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THE COMPARISON OF STUDENTS WRITING ABILITY BY USING

CLUSTERING TECHNIQUE AND LISTING TECHNIQUE IN THE


FIFTH SEMESTER ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF
UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH MAKASSAR

A Thesis
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
of
Sarjana Pendidikan in English Education Department of
Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty of
UIN Alauddin Makassar

By
MUSTAGFIRAH SYAHRIR
Reg. No.20400112032

TARBIYAH AND TEACHING SCIENCE FACULTY


UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR

2016
PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN SKRIPSI
Mahasiswa yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:
Nama

: Mustagfirah Syahrir

NIM

: 2040112032

Tempat/Tgl. Lahir : Barru, 03 Maret 1994


Jurusan

: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

Fakultas

: Tarbiyah dan Keguruan

Alamat

: BTN Minasa Upa A5/7

Judul

: The Comparison of Students Writing Ability by


Using Clustering Technique and Listing
Technique in The Fifth Semester English
Education Department of Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar.

menyatakan dengan sesungguhnya dan penuh kesadaran bahwa


skripsi ini benar adalah hasil karya sendiri. Jika di kemudian hari
terbukti bahwa ia merupakan duplikat, tiruan, plagiat, atau dibuat
oleh orang lain, sebagian atau seluruhnya, maka skripsi dan gelar
yang diperoleh karenanya batal demi hukum.
Makassar, 6 Juni 2016
Penyusun,

ii

MUSTAGFIRAH SYAHRIR
NIM. 2040112032

PERSETUJUAN PEMBIMBING

Pembimbing penulisan skripsi saudari Mustagfirah Syahrir,


NIM: 20400112032

mahasiswi Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris

pada Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Alauddin Makassar,


setelah meneliti dan mengoreksi secara seksama skripsi yang
bersangkutan dengan judul The Comparison of Students
Writing Ability by Using Clustering Technique and Listing
Technique
Department

in
of

the

Fifth

Semester

Universitas

English

Muhammadiyah

Education
Makassar

memandang bahwa skripsi tersebut telah memenuhi syarat-syarat


ilmiah dan dapat disetujui ke sidang munaqasah.

Makassar, 21
Juni 2016
Pembimbing I

Pembimbing II

iii

Dra. Hj. St. Azisah, M. Ed. St., PhD


NIP. 19671231 199303 2 016

H. Erwin Hafid,Lc.,M. Th. I., M. Ed


NIP.19740912 200003 1 002

PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI
Skripsi yang berjudul, The Comparison of Students
Writing Ability by Using Clustering Technique and Listing
Technique in The Fifth Semester English Education
Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar yang
disusun oleh saudari Mustagfirah Syahrir, NIM: 20400112032,
Mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris pada Fakultas
Tarbiyah dan Keguruan UIN Alauddin Makassar, telah diuji dan
dipertahankan dalam sidang munaqasyah yang diselenggarakan
pada hari Rabu, tanggal 24 Agustus 2016 M, bertepatan dengan
21 Dzulkaidah 1437 H dan dinyatakan telah dapat diterima
sebagai salah satu syarat untuk mendapatkan gelar Sarjana
Pendidikan (S.Pd) pada Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Keguruan Program
Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, dengan beberapa perbaikan.
Samata - Gowa,
2016 M.

24 Agustus
21 Dzulkaidah

1437H.
DEWAN PENGUJI:
(SK Dekan No. 1978 Tertanggal 24 Agustus 2016)
Ketua

: Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I.

iv

(......

Sekretaris : Sitti Nurpahmi, S.Pd., M.Pd.

(.

.)
Munaqisy I : Dr. H. M. Rusydi. T., M. Ag.

(...

...)
Munaqisy II

: Dra.St.Nurjannah Yunus Tekeng,M.Ed.,M.A.

(...)
Pembimbing I

: Dra. Hj. St. Azisah, M. Ed. St., Ph.D.

(..)
Pembimbing II: H. Erwin Hafid, Lc., M. Th. I., M. Ed.

(..

)
Mengetahui:
Dekan Fakultas Tarbiyah dan
Keguruan
UIN Alauddin Makassar

Dr. H. Muhammad Amri,


Lc.,M.Ag.
NIP.19730120 200312 1 001
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Alhamdulillah, the biggest gratitude should go to Allah SWT.


Without His Blessing and His Mercy, this research would never be
completed. Deepest thank for the physical and spiritual health Allah

has lent during the process of this research. This thesis writing has
been finished, under the assistance, direction, and guidance of
some people.
Therefore, the researcher would like to express her greatest
gratitude and appreciation, especially to:
1. The researchers father, Drs. H. Muh. Syahrir Rahim, and her
lovely mother Hj. Hamisyah, SE who always pray, encourage,
educate and provide countless material supports, so that, she
could finish this thesis writing and her study in UIN Alauddin
Makassar.
2. Prof. Dr. Musafir Pababbari, M.Si, the Rector of State Islamic
University Alauddin Makassar.
3. Dr. H. Muhammad Amri, Lc., M.Ag., The Dean and all of the staffs
of Tarbiyah and Teaching Sciences Faculty of Alauddin State
Islamic University of Makassar.
4. Dr. Kamsinah, M.Pd.I. and Siti Nurpahmi, S.Pd., M.Pd., The Head
and Secretary of English Education Department, Tarbiyah and
Teaching Sciences Faculty of Alauddin State Islamic University of
Makassar and all of the staffs of her.

vi

5. The researchers consultants, Dra. Hj. St. Azisah, M. Ed. St., PhD
and H. Erwin Hafid, Lc, M.Th.I.,M. Ed who have helped, guided,
and supported the researcher during the writing of her thesis.
6. All of the lecturers of Tarbiyah and Teaching Sciences Faculty of
Alauddin State Islamic University of Makassar for their guidance
during her study.
7. The researchers beloved brother and sister, Muh. Maqbul Syahrir
and Mudrikah Syahrir who always be a big motivation for the
researcher to finish the study immediately.
8. The students of English Education Department at Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar intake 2015-2016 who gave their time
so willingly to participate in her research.
9. All of the people around the researchers life whom could not be
mentioned one by one by the researcher who has given a big
inspiration, motivation, spirit and doa to her.
The researcher,

Mustagfirah Syahrir

vii

LIST OF CONTENTS
Pa
ges
COVER PAGE .............................................................................

PERNYATAAN
KEASLIAN
SKRIPSI ............................................................ ........................
ii
PERSETUJUAN
PEMBIMBING ...................................................................... .....

iii

PENGESAHAN SKRIPSI.............................................................

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...............................................................

LIST OF CONTENTS...................................................................

vii

LIST
OF
TABLES ..............................................................................................
. ..............................................................................................
ix
LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................

LIST OF APPENDIXES...............................................................

xi

ABSTRACT..................................................................................

xii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ....................................................


6

1-

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Background ..............................................................
Research Problem ....................................................
Research Objective ..................................................
Research Significance...............................................
Research Scope .......................................................
Operational Definitions of Terms ..............................

1
4
4
5
6
6

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES ................. 8-21


A. Review of Relevant Research Findings .....................
B. Some Pertinent Ideas ...............................................
1. Writing .................................................................

8
10
10

2. Clustering Technique.............................................

15

viii

3. Listing Technique..
18
C. Theoretical Framework.............................................
D. Hypothesis .............

