (1), 89-106.

Chaput, B., Girard, J.-C., & Henry, M. (2011). Frequentist Approach : Modelling and Simulation in Statistics and

Chapitre 4

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Drijvers, P. (2000). Students encountering obstacles using a CAS. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning, 189-209.

Serrad, A., Cardeoso, J. M., & Azcrate, P. (2005). Obstacles in the learning of probabilistic knowledge : inuence

from the textbooks. Statistics Education Research Journal , 4 (2), 59-81.

Tall, D., Yevdokimov, O., Koichu, B., Whiteley, W., Kondratieva, M., & Cheng, Y.H. (2011). Cognitive development

of Proof. In M. De Villiers, & G. Hanna (Edits.), Proof and proving in mathematics education (pp. 13-49). Dordrecht :

Springer.

Wild, C. (2006). The Concept of Distribution. Statistics Education Research Journal, 5 (2), 1-26.

Wild, C., & Pfannkuch, M. (1999). Statistical thinking in empirical enquiry (with discussion). International Statistical Review, 67 (3), 223-265.

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levels : a preliminary study.

Daniela Sanna

Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Italy

Abstract : This paper is focused on students' use of algebraic language to represent and solve "real-life" problems. The study is based

on recent developments in mathematics education, in particular related to the eld of elementary algebra. We consider both studies on

school curricula and teachers' practices, and recent experimental studies on pre-algebra and the relationship between teaching and learning

of arithmetic and algebra. The research highlights some preliminary results of a two-year study aimed at analyzing spontaneous students'

use of algebraic symbolism and informal procedures for the solution of a particular kind of mathematical problems, namely generalization

problems. The study involves classes which, in the Italian scholastic system, correspond to the transition between primary and middle

school and between middle school and high school. These phases correspond also to a change of teachers who usually work with the same

class of students respectively for ve (students between the ages of 6 and 10), three (students between the ages of 11 and 13) and ve

years (students between the ages of 14 and 18). In these transitions a rst approach to formalized language and mathematical axiomatic

structure occurs, together with the switch from arithmetic to elementary algebra.

Rsum : Dans ce texte on analyse l'usage de la parte d'tudiants du langage algbrique dans les reprsentations et la rsolution de

problmes concernant de contextes lis au rel. L'tude se fonde sur de rsultats rcents des recherches dans le domaine de la recherche en

didactique de l'algbre et prend en considration tant les tudes concernant les programmes ociels et les pratiques de l'enseignant aussi

comme des tudes actuels sur la pr-algbre et sur la relation entre l'enseignement e l'apprentissage de l'arithmtique et de l'algbre. Cette

communication concerne certains premiers rsultats de notre tude, de la dure de deux ans, ayant le but d'analyser l'usage spontane du

symbolisme algbrique et des procdes mois formels dans la rponse question ncessitant un processus de gnralisation. Les niveaux

scolaires choisis son ceux correspondants aux niveaux de la transition cole primaire-collge et collge-secondaire. Pendant ces phases

de transition on retrouve la premire approche avec le langage formel, la structure assiomatique des mathmatiques, aussi bien que le

passage de l'arithmtique l'algbre lmentaire. Dans le systme scolaire italien ces niveaux correspondent un change d'enseignant, qui

d'habitude institutionnellement est charg travailler avec les mmes lves pendant cinq (avec lves de 6 10 ans), trois (avec lves de

11 13 ans) et cinq ans avec tudiants de 14 18 ans).

Introduction

This study focuses on some aspects of the complex issue of algebra teaching and the development of students'

algebraic thinking from the age of 9 to 16.

National systematic assessment devices (e.g. INVALSI test) testify that Italian students struggle with mathematics

in secondary school, when they face algebra for the rst time.

The negative attitude toward this branch of mathematics is not peculiar to Italian students : previous studies

carried out in the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic framework (Chevallard 1985 ; Chevallard, 1994) reveal a

cultural worsening of society feeling of algebra.

The aim of the rst part of the study, described in this article, is to investigate on the development of generalization

skills and on the spontaneous use of symbols to indicate unknowns or variables in generalization tasks. In this article

some results of the activities carried out with students for this preliminary study are presented.

A description of the current situation about research on elementary algebra education is illustrated in Enseignement

de l'algbre lmentaire : bilan et perspectives (2012). Mercier (2012), analyzing the studies in the rst part of this

book, explains that the research follows two trends. In the rst trend, the current situation in the teaching of algebra is

analyzed by studying and comparing ocial curriculum, textbooks and teachers' practices. The other trend focuses on

a discussion of new practices for algebra teaching in an attempt to characterize the main causes of students' diculties

in learning algebra.

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The strong relationship between arithmetic and algebra, from the point of view of teaching and learning processes, is

very evident if we look at history of mathematics and algebraic thinking through commognition framework. According

to this learning theory, developed by Anna Sfard, thinking is a form of communication and [. . .] learning mathematics

is tantamount to modifying and extending one's discourse (Sfard 2007, p. 565). Sfard (1995, p. 16), contextualizing

mathematics structure and development in this theoretical framework and applying the reication 7 concept to algebra,

claims that mathematical knowledge development is "a process in which the transitions from one level to another follow

some constant course." So "each layer in such structure, except the rst, would be a discourse about the discourse

that constitutes the preceding layer" (Caspi & Sfard, 2012, p. 46). According to this model elementary algebra is a

discourse about arithmetic. Also

this model does seem to indicate the trajectory that one should take in instruction in order to ensure a meaningful learning

of algebra. [. . .] if each layer in the hierarchy is a discourse about its predecessor, an introduction of a new layer before the

student mastered the preceding one carries the risk that the learner would simply not know what the new discourse is all about.

An analysis of the most common and frequent students' errors in algebraic tools manipulation, highlights some

widespread features of their mathematical thinking, that is : the one-way equal sign interpretation (Cusi & Malara,

2012, p. 308 ; Navarra, 2009, p. 17.), the lack of closure of algebraic expressions (Cusi & Malara, 2012, p. 308 ; Caspi &

Sfard, 2012, p. 51.) and the absence of structure sense" (Hoch, 2003). Some researchers claim that some of the causes

of these mistakes and lacks could be the sudden change of teaching methods and of mathematical symbols' meaning

in the transition from arithmetic to algebra.

A solution proposal is based on the conjecture that 9-10 year-old children are already able to operate on and with

unknowns. Researchers of Medford Tuft University have conducted experimental studies in this direction. Carraher,

Schliemann and Brizuela (2000a, 2000b, 2001, 2012) e Carraher and Schliemann (2002) claim that 4th and 5th graders

are already able to use letters or unconventional symbols for unknown quantities spontaneously and to operate on and

with this symbols.

The stance of the American researchers is opposite to other researchers that arm [. . .] if even after an introduction

to algebra, students experience diculties in performing operations with or on a letter representing an unknown or a

generalized number, one can hardly expect them to do so spontaneously without any instruction. Although the letter

in an equation or an algebraic expression may have a numerical referent in the pupil's mind, this does not necessarily

render it operational. Meaning for these operations with literal symbols still has to be constructed(Herscovics &

Linchevski, 1994, p. 63). During this study at no time did we see any evidence of students directly performing

operations on or with the unknown. Thus we can conclude that students solve these equations by working around

the unknown at a purely numerical level(Herscovics & Linchevski, 1994, p. 70). The mentioned study was aimed

at investigating features of informal procedures of students without prior algebraic instruction, in solution of rst

degree equations in one unknown. Whereas in this article "guess and check" procedures are considered as arithmetic

procedures, others assert that one can use the term algebraic thinking with respect to "any kind of mathematical

endeavor concerned with generalized computational processes, whatever the tools used to convey this generality" (Sfard,

1995, p. 18) and that "algebraic thinking can be interpreted as an approach to quantitative situations that emphasizes

the general relational aspects with tools that are not necessarily letter symbolic, but which can ultimately be used as

cognitive support for introducing and for sustaining the more traditional discourses of school algebra."(Kieran, 1996,

p. 5 quoted in Johanning, 2004, p. 372). However Linchevski (1995) seems to agree with the nal part of the quoted

denition, so with the fact that the use of letters is not a necessary condition for the algebraic mode of thinking. She

also stresses the importance of informal processes and preconcepts in constructing and understanding formal algebraic

concepts. In this sense she consider pre-algebra as a combination of activities aimed at developing the more primitive,

concrete preconcepts that are necessary for the development of the higher, more abstract concept"(Linchevski, 1995,

p. 114). Pre-algebra is considered as a transition stage from arithmetic to formal algebra which can be used as a

preparation course before the beginning of formal algebra or also intermittently at the beginning of a new chapter of

formal algebra.

We will call into question these results in our study, also through experimentation in the classrooms.

7. The term reication is used by Sfard (2008, p. 342) to indicate the substitution of a discourse about processes with a discourse about

objects

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On the basis of the mentioned theories and conjectures, we have planned an experimental study, now in the initial

stage. The study attempts to understand whether the use of symbols could spontaneously arise in students. The word

spontaneously is here used because students have been asked to solve word problems where symbolic-literal language

is not explicitly requested or strictly necessary. The second aim is to analyze the dierent levels of generalization skills

attained : students have been asked to solve problems that result in numerical sequences, and the number of students

who have given a general explanation of their answer even when this was not explicitly request has been taken into

account.

In this stage 8 of the study, activities have been carried out with classes of dierent grades. In particular, the study

focuses on the transition between 5th and 6th grade and 8th and 9th grade that, in the Italian school system, correspond

to a change of scholastic institution and teachers as well as classmates. When necessary, the research project, which has

a planned duration of two years, will try to monitor evolution of competences related to algebraic thinking, following

students across the transition from primary to middle school and from middle to high school. So far we have carried

out the activities with 5th, 6tih and 8th graders (9th graders will be involved in a next planned activity). Therefore,

our sample includes students who have not yet worked with literal expressions or with unknowns but also students

who already know symbolism and tools of algebraic language. We have used the experiencial learning method. Each

session was divided into phases. During the rst phase students have worked individually ; for the second the class

has been divided into small groups. At the end of the group work, answers and procedures have been compared in

a whole-class discussion. We have carried out the activities with whole classes and during a curricular lesson to be

sure that students worked in a usual scholastic environment. For the same reason, their teacher was in the classroom

during activities and, in some cases, she managed the discussion with us.

The problems used are adaptations of problems taken from INVALSI test, chosen on the basis of the activities

suggested by Linchevski (1995) to improve skills that are considered peculiar features of algebraic thinking.

The problems used to compare 5th and 6th graders dier only for the starting gure of the sequence and for the

last question, used only with 6th graders (Table 4.6).

We have worked with one 5th grade class and two 6th grade classes. The majority of the students have worked out

the answers to questions a) and b) only by using arithmetic and no one has written a general word explanation for

how to nd the number of squares in a generic gure.

To answer to question c), which clearly asks about a generic gure, 7 students out of 19 in the rst 6th grade class

and 17 students out of 26 in the second one have written a general word explanation but no one of them has written

any formula (Table 4.7).

Also for this problem the majority of the groups have used an arithmetic procedure to answer to the questions

about a specic gure (Table 4.8). Only one of the ve groups (that means 4 students out of 26), and only in a class,

has written an unconventional formula, that is a formula with words or abbreviations.

An example of formula written using whole word is circled in Figure 4.20. The translation is : the number of the

3 + 1 .

To answer to question c), in the rst class only two of the ve groups have written a word algorithm and no one

has written a formula. In the second class there were two word algorithm and three unconventional formulas (Table

4.9).

gure

8. Experimentation, started in 2013-14 school year and conducted according to the action research procedures, includes two previous

teacher training moments.

