&
Surveillance
Dr. Tarek Ahmed
Tarek Ahmed & Associates Ltd
www.TarekAhmedAssociates.com
Tahmed@Mtech.edu
Professor Emeritus of Petroleum Engineering
Montana Tech of the University of Montana
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Course Content
I) Characterization of Reservoir Fluids
Understanding Fluid Laboratory Data
Quality Assurance of Fluid Data
II) Reservoir Characterization
Porosity and Permeability
Capillary Pressure, Fluid Distribution, and Understanding the Transition Zone
Zonation and Layering System
Two and Three Phase Relative Permeability & Concept of permeability Jail
Normalizing Relative permeability Data
Characterizing Vertical and Areal Heterogeneities
Calculation of Sweep Efficiencies
III) Waterflood Development & Surveillance
Stages of Oil Recovery
Factors to Consider When Planning a Waterflood
Introduction to Waterflood
Waterflood Surveillance
IV) Reservoir Simulation
Gridding and Construction a Simulation Model
Simulation Studies
Developing of the Nameless Field with WaterfloodingTeam Project
Characterization of
Reservoir Fluids & Rocks
Reservoir Fluid and Rock Characterization is a Scientific
and Mathematical Discipline that Seeks to Define
Quantitatively the Input Data Needed to Perform Predictions
of Flow Through Porous Media and Subsequent Field
Development Plans
Understanding the Interaction Between the Reservoir
Fluids and Formation is Vital in Optimal Design and
Evaluating the Performance of Waterflooding Project .
First Step for Implementing a Successful Secondary
Recovery Process is the Proper Evaluation of the Reservoir
Rock and Fluid Properties
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
pb
pd
Liquid
Gas
Hg
Hg
Droplet of liquid
5
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
PC
PC
C
Liquid+Gas
Liquid
Gas
Gas
TC
TC
Bubblepoint
pressure curve
100% Liquid
PT Diagram
C
Liquid+Gas
Classification of Reservoirs
Oil Reservoirs
Gas Reservoirs
Near Critical
8
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Types of Reservoirs
Oil reservoirs
Gas reservoirs
Near Critical
9
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Oil Reservoir
Gas Reservoir
Oil Reservoirs
11
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
1 undersaturated reservoir
2 saturated reservoir
3 GasCap reservoir
1
2
Key:
Liquid Shrinkage Curve
13
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Liquid Volume
Residual oil
0%
pb
Pressure
2 Lowshrinkage Oil.
Liquid
critical point
pressure
Liquid+Gas
A
G
85%
75%
Gas
F
Temperature
16
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
100%
E
Liquid Volume
Residual oil
0%
pb
Pressure
Oilshrinkage curve for lowshrinkage oil..
17
18
Liquid Volume
100%
Residual oil
0%
19
pb
Pressure
Oil formation volume factor greater than 1.5
bbl/STB
Gasoil ratios between 2,0003,000 scf/STB
Oil gravities between 4555o API
Greenish to orange in color
20
10
Liquid Volume
0%
Residual oil
Pressure
bubblepoint pressure pb
Figure 124. A typical liquidshrinkage curve for the nearcritical crude oil.
21
Liquid Volume
0%
Pressure
bubblepoint pressure pb
11
Gas Reservoirs
Dry Gas Reservoirs
Wet Gas Reservoirs
Retrograde Gas Reservoirs
Nearcritical Gascondensate Reservoirs
23
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
24
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
12
25
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
26
13
27
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Pressure
2phase region
Temperature
200 STB/MMscf
100%
max. LDO
Condensate Yield
STB/MMscf
% of liquid
28
0 STB/MMscf
Pressure
14
29
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Liquid Volume
100%
3
1
0%
Pressure
Figure 129. Liquidshrinkage (dropout) curve for a nearcritical gascondensate system.
30
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
15
critical point
31
32
16
On GOC
pressure
depth
GOC
pd = pb= pr
GOC
17
pd
pr
Pi>>>>Pb !!!!!!!!
Gas Cap
GOC
pb
Oil Rim
36
18
On Nearcritical Reservoirs
37
Temperature
Depth
Gas Cap
Critical Region
Oil Rim
19
Pi>>>>Pb !!!!!!!!