20
21

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD .......................................... 2227


A. Research Design ...................................................... 22
B. Research
Variable .........................................................................
..............................................................................23
C. Research Participants ............................................... 24
1.
Population .....................................................
...........................
24
2.
Sample .........................................................
.............................................................................. 24
D. Research Instrument ................................................ 25
E. Data Collecting Procedures ...................................... 26
F. Data Analysis Techniques.......................................... 27
CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ............................ 2941
A. Findings.....................................................................
1. Description of the Writing Ability using Clustering
Technique
29

29

2.Description of the Writing Ability using Listing


Technique 31
3. The Difference in Ability of Writing Using Clustering
and
Listing Technique...........................................
B. Discussion ................................................................

32
41

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS .................. 4547


A. Conclusions ..............................................................
B. Suggestions .............................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY..........................................................................

ix

45
46
48

APPENDIXES .............................................................................

51

CURRICULUM VITAE

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: The Rate Percentage Writing Test using Clustering


Technique..................................................................................... 29
Table 2: Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Clustering Technique
..................................................................................................... 30
Table 3: The Rate Percentage Writing Test using Listing Technique
.................................................................................................31
Table 4: Mean Score and Standard Deviation of Listing Technique
.................................................................................................32
Table 5: Group Statistics of Mean Score and Standard Deviation
.................................................................................................32
Table 6 : Independent Sample t-test for Writing Ability ..............

33

Table 7: First Item of Questionnaires ...........................................

35

Table 8: Second Item of Questionnaires.......................................

36

Table 9: Third Item of Questionnaires


...........................................36
Table 10: Fourth Item of Questionnaires......................................

37

Table 11: Fifth Item of Questionnaires .........................................

37

Table 12: Sixth Item of Questionnaires .......................................

38

Table 13: Seventh Item of Questionnaires...................................

38

Table 14: Eighth Item of Questionnaires .....................................

39

Table 15: Ninth Item of Questionnaires .......................................

39

Table 16: Tenth Item of Questionnaires .......................................

40

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 : Example of Clustering Technique ................................

39

Figure 2 : Theoretical Framework ................................................

39

Figure 3 : A causal Comparative Design .....................................

40

xi

LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix 1 : Writing Test ............................................................

50

Appendix 2 : Questionnaire ........................................................

51

Appendix 3 : Raw Data of Questionnaire.....................................

52

Appendix 4 : Writing Scores of Clustering Technique and Listing


Technique..................................................................................... 53
Appendix 5 : Assessment of Writing Test ....................................

xii

54

ABSTRACT

Thesis
Title

: The Comparison of Students Writing Ability


by Using Clustering Technique and Listing
technique in the Fifth Semester English
Education
Department
of
Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar.

Year

: 2016

Researche
r

: Mustagfirah Syahrir

Consultan
tI

: Dra. Hj. St. Azisah, M. Ed. St., PhD

Consultan
t II

: H. Erwin Hafid, Lc., M. Th. I., M. Ed

This research aimed at comparing the students writing ability


by using clustering and listing technique at English Education

xiii

Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar. Hence, the


principle problems were divided into three points: 1) How is the
students writing ability by using the clustering technique at
Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, 2) How is the students
writing ability by using the listing technique at Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar, and 3) To what extent do the students
writing ability by using clustering technique differ from using listing
technique.
The study was a causal comparative by comparing the use of
clustering technique and listing technique. The variables of this
research were clustering and listing technique as independent
variables, and the ability of writing as dependent variable. The
population of this research was the fifth semester students of
English Education Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah
Makassar in the academic year of 2015-2016. The population is 300
students. Since the unit analysis of writing in this study was quite
large, the researcher took 30 students as sample purposively. The
sample were divided into two groups. Group one consisted of 15
students which used clustering technique and another consisted of
15 students which used listing technique.
The data were collected by writing test and questionnaires.
Writing test was used to measure the students writing ability which
assessed organization, content, grammar, punctuation, spelling,
mechanics, style and quality expression while questionnaires
related to students perceptions about their preference of clustering
technique and listing technique. The data were analyzed
descriptively and inferentially. The study found and concluded that
clustering and listing technique had no significant differences in
students writing ability. Yet a slightly better writing quality in this
research was achieved by using clustering technique. Moreover, this
study assumed that technique of writing had contribution to writing
ability.

xiv

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Language is one of the important elements in our life.
Without language, a human cannot communicate and make
interaction with other people. Someone who wants to speak each
other have to know about the language and learn the language
itself. The students in Indonesia studied some languages, especially
English as foreign language. Beside that English is applied in many
aspects of life like book are written in English, Thats why
Indonesian government obliges English is being taught in every
school until university.
Teaching English at school or university aims to develope the
four language skills. They are listening, speaking, reading, and
writing. In this research the writer focused on writing skill. Writing is
categorized as a productive skill; it might be a problem for some
students in learning English because there are many aspects which
should be considered, such as contents, grammars, vocabularies,
forms, mechanics and styles. Besides, they should consider other
important components in writing, such as coherence, cohesion,
topic sentence, supporting details, etc. All of them are essential

aspects that should be considered in producing good writing (Butt


et. al: 11). Moreover, Kay (2003) observes that writing is a highly
complex process involving multiple brain mechanisms and specific
abilities. The act of writing requires the writer to formulate ideas,
organize and sequence points in logical order, select

vocabulary, check

for

grammatical

correctness,

correctly, punctuate, and write legibly.


The researcher had conducted
observing

the

fifth

semester

students

spell

preliminary
of

English

words

study

by

Education

Department of UIN Alauddin Makassar. But, the students have not


studied about clustering technique and listing technique in writing.
So, the researcher decided to observe the fifth semester students of
English

Education

Department

of

Universitas

Muhammadiyah

Makassar and the researcher took the students of English Education


Department

of

Universitas

Muhammadiyah

Makassar

as

population and sample because the students have studied about


clustering technique and listing technique in writing. Based on the
English

Education

Department

of

Universitas

Muhammadiyah

Makassar, the third year English Education Department students of


Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar have to attend writing classes
as required subjects. They have finished writing I, Writing II, Writing
III.
Thus, they have to be able to express their idea in written
form. But, the students spent a lot of time to write a text, the
students got the problems in organizing their ideas, in terms of
cohesion, coherence and unity in writing. It seemed that it derives
from the fact that they did not use the prewriting techniques to

express their ideas before the real writing take place, it can be
concluded from their statement that they did not know what to start
and where to start writing.
To make paragraph more coherence and not spent a lot of
time to write a text, the students have to know about technique of
prewriting. In order

to overcome their difficulties in writing.

Clustering is categorized as pre-writing techniques, there are


other previous researchers who did their research in applying
pre-writing techniques. Marliasari (2007) found that clustering
technique could increase the students' participation and the
student's achievement in writing. Moreover, Marlina (2009) found
that the students' writing skill after conducting the classroom action
technique achieved better improvement. Listing is a discovery
strategy in which the writer develops an unordered list of ideas and
images. Listing can help overcome writer's block and lead to the
discovery and focusing of a topic. A list could consist of the main
topic of regional dialects and then sublists would be regional
dialects to know or have experienced
In this case, the researcher tried to compare between
clustering and listing technique before writing a text or in prewriting, which is assumed to be able to know the different ability of
the students when using clustering and listing technique in writing.