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182

Figure 1

Figure 1

small squares

small squares.

Figure 2

Figure 2

Figure 3

1. How many small squares will be there in Figure 10 ?

2. Marco says : Figure 12 will be made up from 144

small squares ! ! !

Marta claims : Figure 25 will be made up from 225

small squares ?

Do you agree with Marco ? And with Marta ? Explain

your answers.

Figure 3

1. Marco says : Figure 12 will be made up from 144

small squares ! ! ! Do you agree with Marco ? Explain

your answer.

2. Marta claims : Figure 25 will be made up from 576

small squares ? Do you agree with Marta ? Explain

your answer.

3. Are you able to nd the number of squares for

whichever gure ? If you can, explain in which way.

Class

Number of

students

6th grade A

6th grade B

19

26

Table 4.7 6

Draw

and/or

count

1

th

th

Answers

Give an ex- Write

a

ample

word algorithm

4

1

Write

formula

7

17

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Problem : Mara and Claudio are playing with some matchsticks. They make up a gure sequence. The rst three gures of the sequence are sowed below.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

1. Mara says : Figure 20 will be made up from 62 matchsticks ! ! ? Do you agree with Mara ? Explain your answer.

2. Claudio claims : Figure 32 will be made up from 128

matchsticks ! ! ? Do you agree with Claudio ?

3. In your opinion, can one be able to nd the number

of matchsticks of whichever gure ?

Class

6th grade

A

6th grade

B

Number

of

groups

without a

word explanation

3

5

5

Table 4.8 6

th

without a

word explanation

1

Add

a

word explanation

1

Write a

without a

word explanation

formula

Add

a

word explanation

Class

Number of

groups

6th grade A

6th grade B

5

5

Table 4.9 6

Chapitre 4

Add

a

word explanation

Answers

Use an arithmetic procedure

Draw

and/or

count

1

th

Answers

Give an ex- Write

a

ample

word algorithm

2

2

2

Write

formula

3

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Individual problem : Mara is playing with some matchsticks. She makes up a gure sequence. The rst three gures of the sequence are sowed below.

want to arrange them over a big table in his room in the

following way : in the rst line he put 6 toy cars, in the

second he put 4 more than in the rst, in the third 4 more

than the second and so on. . .

2. How many in line 35 ? Show how you work out our

answer.

1. How many matchsticks does Mara need to make up

Figure 10 ? Show how you work out your answer.

whichever line ? If you can, explain in which way.

matchsticks. Do you agree with Mara ? Explain your

answer.

4. Which line will have 94 toy cars ? And which line 200

toy cars ? Show how you work out your answer.

Mara needs for whichever gure ? If you can do it,

explain in which way.

th

graders.

An example of word algorithm is shown in Figure 4.21 : the translation of the circled part is We have found the

3. Then we have added the missing

algorithm taking out a matchstick and multiplying the number of the gure

matchstick.

8th graders

The individual problem for 8th graders, in Table 6, was about gure sequences. In contrast to the 6th graders, 8th

graders (5 out of 23) have written a word algorithm to determine the number of a generic gure also to answer to

questions a) and b) which are about a specic gure.

Mathematics and realities

Lyon

Answers

Give an exam- Write a word

ple

algorithm

Draw and/or

count

0

Table 4.11 8

Question

a)

b)

th

Write a formula

5

Draw

and/or

count

Table 4.12 8

185

th

Answers

Use an arithmetic procedure

without

a

word explanation

4

3

Add a word

explanation

Write

formula

1

1

An example of general world algorithm written by an 8th grader student to answer to question b) is underlined

in Figure 4.22. He writes : . . .because she has to multiply the number of the gure (which is equal to the number of

matchsticks in every side) times 4, that is the number of sides in a square.

In question c), despite these students have already had an algebraic instruction, only 5 out of 23 have written a

formula and 8 have written only a word algorithm. The written formulas are not written using conventional algebraic

symbolism but using words or abbreviations, an example is shown in Figure 4. The translation of circled part is :

Number of sides Number of matchsticks on a side .

For the group activity a no-geometrical problem has been chosen (Table 6). In this problem there is an additional

question which is equivalent to solving a linear equation.

Table 8 shows that, in questions a) and b), only one of the ve groups (that means 5 students out of 22) has written

a formula for a generic gure : we have to wait the explicit question c) to have a generalization by the other groups :

three groups have written a word algorithm and two groups have written a formula with abbreviations.

The word algorithm written by a student to answer to question c) is you have to multiply the number of the line

by 4 and to add 2.(Figure 4.25).

No one has formed or solved any equation to answer to question d) : they clearly write we have applied the inverse

operation in relation to the original formula (Figure 6).

Conclusions

In the 6th grade classes, where only a group, that is 4 students out of 45, and only in the second problem has

written a general procedure to answer to a question about a specic gure, a spontaneous generalization is rare.

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186

th

grade class.

For 8th graders, the percentage of students who have used generalization even when questions didn't ask it, is a

little higher. This fact conrms the classic studies : development of generalization skills occurs in students from 10

to 13 years of age. Anyhow, the not very high percentage of this students (about 22% in both 8th graders' problems)

shows that these skills are not completely achieved, despite these activities were carried out at the end of the school

year when they have already studied polynomials and linear equations in one unknown .

After an explicit request, 10-11 year-olds have written formulas (with words or abbreviations) in simple generalization processes : that leads us to say that they are able to deal with symbols.

In the next stages of this study we want to more deeply analyze didactical variables involved in the construction

of knowledge and skills in elementary algebra. In particular we are interested in didactical variables which foster : the

understanding of the meaning of algebraic expressions and the algorithms linked to these ; the comprehension of the

meaning of the solutions to an equation ; the use of an equation as a tool for solving problems in real-life contexts.

In particular, conditions will be analyzed which could foster or prevent the rst approach to formalized language

in the transition from arithmetic to elementary algebra considering also the peculiarities of the Italian school system

where experiential learning is not very widespread (Lai & Polo, 2012) and where teachers usually work with the same

class at least for three years.

We want to study the emergence of these skills also by monitoring some of the 5th graders already involved in this

activity next year, when they will be at middle school and some of the 8th graders too, when they will be at high school.

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REFERENCES

Carraher D., Schliemann A., Brizuela B. (2000a). From Quantities to Ratio, Functions and Algebraic Relations.

AERA Meeting. New Orleans, April.

Carraher D., Schliemann A., Brizuela B. (2000b). Bringing out the algebraic character of arithmetic : Instantiating

variables in addition and subtraction. Proceedings of the XXIV Conference of the International group for the Psycology

of Mathematics Education, Hiroschima, Japan, Vol.2, pp. 145-152.

Carraher D., Schliemann A., Brizuela B. (2001). Can young students operate on unknowns ? Proceedings of the

XXV Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Utrecht, The Netherlands

(invited research forum paper), Vol.1, pp. 130-140.

Carraher D., Schliemann A., Brizuela B. (2012). Algebra in elementary school. Dorier J. & Robert A. (Eds.)

Enseignement del l'algbre lmentaire, La Pense sauvage, Numero speciale, pp 107-124.

Carraher D. & Schliemann A. (2002). Modeling reasoning. Gravemeijer K., Lehrer R., Oers B. & Verschael

L. (Eds.). Symbolizing, Modelings and Tools Use in Mathematics Education. The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic

Publischers, pp. 295-304.

Caspi S. & Sfard A. (2012). Spontaneous meta-arithmetic as a rst step toward school algebra. International

Journal of Educational Research, 51-52, pp. 45-65.

Chevallard Y. (1985). Le passage de l'arithmtique l'algbrique dans l'enseignement des mathmatiques au collge

Premire partie : l'volution de la transposition didactique. Petit x 5, pp 51-94.

Chevallard Y. (1994). Enseignement de l'algbre et transposition didactique. Resoconti del seminario matematico

Universit e Politecnico Torino 52(2), pp. 175-234.

Dorier J. & Robert A. (Eds.) (2012). Enseignement de l'algbre lmentaire : bilan et perspectives, La pense

Symposium paper.

sauvage.

Filloy E. & Rojano T. (1984). From an arithmetical thought to an algebraic thought. Proceedings of PME-NA, VI,

Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 51-56.

Herscovics N. & Linchevski L. (1994). A cognitive gap between arithmetic and algebra. Educational studes in

Mathematics, Vol 27, n1, pp 59-78.

Hoch M. (2003). Structure Sense. Proceedings of the Third Conference of the European Society for Research in

Mathematics Education, Bellaria, Italia.

Johanning D. (2004). Supporting the development of algebraic thinking in middle school : a closer look at students'

informal strategies. Journal of mathematical behavior, 23, pp. 371-388.

Katz V. J. (1997). Algebra and its teaching : an historical survey. Journal of mathematical behavior, Ablex Publishing Corp., 16 (1), pp. 25-38.

Lai S. & Polo M. (2012). Construction d'une culture scientique pour tous : engagement de l'enseignant et de

l'lve dans la rupture de pratiques habituelle. Dorier J.L. & Coutat S. (Eds.) Enseignement des mathmatiques et

contrat social : enjeux et ds pour le 21e sicle Actes du colloque EMF2012 GT9, pp. 1213'1226.

Linchevski L. (1995). Algebra with numbers and arithmetic with letters : a denition of pre-algebra. Journal of

mathematical behavior, 14, pp. 113-120.

Mercier A. (2012). Vous avez dit 'Algbre ?. Dorier J. & Robert A., (Eds) Enseignement de l'algbre lmentaire.

La Pense sauvage, Numero speciale, pp 163-180.

Navarra G. (2009). Il progetto ArAl. Navarra G. (coord.), Mura F. & Sini S. (Eds) Attivit in ambiente early

algebra, Collaborazione Progetto ArAl Quaderno n7, pp. 15-24. Self publishing.

Sfard A. (1995). The development of algebra : confronting historical and psychological perspectives. Journal of

mathematical behavior, 14, pp 15-39.

Sfard A. (2007). When the rules of discourse change, but nobody tells you : making sense of mathematics learning from a commognitive standpoint. The journal of the learning sciences, 16(4), pp. 565-613. Lawrence Erlbaum

Associates, Inc.

Sfard A. (2008). Psicologia del pensiero matematico. Il ruolo della comunicazione nello sviluppo cognitivo. Erickson.

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Hauke Straehler-Pohl, Uwe Gellert, Nina Bohlmann

Freie Universitt Berlin, Germany

Rsum : Les mathmatiques formatent certaines dcisions que nous prenons et faonnent la manire de percevoir la ralit que nous

vivons. Comment l'idologie inuence-t'elle les mathmatiques, en aectant nos valeurs ou, mme, en pntrant nos dsirs ? Aprs iek,

l'idologie est considre comme la condition ncessaire pour comprendre le monde dans lequel nous vivons. Quand nous rsolvons des

problmes sociaux en utilisant la mathmatisation, nous participons la manifestation d'un fantasme idologique : il y a une correspondance

entre la ralit des mathmatiques et la ralit sociale. L'un des dilemmes thiques de la ralit sociale du premier monde est celui des

consquences de la consommation. Dans notre prsentation, nous allons decomposer une video de publicit d'un producteur mondial de

limonade. Notre nous sommes concentrs sur le rle idologique des mathmatiques : Comment les mathmatiques sont utilises an de

permettre au consommateur de se librer de l'exprience inconscient de culpabilit li la consommation et clbrer une fantaisie agrable

et libratrice ?