Gas Cap
Critical Mixture
Oil Rim
39
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
20
Oil
1.6 bbl
p = 1200 psi
p = 800 psi
p = 400 psi
200 scf
400 scf
700 scf
Oil
1.4 bbl
Oil
1.3 bbl
Oil
1.1 bbl
p = 14.7 psi
1000 scf
Oil
1 STB
41
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Rs g
1.4 10 X
18.2
Rs
Bo
pb
0
co 1.705x10
pressure
0.69357 0.1885
Rsb
g
API 0.3272 T 4600.6729 P 0.5906
Bo 0.9759 0.000120 R s
0.5
1.25 T 460
1.2
21
1.8 10 7 360
0.32
API 1.53 T 260
A 10
8.33
0.42 (
API
od
Rs
)
ob
pb
0
ob a od b
1.6
0.56
o ob 0.001( p pb ) [ 0.024 ob
0.038 ob
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Class Problem:
Generate and plot the PVT for a 40.7 OAPI crude oil system is characterized by a
bubble point pressure of 2620 psia a reservoir temperature of 220 OF. The average
specific gravity of solution gas is 0.855.
1.2048
Rs g
1.4 10 X
18.2
g 0.5
0.69357 0.1885
co 1.705x107 Rsb
g
API 0.3272 T 4600.6729 P 0.5906
od
1.8 10 7 360
0.32
API 1.53 T 260
ob a od b
A 10
0.42 (
8.33
API
1.6
0.56
o ob 0.001( p pb ) [ 0.024 ob
0.038 ob
22
Pb
Co
PVT above Pb
Bt
23
CCE
P>>Pb
P>Pb
P<Pb
P=Pb
P<<Pb
Gas
Vt
oil
Vt
oil
oil
Vsat= Vt
Y
Vrel
Vt
Gas
oil
oil
p sat p
p Vrel 1
Vt
sat
Vrel
Vt
Vsat
48
24
Y=a+bP
Vrel 1
p sat p
p a bp
49
Class Problem
The best straight fit of the Yfunction as a function of pressure for the BigButte
oil system is given by:
where:
Y = a + bp
a = 1.0981 ,
b = 0.000591
50
1936
1930
1928
1923
1918
1911
1878
1808
1709
1600
1467
1313
1161
1035
782
600
437
Measured VreL
1.0625
1.1018
1.1611
1.2504
1.3696
1.5020
1.9283
2.4960
3.4464
25
Solution:
Vrel 1
Pressure
1936
1930
1928
1923
1918
1911
1878
1808
1709
1600
1467
1313
1161
1035
782
600
437
p sat p
p a bp
Measured VreL
Smoothed VreL
Equation 4109
1.0625
1.1018
1.1611
1.2504
1.3696
1.5020
1.9283
2.4960
3.4464
1.0014
1.0018
1.0030
1.0042
1.0058
1.0139
1.0324
1.0630
1.1028
1.1626
1.2532
1.3741
1.5091
1.9458
2.5328
3.5290
51
26
Gas
Oil
8/13/2011
S gt Pore Volume
S o Pore Volume
RS
Bo
Bg
Rsnew
So Pore Volume
Bo
S gt Bo
RSnew RS
S o Bg
27
Important Equations
N
(porevolume) (1 S wi )
Boi
Pore Volume
So
N Boi
1 S wi
N N B
p
N Boi
1 S wi
N B
S o (1 S wi ) 1 P o
N Boi
Sg = 1 So  Swi
Class Problem:
The Big Butte Field is a solution gasdrive reservoir that is under consideration
for a waterflood project. The volumetric calculations of the field indicate that the
areal extent of the field is 1612.6 acres. The field is characterized by the
following properties:
Thickness h = 25 ft
Porosity = 15%
Initial water saturation Swi = 20%
Initial pressure pi = 2377 psi
Results from the MBE in terms of cumulative oil production Np as a function of
reservoir pressure are given below:
Pressure
Np
Psi
MMSTB
2377
2250
1.10
1950
1.76
1650
2.64
1350
3.3
28
The PVT properties of the crude oil system are tabulated below:
Pressure
Bo
Rs
Bg
psi
Bbl/STB
scf/STB
bbl/scf
2377
1.706
921

2250
1.678
872
0.00139
1950
1.555
761
0.00162
1650
1.501
657
0.00194
1350
1.448
561
0.00240
1050
1.395
467
0.00314
750
1.336
375
0.00448
450
1.279
274
0.00754
29
p = 1200 psi
p = 800 psi
p = 400 psi
200 scf
400 scf
700 scf
Oil
1.4 bbl
Oil
1.3 bbl
Oil
1.6 bbl
p = 14.7 psi
1000 scf
Oil
1.1 bbl
Oil
1 STB
59
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
DE
P1=Pb
P2<Pb
P3
P2
P3
(Vg)sc
(Vg)p,T
oil
(Voil)p,T
Bod
Voil
VST
Vt
Voil
oil
Voil
oil
(Voil)p,T
Rsd
Gas
Gas
(Vg)p,T
Gas
Vb
(Vg)sc
Gas
Vt
oil
remaininggas in solution
VST
Bg
(Voil)p,T
oil
(Vg ) p ,T
(Vg ) sc
30
Bod
61
VL
Vsc
V p
Z
T
Tsc
Vsc p sc
p ZT
B g sc
Tsc p
Bobd
Bod
62
31
Rsd
63
Rs & GOR
Same UNITS, i.e. scf/STB, BUT they are NOT the same !!!