This kind of technique will help the students to get ease developing
their ideas and organizing their ideas in writing.
By those considerations, the researcher tried to compare the
students writing ability using clustering and listing technique. The
students got the problems in organizing their ideas, in terms of
cohesion, coherence and unity in writing and it will make the
students spent a lot of time to write. For this reason, the researcher
decided to take research on comparing the students writing ability
using clustering and listing technique of the fifth semester students
of English Education Department of

Universitas Muhammadiyah

Makassar.
B. Research Problems
Based on the previous background, some problems need to
be answered from this research. They are:
1. How is the students writing ability by using the clustering
technique at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar?
2. How is the students writing ability by using the listing
technique at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar?
3. To what extent do the students writing ability by using
clustering technique differ from using listing technique?
C. Research Objective
Comparing writing ability between clustering and listing
technique in improving the students ability at the fifth semester of
English

Education

Department

of

Universitas

Muhammadiyah

Makassar. The specific objectives in this research are :

1. To identify the students writing ability by using the clustering


technique at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar.
2. To identify the students writing ability by using the listing
technique at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar.
3. To identify different writing ability of the students by using
clustering technique and listing technique.
D. Research Significance
There are three practical significants of this research, they
are:
a. Students
The researchers expect that all of the students of
English Education Department

are

able to

have

more

comprehension and more knowledge about writing technique


especially clustering and listing technique. If the students
know about the technique of writing, the students be easily to
arrange paragraph in writing.
b. The lecturers
By conducting this research, the researcher provide
more information about technique of the writing especially
about

clustering

technique

and

listing

technique.

The

researcher really hope that the finding of the researcher can


help the lecturers to improve the students ability in writing.
c. Other Researchers
The researcher really hopes by this research will
become a reference for other researchers who are interested
to take clustering technique and listing technique in writing as

a topic in their research this research will give information to


do the further research.
E. Research Scope
Considering

financial

supports

and

time

limits,

the

researcher decides to limit some aspects of the research. This


research is focused on comparing writing ability of students using
clustering and listing technique at the fifth semester of English
Education Department of Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar in
the academic year of 2015-2016. This research used causalcomparative study in collecting data.
F. Operational Definition of Terms
The title of this thesis is The Comparison of Students
Writing Ability by Using Clustering Technique and Listing technique
in the Fifth Semester English Education Department of Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar. To make the understanding about the
title of this thesis easier, the researcher will explain some technical
terms in the title:
1. Writing
Writing is one of four macro skills which are involved in
productive skill , writing needs an effort to express our ideas and
to coherent a paragraph or text.
According Walha in Bram (1995) defined, writing means
to produce or to reproduce a message or messages into written

language.

It involves an active process to organize and

formulate the ideas on the paper, so that the reader can follow
the researcher message.
2. Clustering
Clustering Technique is a technique to generate ideas
and to explore the relationships between those ideas. In
Clustering, we could use to narrow a subject. To cluster , write
the subject in the middle of a blank sheet of paper draw a circle
around it, like brainstorming technique.
According to John Langan, clustering technique also
known as diagramming or mapping, is another strategy that can
be used to generate material for a paper. This method is helpful
for people who like think in a visual way. In clustering, you use
lines, boxes, arrows, and circle to show relationships among the
ideas and details that occur to you.
3. Listing
Listing is one of technique in prewriting can help the
writer to developing ideas and make paragraph more coherent.
In listing, we can write everything about the topic in a list form.
According to Oshima & Hogue (2007), idea listing is a
prewriting technique. It, one of the prewriting techniques, is a
way to get ideas in which writers write the topic at the top of a
piece of paper and they quickly make a list of the words or
phrases coming into their mind.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This part deals with review of related previous research findings, some
pertinent ideas, theoretical framework and hypothesis.
A. Review of Related Research Finding
Many researchers had used writing technique in their research related with
clustering and listing technique. There were some previous research findings related
with writing technique:
a. Putra (2013), in his research entitled The Effect of Brainstorming and Clustering
Technique in Teaching Descriptive Text for the Third Year English Education
Students of Bung Hatta University, finds that there is no difference between teaching
writing descriptive text with and without brainstorming and clustering in pre- writing
activity.
b. Indriani (2006), in her research entitled The Effectiveness of Clustering Technique
in Improving Writing of the Third Year Students of SLTP Kristen 3 Magelang,
found there is a significant difference in the result of Iearning writing especially in
content and form between the students who used ctustering technique and the
students used outline technique.
c. Miftah (2012) revealed his finding on implementing ILT (Idea Listing Technique)
with the appropriate procedures developed that the students ability in writing an

expository paragraph enhances. It is indicated by the enhancements of the


percentage of the students achieving the score greater than or equal to C (60-69), and
of the percentage of their involvement in the writing activities during the
implementation of ILT (Idea Listing Technique) in Cycle I and II. The success of
this study is in Cycle II.
The three different studies above show different perspectives of pre-writing
technique. Putra (2013) used brainstorming technique and clustering technique to find
out the difference between teaching writing descriptive text with and without
brainstorming and clustering in pre-writing technique, Indriani (2006) used clustering
technique and outline technique to know the difference of students' writing skill, and
Miftah (2012) used ILT (Idea Listing Technique) to enhance the students writing
ability. While this research used clustering technique and listing technique to identify
writing ability of the students by using clustering technique and listing technique.
B. Some of Pertinent Ideas
a. Writing
1) Definition of writing
The word writing derived from the word write, which in oxford
dictionary means to make letters or other symbols on a surface with apen or pencil. In
other case, it means to compose, to draw engrave, etc. It also could be to
communicate with, to perform of practice by letter. Writing involves more than just
producing words and sentences. To be able to produce a piece of writing, we should
be able to write a connected series of word and sentences grammatically and logically
linked, so that the purpose we have in our mind will suit the intended readers. In this
way it means that the style of language used in a piece of writing designed for layman

and people living in the village, for example should be different from the one
designed for educated people such as students, teachers, doctors, etc. therefore, in
presenting a piece of discourse we should consider the correctness of form, the
appropriateness of style, and the unity of topic (Harmer, 2001).
Oshima and Hogue (2007) say that writing is a progressive activity. This
means that when someone first writes something down, he has already been thinking
about what he is going to say and how is going to say it. Then after he has finished
writing, he reads over what he has written and makes changes and corrections.
Therefore, writing is never a one step action; it is a process that has several steps.
Based on the opinion above, the researcher conclude that writing is a kind of
activity where the writer put all ideas in his mind on the paper from word to
sentences, sentence to paragraph and from paragraph to text and writing needs an
effort to express our ideas.
2) Writing Process
Heaton (1988) states that writing skills are complex and sometimes difficult
to teach, requiring mastery not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but also of
conceptual and judgmental elements. He classified the writing skills into five general
components or main areas, namely: (a) language use; the ability to write correct and
appropriate sentences, (b) mechanical skills; the ability to use correctly those
conventions peculiar to the written language e.g. punctuation and spelling, (c)
treatment of content; the ability to think creatively and develop thoughts, excluding
all irrelevant information, (d) stylistic skills; the ability to manipulate sentences and
paragraphs, and use language effectively, and (e) judgmental skills; the ability to write