Abstract : Mathematics formats many of the decisions we make and it shapes the way we perceive the reality we live in. But what

function serves mathematics for a certain ideology, in inuencing our values or even penetrating our desires ? Following iek, ideology is

seen as the necessary condition for making sense of the world we live in. When we solve problems that emerge from the social reality we

live in by means of using mathematisation, we partake in the manifestation of the ideological fantasy that there is a mapping between the

reality of mathematics and the social reality. One of the ethical dilemmas of the social reality of the rst world is that of the consequences

of consumption. We will critically analyse a commercial of a global producer of lemonade. Our particular focus will be on the ideological

role of mathematics and how it is used in order to allow the consumer liberating herself from the unconscious experience of guilt related

to consumption and to solemnize a pleasant and liberating fantasy.

Introduction

If one is to answer the question What is mathematics ` from an anthropological stance, one could look at what

mathematics does for those who make use of it. For some mathematicians, mathematics is a means for generating

problems and solving them within the realm that is spanned by a small set of abstract principles. For other mathematicians, mathematics is a source for solving problems that are generated by the realms of nature and technology.

For students mathematics is sometimes a means for achieving (or avoiding to be excluded from) a certain economical

standard (Baldino & Cabral, 2013 ; Pais, 2013 ; Vinner, 1997). The question can also be asked within the realm of

popular culture (Appelbaum, 1995). In our highly technologized societies, mathematics both explicitly and implicitly

formats many of the decisions we make and it shapes the way we perceive the reality we live in (Gellert & Jablonka,

2007 ; Skovsmose, 1994). We could also generate an answer to the question What is mathematics ` by asking for

the role that mathematics plays in the ways that we communicate, that we cook, make music, play sports and so on.

We can conduct a further shift of perspectives and ask what function mathematics serves for a certain ideology in

interpellating us, in inuencing our values or even penetrating our desires. With ideology, we do not refer to a coherent

plot, with which a human agent, a state-run institution, or a company intentionally manipulates our perception.

Instead, following Slavoj iek, we see ideology as the necessary condition for being able to make sense of a world,

that otherwise would remain contradictory and chaotic to us (iek, 2008). Ideologies provide us with narratives that

allow us to compensate the lack that we experience, when being confronted with phenomena that contradict the way

we perceive the world. Ideology allows suppressing the dilemmas and cleavages that we face and it allows replacing

them with a coherent narrative. We ask for the function that mathematics serves when supporting an ideology in

providing us with a coherent narrative for an incoherent world. The aim of our paper is to explore ways, in which

a critique of ideology in popular media (viral commercials in our case) can be employed in order to foster students'

critical awareness of the hidden functions of mathematics within modern society.

For any of the dierent possible users of mathematics that we have hypothesized above, mathematics is a means for

creating an order where there has been disorder, of reducing a chaotic realm to a set of controllable variables. In this

way, mathematics can generate solutions for problems that appeared as unthinkable (Bernstein, 2000) from within the

context in which the problems emerged. One might object that as long as the user of mathematics does not confuse her

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mathematisation of a situation with the situation itself, s/he will not fall prey to an ideological fantasy. However, iek

makes us aware that fantasy is not a phenomenon on the level of consciousness, but has to be understood on the level

of our actions (iek, 2001). Ideologies do not exist because people believe in the narrative that replaces incoherence

with coherence, but because they act as if the narrative was true, no matter whether they believe in it or not. Hence,

when we solve problems that emerge from the social reality we live in by means of mathematisation, we partake in

the manifestation of the ideological fantasy that there is a mapping between the reality of mathematics and the social

reality. Being aware of the gap between mathematics and the social reality and being aware that the mathematized

situation needs interpretation in order to describe anything real, cannot immunise us against falling pray to an

ideological fantasy (Lundin, 2012). When learning mathematics, students are not seldom required to immerse in that

ideology by means of fetishistic disavowal (iek, 2005) : They know very well that mathematics does not exactly map

the world, but still they shall do as if it does, as mathematics provides very practical solutions.

However, as we have outlined above, being immersed in the ideological fantasy of mathematics is not an evil per se,

as this immersion allows us to think solutions that have yet been unthinkable. The political question emerges, when we

ask for the broader ideological constellation that the mathematical fantasy Descartes' dream (Davis & Hersh, 1986)

serves. In this paper, we will focus on the entanglement of mathematics with consumerism and reect on how this

entanglement could be deconstructed within the mathematics classroom.

One of the ethical dilemmas that any person living in the rst world inevitably faces is that of the consequences

of her/his consumption. It is almost impossible to completely refrain from consuming products that in some way contribute to the exploitation of people in a dierent corner of the world or the exploitation of the planet. Simultaneously,

social and ecological sustainability have become regulative ideals of our times. A climate-neutral life that does not

negatively inuence the life of any other person is rather a desire for some of what ought-to-be than a realizable event.

Almost any act of consumption of goods is related to at least a minimum amount of social or ecological guilt and

confronts humans with the disorder they create. Even though this guilt is one that the individual "lacking a real choice"

can actually not be hold accountable for, this guilt is felt and it releases a desire for its extinction. In order to be able

to live with this supposed guilt (and hence keep on consuming) people have to develop an ideological fantasy-screen

that allows to suppress the traumatic truth, namely that despite their desire to make the world a better place, they

are undercutting this desire by means of their consumption. In this dilemma, the fantasy-screen of ideology provides

a rationale that allows making sense of consumption or even allows integrating consumerist acts within the regulative

ideal of sustainability (e.g., making the world a better place by consuming organic groceries or fair trade products). In

this way, ideology allows people to keep on acting and consuming the way they do while keeping up the regulative ideal

of sustainability. In the following, we will critically analyse a commercial of a globally active producer of lemonade and

explicate the ideological junctions that allow the consumer to hail to a pleasant and liberating fantasy (liberating from

the unconscious experience of guilt). Our particular focus will be on the role that mathematics plays in the enabling

of this fantasy.

The commercial that we are analysing starts by announcing to report on a study that has been conducted

about the real situation of the world (Fig. 4.26).

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The mentioning of the real situation can be read as an indication that the following presentation is going to

dismantle false assumptions that circulate about the state of the world. Even though the small logo of the company

in the upper right corner signals the viewer that s/he is seeing a commercial, the claim for telling the "true story" is

legitimated by an emblematic reference to the superiority of the sciences ("a study conducted in 2010"). Even though

no "research question" is stated explicitly, the following scenes (Fig. 2 to 5) make quite clear that the question being

answered is whether the world is becoming a worse or a better place.

A multi-ethnic children's choir adds music to the pictures : I'm free to do whatever I - whatever I choose . Very

quickly it is equally clear, that the answer to the question is positive : the world is indeed becoming a better place.

In this way, the commercial indirectly addresses the viewer's unconscious guilt and releases her from it. The world is

becoming a better place and we are not ruining it. Every bad deed is compensated by a good deed. It is this point

at which numbers start playing their role. Just comparing the images would draw a quite depressive outlook on the

situation of the world. What can stued animals do against a tank ? What can welcome mats do against barb-wired

walls ? In order to still produce an optimistic outlook, the numbers have to eectively serve three functions : a)

quantity matters : sure, a stued animal cannot balance a tank, but 131.000 can, b) the choice of numbers suggests

to be actually derived from a study conducted in 2010 and hence substantiate the scientic legitimacy of the claims

being made, c) numbers are stripped o of time and space : it does not matter that the tanks kill people in a dierent

corner of the world than where the stued animals populate children's rooms ; it does not matter that the mats are

not meant to welcome Palestinians in an apartment of an Israeli family, while the barb-wired wall coops up millions

of Palestinians in one of the world's most crowded and simultaneously poorest areas.

What is striking is that the vast majority of arguments, which the commercial shows for proving that the real

situation of the world is improving, refer to consumption (see Fig. 4.28, 4.29 as examples). Summarizing, the commercial provides the viewer a fantasy-screen, which allows her to disavow her unconscious feelings of guilt : she can

lay back and feel safe. Her consumption is not going to make the world a worse place. Even the opposite, by buying

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a stued animal, a welcome mat, a baking mixture for a chocolate cake or a monopoly game, she can even contribute

to making the world a better place. As we have demonstrated, mathematics provides the fantastic material to create

a coherent narrative for this ideology.

Our analysis has shown, how the ideology of a supposedly value-free mathematics has not itself created a socially

problematic message, but how this ideology has been exploited in order to support a consumerist fantasy. Together

with their students, mathematics teachers could develop a similar critique in order to foster critical awareness of the

potential roles of mathematics in our modern society. However, teachers do not have to halt at the point of just

criticizing the role of mathematics, but can further broach the issue whether mathematics can also be exploited to

undermine rather than to support consumerism.

Remaining within our theoretical frame, we seek support by what iek calls overidentication. According to iek,

an ideological edice can be undermined by a too-literal identication, which is why its successful functioning requires

a minimal distance from its explicit rules (2008, p. 29). This would mean to take the commercial more serious than it

takes itself and reect what the world would actually look like, if the numbers would really reect the real situation

of the world and would really be results of a scientic study.

Students could research the facts displayed in the commercials and overidentify with the numerical relations that

are simultaneously supposed, e.g. : How many tanks are produced by the German arms industry ? In 2013, Germany

has exported 164 tanks to Indonesia. What does that mean in terms of stued animals ? Can Germany compensate

by also sending 21,484,000 stued animals ? These reections appear cynical en face the actual harm that is actually

done to actual people. However, making use of overidentication, students can reveal the cynicism underneath the

ideological fantasy produced by the commercial. Using mathematics in this way can help to eectively deconstruct the

ideological messages that we are confronted with in the media. It can help us resisting the temptation of the feel-good

promise of consumerism and seek for ways to contribute to a better world on a dierent terrain.

Consumerism is none of them.

REFERENCES

Appelbaum, P. (1995). Popular Culture, Educational Discourse, and Mathematics. Albany : SUNY Press.

Baldino, R.R. & Cabral, T.C. (2013). The Productivity of Students' Schoolwork : An Exercise in Marxist Rigour.

Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 11(4), 71-84.

Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity : Theory, Research, Critique (Rev. ed.). Lanham :

Rowman & Littleeld.

Davis, P.J. & Hersh, R. (1986). Descartes' Dream : The World According to Mathematics. San Diego : Harcourt

Brace Jovanovich.

Gellert, U. & Jablonka, E. (2007). Mathematization and Demathematization : Social, Philosophical and Educational

Ramications. Rotterdam : Sense.

Lundin, S. (2012). Hating School, Loving Mathematics : On the Ideological Function of Critique and Reform in

Mathematics Education. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 80(2), 73-85.

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Pais, A. (2013). An Ideology Critique of the Use-Value of Mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 84(1),

15-34.

Skovsmose, O. (1994). Towards a Philosophy of Critical Mathematics Education. Dordrecht : Kluwer.

Vinner, S. (1997). From Intuition to Inhibition : Mathematics Education and Other Endangered Species. In E.

Pehkonen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 21th Conference of the International Group for Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 1 (pp. 63-78). Helsinki : University of Helsinki.

iek, S. (2001). Enjoy Your Symptom ! : Jacques Lacan in Hollywood and out. London : Routledge.

iek, S. (2005). The Metastases of Enjoyment : Six Essays on Women and Causality. London : Verso.

iek, S. (2008). The Ticklish Subject. London : Verso.