Qo
Qo
Rs
(Qg )free
k B
Rs rg o o
Qo
kro g Bg
64
32
GOR Rs
scf/STB
krg o Bo
kro g Bg
GOR
Rs = GOR
krg o Bo
kro g Bg
Sg = 0
Rs
pb
65
0
Pi
Sgc
Time
Pressure
GOR
Time
Observed
Rs
66
Laboratory
Pressure
33
Oil
1.6 bbl
p = 1200 psi
p = 800 psi
p = 400 psi
200 scf
400 scf
700 scf
Oil
1.4 bbl
Oil
1.3 bbl
p = 14.7 psi
Oil
1.1 bbl
1000 scf
Oil
1 STB
Separator Tests
68
34
69
35
71
Rsfb
Bofb
72
36
73
B
od
B B
o
ofb B
odb
Current Adjustment of Rs
B
ofb
R R (R
R )
s
sfb
sdb
sd B
odb
74
37
76
38
B
od
B B
o
ofb B
odb
77
B
ofb
R R (R
R )
s
sfb
sdb
sd B
odb
Rsdb
Rsfb
78
39
CCE
sat
Vrel
DE
79
80
40
81
Class Problem
The ConstantComposition Expansion test, differential
liberation test, and separator test for the BigButte
crude oil system are given next; generate and plot Bo,
Rs, Bt as a function of pressure
B
od
B B
o
ofb B
odb
B
ofb
R R (R R )
s
sfb
sdb sd B
odb
from DE data:
Bt = (Bofb) (Vrel)
from CCE data:
Bt = (Btd) (Bofb) / Bodb
82
41
42
IMPACT OF MODELING
LIQUID SHRINKAGE
FIELD EXPERIENCE
The Nameless Field
Modeling Strategy
Identifying Problems
43
Oil Shrinkage
Fixed and Reliable Data
Surface Separation
Fluid Properties/EOS
1st Stage
2nd Stage 3rd Stage
OOIP Y STB
StockTank
OOIP X bbl
25% Shrinkage
50% Shrinkage
gas
gas
2 STB
1.5 STB
2 bbl
2 bbl
Bo = 1 bbl/STB
Bo = 1.333 bbl/STB
Big problem in
simulation
Rate constraint 100 STB/day
1 STB
2 bbl
Bo = 2 bbl/STB
100 bbl
133 bbl
200 bbl
44
Stripper Column
(19 distillation trays)
80250oc
55oc
1500 KPA
1st Stage
StockTank
2nd Stage
Boiler Furnace
(Tray20) Gradual
changes in the
temperature in the flow line
150oc
700 KPA
1st Stage
80oc 1300 KPA
Stripper Column
StockTank
2nd Stage
45
150oc
700 KPA
1st
Stage
Temp profile is
Described
by single value of
150oc
StockTank
Stripper Column
(19 distillation trays)
2nd Stage
Summary of Results
Stage
1 Stage
2nd Stage
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Stripper
Flow Line
Flow Line
StockTank
st
P_r88
T
P
Case 1a
T
P
Case 1b
T
P
Case 2
T P
55 1500
80 1300
150 700
55
78
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
140
55
80
80
85
90
95
100
110
120
130
55
80
78
85
95
100
110
115
120
130
135
1500
1300
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
1500
1300
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
1500
1300
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
Case 32
P
55
80
78
85
95
100
110
115
120
130
135
150
48
15.5
Case 5
T
Case 6
P
Case 7
P
Case 8
P
1500
1300
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
700
101.3
101.3
55 1500
80 1300
80 700
83 700
90 700
95 700
100 700
110 700
120 700
130 700
65 1500
80 1300
78 700
83 700
90 700
95 700
100 700
110 700
120 700
130 700
55 1500
80 1300
80 700
130 700
55 1500
80 1300
78 700
83 700
130 700
15.5 101.3
15.5 101.3
15.5 101.3
15.5 101.3
OIIP, KSTM3
322,849.6
328,258.9
328,165.5
336,788.5
328,503.6
337,773.1
337,725.5
334,992.5
335,290.3
188,167.0
58.28%
191,334
1.68
58.30
190,874
1.42
58.16
196,250.0
4.30
58.27%
191,487
1.76
58.29%
196,960
4.67
58.30
196,972
4.68
58.32
195,539
3.92
58.37
195,778
4.04
58.39
46
93
94
47
ConstantComposition Test
Measures:
Dewpoint Pressure
% of LDO
p
Z Zd
p
V rel
d
95
Table 410
PressureVolume Relations of Reservoir Fluid at 262 F