10

in anappropriate manner for a particular purpose with a particular audience in mind,


together with an ability to select, organize and order relevant information.
According to Hogue (1996) the process of writing, especially in writing
composition (final target of writing) is divided into five steps, namely: (a) prewriting
for ideas, (b) outlining, (c) drafting, (d) revising, (e) editing and (f) final draft writing.
The process is explained as follows.
The first step of the process of writing is prewriting. Prewriting is aimed at
eliciting ideas as many as possible as the raw materials in writing a composition.
Hogue (1996) explains that prewriting has various techniques that may be selected
according to the students preference. This process is also called brainstorming.
Among the techniques are taking notes, free writing, listing and clustering. In this
step, as its name, a writer collects as many ideas as possible generated from a process
of thinking in the form of words, phrases, or sentences. All the ideas supplied by the
thinking process will be considered as relevant or irrelevant. For all the relevant
ideas, they will be used as the basis of the paragraphs to be composed. The relevant
ideas may take several forms, such as collocations or co-texts (synonymy, antonym,
hyponymy, super- or subordinates), context (person, time, place and manner), and
content (resources).
The second process is called outlining. Hogue (1996) defines outlining as
planning for a writing assignment. Furthermore, she states that outlining helps writers
organizing their ideas and put the ideas into logical order. The model of outlining in
writing a composition can be time-order, space-order, and listing order.
The next processes are drafting, revising, and editing. Drafting is composing
the first draft of a piece of writing using the paragraph components. The writer should
11

firstly write the possible title of the text and begin the paragraph with the topic
sentence. The topic sentence is developed by using several notes in the list of ideas
(prewriting process) to be the supporting sentences. Revising and editing, on the other
hand, are the process of looking back at the draft composed to check the meaning, the
mechanics, relevance of the information, the coherence and cohesiveness, the word
choice, the word orders or grammatical and lexical resources. Editing is also effective
to introduce connectors for cohesiveness.
Writing the final draft is the last process in writing a composition. After the
editing process, the writer writes the last neat piece of writing that will be free of
serious mistakes in terms of meanings and mechanical (spelling, punctuation, and
capitalization). Although the process seems to be systematic, some difficulties may
hamper in the process.

3) Component of Writing
According to Byrne in Roza (2011), there are five components of writing that
1.

should be considered in writing text:


Organize Idea
Ideas are the most important factors in writing because no one can write
meaningfully, if he/she has not anything in mind yet. In composition class, topic is
often given in order to help students concentrate in a certain set of ideas to be
explained. For example, the ideas are arranged in order of time, in order of space and

2.

in a logical order.
Grammar

12

The grammar of language is a description of way that the language behaves.


Without having knowledge of grammar the writer cannot make his/her language
3.

communicative to a great variety of reader from different situation.


Vocabulary
Vocabulary is important in writing because by having many vocabularies, a
writer can make readers explore more deeply in what he/she is telling about. With
good vocabulary which is known as idiom gives literary or cultural values to any

4.
5.

composition.
Mechanics
Punctuation
Punctuation plays as an important role in helping reader to establish
intonation. In other word, punctuation is a command for the reader to raise his/her
voice or drop his/her speech and because he/she is going to stop. Punctuation can also

6.
a.
b.
c.

d.
e.
f.

help readers to understand the state of mind of the writer.


Capitalization
The capitalization rules are as follow:
Capitalize the first word of sentence.
We live in apartment
Capitalize the pronoun I
You will not know what I am supposed to do.
Capitalize the titles of composition. In the title, the first and the more important
words are capitalized except short preposition and short coordinating conjunction.
Name of specific organization (business, clubs, schools)
Capitalize all of proper noun.
Name of detail: God, Allah, etc.
Content
Content is how the writer develop his/her idea related with the topic.
Based on the description above, it can be concluded that in writing text there
are five component that must be considered, they are organize idea, grammar,

vocabulary, mechanics ( punctuation and capitalization), and content.


b. Clustering Technique
a. Definition of Clustering
13

Chamot (1984) says that strategy in teaching learning are techniques,


approaches, or deliberate actions that teacher and students take in order to
facilitate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content area
information. In order to help the students in generating ideas in written form, they
can be guided through some generating strategies. It is more explained by Dawson
& Essid (2001) state that there are many methods for getting started writing such
as: Prewriting, brainstorming, clustering, etc. Moreover, he states that clustering
will be helpful to visualize the writing. Its procedures are: drawing a circle in
which we write the subject of the essay, then drawing lines going out from the
circle with words on the subject, these secondary words will result in further lines
and words. Eventually one part, or cluster, will be more elaborate and will
probably make a good topic for the essay.
To modify positively the situation of the classroom and to make the
teaching-learning process lively, the writer would like to propose an alternative
technique, that is the one which common known under the term Clustering
Technique. Clustering technique is a good way to turn a broad subject into a limited
and more manageable topic for a short essay. According to John Langan, clustering
technique also known as diagramming or mapping, is another strategy that can be
used to generate material for a paper. This method is helpful for people who like think
in a visual way. In clustering, you use lines, boxes, arrows, and circle to show
relationships among the ideas and details that occur to you.
Dawson & Essid (2001) says that the strategies used by the writer for
developing ideas to write about and for coming up with details to support the
14

ideas are clustering, brainstorming lists, free-writing and semantic mapping.


Clustering, also called mind mapping or idea mapping, is a tec hnique to
generate ideas and to explore the relationships between those ideas . It is
supported by Brown (1994), clustering is a simple yet powerful strategy. Its
visual character seems to stimulate the flow of association and is
particularly good for students who know what they want to say but just cannot
say it. Students' form word related to a stimulus supplied by the teacher. The
words are circled and then linked by lines to show discernible clusters.
Besides, Oshima and Hogue (2007) says that clustering is another
brainstorming activity that can be used to generate ideas. Clustering is a
technique for grouping similar items, collecting the ideas and focusing the thinking
of the writer. So, clustering is a non linear activity that generates ideas, images and
feelings around a stimulus word. As students cluster, their thoughts tumble out
enlarging their word bank for writing and often enabling them to see patterns in their
ideas. Clustering may be a class or an lndividual activity.
b. How to cluster
Clustering can be useful for any kind of writing. Writers use it in the early
stages of planning an essay in order to find subtopics in a topic or to organize
information. They may try and discard several clusters before finding one that is
promising. Clustering works as follows:
1. In a word or phrase, write your topic in the center of a piece of paper. Circle it.
2. Also in a word or phrase, write down the main parts or central ideas of your topic.
Circle these, and connect them to the topic in the center.
3. The next step is to generate facts, details, examples, or ideas related in any way to
these main parts of the topic. Cluster these around the main parts.
15

Figure 1 : Example of Clustering Technique


Fact

Detail
Fact

Detail
Exampl
e

sss
Sub topic

TOPIC

Exampl
e
Exampl
e

Sub topic
Detail

Examp
le

Fact

Examp
le

c. Listing Technique
a) Definition of Listing
Kaner et al. (2007) add that generating ideas through listing is to generate a
list of innovative solutions or ideas to a difficult problems or topics. When a problem
or topic is more complicated than it generally appeared, using idea listing is an
alternative way to solve it. Students can start sorting out the topics, and prioritizing
the elements they want to tackle first. Thus, idea listing is often an important first step
in reducing the complexity of a difficult task.
According to Oshima & Hogue (2007), idea listing is a prewriting technique.
It, one of the prewriting techniques, is a way to get ideas in which writers write the
topic at the top of a piece of paper and they quickly make a list of the words or
phrases coming into their mind. Through this activity the writers collect ideas to
explain the topic they have. Additionally, this technique is a way to narrow general
topic to a smaller one by listing every word or phrase coming into their mind
(Oshima & Hogue, 2007).