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Audrey Cooke

Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia

Rsum : L'intgration des mathmatiques tout au long curriculum se fait au bnce des lves tudiant les mathmatiques, parce

qu'elle permet de montrer comment les mathmatiques sont utilises dans le monde rel ce qui procure aux lves une exprience qu'ils

apprcient. Cependant, la faon dont les enseignants intgrent les mathmatiques varient et ces variations peuvent avoir des consquences

sur l'exprience d'apprentissage mathmatique. Les reprsentations que les enseignants se font de l'intgration des mathmatiques peuvent

modier grandement cet apprentissage. De plus, les dispositions des professeurs vis--vis des mathmatiques elles-mmes, leurs croyances,

leurs craintes ou leur conance tout comme leurs conceptions des mathmatiques peuvent inuencer leur vision de l'intgration des maths

aussi bien que les activits d'apprentissage qu'ils crent. Ce papier, thorique, discute des possibles formes d'inuence et propose des moyens

pour dcrire leurs eets.

Abstract : Integrating mathematics across the curriculum is of benet for children learning mathematics as it can provide opportunities

that demonstrate how mathematics is used in the real world and create experiences that children enjoy. However, how teachers integrate

mathematics can vary and this, in turn, can impact on what happens in the mathematics learning experience. Teacher views of what it

means to integrate mathematics impact on how mathematics is integrated in learning experiences. In addition, teacher disposition towards

mathematics - their beliefs about, attitudes towards, anxiety and condence with, and conceptualisation of mathematics - can inuence

both how teachers view mathematics integration and the mathematics learning experiences they create. This theoretical paper discusses

the potential forms of this inuence and proposes ways to describe their eect.

Introduction

In her investigation into curriculum innovation in OECD countries, Krkkinen (2012) stated that the use of

integrated studies across the curriculum is increasing. She found that literacy and numeracy were integrated within

other curriculum areas to enable children to develop these important life skills. However, mathematics integration

across curriculum areas can be achieved in dierent ways and it is teacher beliefs that can be the greatest determining

factor on how integration is achieved. In their research with secondary teachers, de Araujo & al. (2013) created a

framework to describe how teachers conceptualised mathematics integration. de Araujo & al. (2013) proposed that

their framework addressed mathematics integration in terms of both how mathematics was integrated - between the

strands of mathematics, through topics, across disciplines, or through context - as well as how the integration was

situated temporally. Two of the types of integration were across mathematics rather than across the curriculum and

two were across the curriculum. Of the two that were across the curriculum, one considered integration across the

curriculum as the insertion of mathematics into other disciplines. The other considered integration as based on context,

where the focus was on creating a real world situation that may happen to utilise ideas from other disciplines (that is,

across the curriculum as a by-product of the context). The creation of real world contexts is one of the key points the

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (2013) focuses on when discussing the development

of mathematic literacy and, when the framework created by de Araujo & al. (2013) is considered, it would seem to

indicate that context provides additional benets of integration.

An integrated approach to mathematics necessitates changes in teaching and learning opportunities. Trammel

(2001) described how integrated mathematics involved organising content and teaching dierently to traditional mathematics lessons. He outlined the class experience as starting with the presentation of a problem - within a realistic

context - that needs to be solved and the change in the teacher role to that of facilitator - asking questions to get

children to examine their ideas as they work on solutions. These changes will be dependent on the teacher as it is

the teacher who determines the classroom experiences (Katz & Raths, 1985). However, the importance of integrating mathematics necessitates these changes, particularly the opportunities an integrated mathematics experience can

provide in terms of motivation for children and a recognition that mathematics can open up the world outside of the

classroom (Ellis 2005), as well as the development of numeracy or mathematical literacy (OECD, 2013).

Teacher mathematical knowledge is required for teachers to be able to teach mathematics (Beswick, Watson, &

Brown 2006). However, as Beswick, Callingham, and Watson (2012) proposed, it is not just mathematical knowledge

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that is required - condence with and beliefs about mathematics are also involved. Ernest (1989) considered teacher

conceptualisation of mathematics - their mathematical philosophy - as an additional factor that would impact on the

teaching and learning of mathematics in their classroom, particularly in terms of the mathematical experiences they

would create. Teacher mathematics anxiety can also impact on teaching and learning experiences. Swars, Daane, and

Giesen, (2006) demonstrated connections between mathematics anxiety and the willingness of the teacher to adapt their

teaching and learning experiences, with higher mathematics anxiety linked to decreased likelihood of changing. These

elements - teacher beliefs about, attitudes towards, anxiety and condence with, and conceptualisation of mathematics

- have been gathered as components of disposition towards mathematics (Cooke, 2014).

Disposition towards mathematics incorporates components that have been found to impact on how teachers approach mathematics teaching and learning. As such, teacher disposition towards mathematics would also impact on

mathematics integration across the curriculum. Ernest (1989) connects the teacher's view of mathematics with how

they believe mathematics should be taught and how they believe children learn mathematics, although these are ameliorated by the social context of teaching (such as what happens in the classroom, the school, and the community).

That is, teacher beliefs regarding mathematics could impact on what the teacher does when teaching (or preparing

to teach) mathematics. Ernest (1989) proposed that it is the beliefs of the teacher, rather than the knowledge that

is held, that will dierentiate what is done in the classroom. Remillard and Bryans' (2004) ndings connect teacher

beliefs with how the curriculum is used, specically, what mathematics is, how mathematics is learned, and the role

of the teacher were found to impact on how the curriculum was enacted in the classroom.

Beswick & al. (2006, p. 69) discussed the importance of teachers having sucient condence and a level of joy with

mathematics, together with sucient knowledge, to enable them to play with mathematical ideas. . . to see connections

between ideas, and to imagine possible avenues for exploration. The connection between knowledge and condence was

developed further by Beswick & al. (2012). They proposed that teacher knowledge about mathematics incorporated

both teacher beliefs about mathematics and condence with mathematics in terms of developing their students'

understanding and critical numeracy, integration with other curriculum areas, and assessing student achievement

against new state-based standards. Teachers with lower level of knowledge or condence may also be more likely to use

textbook and pre-prepared commercial worksheets for teaching and learning experiences in mathematics (Choppin,

2011). Likewise, teachers with mathematics anxiety may focus more on procedural knowledge rather than problemsolving and reasoning (Swars & al., 2006).

Kemp and Hogan (2000) stated that mathematics can be imbedded into any curriculum area where students need

to use mathematics in order to do something - complete a task, make a model, understand a new concept, or solve a

problem (p. 14). If integration of mathematics across the curriculum involves the application of mathematics, then

there needs to be the desire and motivation to use mathematics - if not, there is the risk of what Kemp and Hogan

(2000) described as students avoiding mathematics and using any other strategy that will provide a good enough

result (p. 13). As the teacher is the linchpin regarding how mathematics experiences are created in the classroom

(Ernest 1989), the teacher's disposition towards mathematics needs to be considered as this can impact on choices

made regarding teaching, learning, and integration.

Disposition towards mathematics and integration of mathematics can be connected by the amalgamation of the

framework proposed by de Araujo & al. (2013) with Ernest's (1989) conceptualisation of mathematics, mathematics

teaching, and mathematics learning, as shown in Figure 4.31. If a teacher's disposition towards mathematics incorporates the view that mathematics is a set of rules to learn (Ernest, 1989), if they are not condent in using mathematics

(Beswick & al., 2006), or if they rely on text books (Choppin, 2011), and they resist modications to their teaching

and learning experiences (Swars & al., 2006), then their disposition towards mathematics may be disparate with the

integration of mathematics across the curriculum. This would place them in the left-most vertical column and could

result in situations where mathematics is not seen as essential to the learning experience (Kemp & Hogan 2000).

If the teacher conceives mathematics as uid and connected (Beswick & al., 2006), was condent in its use (Beswick

& al., 2012), had lower anxiety towards mathematics (Swars & al., 2006), saw the teacher's role as a facilitator

encouraging problem solving (Trammel, 2001), were more likely to engage in inquiry-based approaches (Wilkins,

2008), and were more condent in their ability to teach mathematics (Swars & al., 2006), then their disposition

towards mathematics may be more commensurate with integrating mathematics across the curriculum. This could be

due to the teacher being more likely to play with and explore mathematics (Beswick & al., 2012) and to adapt their

teaching and the learning experiences in their mathematics classroom (Swars & al., 2006) - elements of the right-most

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Figure 4.31 Connecting Ernest (1989) and de Araujo & al. (2013).

column of Figure 4.31.

The right-most column of Figure 4.31 also reects the four dimensions Beane (1996) used to described curriculum

integration - the use of real world problems, the focus on the learning experience using knowledge (regardless of the

curriculum area the knowledge comes from), the learning experience as the outcome rather than a test on the knowledge

used (indeed, it could be argued that using the knowledge within the learning experience is sucient assessment),

and real and meaningful problem solving experiences that further develop that knowledge and problem solving. These

dimensions reect the opportunities that are most likely to result in the benets Czerniak, Weber, Sandman, & Ahern

(1999) described - a more realistic reection of the world that generates student interest in the content.

Conclusion

The teacher needs to have a disposition towards mathematics commensurate with creating integrated learning

experiences where mathematics is used in a way that allows children to see that it is necessary and eective but

also generates a willingness to use it (Ellis, 2005 ; Kemp & Hogan, 2000 ; Trammel, 2001). However, integrating

mathematics across the curriculum - as outlined in the right-most column of Figure 4.31 - requires teachers to have

a level of knowledge about and understanding of mathematics and the other curriculum areas suciently to create

realistic, meaningful, and applicable experiences (Beane, 1996). They also need to have a willingness to explore and

play with mathematics (Beswick & al., 2006). As a result, more than knowledge is needed by eective teachers of

mathematics (Beswick, & al., 2012 ; Ernest, 1989) - teacher disposition towards mathematics - beliefs about, attitudes

towards, anxiety and condence with, and conceptualisation of mathematics - can contribute to the teacher's creation

and use of mathematical learning experiences (Beswick & al., 2006 ; Ernest 1989 ; Swars & al., 2006). If mathematics

is to be integrated across the curriculum in the ways outlined by Beane (1996) and evident in the right-most column

of Figure 4.31, then teachers' dispositions towards mathematics need to be considered together with mathematical

knowledge to ensure this occurs.

REFERENCES

Beane, J. (1996). On the Shoulders of Giants ! The Case for Curriculum Integration. Middle School Journal, 28(1),

6-11. Retrieved from http ://www.jstor.org/stable/23024059

Beswick, K., Callingham, R., & Watson, J. (2012). The nature and development of middle school mathematics

teachers' knowledge. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 15, 131-157. doi : 12.1007/s10857-011-9177-9

Beswick, K., Watson, J., & Brown, N. (2006). Teachers' condence and beliefs and their students' attitudes to

mathematics. In P. Grootenboer, R. Zevenbergen, & M. Chinnappan (Eds.), Identities, cultures and learning spaces :

Proceedings of the 29th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 1, 68-75).