(ConstantComposition Expansion)
1.043
96
48
xi
%
yi
%
zi
%
CO2
5.04
8.82
8.60
N2
0.08
0.77
0.73
C1
15.71
74.92
71.44
C2
6.26
8.64
8.50
C3
8.33
4.50
4.73
iC4
2.33
0.61
0.71
nC4
4.84
0.97
1.20
iC5
2.81
0.24
0.39
nC5
3.09
0.22
0.39
C6s
5.11
0.12
0.41
C7s
8.31
0.10
0.58
C8s
11.46
0.07
0.74
C9s
7.53
0.02
0.46
C10+
19.10
0.00
1.12
49
99
Hoffman Plots
Ki
yi
xi
P (1 / Tbi ) (1 / T )
Fi log( ci )
Log Ki
0
3
C3
nC4
nC5
Fi
iC5
xi
%
yi
%
K=y/x
CO2
5.04
8.82
1.7500
N2
0.08
0.77
C1
C2
C3
iC4
nC4
iC5
nC5
C6s
C7s
C8s
C9s
C10+
15.71
6.26
8.33
2.33
4.84
2.81
3.09
5.11
8.31
11.46
7.53
19.1
74.92
8.64
4.5
0.61
0.97
0.24
0.22
0.12
0.1
0.07
0.02
0
9.6250
4.7689
1.3802
0.5402
0.2618
0.2004
0.0854
0.0712
0.0235
0.0120
0.0061
0.0027
0.0000
Compone
nt
EOS
Lab
+3
50
Hoffman Plots
Ki
yi
xi
(1 / Tbi ) (1 / T )
P
Fi log( ci )
DISCARD
N2
CO2 C1
C2
C3
Log Ki
nC4
nC5
0
3
Fi
iC4
iC5
+3
Ki= yi/xi
xi
yi
zi
CO2
3.65
1.29
2.46
0.353
N2
5.74
0.2
2.95
0.035
C1
10.01
57.48
33.94
5.742
C2
5.34
15.84
10.63
2.966
C3
3.64
14.04
8.88
3.857
Ki
iC4
2.76
2.15
2.45
0.779
nC4
2.76
5.3
4.04
1.92
iC5
2.23
1.29
1.76
0.578
nC5
2.23
1.44
1.83
0.646
C6s
1.86
0.74
1.3
0.398
C7s
1.6
0.2
0.89
0.125
C8s
1.41
0.03
0.71
0.021
C9s
1.25
0.62
C10s
50.81
25.2
yi
xi
P (1 / Tbi ) (1 / T )
Fi log( ci )
DISCARD
51
103
Saturation Pressure
X
True Vertical Depth
X
X
52
Mol % of Methane
X
X
X
106
53
X
X
107
P < Pb
Rs
Bo
R
Bg s
p
p
Bo
P > Pb
P
pb !!!
0.00
Log(Bod/Bodb)
0.005
Instantaneous Co :
Co = A/p
0.010
0.015
0.00
Cumulative Co :
Co = A ln(pi / p)/(pi p)
Log(p/pb)
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
54
P&T
Bod
62.4 o 0.0136Rsd g
55
111
P
Gas
zi, nt
yi, nv
T
Oil
xi, nL
MBE:
zi nt = yi nv + xi, nL
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
56
zi nt xi nL yi nv
yi nt nL xi
( )
zi nv nv zi
yi/zi
Calculate GOR:
GOR
Slope =  nL/nv
xi/zi
(379.4) (5.615) o
( MW ) ( slope)
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
xi
%
yi
%
zi
%
CO2
5.04
8.82
8.60
N2
0.08
0.77
0.73
C1
15.71
74.92
71.44
C2
6.26
8.64
8.50
C3
8.33
4.50
4.73
iC4
2.33
0.61
0.71
nC4
4.84
0.97
1.20
iC5
2.81
0.24
0.39
nC5
3.09
0.22
0.39
C6s
5.11
0.12
0.41
C7s
8.31
0.10
0.58
C8s
11.46
0.07
0.74
C9s
7.53
0.02
0.46
C10+
19.10
0.00
1.12
Measured Data:
Liquid density
= 44.94 lb/ft3
Liquid MW
= 92.13
Gas Gravity
= 0.7702
GOR (scf/sep bbl) = 16616.8
57
Class problem
Given Measured Data:
Liquid density
= 44.94 lb/ft3
Liquid MW
= 92.13
Gas Gravity
= 0.7702
GOR (scf/sep bbl) = 16616.8
Calculate GOR
Component
xi
%
yi
%
CO2
5.04
8.82
8.6
N2
0.08
0.77
0.73
C1
15.71
74.92
71.44
C2
6.26
8.64
8.5
C3
8.33
4.5
4.73
0.71
zi
%
iC4
2.33
0.61
nC4
4.84
0.97
1.2
iC5
2.81
0.24
0.39
nC5
3.09
0.22
0.39
C6s
5.11
0.12
0.41
C7s
8.31
0.1
0.58
C8s
11.46
0.07
0.74
C9s
7.53
0.02
0.46
C10+
19.1
1.12
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
xi
%
yi
%
zi
%
CO2
3.65
1.29
2.46
N2
5.74
0.20
2.95
C1
10.01
57.48
33.94
C2
5.34
15.84
10.63
C3
3.64
14.04
8.88
iC4
2.76
2.15
2.45
nC4
2.76
5.30
4.04
iC5
2.23
1.29
1.76
nC5
2.23
1.44
1.83
C6s
1.86
0.74
1.30
C7s
1.60
0.20
0.89
C8s
1.41
0.03
0.71
C9s
1.25
0.00
0.62
C10s
55.52
0.00
27.54
Measured Data:
Liquid density
= 44.73 lb/ft3
Liquid MW
= 160.7
Gas Gravity
= 0.966
GOR (scf/sep bbl) = 572
58
Reservoir Characterization