16

So, Listing is one of technique in prewriting can help the writer to


developing ideas and make paragraph more coherent. In listing, we can write
everything about the topic in a list form.
b) How to list
The following is an example of how to explore innovative idea through the
process of listing idea shown by Oshima & Hogue (2007). The writing assignment is
to write a paragraph a person who has made difference in the world, in the
community, or in the writers life. He showed an example of ideas listed which is
produced through Listing technique.
First, the writer made a list of people who have made a difference. Then he
decided which person to write about and circled his choice. Next the writer started e
new list. He wrote his chosen topic, at the top of new piece of paper and started
writing words and phrases that came into mind about the chosen topic. The writer
then looked at his second list and decided to write all about the topic. He circled that
idea. Then he thought about how the topic. He circled two ideas and marked them A
and B. The writer also crossed out anything that did not belong to these two ideas.
C. Theoritical Framework
The researcher delivered about causal-comparative design in
her research in comparing the students writing ability by using
clustering technique and listing technique. It is well known that
writing is categorized as a productive skill; it might be a problem for
some students in learning English because there are many aspects

17

which

should

be

considered,

such

as

contents,

grammars,

vocabularies, forms, mechanics and styles. Besides, they should


consider other important components in writing, such as coherence,
cohesion, topic sentence, supporting details, etc. Because of the
difficulties that students face namely the student were difficult in
organizing the ideas in terms of cohesion, coherence and unity in
writing. It seemed that it derives from the fact that they did not use
the prewriting techniques to express their ideas before the real
writing take place, it can be concluded from their statement that
they did not know what to start and where to start writing.
Clustering technique and listing technique then has become
appealing to some researchers. Putra (2013) and Indriani (2006)
have conducted research about the effectiveness of clustering
technique than other technique in writing. Clustering technique is a
good way to turn a broad subject into a limited and more
manageable topic for a short essay. According to John Langan,
clustering technique also known as diagramming or mapping, is
another strategy that can be used to generate material for a paper.
This technique is helpful for people who like think in a visual way. In
clustering, we can use lines, boxes, arrows, and circle to show
relationships among the ideas and details that occur to you.

18

Miftah (2012) conducted research about implementing listing


technique. Kaner et al. (2007) add that generating ideas through
listing is to generate a list of innovative solutions or ideas to a
difficult problems or topics. When a problem or topic is more
complicated than it generally appeared, using idea listing is an
alternative way to solve it. Students can start sorting out the topics,
and prioritizing the elements they want to tackle first. Thus, idea
listing is often an important first step in reducing the complexity of
a difficult task. Listing technique also can help the writer to
developing ideas and make paragraph more coherent.
In this research, the researcher expected that the students
which used listing technique have good ability in writing than the
students which used clustering technique. Because in the use of
listing utilized sentences so it made the students easier to develop
their ideas in a paragraph. As the common and useful technique in
writing, the researcher would organize causal-comparative design to
answer the researchers problem statements; (1) The students
writing ability by using the clustering technique at Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar, (2) The students writing ability by using
the listing technique at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar, and
(3) The different writing ability of the students by using clustering

19

technique and listing technique. Furthermore, the focus of writing


ability was on students writing ability to answer writing test and
questionnaires.
D. Hypothesis
Hence, based on explanations above, the researcher uses two hypotheses:
H0: There is no any significant difference of writing ability using clustering and
listing technique in writing; and
H1: There is a significant difference of writing ability using clustering and listing
technique in writing.

20

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter deals with research method, population and


sample, variables and instruments, data collection procedures, data
analysis techniques and statistic procedures.
A. Research Design
This research used causal-comparative design in collecting the data.
Causal comparative design was intended to determine the cause for preexisting
differences in groups of individuals, especially for clustering technique and listing
technique in writing. Gay (1981) explains that causal-comparative design involves
selecting two (or more) groups differing on some independent variable and then
comparing them on some dependent variable. The researchers goal is to determine
whether the independent variable affected the outcome, or dependent variable, by
comparing two or more groups of individuals. Causal Comparative also known as
ex post facto research. (Latin for after the fact). In this type of research
investigators attempt to determine the cause or consequences of differences that
already exist between or among groups of individuals. The design of this current
study can be seen in the following diagram adapted from Gay (1981):

22

Figure 3 : A Causal-Comparative Design

Note :
E : Experimental group;
C : Control group
X : Independent variable
O : Dependent variable
B. Research Variable
Variable is a concept, a noun that stands for variation within a class of
objects, such as gender, achievement, or motivation (Fraenkel and Wallen, 2008).
There are two variables in this research : Independent variable, variable which is
influenced with another variable of this research were the clustering and the
listing technique and dependent variables the indication which appear from result
of students writing cognitive aspects that will be got from writing were the
students writing ability.
C. Population and Sample
a. Population
According to Arikunto (2013) population is all subjects in the research. The

population of this research is the fifth semester of English Education Department in

23

the academic year of 2015-2016 at Universitas Muhammadiyah Makassar. The


population consists of ten classes and each class consists of 30 students. So, the
population is 300 students.
b. Sample
According to Arikunto (2013) sample is most of representative of who are
researched. The researcher used purposive sampling technique to taking sample in this

research. The researcher took PBI C and PBI D because PBI C and PBI D have
studied about clustering technique and listing technique in writing. Beside that, PBI C
and PBI D have high achievement than other class. Then, the researcher was divided
into two group. 15 students from PBI C using clustering technique then 15 students
from PBI D using listing technique. The total number of sample is 30 students.
D. Research Instrument
The instruments that the researcher used in this research are:
1. Writing test
The instrument of this research is a writing test. The researcher was asked
students to write paragraph in English based on their prior knowledge. The tests that
was used to measure the students writing ability for both clustering and listing
technique of students. The test consisted of five topic that can be chosen one of them
by the students and the students were obligated to write at least 5 paragraphs and 500
words in 60 minutes (see appendix 1). In scoring data of writing test, the researcher
was used analytic scale for rating composition tasks (Brown & Bailey, 1984).
2. Questionnaire

24

Questionnaire is another instrument which used in the research. It is a


number of written questions that used to get some information from respondents
about their personal identification or the things related to themselves (Arikunto,
2006). Based on the aspect of the way in answering the questions, the questionnaires
divided into two kinds; (1) closed questionnaires, giving a chance for the respondents
to answer the questions using their own sentences, and (2) opened questionnaires, the
questionnaires where the answers have been prepared. So, the respondents just choose
the answer.
This research was used close questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of
10 questions and it is related to students perceptions about their preference of writing
technique. Furthermore, the researcher will use Likerts Scale to determine is the
respondents agree or not in a question. It was used to find out data about the
comparison between the clustering technique and the listing technique in improving
the students writing ability.

E. Data Collecting Procedure


1. Writing test
The first instrument that the researcher was used in collecting data is
writing test. The test was conducted in 60 minutes.
a. The researcher was divided the research participants into two groups, (PBI
C was used clustering technique and PBI D was used listing technique in
writing).
b. The researcher was explained the aim of written test.