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integration. School Science and Mathematics, 99(8), 421-430. doi : 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1999.tb17504.x

de Araujo, Z., Jacobson, E., Singletary, L., Wilson, P., Lowe, L., & Marshall, A. M. (2013). Teachers' conceptions

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Katz, L. G. & Raths, J. D. (1985). Dispositions as goals for teacher education. Teaching & Teacher Education,

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Kemp, M. & Hogan, J. (2000). Planning for an emphasis on numeracy in the curriculum. Retrieved from www.aamt.edu.au/c

hog.pdf

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framework : Mathematics, reading, science, problem solving and nancial literacy. http ://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264190511en

Remillard, J. T., & Bryans, M. B. (2004). Teachers' orientations toward mathematics curriculum materials : Implications for teacher learning. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(5), 352-388. doi :10.2307/30034820

Swars, S. L., Daane, C. J., & Giesen, J. (2006). Mathematics anxiety and mathematics teacher ecacy : What is the

relationship in elementary preservice teachers ? School Science and Mathematics, 106(7), 306-315. doi : 10.1111/j.19498594.2006.tb17921.x

Trammel, B. (2001). Integrated mathematics ? Yes, but teachers need support ! Retrieved from http ://www.nctm.org/resour

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practices. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11, 139-164. doi : 10.1007/s10857-007-9068-2

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David Kollosche

Universitt Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany

Rsum : En tant que phnomne culturel, le raisonnement logique n'est pas exempt de dimensions culturelles. Bien que la recherche

sur l'impact de la logique sur l'enseignement des mathmatiques se concentre souvent sur les questions pistmologiques, psychologiques

et didactiques, cette contribution ore une vue sociologique sur les dimensions culturelles de la logique dans la socit et la classe de

mathmatiques. Il esquisse un cadre sociologique sur la base duquel l'impact social de la logique peut tre analys, et puise dans une

tude antrieure sur la gnalogie de la logique, et propose quelques conclusions didactiques pour l'apprentissage de la logique et des

mathmatiques.

Abstract : As a cultural phenomenon, logical reasoning is not free from cultural dimensions. While research on the impact of logic

on mathematics education often concentrates on epistemological, psychological and didactical issues, this contribution oers a sociological

view on cultural dimensions of logic in society and the mathematics classroom. It sketches a sociological frame on the basis of which the

social impact of logic can be analysed, draws from an earlier study on the genealogy of logic, and proposes some didactical conclusions for

the learning of logic and mathematics.

Logic is a central theme in any philosophy of mathematics education, not only because it is consid-ered an essential

feature of mathematics itself, but also because logical reasoning is believed to hold potential for individual emancipation

and social progress. The Commission for the Study and Im-provement of Mathematics Teaching (CIEAEM) dedicates

one of four sub-themes of its annual con-ference in 2014 to the discussion of the nature and learning of logical

reasoning. This sub-theme focuses logic from the perspectives of epistemology, cognitive psychology and didactics,

whereas sociological perspectives on the phenomenon of logic are widely neglected. A sociological approach towards the

use of logic faces two main challenges. Firstly, it needs to provide theoretical tools for the analysis of social dimensions

of logic both in the macro-domain of society and in the micro-domain of the mathematics classroom. While in the

rst domain we face questions of power and control executed by groups of people, the second domain makes us think

about issues of emancipa-tion and subjection of individuals. The usefulness of a sociological approach will depend

on how well it can provide a combined view on both domains. Secondly, the epistemological range of a sociological

approach will depend on its ability to critically handle convictions connected to the issue in focus. Concerning logic,

it has often been argued that logical thinking is the only 'reasona-ble' or 'legitimate' form of thinking and that,

therefore, education in logical thinking necessarily benets both the learner and society in general. However, as there

are numerous other productive forms of thinking and as the existence of a 'natural' development towards a logical

form of thinking cannot be proved, these claims cannot be solidied in any academic sense, but belong to the core

convictions of the philosophy of Ancient Greece and the enlightened modernity. In order to avoid any ideological

restriction of the sociological perspective, these very convictions themselves shall be handled as objects of analysis in

a sociological approach towards logic.

The work of the French philosopher, psychologist and sociologist Michel Foucault provides a theory of the social

which allows considering the before-mentioned challenges. Foucault (1991 ; 2011) rejects the idea that power is a good

which a person or a group can possess. Instead, he considers power as the control of techniques for the government

of others or the self. For example, an em-ployer may demand punctuality from his employees. Threatening with wage

cuts or dismissal may be his techniques for the government of his employees. However, the employee is not told how

to achieve punctuality. He in turn has to cultivate techniques for the government of the self ' a process Foucault calls

ascesis ', in this case techniques that allow punctuality, e.g. by buying a watch or adjusting personal attention. This

example does not only illustrate techniques for the government of others or the self, it also points to a very special form

of techniques which Foucault (1977) calls disciplinary techniques. These techniques allow the government of others

through their government of the self. The eectiveness of disciplinary techniques lies within the subjectication of the

indi-vidual who develops techniques of the self and thereby internalises the originally external demands. Eventually,

the disciplinary demand becomes a part of the personality of the individual who, from then on, may even defend this

demand or claim it from others. Apart from that, knowledge is noth-ing isolated from power, but connected to it in

a symbiotic sense. On the one hand, techniques of power can allow or prevent knowledge to develop, to spread and

to gain legitimisation. On the other hand, knowledge itself can develop, improve and legitimise techniques of power.

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As an example, Foucault (1970) argues that in modernity, the humanities develop hand in hand with disciplinary

techniques throughout society.

Based on the theories of Foucault, Valerie Walkerdine (1988) discussed how 'reason' is not the re-sult of a 'natural'

development of individual thinking, but a social construction. But while her work focuses on the construction of 'reason'

in early childhood, cultural dimensions of 'reason' are not systematically analysed. Dierent to Walkerdine's approach,

my analysis will address the following Foucaultian questions around social dimensions of logic : Can logical reasoning

be considered a technology for the government of others, of the self, or even as a disciplinary technology ? Which

ascesis does it require' Wither the social need for such a technology' Who and which knowledge legitimises logic ? Who

and which knowledge is legitimised by it ? And how are mathematics and mathematics education connected to these

social dimensions of logic ?

An earlier study (Kollosche, 2013) following a genealogic approach aimed at identifying social di-mensions of logic.

Genealogy is a method introduced by Nietzsche und Foucault (1984 ; comp. Lightbody, 2010). It aims at nding social

dimensions of phenomena that have become familiar and natural but once had been original and controversial. Placing

a taken-for-granted phenomenon in history provokes its alienation and allows its return as a concrete object of study.

By looking at the genesis of a phenomenon, at its struggles, the alternatives it competed with and the interests it

served, genealogy highlights social connections, possibilities and restrictions of the phenomenon.

The idea of logic has a wide range of meanings in mathematics, philosophy, psychology and public discourses.

In order to focus on a well-determined object of analysis, the following thoughts will address four principles which

Scholasticism has identied within the work of Aristotle. These prin-ciples are a sensible reduction as they constitute

the basis of Aristotle's work on logic which inu-enced both the discourses on logic throughout the Middle Ages and

the structure of mathematics as it was coined by Euclid's Elements :

1. Law of identity. Everything stays the same, nothing changes. This law postulates the existence of never-chancing

and ever-reliable objects or concepts for which the term 'truth' was introduced by the Pre-Socratic philosopher

Parmenides (2009).

2. Law of excluded middle. Everything is or is not ; there is no other way. This law restricts our judgements to two

categories, e.g. truth and the false, and leaves no other option.

3. Law of excluded contradiction. Nothing is and is not. This law demands a decision between the two categories.

Combined with the law of excluded middle, it forces our judgements into an an-tagonism of true and false, of

being and not being, and leaves no room beyond the extremes.

4. Law of sucient reason. Everything but one thing has a reason and is dened by it. Distancing himself from

mythological thought, the Pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximander introduced the science-founding claim that

nearly everything has a reason which is its destiny.

The genealogical analysis of the four principles of Aristotelian logic reveals that logic has religious, epistemological

and political dimensions which can be understood in a dialectics of possibilities and restraints. On a religious dimension,

the belief in an imperishable truth has the potential to appease people who feel threatened by changes or decay, whereas

the inalterability of truth has the potential to frighten people who have an actively formative attitude towards our

world. On an epistemologi-cal dimension, logical thinking introduces a productive order of thought by abstracting the

familiar patriarchal order of society, whereas it narrows down the intellectual focus to those aspects of a phenomenon

which can be expressed in the terms of logic. On a political dimension, logical reason-ing allows public decisionmaking on the basis of discussions instead of physical violence, whereas the rhetorical power it provides is not equally

distributed among society and can be used to subju-gate 'the uneducated'.

It shows that logic can be understood as a disciplinary technology. Firstly, logical thinking is a tech-nology for the

government of the self which is attractive for the religious, epistemological and polit-ical benets it promises to the

individual. Secondly, logical reasoning is a technology for the gov-ernment of others. Either it operates through the

logical thinking of the individual on the basis of which it can legitimise its academic, ethical or political claims, or

it excludes the individual from the discourse. Such exclusion becomes apparent in the writings of Parmenides (2009).

But also Aristotle attests a 'lack of education' to those unwilling to think logically (1933, p. 1006). Thus, logic can be

used to legitimise academic, ethical or political discourses. At the same time, these very discourses, e.g. the philosophy

of Aristotle, help to legitimise logic as a technology of power.

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As mathematics is no empirical science, its objects can be abstracted as far as necessary from reality to perfectly t

into the patterns of logical argumentation. This is why rationalism regards mathemat-ics as a role model 'in our search

for the direct road towards truth ? (Descartes, 1990, pp. 225). Ob-viously, a large part of the authority of mathematics

is legitimised by its dedication to logic.

The school mathematics discourse is widely inuenced by logic. Although the extend of logical rea-soning by

teachers and students in mathematics classrooms varies among countries and teachers, the contents of mathematics

education are essentially formed by logic. Most curriculums only include contents which demonstrate the power of logic

while contents that could threaten its prestige are excluded. E.g. they exclude non-Euclidean geometry, paradoxes of set

theory or alternative logics, whereas they add calculus and probability theory to the Euclidean core ' contents which

dem-onstrate how even the innite and chance can be mastered by logic. The logical form of school mathematics

implies that its understanding depends on and/or cultivates logical thinking. An exam-ple from a common school

book for the 7th grade of German high school might illustrate this claim. The school book presents the following text

without any further explanation, but with a sketch showing a circle and a line of each type (Brckner, 2008, p. 142 ;

my translation) :

Lines and circle can have dierent locational relations.

Secant : a line that cuts a curve (g1)

Tangent : a line that touches a curve (g2)

Passant : a line that avoids a curve ? the passing line (g3)

A student not yet knowing these terms could rightly ask whether a tangent can be a passant as it does not intersect

but passes the circle, or whether a secant can be a tangent as you cannot cut with-out touching. Only a student familiar

with the idea of classication will know that it is forbidden to place a line in more than one or in none of the three

categories and that the denition is 'meant like that'.

Classication, however, is a logical concept resting on the laws of excluded middle and ex-cluded contradiction.

Thus, this is an example of mathematical contents whose logical formation is not stated explicitly. Instead, the

understanding of the student depends on the understanding of the logical formation of mathematics which can only

be learnt implicitly from such examples. Thus, mathematics education does not only cultivate a culturally unreected

form of thinking, it also pro-vides this power unequally. Those who understand the latent order of mathematics gain

the possibil-ity to perform well and become condent in the use of mathematics while those who do not under-stand

its latent order are excluded from its power. As Bernstein-based socio-linguistic research in mathematics education

(Cooper & Dunne, 2000 ; Gellert & Jablonka, 2007) has shown, the access to this understanding largely depends on

the socio-economic background of the students.

In Foucault's terms, mathematics education can then be understood as a disciplinary institution. The exposure

of students to situations whose mastery depends on logical thinking is a disciplinary tech-nology which requires the

students to develop techniques for the government of the self. Such a technique either allows success by participating

in the logical discourse or results in exclusion by rejecting the logical form of reasoning. As the latter form of ascesis is

sanctioned by unfavourable grading, students' achievements in school mathematics may be considered an indicator for

the abil-ity of and will to logical thinking. Thus, mathematics education may serve as an institutionalised mechanism

for the (re-)production of a logically thinking 'elite' and the exclusion of potential threats to the logical order of social

discourses which has become constitutive for modern societies.