Rock Properties
There are basically two main categories of core analysis tests that are performed
on core samples physical properties of reservoir rocks, these are:
A. Routine core analysis Tests
Porosity
Permeability
Saturation
B. Special tests
Overburden pressure
Capillary pressure
Relative permeability
Wettability
Surface and interfacial tension
59
Porosity
Space Between grains
Permeability
Ease to flow Between grains
Low
Pressure
High
Pressure
Reservoir Rock
Trapping mechanisms:
(1) Surface tension traps oil drops
(2) Less viscous water short circuits more viscous oil
60
Sources of Error
As shown below, there are several factors that must be considered as possible
sources of error in determining rock properties. These factors are:
1. Core sample may not be representative of the reservoir rock because of
reservoir heterogeneity.
2. Core recovery may be incomplete.
3. Permeability of the core may be altered when it is cut, or when it is
cleaned and dried in preparation for analysis. This problem is likely to occur
when the rock contains reactive clays.
4. Sampling process may be biased. There is a temptation to select the best
parts of the core for analysis.
Differentiate between:
Averaging Reservoir Properties
Upscaling
61
1 Porosity
The porosity of a rock is a measure of the storage capacity (pore
volume) that is capable of holding fluids.
Pore volume
Bulk volume
effective
absolute
a=
PV = 43,560 (A h)
ft3
PV = 7,758 (A h)
bbl.
Arithmaticaverage :
i 1
n
n
( h )
i
i 1
n
(h )
i
i 1
Ai )
i 1
n
( A )
i
i 1
n
Ai hi )
i 1
n
( A h )
i
i 1
62
2 Rock Compressibility
A reservoir thousands of feet underground is subjected to an overburden
pressure caused by the weight of the overlying formations. Depth of the
formation is the most important consideration, and a typical value of overburden
pressure is approximately one psi per foot of depth.
These two volume changes tend to reduce the pore space and, therefore, the
porosity of the rock.
63
RockMatrix Compressibility
cr
cr = 
1 Vr
V r p T
RockBulk Compressibility
Pore Compressibility
cB
cP or cf
cB = 
1 V B
V B p T
cP c f =
1 V P
VP p T
cB 0
cr 0
cf =
1 VP 1 VP
VP p VP p
VP c f VP p
Example:
Calculate the reduction in the pore volume of a reservoir due to a pressure drop of
10 psi. The reservoir original pore volume is one million barrels with an estimated
formation compressibility of 10x106 psi1
VP c f VP p
V p = (10x10 6 ) (1x106 ) (10)= 100 bbl
Hall's Correlation :
1.782
c f 0.428 106
64
1
cf =
p
1
c f p ( )
= o eC f (P  Po )
cf
po
e x 1 x
)
o
c f ( p po ) ln(
x2 x3
...
2! 3!
o [1 c f ( p po ) ]
Example
Given the following data:
cf = 10x 106
original pressure = 5000 psi
original porosity = 18%
current pressure = 4500 psi
o [1 c f ( p po ) ]
0.18[1 (10x106 ) (4500 5000) ] 0.179
65
3 Saturation
Saturation is defined as that fraction, or percent, of the pore volume
occupied by a particular fluid (oil, gas, or water). This property is
expressed mathematically by the following relationship.
fluid saturation=
So =
volume of oil
pore volume
& Sg=
totalvolumeof thefluid
pore volume
volume of gas
pore volume
& Sw=
volume of water
pore volume
Sg + So + Sw = 1.0
Question: Soc or Sor are they the same?????