25

c. The researcher was asked the students to write paragraph in English at least
5 paragraphs and 500 words in 60 minutes.
d. After writing, the students will be asked to collect their writing.
2. Questionnaire
The second instrument is questionnaire. In collecting data from
questionnaires, the researcher was conducted the following procedures:
a. After collecting data from writing test, the researcher was distributed the
questionnaires to the respondents.
b. The researcher was explained how to answer some questions in the
questionnaires.
c. The researcher was asked the respondents to answer it in 15 minutes.
d. After answering, the researcher was collected the data from the
respondents.
F. Data Analysis Technique
1. To answer research questions 1 and 2, The students writing ability using the
clustering technique and the listing technique was analyzed by using descriptive
statistics mean score and standard deviation.
a. Calculating the mean score by applying the formula :

X=
Where : X = Mean score
x = The sum of all score
N = The total number of subjects.
(Gay, 1981)
b. The formula used in calculating in standard deviation was :

SD =
Where : SD = Standard deviation
SS = The sum of square
N = Total Number of the subjects

26

Classifying the students raw score into five levels as follows:


Criteria of Mastery
86-100
71-85
56-70
41-55
40

2.

Grade
Very Good
Good
Fair
Poor
Very Poor

To answer research question 3, The data collected through the test. The

researcher computes the hypothesis significant. It is to know whether the H 0 is


accepted or not. Finding out the significance differences of t-test value between
writing test by using clustering technique and listing technique by using Statistical
Product and Service Solution (SPSS 21) Analysis.

The data collected through questionnaires were tabulated first and and then
analyzed into percentages technique. It will analyzed by using formula as follow :
P=

100 %

Where :
P = Rate Percentages
F = Frequency of students
N = Total Sample

(Gay,1993)

27

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter describes both the findings and the discussions
of this research.
A. Findings
The findings of this research were taken from the analysis
result of the student writing test score. In order to give clear
description of the findings, the researcher explains them based on
the research question as follows:
1. Description of the students writing ability using the
clustering technique
Table 1 : The rate percentage writing test using
clustering technique
Writing test by
using clustering
technique
F
P (%)
3
20

Classificatio
n

Score

Very Good

86-100

Good

71-85

26.7

Fair

56-70

53.5

Poor

41-55

Very Poor

40

Total

15

30

100

Table 1 shows the students classification of score for writing


test by using clustering technique. In writing by using clustering
technique, students writing test was classified as good. It can be
seen from the table where 4 students in writing test by using
clustering technique got score under 85 and 8 students got score
under 70.

31

The data show 3 students got very good score with percentage 20
%, 4 students got good score with percentage 26.7%

and 8

students got good score with percentage 53.5%.


Table 2 : Mean Score and Standart Deviation
N
Clustering

15

Mean score

Standard

71.00

deviation
12.49

technique

Table 2 shows the mean score of and standard deviation of


writing score of those with using clustering technique. The mean
score of the writing ability of clustering technique is 71.00. It means
that the students with using clustering technique are in good
classification with standard deviation is 12.49
2. Description of the students writing ability using the
listing technique
Table 3 : The rate percentage writing test using
listing technique

31

Writing test by
using clustering
technique
F
P (%)
2
13.4

Classificatio
n

Score

Very Good

86-100

Good

71-85

26.8

Fair

56-70

26.8

Poor

41-55

33.5

Very Poor

40

Total

15

100

Table 3 shows the students classification of score for writing


test by using listing technique. In writing by using listing technique,
students writing test was classified as fair. It can be seen from the
table where 4 students in writing test by using clustering technique
got score under 70 and 5 students got score under 55. The data
show 2 students got very good score with percentage 13.4 %, 4
students got good score with percentage 26.8%, 4 students got fair
score with percentage 26.8%, and 5 student got poor score with
percentage 33.5 %.
Table 4 : Mean Score and Standart Deviation

32

N
Listing
Technique

Mean score

Standard

67.20

deviation
14.59

15

Table 4 below shows the mean score of and standard deviation of


writing score of those with using listing technique. The mean score
of the writing ability of listing technique is 67.20. It means that the
students with using listing technique are in normal criteria of writing
ability. The standard deviation is 14.59 means that the deviation of
the individuals mean score to the total mean score is in normal
distribution since the deviation is not more than 3.00.
3. The difference in ability of writing using clustering
technique and listing technique
Table 5 : Group Statistics of Mean Score and
Standard deviation
Group Statistics
X
Score

Mean

Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean

15

71.00

12.490

3.225

15

67.20

14.591

3.767

33

Table 5 above shows the summary statistics of both


independent sample groups. The mean score of writing ability for
using clustering technique is 71.00 and 67.20 for listing technique.
The standard deviations of both sample groups are between 3.225
and 3.767. It means that the mean scores for individuals in the
groups are in good and fair classification. The mean scores of both
groups are obviously different but to be able to determine of
whether the difference is significant or not, the researcher used the
t-test score for independent sample t-test in table 4.

Table 6 : Independent Sample test

34

Independent Samples Test


Levene's Test
for Equality
of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


Std.
Mean

Error

Sig. (2- Differe Differe


F
Sco Equal variances
re

assumed
Equal variances
not assumed

.671

Sig.

.419 .766

.766

Df
28
27.3
50

tailed)

95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference

nce

nce

Lower

Upper

.450

3.800

4.959

-6.358

13.958

.450

3.800

4.959

-6.369

13.969

Table 6 above shows the independent sample t-test score for


both groups. The t-test for two different sample groups is done in
two stages. The first stage is to examine whether the variance of
the two groups can be regarded as identical or not. The second
stage is to examine the difference of the average score of the two
samples.
The data in table 6 shows that that the F score for the equal
variances assumed is 0.671 with the probability 0.419. Since the
probability is larger than 0.05, the two variances are significantly
equal. The next stage is to examine if the two mean scores are
significantly different or not. For this reason, the researcher used
null hypothesis (H0): there is not any significant difference of

35

writing quality between auditory learners and visual learners, and


alternative hypothesis (H1) stating that there is not any significant
difference of writing quality between writing by using clustering
technique and writing by using listing technique. The mean
difference of the two samples is 3.80 (71.00 67.20 = 3.80). The
lower difference in 95% confidence interval is -6.358 and the upper
difference is 13.958. It means that the difference of the writing
score of both samples is between -6.358 and 13.958 with the
average difference is 3.800. The t-test score for both samples is
0.766. Compared to the critical t-table 2.048 for 0.05 with the
degree of freedom df = 28, the t-table value is larger. Since the ttable value is larger than the t-test score, the alternative hypothesis
stating that there is a significant difference of writing ability
between writing by using clustering technique and writing by using
listing technique is rejected and accepts the null hypothesis stating
that there is not any significant difference of writing ability
between writing by using clustering technique and writing by using
listing technique. It means that both mean scores are not
significantly different.
The Analysis of Data Collected through the Questionnaires

36

After the researcher analyzed the students answer from the


questionnaires, the researcher found the data about the frequency
of students answer in every number of the questionnaires. In
finding the percentage of the frequency of the students answer of
the questionnaires, the researcher also presents the analyzing of
the percentage. It will help the reader to understand the result of
the questionnaires.
Table 7 : First Item of Questionnaires (I can focus of the topic
when using clustering technique in writing)
Opinion

Frequenc
y

Percentage
(%)

Strongly Agree

20

Agree

24

80

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Total

30

100

Table 7 above indicates that there are 6 (20%) students


strongly agree using clustering technique can be more focused on
the topic in writing, 24 (80%) students agree , no one of the
students strongly disagree, and no one of the students disagree .
Based on the data, the researcer can conclude that most of the

37

students (more than 50%) agree if using clustering technique can


be more focused on the topic in writing.