Conclusion

Logic is not the only legitimate form of reasoning, but a very specic one that promises benets and demands

sacrices. While the techniques for the government of others and the self provided by logic can explain its social impact

and the importance of an education in logical thinking, the short-comings of logical thinking show why it is neither

wise to overrate the potential of logical thinking, nor to regard students who might have good reasons not to think

logically as intellectually decient. Eventually, I argue that both the students' emancipation and the understanding of

logic and mathe-matics would benet from a more critical approach towards logic. Such an approach would include

an explicit exposure of the logical imprint on mathematics, a discussion of the possibilities and re-strictions of logic as

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well as the approval of an individual ' sometimes even critical ' estimation of logical thinking. Only such an approach

oers the opportunity to learn both how to apply logical thinking correctly and where to trust or not to trust in it.

REFERENCES

Aristotle. (1933). Metaphysics. In H. Tredennick (Ed.), Aristotle in 23 Volumes. London : Heinemann.

Brckner, A. (Ed.). (2008). Mathematik 7. Gymnasium Brandenburg. Berlin : Duden.

Cooper, B., & Dunne, M. (2000). Assessing Children's Mathematical Knowledge : Social Class, Sex, and Problemsolving. Buckingham : Open University.

Descartes, R. (1990). Rules for the Direction of the Mind. In M. J. Adler (Ed.), Great Books of the Western World

(pp. 223-262). Chicago : Encyclopdia Britannica.

Foucault, M. (1970). The Order of Things : An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York : Pantheon (Original

work published 1966).

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish : The Birth of the Prison. New York : Pantheon Books (Original work

published 1975).

Foucault, M. (1984). Nietzsche, Genealogy, History. In P. Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault Reader. 1st ed., pp. 76-100.

New York : Pantheon.

Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault Eect (pp.

87-104). Chicago : University of Chicago Press.

Foucault, M. (2011). The Government of Self and Others : Lectures at the Collge de France, 1982-1983. New

York : Picador.

Gellert, U., & Jablonka, E. (Eds.). (2007). Mathematisation and Demathematisation : Social, Philosophical and

Educational Ramications. Rotterdam : Sense.

Kollosche, D. (2013). Logic, Society and School Mathematics. In B. Ubuz & al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth

Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (pp. 1754-1763). Ankara : Middle East

Technical University.

Lightbody, B. (2010). Philosophical Genealogy : An Epistemological Resonstruction of Nietzsche and Foucault's

Genealogical Method. Volume I. New York : Peter Lang.

Parmenides. (2009). Fragmente. In M. L. Gemelli Marciano (Ed.), Die Vorsokratiker. Band 2 (pp. 6'41). Dsseldorf :

Artemis & Winkler.

Walkerdine, V. (1988). The Mastery of Reason : Cognitive Development and the Production of Rationality. London :

Routledge.

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Chapitre 5

experiences / Ralits, technologies et

expriences mathmatiques

5.1 Working group 3 : Realities, technologies and mathematical experiences / Ralits, technologies et expriences mathmatiques

Cristina Sabena*, Ruhal Floris**

University of Turin, Universit de Genve

Monday 21, 16 :30 18 :30

Alejandro Rosas, alerosas@mail.ipn.mx ; Jorge Luis Rosas, jrosas@s.cinvestav.mx Leticia del Rocio Pardo, rociopardo2000@yahoo.com.mx

The street lamp problem : discovering the triangle centres starting from a real situation

Gentile Elisa, elisa.gentileicloud.com, Monica Mattei, mattei_monica@libero.it

Madona Chartouny, Iman Osta, Nawal Abou Raad

madona.chartouny@gmail.com, iman.osta@lau.edu.lb, nabouraad@ul.edu.lb

La pense arithmtico-algbrique dans la transition primaire-secondaire et le rle des

reprsentations spontanes et institutionnelles

Fernando Hitt, Mireille Saboya et Carlos Corts

hitt.fernando@uqam.ca, saboya.mireille@uqam.ca, jcortes@zeus.umich.mx

Pili Royo ; Joaquin Gimnez, quimgimenez@ub.edu

Ruhal Floris, Ruhal.Floris@unige.ch

Nielce Meneguelo Lobo da Costa, nielce.lobo@gmail.com ; ; Maria Elisa Esteves Lopes Galvo,

meelg@ig.com.br ; Maria Elisabette Brisola Brito Prado, bette.prado@gmail.com

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Primary graphs

Cristina Sabena, cristina.sabena@unito.it

Anna Wernberg, anna.wernberg@mah.se

Maria Elisabette Brisola Brito Prado, bette.prado@gmail.com ; ; Nielce Meneguelo Lobo da Costa,

nielce.lobo@gmail.com ; Tnia Maria Mendona Campos, taniammcampos@hotmail.com

Synthesis of WG3

Traditional technology : pencil and paper

How researcher can help the teacher to integrate traditional tools and new tools'

Research must be done taking into account this problematic.

Which kind of cooperation could be done between researchers and school teachers.

The role of thinking time

Dierent tools imply diverse time management to investigating a mathematical problem.

Process of modeling taking into account real phenomena.

Potential and limits of technology

Giving children the power :

on the one hand, technology gives children more power

on the other hand, technology makes things so easy that it goes too fast and you do not have

the time to think, to really learn.

=>

Slow math with paper and pencil could help.

Technology is changing reality

The children's perception of reality is changing, often faster than for the teacher and the parents

(because for them technology is less a part of reality).

Google glasses reality will be more and more dierent than our reality. . .

=>

but still we will have the problem of thinking about what is a triangle from a theoretical perspective

(properties, . . .).

Reality inside mathematics

Are some parts of mathematics more real/realistic/concrete than others (geometry, statistics,

arithmetics) ?

Even algebra may become realistic to students with the use of technology (because of formal/symbolic language of communication with ICT)

Synthse du WG3

Technologie traditionnelle : papier/crayon

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De quelle faon les chercheurs peuvent-ils aider les enseignants intgrer les outils traditionnels

avec les nouveaux ?

Des recherches prenant en compte cette problmatique devraient tre faites.

Quel type de coopration peut-elle tre dveloppe entre chercheurs et enseignants'

Rle du temps pour la rexion.

Selon les outils il y aura direntes faons d ?organiser temporellement la recherche de problmes.

Modlisation prenant en compte des phnomnes rels.

Potentialit et limites de la technologie

D'un autre ct, la technologie rend les choses si faciles que cela va trop vite et il n'y a pas de

temps de rexion, permettant de rellement apprendre.

=>

Maths lentes avec papier et crayon peuvent aider.

La technologie change la ralit

Avec le dveloppement technologique, la perception de la ralit par les enfants volue, trs

souvent plus vite que pour les enseignants et les parents (pour lesquels la technologie fait moins

partie de la ralit).

Et la ralit des lunettes google sera encore plus direntes de la notre.

=>

Mais nous avions, avons et aurons toujours rchir sur les triangles d ?un point de vue

thorique proprits, argumentation,. . .)

Realit l'intrieur des mathmatiques

Certaines parties des mathmatiques sont-elles plus relles/ralistiques/concrtes que d ?autres

(gomtrie, statistiques, calcul) ?

Mme l'algbre peut devenir une ralit, plus facilement avec la technologie, tant donn l'aspect

symbolique des langages informatiques.

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Alejandro Rosas*, Jorge Luis Rosas**, Leticia del Rocio Pardo**

*Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Mexico, **CINVESTAV, Mexico

Rsum : Dans ce travail, nous prsentons une activit didactique dans lequel les tudiants dans un cours de calcul intgral sont

confronts au problme de compter les siges d'une section d'un stade de football. La dicult est que la section est incurve de sorte

que les lignes ont des numros de siges, ce nombre augmente partir de la premire ligne sur le terrain de la range du haut. Deux

groupes d'tudiants ont rsolu le problme, il fallait la restriction qu'ils ne devraient utiliser un crayon, du papier et des livres, mais pas

d'ordinateurs ou Internet. Le deuxime groupe a t en mesure d'utiliser toutes les ressources technologiques qu'ils voulaient. Lorsque nous

avons analys les rponses que nous avons trouv une plus grande varit dans les moyens de rsoudre le problme dans le groupe qui n'a

pas la technologie, par exemple ils ont utilis la gomtrie, les progressions arithmtiques, sommes de Riemann et de l'intgration. Dans le

groupe qui a eu l'occasion d'utiliser les ressources technologiques et internet nous avons trouv deux types de solutions : ceux fonds sur

des feuilles de calcul et les y compris l'utilisation de mathmatiques de logiciels spcialiss. Une de nos conclusions est que les tudiants

qui n'ont pas la technologie devait se rappeler les connaissances acquises dans d'autres cours y appliquer ces connaissances pour rsoudre

le problme

Abstract : In this work we present a didactic activity in which university students in a course of Integral Calculus face the problem

of counting the seats of a section of a football stadium. The diculty is that the section is curved so that the rows have dierent numbers

of seats, this number increases from the rst row on the eld to the top row. Two groups of students solved the problem, one had the

restriction that they should only use pencil, paper and books but no computers or internet. The second group was able to use all the

technological resources they wished. When we analyzed the responses we found greater variety in the ways of solving the problem in the

group that did not use technology for example they used geometry, arithmetic progressions, Sums of Riemann and integration. In the group

that had the opportunity to use technological resources and internet we found two types of solutions : those based on spreadsheets and

those including the use of specialized software math. One of our conclusions is that students who did not use technology had to remember

the knowledge acquired in other courses y applied that knowledge to solve the problem.

Introduction

Often students when faced with an activity away from repetitive exercises and traditional math

class, have dierent types of problems. First you must understand the nature of the activity, then

they should nd out who are the main variables in the studied phenomenon, then must represent the

phenomenon in mathematical terms and eventually solve and explain your solution.

We present a didactic activity based on the context of a concert organized in a football stadium.

The problem is that the stadium has two straight sides and its ends are curved causing the number

of seats per row will change. Therefore students must nd some way that allows them to calculate

the number of seats in a given row.

Although activity was presented to students in the eld of integral calculus second semester of

college a specic topic of integral calculus is not involved.

School Context

In (IPN) National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico students of engineering degrees must take

dierent courses in mathematics, including dierential calculus and integral calculus, in one real

variable and with many variables. In Dierential Calculus is used to provide the student lists of

exercises where dierent derivation rules are applied, lists of 20, 30 or more functions to derive.

Similarly the student will be provided for dierent sets of unctions to integrate with the correct

CHAPITRE 5. WORKING GROUP 3

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integration rule. In the new educational model of the IPN, it seeks to develop dierent mathematical

skills in students so far focus on the use of learning activities that address students with situations

that are close to their daily life.

Thus the aim is for students to apply their mathematical knowledge according to what they guess

(by themselves) and check their results with real world.

The activity

Students were given a sheet of paper with the following instructions :

Consider that you are the Concert Logistics Manager of Alpha

Rocks Company, and you must organize a concert where a famous

rock singer will perform.

By the number of attendees, the concert will be held in a stadium,

but the stage on which act the artist will be placed in one of the

curve sections of the stadium, so that all those seats may not be

used, so to calculate the cost of the tickets you should know the

total number of seats that are in that section.

The problem is that as this section of the stadium is not rectangular,

each row has a dierent number of seats.

The rst row has 50 seats, the second row has 52, third row has 54,

etc. Please answer the following questions.