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
66
hS
i
( S o ) avg
oi
i=1
n
i=1
So=
i hi S o
So =
&
i=1
n
i hi
i hi S w i
&
i=1
Sw =
i hi
i=1
i hi
Ai hi S wi
Ai hi
i=1
i hi S g
i=1
n
i=1
Sg=
Ai hi
i=1
i=1
Sw =
Ai hi S oi
i=1
n
&
i=1
Sg=
Ai hi S g i
i=1
n
Ai hi
i=1
67
Class Problem
Using the following data core samples; Calculate
Average porosity
Average oil and connate water saturation
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
hi , ft , %
1.0 10
1.5 12
1.0 11
2.0 13
2.1 14
1.1 10
So , % Swc , %
75
25
77
23
79
21
74
26
78
22
75
25
4 Permeability
Permeability is a property of the porous medium that measures the capacity
and ability of the formation to transmit fluids.
1 dp
dL
k dp
v= dL
v 
68
Absolute Permeability k
Absolute permeability is a property of the porous medium that
P1
q
L
A ( p1 p2 )
q
A ( p1 p2 )
q k
Permeability Tensor
K xx
K yx
K zx
K xy
K yy
K zy
K xz
K yz
K zz
69
P2
P1
q
L
Liquid
Gas
A p
qk(
)
L
k=
k A ( p12  p 22 )
Q gsc =
2 g L
qL
A p
k=
2 g L Q gsc
A ( p12  p 22 )
Klinkenberg Effect
kgas > kliquid
WHY?
140
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
70
1 1
0
pm
k g = k L + (b k L)[
1
]
pm
6.9 k 0.64
L + pm k L  pm k g = 0
141
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
Class Problem:
A brine is used to measure the absolute permeability of a core plug. The rock
sample is 4 cm long and 3 cm2 in cross section. The brine has a viscosity of
1.0 cp and is flowing a constant rate of 0.5 cm3/sec under a 2.0 atm pressure
differential. Calculate the absolute permeability.
Class Problem:
Rework the above example assuming that an oil of 2.0 cp is used to
measure the permeability. Under the same differential pressure, the flow
rate is 0.25 cm3/sec.
71
Averaging Permeability
143
hj
(k h )
i
i 1
n
(h )
i
i 1
Li
( L )
i
i 1
[( L /( k )]
i
i 1
k avg = ( k 1 k 2 k 3 ... k n )n
72
Parallel Layers
(k h )
i
i 1
n
( h )
i
i 1
Class Problem:
Given the following permeability data from a core analysis
report, calculate the average permeability of the reservoir.
Depth, ft
Permeability, md
399802
400204
400406
400608
400810
200
130
170
180
140
73
Parallel Layers
(k w h )
i
wighted average: k
i 1
n
( w h )
i
i 1
Series beds
( L / A )
i
Harmonicaverage :
i 1
[( L /( A k )]
i
i 1
74
Radial Zones
k avg =
l n ( re / r w )
l n ( r j / r j 1 )
[
]
k
j
j=1
n
Class Problem
A hydrocarbon reservoir is characterized by five distinct formation segments that
are connecting in series. Each segment has the same formation thickness.
The length and permeability of each section of the fivebed reservoir are given
below:
Length, ft
150
200
300
500
200
Permeability, md
80
50
30
20
10
75
Heterogeneous Systems
n
[ hi ln(ki ]
k exp i 1 n
hi
i 1
Geometric average:
1
n n
k avg = ( k 1 k 2 k 3 ... k )
If hi is constant:
Class Problem:
Given the following core data, please calculate the geometric average permeability.
Sample
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
hi, ft
1.0
1.0
0.5
1.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
1.0
1.5
0.5
ki, md
10
30
100
40
80
70
15
50
35
20
76
k = 8.58102
4.4
2
S wc
k = 62.5(
3
S wc
)2
k = 2.5(
3
S wc
)2
3 Kozenys equation
k=
153
m
S wi
2
)
1
Cementation Factor m
m= 1.3 for unconsolidated rocks and Limestone
m= 1.41.5 for VERY slightly cemented sands
m= 1.61.7 for slightly cemented sands
m= 1.81.9 for highly consolidated sands with <15%
m= 2.02.2 for low sands; dolomite and chlak
Class problem:
Estimate the absolute permeability of an oil zone that is characterized with a
connate water saturation of 25% and an average porosity of 15%
77
well2
Permeability
78
well2
well1
Permeability
CoarseScale, RC/Layer
FineScale
250
200
150
FineScale
100
50
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000
79
FineScale
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
FineScale
600
400
200
0
?