Table 8 : Second Item of Questionnaires (I can make more a


coherent paragraphs when using clustering technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage(%
)

Strongly Agree

10

Agree

25

83.33

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

6.66

Total

30

100

Table 8 above shows, there are 3 (10%) students strongly


agree if using clustering technique can make a coherent paragraph,
25 (83.33%) students agree, no one of the students strongly
disagree, and 2 (6.66%) students disagree. The researcher can
conclude that (more than 50%) agree if using clustering technique
can make a coherent paragraph.

38

Table 9 : Third Item of Questionnaires (I can more creative in


developing my ideas when using clustering technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage
(%)

Strongly Agree

16.66

Agree

24

80

Strongly Disagree

3.33

Disagree

Total

30

100

Table 9 above indicates that there are 5 (16.66%) students


strongly agree if using clustering technique make more creative to
develop ideas, 24 (80%) students agree , 1 (3.33%) students
strongly disagree, and no one of the students disagree . Based on
the data, the researcer can conclude that most of the students
(more than 50%) agree if using clustering technique make more
creative to develop ideas.
Table 10 : Fourth Item of Questionnaires (I easily start writing
without thinking when using clustering technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage
(%)

Strongly Agree

26.66

Agree

18

60

Strongly Disagree

3.33

Disagree

10

39

Total

30

100

Table 10 above indicates that there are 8 (26.66%) students


strongly agree if using clustering technique easier to start writing
without thinking, 18 (60%) students agree , 1 (3.33%) students
strongly disagree, and 3 (10%) students disagree. Based on the
data, the researcer can conclude that most of the students (more
than 50%) agree if using clustering technique easier to start writing
without thinking.

Table 11 : Fifth Item of Questionnaire (I can use a varied


vocabulary when using clustering technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage(%
)

Strongly Agree

20

Agree

18

60

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

20

Total

30

100

Table 11 above indicates that there are 6 (20%) students


strongly agree if using clustering technique can use varied
vocabulary, 18 (60%) students agree , no one of the students

40

strongly disagree, and 6 (20%) students disagree . Based on the


data, the researcer can conclude that most of the students (more
than 50%) agree if using clustering technique can use varied
vocabulary.
Table 12 : Sixth Item of Questionnaire (I was more careful in
the use of punctuation and capital letters when using listing
technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage
(%)

Strongly Agree

13.33

Agree

14

46.66

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

12

40

Total

30

100

Table 12 above indicates that there are 4 (13.33%) students


strongly agree if using listing technique can be more careful in using
of punctuation and capital letters, 14 (46.66%) students agree , no
one of the students strongly disagree, and 12 (40%) students
disagree . Based on the data, the researcer can conclude that the
students agree if using listing technique can be more careful in
using of punctuation and capital letters.

41

Table 13 : Seventh Item of Questionnaire (I can easily arrange


my ideas into a paragraph when using listing technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage
(%)

Strongly Agree

16.66

Agree

20

66.66

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

16.66

Total

30

100

Table 13 above indicates that there are 5 (16.66%) students


strongly agree if using listing technique can easily arrange ideas in
a paragraph, 20 (66.66%) students agree , no one of the students
strongly disagree, and 5 (16.66%) students disagree . Based on the
data, the researcer can conclude that most of the students (more
than 50%) agree if using listing technique can easily arrange ideas
in a paragraph.

Table 14 : Eighth Item of Questionnaire (I did not spend much


time in writing when using listing technique)
Opinion

Frequency

Percentage
(%)

42

Strongly Agree

16.66

Agree

12

40

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

13

43.33

Total

30

100

Table 14 above indicates that there are 5 (16.66%) students


strongly agree if using listing technique did not spend much time in
writing, 12 (40%) students agree , no one of the students strongly
disagree, and 13 (43.33%) students disagree . Based on the data,
the researcer can conclude that the students disagree if using
listing technique did not spend much time in writing.
Table 15 : Ninth Item of Questionnaire (I more easily determine
the topic sentences and supporting sentences when using listing
technique)
Opinion

Jumlah

Persentase
(%)

Strongly Agree

10

Agree

19

63.33

Strongly Disagree

3.33

Disagree

23.33

Total

30

100

Table 15 above indicates that there are 3 (10%) students


strongly agree if using listing technique more easily determine the

43

topic sentences and supporting sentences, 19 (63.33%) students


agree , 1 (3.33%) students strongly disagree, and 7 (23.33%)
students disagree . Based on the data, the researcer can conclude
that most of the students (more than 50%) agree if using listing
technique

more

easily

determine

the

topic

sentences

and

supporting sentences.
Table 16 : Tenth Item of Questionnaire (I was more careful in
using grammar when using listing technique)
Opinion

Jumlah

Persentase
(%)

Strongly Agree

13.33

Agree

12

40

Strongly Disagree

3.33

Disagree

13

43.33

Total

30

100

Table 15 above indicates that there are 3 (13.33%) students


strongly agree if using listing technique more careful in the use of
grammar, 12 (40%) students agree , 1 (3.33%) students strongly
disagree, and 13 (43.33%) students disagree . Based on the data,
the researcer can conclude that the students disagree if using
listing technique more careful in the use of grammar.

44

B. Discussion
Based on the previous related studies and pertinent ideas in
relation to the findings which were found in my research, the
discussions as follows:
There were some different areas of writing assessed in this
study,

namely

organization,

content,

grammar,

punctuation,

spelling, mechanics, style and quality expression. The areas


assessed were

assumed to contribute to the ability of writing of

both technique in writing disregarding some extraneous variables


that might contribute to the results.
In the first research question, it asked about description of
the students writing ability by using the clustering technique. It can
be seen by the data of the students writing test. In writing by using
clustering technique got 71.00. It means that the mean scores for
writing by using clustering technique in good classification.
The research findings were supported by Baroudy (2008)
proposition that clustering technique is very helpful to unleash
ideas, images, and feelings related to the main topic in writing. In
addition, clustering lent itself to the easiness in organizing the ideas
and transforming them into the writing product. After the students
were capable to make cluster diagram and apply it before writing
the text, the supporting details were more properly arranged until

45

they made a clear, understandable plot line beside the growing


number of those details. This suggest that clustering has assisted
them to recognize clear association among the ideas which have
been generated Rico (2000).
Writing is categorized as a productive skill; it might be a
problem for some students in learning English because there are
many aspects which should be considered, such as contents,
grammars, vocabularies, forms, mechanics and styles. Mastery
vocabulary and grammar influence the ability in writing, Reichelt
(2015) the ability to write in English is considered essential because
it is a means of developing overall English ability, specifically by
increasing the vocabulary and grammar knowledge faced in
listening and reading. In addition, the abilities to write well are
increasingly required as learners further their study in higher level
of education.
In the second research question, it asked about description
of the students writing ability by using the listing technique. It can
be seen by the data of the students writing test. In writing by using
listing technique got 67.20. It means that the mean scores for
writing by using listing technique in fair classification.
All of them are essential aspects that should be considered
in producing good writing. Hayes and flowers (1980) state that
planning was composed of three components: setting goals,