1. How many seats are in row 45 ?

2. Now, because we need to know the total number of seats in the

curve section, how many seats are there in total if the section

has 50 rows'

3. Find a formula that lets to to calculate the number of seats at

any row.

4. Find a formula that lets you to calculate the number of seats

in the curve section if the section has n rows.

Please write a report including every step you did to nd your

solution.

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As can be seen, we decided not to include directions about how students should solve the problem.

This activity was applied in two dierent environments. In a rst application activity was in a

classroom in a two hours sesion and the students used everything they wanted except computer and

internet. This time the work was done individually. In a second group we applied the same activity

but now we allowed students to do the activity at home, they also had to work individually but this

group had the freedom to use computers and the internet. Finally some students interacted but they

were only ve out of 30 students in the group.

Some solutions

First we discuss some solutions we got from the group that did not use computers or internet.

In general this group of students began their work by the method of trial and error, several

students began making a table with the number of seats per row : Row 1, 50 seats, Row 2, 52 seats,

Row 3, 54 seats, Row 4, 56 seats and so on. Using one of these tables a student made the following

arrangement : row 1, 50 seats, row 2, 50 +2 seats, row 3, 50 +2 +2 seats, etc. This arrangement led

to nd another arrangement : row 1, 50 +2 (0), row 2, 50 +2 (1), row 3, 50 +2 (2), etc.

She nally obtained the expression : row n, 50 + 2(n 1) seats (for n from 1 to 50). With that

result she answered questions 1 and 3 of the problem. To calculate the sum of rows 1 to 50, the

student wrote the number of seats per row in the style of accommodation used to calculate the sum

of the rst n integers :

50 + 52 + 54 + + 146 + 148 = x

198 + 198 + 198 + + 198 + 198 = 2x

from where she got 50(198) = 2x and the nal answer x = 4950 seats. But she could not obtain a

formula for the case of an arbitrary number of rows.

Other students used a similar arrangement but adjusting the initial value, so the expression they

obtained was : row n, 48 +2 (n) seats (for n from 1 to 50). To nd the solution of questions 2 and 4

a student applied the formula corresponding to the sum of an arithmetic progression.

Two students used geometry because they observed that the shape of the curved section drawn

on paper corresponds to a trapezoid, as you can see in gure 5.2.

To calculate the number of seats in the section one of the students applied the formula for the

area of the trapezoid considering a smaller base of length 50, a larger base of length 138 and a height

of 50. The other student was a girl who used analytic geometry to calculate the number of seats for

this case : she used half of the curved section and divided into a rectangular area and a triangle. As

shown in gure 5.3.

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Many students obtained similar expressions by various means, for example a student judged to

have two points : (1, 50) and (2, 52) and used these points in analytic geometry formula that provides

the equation of a line through two points. The function obtained is : f (x) = 2x + 48. This expression

produced the number of seats in row 45. To answer the question of the formula for the sum of any

number of rows she used Sums of Riemann.

Another student from the expression f (x) = 2x + 48 integration used to calculate the total. In

this case the student did not obtain the correct value of the total seats in the section. When we asked

why he thougt he had not the correct value he could not respond.

There were some other solutions but they were a combination of those solutions we have explained.

The second group showed two kinds of solutions. The rst one is based on the use of a spreadsheet.

Students only wrote a table like the one in gure 5.4 using formulas like = B2 + 2 to calculate the

number of seats in the next row. But they did not solve question 4.

Figure 5.4 Spreadsheet used by some students to calculate the number of seats.

Second kind of solutions were based on the use of specialized software. For example, two students used Mathematica to solve the questions, we do not know if they were aware of what kind of

mathematics were involved in their solution.

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Conclusions

We have just started to analyze these solutions so that our conclusions are preliminary. First

we found a greater variety and richness of the solutions proposed by the students who did not use

computers or the Internet, we also found that the students were a little worried about the answers

they got. However, when each student gave his answer that matched the responses of other students

they began to have greater condence in their work. Some students commented on how dierent

solution methods led to the same answers. We assume that for further analysis should pay more

attention to the computer skills that students were able to develop in the group using computers and

the internet. This is the rst activity of a set of three and we are now applying activity 2.

REFERENCES

Instituto Politcnico Nacional (2003). Un nuevo modelo educativo para el IPN. Mexico : Author.

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training/L'utilisation des ressources technologiques pour l'enseignement de la trigonomtrie sur la formation des enseignants

Nielce Meneguelo Lobo da Costa, Maria Elisa Esteves Lopes Galvo,Maria Elisabette

Brisola Brito Prado

Anhanguera University of So Paulo - UNIAN - Brazil

Rsum :Dans cet article, nous presentons la recherche dveloppe dans un processus de formation dont l'objectif tait l'enseignement

de la trigonomtrie l'utilisation des ressources technologiques . Une tude de recherche a eu lieu dans le cadre de la formation continue au

Programme d'ducation Observatoire ( Programa Observatrio da Educao ) et l'autre a t dvelopp dans le cadre de la formation des

futurs enseignants de mathmatiques. La mthodologie utilise dans les deux tudes tait qualitative, avec une analyse interprtative. Dans

le premier tude , nous avons discut d'une situation de programmation avec le logiciel GeoGebra, qui a permis aux enseignants d' obtenir

des outils pour discuter avec leurs lves les variations des paramtres des fonctions impliquant des sinus et de cosinus et de leur impact

sur le graphique. Dans le deuxime tude, nous prsentons un exemple de discussion contextualise associe une fonction priodique pour

lequel il a t cr un modle pour une situation relle. Avec l'aide de Cabri Gomtre - simuler le mouvement d'une roue, un modle a t

construit, et, de l'laboration d'un tableau de hauteurs, les futurs enseignants construitla representation graque dune fonction priodique,

en articulant les deux reprsentations. Dans les deux tudes, le dynamique fournies par le logiciel a permis une exprimentation beaucoup

plus riche que celle classique, sur l'enqute sur les proprits et le comportement des fonctions trigonomtriques.

Abstract :In this article we discuss research developed in training processes whose focus was the teaching of trigonometry with

the use of technological resources. One research study occurred in the context of continuous training at the Education Observatory

Program (Programa Observatrio da Educao) and the other one was developed in the context of training future mathematics teachers.

The methodology used in both studies was qualitative, with interpretative analysis. In the rst research study, we discussed a situation

involving programming with the Geogebra software, which enabled the teachers to get tools to discuss with their students the variations

of parameters in functions involving sines and cosines and their impact on the chart. In the second research study, we present an example

of a contextualized discussion associated to a periodical function for which it was established a model for a real situation. With the help

of Cabri-Gomtre to simulate the movement of a Ferris wheel, a model was built, and, from the elaboration of a table of heights, future

teachers built a draft of a periodical function chart, articulating both representations. In both studies, the dynamics provided by software

enabled a much richer experimentation than the conventional one on the investigation about properties and behavior of trigonometric

functions.

Introduction

The Mathematic and Reality theme that guides the CIEAEM 2014, in the context of our work,

namely the training of teachers for Basic Education, led to reections on pedagogic and didactical

issues involved in the act of teaching and learning mathematics in the XXI century, the reality of

teaching mathematics and, in particular, about the educational resources available to the teacher

today, especially digital resources, which join traditional concrete materials and tools (pencil, ruler

and compass). Naturally such resources were and are considered relevant in teaching and learning.

Among the educational resources for teaching, the teacher can still resort to the use of games, problem solving, history of mathematics and digital information technology and communication DITC.

However a simple insertion, at school, the resources of any kind, does not guarantee a mathematic

teaching with active student participation, characterized by an exploratory, investigative and useful

for their practical life character. This means that the proposition of mathematical tasks connected

with the real world, which make the student learn from research, from raising hypotheses, from exChapitre 5

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ploration and research, in addition to further discussion of the solutions, is a challenge that goes far

beyond the insertion of DITC on teaching.

In fact, with the resources of the paper and pencil environment it is possible to promote a teaching

that has reported the above characteristics ; we believe, however, that with the use of technological

resources the possibilities may be extended. If we, as teachers and students, use, with the software,

exactly the same logic of confrontation of mathematical tasks done with pencil and paper, we will

take the risk of making an impoverished use of technology. We believe that, if properly integrated to

teaching, technology can be a constructive thought, i.e., one can think of mathematics in alternative

ways with the aid of technology.

The question that is presented for researchers and trainers of mathematics teachers is : What

changes, from the student's perspective, in this movement from a mathematics teaching centered on

the use of concrete materials and resolutions of tasks on paper and pencil to the use of technology ?

This is an issue that should be present in discussions on training courses for future teachers or

currently practicing teachers.

Artigue (2000), reecting on the problematic of using technology in the mathematics classroom

warns that we must be aware about its dual role, a pragmatic one, contributing to the production of

responses and an epistemic one, assisting the understanding of mathematical objects involved. Artigue

also highlights the problem of underestimating the complexity of the process of instrumentalization

of teachers (adaptation of the instrument by the user for specic uses) and instrumentation (how the

instrument shapes strategies and knowledge of the user). He also emphasizes the idea of instrumental

genesis from Rabardel (1995), i.e., the process from which an artifact (the object - i.e., a map, a

software, a computer, a tablet, etc.) becomes an instrument for the individual. When starting to

use an artifact, the individual constructs his own utilization schemes and, thus, starts to enrich his

mental outlook.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss researches developed in training processes that focused

on the use of technology for teaching trigonometry, one in the context of continuing education in

the Education Observatory Program (Programa Observatrio da Educao ) and the other in the

training of future mathematics teachers, respectively, the research of Poloni (2014) Miashiro (2013).

Both deal with trigonometric functions and have used aspects and resources from two dierent

softwares for dynamic modeling ; in addition, both presented situations favoring the instrumental

genesis, as understood by Rabardel.

Theoretical foundation

The researches discussed here are based on studies of Mishra and Khoeler (2006) and regarding

the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and, in relation to the construction of

this knowledge, on the Theory of instrumentation from Rabardel.

The TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge) includes the understanding by the

teacher of how to represent concepts using technologies ; of how to pedagogically address the use of

technological resources constructively to teaching and to the student learning on curricular concepts,

in this case, mathematic concepts. It is this integration of technological, pedagogical and content

knowledge that enables to make use of digital technologies as a new form of representation of thought.

One of the aspects of the TPACK construction process relays on the ownership and instrumentation of the technologic resource, which should facilitate the reconstruction of teacher's pedagogic

practice. In this sense, we believe it is crucial in the formative processes to promote the instrumentalization and instrumentation of teachers, in order to assist the expansion of technological pedagogical

content knowledge (TPACK). When considering the teacher, this process of instrumental genesis is

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part of the construction of TPACK, since in it, other knowledge besides the technological knowledge

are mobilized and amalgamated.

The Researches

In the research documented by Poloni (2014), the Geogebra software was used to discuss with

teachers the learning possibilities through investigation. The activity presented below aimed to equip

teachers for programming with the Geogebra software to enable them to discuss with their students

the variations of parameters in functions involving sines and cosines and the impact caused by them

in the graph of each function. It was necessary for teachers to build the function in GeoGebra and,

for the programming, besides the knowledge about the available tools in the software and also about

the type of programming, it was necessary to lead the teacher to conclude that any point of the graph

of this function is of type P This means that the intrinsic features of the software need mathematical

and technological knowledge.