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
5 Wettability
Wettability is defined as the tendency of one fluid to spread on or adhere to a
solid surface in the presence of other immiscible fluids.
Oil
Water
Water Wet
Oil Wet
80
Wettability
The tendency of a liquid to spread over the surface of a solid is an indication of the
wetting characteristics of the liquid for the solid.
This spreading tendency can be expressed more conveniently by measuring the
angle of contact at the liquidsolid surface. Contact Angle .
mercury retains a spherical shape
oil droplet develops an approximately hemispherical shape
water tends to spread over the glass surface.
81
82
7 Capillary Pressure
When two immiscible fluids are in contact, a discontinuity in pressure exists
between the two fluids. The pressure difference between these two fluids across
the interface is called the Capillary Pressure and is referred to by pc.
pc = pressure on the nonwetting pressure of the wetting phase
pcwo = po pw
pcgo = pg po
pcgw = pg pw
Oil
Pc
83
h=
Oil
2 (cos ) ow
g r ( w o)
gm/cm3
pc =
pc
2 ow ( cos )
r
Pc = (
h
) ( w o )
144
lb/ft3
Pc
Porous Plate
84
Porous Plate
Most accurate
Others:
1 Centrifuge Technique
2 Mercury Injection
85
2 ow cos( )
r
Pc
Pc
8.7
Pc
10
Pc
Sw
100%
rmax
hWOC
rmax g
Pore throat
radius r
86
After Correcting Pc
Only Oil
h
Pc
144
or :
Oil + Water
144 Pc
h
Only water
87
Displacement pressure
WOC !!!!
1Soc
88
h
h
Pc
( NW W )
144
144
or :
144 Pc
h
Transition zone
WOC
Swc
FWL = WOC +
Sw
FWL
144 p d
177
Class Problem
The reservoir capillary pressuresaturation data of the Big Butte Oil reservoir as
represent by an average permeability of 30 md is shown in next slide.
Geophysical log interpretations and core analysis establish the WOC at 5023 ft.
The following additional data are available.
Oil density = 43.5 lb/ft3
Water density = 64.1 lb/ft3
Interfacial tension = 50 dynes/cm
Please calculate:
a) Connate Water Saturation (Swc)
b) Depth to FWL
c) Water saturation profile as a function of depth
d) Thickness of the transition zone
89
1
( k )
90
Variable WOC
Different HFU; Layers, Reservoirs,..etc
k1
k2
k3
k4
91
Depth, ft
1
2
3
4
5
46004700
47004750
47504850
48504950
49505000
Permeability, md
300
3
30
100
10
FWL = 5000 ft
Water density = 65.2 llb/ft3
Oil density = 55.2 lb/ft3
Please calculate and plot water saturation versus depth for this reservoir
92
Class Problem
A fourlayer oil reservoir is characterized by a set of four reservoir capillary
pressuresaturation curves, as shown next. The following additional data are also
available
Layer
Depth, ft
1
2
3
4
40004010
40104020
40204035
40354060
Permeability, md
80
100
70
90
WOC = 4060 ft
Water density = 65.2 llb/ft3
Oil density = 55.2 lb/ft3
Please calculate and plot water saturation versus depth for this reservoir
93
Oil+Water
Only Oil
Only Water
94
95
(1 S wi ) 2.2790
define :
S w*
Pc
k rw
S w S wi
1 S wi S or
1
*
pd S w
*
w
ln(S w* )
ln( pc / pd )
23
k rnw (1 S w* ) 2
*
1 S w
96
97
J ( S w ) = 0.21645
J(Sw)
Pc
pc
= JFunction
= Capillary pressure, psi
=Interfacial tension, dynes/cm
=Permeability, md
=Fractional porosity
98
J ( S w ) = 0.21645
pc
Class Problem
A laboratory capillary pressure test was conducted on a core sample taken from
the Nameless Field. The core has a porosity and permeability of 16% and 80
md, respectively. The capillary pressuresaturation data are given below.