46

generating ideas, organizing ideas into a writing plan: whereas,


reviewing includes reading and editing text. To make paragraph
more coherence and not spent a lot of time to write a text, the
students have to know about technique of prewriting. in order to
overcome their difficulties in writing. In this research, the researcher
found the students who used listing technique in their writing often
spent a lot of time in writing English and lack of grammar. Broadney
: et, al (1999) skilled writers see the importance of prewriting, view
it as rehearsal, and spend a longer time in planning during the
prewriting stage.
In the third research question, is asked about the different
writing ability of the students by using clustering technique and
listing technique. Based on the findings, The t-test score for both
samples is 0.766. Compared to the critical t-table 2.048 for 0.05,
the outcome of the existing data of the tests reported that there are
not any significant difference of writing by using clustering
technique and writing by using listing technique. Nevertheless,
writing by using clustering technique had a tendency to outweigh
writing by using listing technique in terms of the total mean score
by 3.80 points regardless the insignificancy of the difference. The
significant difference of writing by using clustering technique and
writing by using listing technique didnt find from t-test result which

47

compared with the distribution of t. It is proved by Gay (1991), the


t-test is used to determine whether two means are significantly
different or not at a selected probability level. In determining
significance, the t test makes adjustments for the fact that the
distribution of scores for small samples becomes increasingly.
It is supported by the result of the data analysis from
questionnaires. It can be seen by the data of the students
questionnaires that most of the students (more than 50%) agree to
use clustering technique in writing. The reseracher also found that
the students disagree if using listing technique did not spend much
time in writing. It is proved by the answer from the respondents in
the questionnaire achieves 43.33% or 13 from 30 students. Besides,
the students also disagree if using listing technique more careful in
the use of grammar. It is braced by the majority of the students
43.33% or 13 from 30 students. The researcer can conclude that
clustering and listing technique had no significant differences in
ability of writing. Yet a slightly better writing quality in this research
was achieved by using clustering technique.

48

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
This chapter presents the conclusions as well as few
suggestions of this study. Suggestions are taken based on findings
and conclusions obtained in this research.
A. Conclusion
1. The students writing ability using clustering and listing technique of the fifth
semester students of English Education Department of Universitas
Muhammadiyah Makassar. The total score of students in writing
test by using clustering technique is 1065 and 1008 for
writing by using listing technique. In addition, the mean score
for writing by using clustering technique is 71,00 and 67,20
for writing by using clustering technique. The data above
shows that students writing ability in writing by using
clustering technique is higher than in writing by using listing
technique. The t-test for both classes is 0.766. Compared to
the t-table with 2.048 for 0.05 with degree of freedom (df)
= 28. Since the score of t-table is larger than the score of ttest, alternative hypothesis (H1) was rejected and null
hypothesis (H0) was accepted. It means that writing by using

46

clustering technique and writing by using listing technique


are not significantly different.

47

2. Although there is no significant difference of writing ability


between clustering and listing technique found in this
research, yet a slightly better writing quality in this research
was achieved by using clustering technique.
3. Most of the students (more than 50%) agree to use clustering technique in
writing.
4. The students disagree if using listing technique did not spend much time in
writing and the students also disagree if using listing technique more careful
in the use of grammar. It is proved by the answer from the respondents in the
B.

questionnaire achieves 43.33% or 13 from 30 students.


Suggestions
The results of this research suggest that:
1. It is suggested that the teachers should always recommend to
the students technique of writing which can be used in
improving students skill in writing especially clustering and
listing technique as one of the alternative technique in
learning English especially in writing.
2. In applying clustering and listing technique, it is important for
the teacher to include all aspects that students need in
writing mastery. The teacher should organize the activity from
the beginning.
3. Since there are more than one technique in writing, teachers
should provide approaches that can accommodate students

47

different strengths in processing information, especially in


improving writing skill.
4. For the other researchers, it is suggested for the readers and
the other researchers that they should know technique of
writing can be used not only to improve students writing skill
but also to improve other skills or components in different
genres and elements in teaching English.

48

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51

APPENDIX I

Name

Class

:
WRITING TEST

Topic :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Unforgettable Moment
Traditional Games
Candi Borobudur
My University
Tsunami Aceh

Direction :
Choose one of the topic above and write at least 5 paragraphs, 500
words in 60 minutes using clustering technique !

52

Name :
Class

:
WRITING TEST

Topic :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Unforgettable Moment
Traditional Games
Candi Borobudur
My Univesity
Tsunami Aceh

Direction :
Choose one of the topic above and write at least 5 paragraphs, 500
words in 60 minutes using listing technique !

53

APPENDIX II
QUESTIONNAIRE
NAME

CLASS :

Direction !
a. Angket ini betujuan untuk memperoleh data tentang tekhnik
yang digunakan mahasiswa dalam menulis.
b. Baca pernyataan berikut dengan seksama kemudian pilih
jawaban berdasarkan sudut pandang atau persepsi anda.
NO
.

Pernyataan

1.

Saya dapat fokus pada


topik jika saya
menggunakan tekhnik
clustering dalam
menulis.

2.

Saya dapat membuat


paragraf lebih koheren
jika saya menggunakan
tekhnik clustering.

3.

Saya lebih kreatif dalam


mengembangkan ide
saya jika menggunakan
tekhnik clustering.

4.

Saya dengan mudah


memulai menulis tanpa
berpikir panjang jika
saya menggunakan

Sangat
setuju

Setuju

Sangat
tidak
setuju

Tidak
setuju

54

tekhnik clustering.
5.

Saya dapat
menggunakan kosakata
yang variatif jika saya
menggunakan tekhnik
clustering.

6.

Saya lebih teliti dalam


penggunaan tanda baca
dan huruf kapital jika
menggunakan tekhnik
listing.

7.

Saya dapat dengan


mudah menyusun ide
saya ke dalam sebuah
paragraf jika saya
menggunakan tekhnik
listing.

8.

Saya tidak
menghabiskan banyak
waktu dalam menulis
jika saya menggunakan
tekhnik listing.

9.

Saya lebih mudah


menentukan topic
sentences dan
supporting sentences
jika menggunakan
tekhnik listing.

10.

Saya lebih teliti dalam


menggunakan grammar
jika menggunakan
tekhnik listing.

55

APPENDIX III

56

57

58

APPENDIX IV

Writing scores of Clustering Technique and Listing


Technique

a. Clustering Technique
Listing Technique

b.

Res
p.

Score

87

85

68

83

86

57

50

66

61

10

54

11

82

12

58

13

50

14

74

15

47

59

APPENDIX V
Raw Data of Questionnaires
Res
p.

10

Tota
l

28

30

29

29

28

26

19

27

30

10

25

11

25

12

28

13

20

14

22

15

30

16

20

17

17

18

14

19

12

20

18

21

22

22

18

23

18

24

18

60

25

16

26

22

27

19

28

26

29

17

CURRICULUM VITAE

61

Mustagfirah Syahrir, an ingnue, was born on


March 03, 1994 in Barru , South Sulawesi. She is
the first child of her parents, Drs. H. Muh.
Syahrir Rahim and Hj. Hamisyah, SE. She has
one young brother Muh. Maqbul Syahrir and
lovely youngest sister Mudrikah Syahrir. She
spent her childhood studying in SD inpres Barru
1 from 2001-2006 and continued to SMPN 1
Barru from 2006-2009 and then took her third grade in SMAN 1 Barru from
2009-2012. Finishing her study in SMAN 1 Barru, she decided to continue
her tertiary education in UIN ALAUDDIN Makassar and major in English
Education Department.

62