Figure 5.5 Function constructed on the Geogebra software Source : Poloni (2014)

After the generalization of the coordinates of the point of the function f (x) = sin x, the construction of graphics for f (x) = cos x ; f (x) = tan x and others using the software was immediate. This

leads us to think that the teacher began the process of instrumentation, in addition to the instrumentation process. Besides, participating teachers were able to construct the graphs of trigonometric

functions involving sine, like f (x) = a + b sin x. From the constructions it was possible to vary the

values of the parameters a and b and to identify the changes in the graphs of functions, articulating

an algebraic expression for each function with the graph that corresponds to it. Conversions of registers (Duval, 2006) were present and the teacher built utilization schemes and began to realize what

kind of strategy was possible to develop in the software, i.e., the way of modeling in the software the

situation under study.

In research Miashiro (2013), the Cabri-Gomtre II software was used in the training process to

enable future teachers to interact with the trigonometric ratios, trigonometric cycle and trigonometric

functions. To build a sketch graph of a periodic function, it addressed a context based on the real

world. A model was developed during the formation for the simulation of the motion of a Ferris

wheel, adapted from the book Functions Modeling Change : a preparation for calculus (Connally

et al, 1998). The proposed model was related to the Ferris wheel, located in London. The Ferris

wheel built with the dynamic geometry in Cabri was prepared to permit the measurement of the

height of a point on the circle at intervals of 5 minutes, and to display on the left side of the gure,

above the altimeter word, a measure in centimeters in the range of 1 to 9 cm. The point of the circle

representing the position of a passenger could be manipulated with the "hand" tool.

From the obtained data, organized in a table, it was produced a sketch of the graph of the function

that describes the variation of heights and a discussion was guided about their periodicity. The work

involved a real situation, and the construction of its model, in which two conversions of registers of

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Figure 5.6 Ferris wheel constructed on the Geogebra software Source : Miashiro (2013)

semiotic representations occurred, according to Duval (2006) it was possible to observe in several

of the future teachers the process of instrumental genesis, especially when they proposed didactic

adaptations to the activity.

Conclusions

Solving mathematical tasks is dierent when done on paper and pencil and technological environment, which allow us beyond observing and recording, to manipulate and to test.The instrumentation enables the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge by the teacher. In both

studies, after investigations about measures and angles in the trigonometric cycle, the properties

of functions were reached, in pathways that show the importance of the instrumentation process

of teachers to integrate technology in the perspective of TPACK. Finally, we add that, regarding

technological resources, each artifact that appears has its own characteristics and demand from the

user a process of instrumentalization and instrumentation. From the schemes of use, evolving into

the instrumental genesis, the individual evolves in the instrumentation process, which in turn drives

the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge by the teacher.

Acknowledgements

The researches referenced herein have been partially nanced from the Education Observatory

Program (Programa Observatrio da Educao), to which we are grateful.

Bibliographical References

Bogdan, R. ; Biklen, S. (1999). Investigao qualitativa em educao. Uma introduo teoria e

aos mtodos. Porto : Porto Ed.

Fazenda, I. C. (1979). Integrao e interdisciplinaridade no ensino brasileiro : efetividade ou ideologia. So Paulo : Loyola.

Freire, P. (1987). Pedagogia do oprimido. 17. ed. Rio de Janeiro, Paz e Terra

Kieren, T. (1993). Rational and Fractional Numbers : From Quotient Fields to Recursive Understanding. In : T. Carpenter, E. Fennema & T. A. Romberg (Eds.), Rational Numbers : An Integration

of Research. Hillsdale, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p. 49-84.

Machado, N. J. (1991). Matemtica e lngua materna : anlise de uma impregnao mtua. So

Paulo : Cortez.

Machado, N. J. (1993). O pirulito do pato. So Paulo : Scipione.

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Schn, D. The reective practitioner : How Professionals Think in Action. London : Temple Smith,

1983.

Serrazina, L. (1998). Conhecimento matemtico para ensinar : papel da planicao e da reexo

na formao de professores. Revista Eletrnica de Educao. So Carlos, SP : UFSCar, v. 6, no. 1,

p.266-283, 2012. Disponvel em http ://www.reveduc.ufscar.br.

Zeichner, K.(1993). Formao reexiva de professores : ideias e prticas. Lisboa : Educa.

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5.4 The street lamp problem : discovering the triangle centres starting

from a real situation

Gentile Elisa, Monica Mattei

University of Turin

Rsum : Cet article dcrit une exprience d'enseignement : une activit de recherche de problme utilisant Geogebra est propose

des lves de l'cole secondaire. Le problme amne dcouvrir les centres du triangle en partant d'une situation de la vie relle : le

problme du lampadaire. Les lves ont dcider de la meilleurs place pour placer un lampadaire de faon ce qu'il allume toute la

zone pitonne triangulaire. L'activit dbute par des manipulations utilisant la photo de la zone et une torche permettant de simuler le

lampadaire et se poursuit par une simulation de cette situation avec Geogebra. Le logiciel aide les lves pour conjecturer et dcouvrir les

centres du triangles travers leurs proprits. De plus, cette activit amne les lves expliquer leur approche du problme et dcrire

dans le langage naturel les proprits essentielles des objets mathmatiques en jeu.

Abstract : This article describes a teaching experiment : a problem solving activity with the use of GeoGebra proposed to middle

school students. The problem proposed involves the discovery of the triangle centres starting from a real situation : the street lamp problem.

The students have to decide the best place to put a street lamp in order to enlighten the whole triangular pedestrian area. The activity

starts with the manipulation of poor materials such as the picture of a pedestrian area and a torch to simulate the lamp and continues

with the transposition of this exploration through technology. GeoGebra helps the students in conjecturing, discovering the triangle centres

and recognising their properties. Furthermore this activity forces the students to explain their approach to the problem and to describe in

natural language the main properties of the geometrical objects involved.

Introduction

The activity we proposed to our students is the adaptation to middle school context of an open

ended problem, The street lamp problem, that was presented during the PLS course Problem

solving with GeoGebra we attended this year. PLS (Piano Lauree Scientiche) is an Italian project

for the professional development of the mathematics teachers based on the collaboration between

university teachers and school teachers. In particular, the Problem solving with GeoGebra project

is part of a huge research project that involves Italy and Australia with the aim of engaging in-service

secondary school teachers in professional development based on best practices in mathematics with

GeoGebra.

Two are the communities involved in the project : the researchers, who projected the tasks and the

educational program, and teachers who attended the course. The teachers are also asked to experiment the activity with their classes and to reect with the other teachers and with the researchers

about what happened in class.

Teachers are observed during both the course and the didactical experimentation in class and data

are analysed according to the the Meta-Didactical Transposition (Arzarello et al., 2014 ; Arzarello

et al., 2012 ; Aldon et al., 2013).

The street lamp problem has been projected by the team of researchers in Turin and it was

originally addressed to higher secondary school students (14-19 years old). Since we were teaching in

lower secondary school (11-13 years old students), we needed to adapt the problem to our context. In

particular we paid attention to maintain the openness of the problem, the idea of problem solving,

but we inserted some more questions to slightly guide the students to understand better the problem.

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Meta-Didactical Transposition

The Meta-Didactical Transposition is a new model for framing teacher education projects and its

focus is the interaction between the praxeologies of the researchers and the praxeologies of the teachers

(in-service or pre-service training) and the dynamic between internal and external components (Aldon

et al., 2013 ; Arzarello et al., 2014 ; Arzarello et al., 2012).

It is an adaptation of the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic by Chevallard (1999) to teacher

education. Its main theoretical tool is the notion of praxeology, which can be described using two

levels :

1. the know how (praxis ) : a family of similar problems to be studied and the techniques available

to solve them ;

2. the knowledge (logos ) : the discourses that describe, explain and justify the techniques that

are used for solving that task. The knowledge level can be further decomposed in two components : Technologies and Theories.

A praxeology consists in a Task, a Technique and a more or less structured Argument that justies

or frames the Technique for that Task (Aldon et al., 2013).

While ATD focuses on the institutional dimension of mathematical knowledge, the MDT model

considers the meta-didactical praxeologies, which consist of the tasks, techniques and justifying discourses that develop during the process of teacher education.

Two are the communities involved in this project : the community of teachers (who are in training)

and the community of teacher-researchers (who designed the task, act as trainers and observe the

teachers). Each of these communities has got its own praxeologies, the challenge at the end of the

project is to create shared praxeologies, thanks to the brokers.

A broker is a person who belongs to more than one community. (e.g. a teacher-researcher belongs

to the community of mathematics experts and to the community of school-teachers). Brokers are

able to make new connections across communities of practice and facilitate the sharing of knowledge

and practices from one community to the other.

In our specic case, Monica belongs to the teachers' community and Elisa belongs to the teacherresearchers' community and acted as a broker during the educational program.

Some of the components of the two communities' praxeologies can change during the educational

program and move from external to become internal, regarding the community they refer to.

In our case : let's consider the community of teachers that starts the educational program. Initially,

the use of GeoGebra in lower secondary school and the use of open-ended problems are external

components for the teachers. However, at the end of the educational program they become internal

components in their praxeologies. The researchers' praxeology of designing a task for the teachers

could become shared praxeologies when teachers design the task for their students.

National curriculum

In September 2012 the Italian Ministry of education released a new version of the National Curriculum for the rst cycle of education (from 3 to 14 years old). The National Curriculum is declined

through Goals for the development of competences and Learning Objectives and explains the

expected knowledge and competence at the end of lower secondary school. The National Curriculum

is also accompanied by a description of the main ideas of the teaching-learning process and of the

dierent school subjects.

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Here you can nd some quotations from the National Curriculum of lower secondary school, we

recognised as important for the framework of the activity we proposed.

The resolution of problems is a characteristic of mathematical practice. Problems need to be understood as real and

signicant issues, related to everyday life, and not just as repetitive exercises or questions that are answered simply by

recalling a denition or a rule. Gradually, stimulated by the teacher's guidance and the discussion with peers, the student will

conducting

explorations, dedicating the time necessary for precise identication of what is known and what to nd,

conjecturing solutions and results, identifying possible strategies.

learn to deal with dicult situations with condence and determination, representing them in several ways,

appropriate

Particular attention will be devoted to the development of the ability to present and discuss

with their peers the solutions and the procedures followed.

The development of an adequate vision of mathematics is of a great importance. This vision does

not reduce mathematics to a set of rules to be memorized and applied, but recognizes mathematics as

a framework to address signicant problems and to explore and perceive relationships and structures

that are found and occur in nature and in the creations of men.

To explain the procedure followed, also in written form, maintaining control on both the

problem-solving process, both on the results.

To compare dierent processes and to produce formalizations that allows the student to move

from a specic problem to a class of problems.

To support his own beliefs, giving examples and counterexamples and using appropriate concatenations of statements ; to agree to change his opinion recognizing the logical consequences

of a correct argument.

Learning Objectives

To know the denitions and properties (angles, axes of symmetry, diagonals, . . .) of the main

plane gures (triangles, quadrilaterals, regular polygons, circles).

Class contest

We proposed this activity to 12 years old pupils belonging to two dierent schools. One class,

whose teacher is Monica, comes from Istituto Don Bosco in San Benigno Canavese (Turin). It is a

25 student class, including 4 boys with learning disabilities. During the school year they have been

showing interest and curiosity in front of Maths problems, especially involving real situations. They

are able to work together, in small groups or in couples, helping each other and they are used to

discuss the results with the teacher. In January the students started to use GeoGebra as an instrument

for exploring the Geometrical content of the curriculum in an active way. They showed, rst of all,

astonishment and then the strong desire to learn how the software works. Moreover, the students

have the possibility to share les and didactical materials on the Moodle platform, perfo