Sw
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
pc, psi
0.50
0.60
0.75
1.05
1.75
99
Class problem:
Using the capillary pressure data as tabulated on the next slide; generate the
capillary pressure data for a reservoir layer as characterized by the flowing
properties:
Permeability = 72 md
Porosity = 19.1 %
Interfacial tension = 28 dynes/cm
Contact angle = 0o
Core 1
K=11.2 md
= 0.147
Core 3
K=157 md
= 0.208
Core 2
K=34 md
= 0.174
Core 4
K=569 md
= 0.275
Sw, %
Pc
Sw, %
Pc
Sw, %
Pc
Sw, %
Pc
100
2.15*
100
1.60*
100
0.93*
100
0.60*
87
2.27
82
1.79
79
1.00
65
0.67
74
2.59
54
2.28
60
1.19
47
0.87
60
2.95
43
3.25
42
1.77
40
1.15
54
3.50
35
4.91
31
3.28
33
1.63
47
3.85
29
6.55
23
5.46
29
2.31
41
4.82
28
7.92
22
7.93
22
2.80
37
5.69
27
10.25
21
10.25
19
3.59
34
7.45
16
6.52
32
10.25
16
10/25
100
8 Relative Permeability
101
(Krw )Soc
203
Soc =20%
204
102
1 S w Sorw
1 S wc Sorw
S g S gc
Swc
1 S Lc S gc
k rg k rg
no
S S
ng
k ro k ro Sgc
1 S g S Lc
1 S gc S Lc
nw
ngo
1 S w Sorw
1 S wc Sorw
S S
krw Sorw w wc
1 S wc Sorw
S g S gc
Swc
1 S Lc S gc
k rg k rg
ng
1 S g S Lc
k ro k ro Sgc
1 S gc S Lc
no
nw
no
nw
m S
k rg krg
ngo
* ng
g
Swc
k ro k ro Sgc m S g*
ngo
103
104
Relative history
Permeability Hysteresis
Drainage Process
Oil
core 100% H2O
Kro
Krw
Imbibition Process
H2O
Oil +
residual H2O
0%
100%
210
SW
SO
100%
0%
105
kro
a ebSw
krw
106
One of the most practical applications of the MBE is its ability to generate the field
relative permeability ratio as a function of gas saturation that can be used to adjust
the laboratory core relative permeability data. The main advantage of the field or
well generated relative permeability ratio is that it incorporates some of the
complexities of reservoir heterogeneity and degree of the segregation of the oil and
the evolved gas.
8/13/2011
N = 7758 A h (1 Swi)/Boi
So
N N B
p
N Boi
1 S wi
N p Bo
So 1 S wi 1
N Boi
Sg = 1 So  Swi
krg
WOR
k rw o Bo
k ro w Bw
B
a e b S w WOR w w
o Bo
B
WOR a e b S w / ( w w )
o Bo
kro
g Bg
GOR Rs
o Bo
g Bg
a e b So GOR Rs
o Bo
g Bg
GOR Rs a e b So / (
)
o Bo
8/13/2011
107
Class Problem:
A volumetric undersaturated oil reservoir has a bubblepoint pressure of
4500. The initial reservoir pressure is 7150 psia and the volumetric
calculations indicate the reservoir contains 750MM STB of oil initially in
place. The field is a tight naturally fractured chalk reservoir and was
developed without pressure support by water injection. The following
additional data is available:
Swi = 43%
,
Bw = 1.0 bbl/STB
cw = 3.00x106 psi1
,
pb = 4500 psi
cf = 3.3x106 psi1
p
psia
Qo
STB/day
7150
6600
5800
4950
4500
4350
4060
3840
3600
3480
3260
3100
2940
2800
44230
79326
75726
70208
50416
35227
26027
27452
20975
15753
14268
13819
Qg
Bo
MMscf/day bbl/STB
64.110
115.616
110.192
134.685
147.414
135.282
115.277
151.167
141.326
125.107
116.970
111.792
1.743
1.760
1.796
1.830
1.850
1.775
1.670
1.611
1.566
1.523
1.474
1.440
1.409
1.382
8/13/2011
Rs
Scf/STB
Bg
BBL/scf
o/ g
Np
MMSTB
RP
Scf/STB
1450
1450
1450
1450
1450
1323
1143
1037
958
882
791
734
682
637
0.000797
0.000840
0.000881
0.000916
0.000959
0.001015
0.001065
0.001121
0.001170
5.60
6.02
7.24
8.17
9.35
9.95
11.1
11.9
12.8
13.5
0
8.072
22.549
36.369
43.473
49.182
58.383
64.812
69.562
74.572
78.400
81.275
83.879
86.401
1450
1450
1455
1455
1447
1576
1788
1992
2158
2383
2596
2785
2953
3103
8/13/2011
108
Sg krg
krw
So kro
Sw
Sw krw
krg
kro
Sg
krog
kro Swc
217
Typical reservoir
rock
109
Poor quality
reservoir rock
Poor quality
reservoir rock
Worse quality
reservoir rock
110
Worse quality
reservoir rock
Permeability Jail
NearWell Upscaling
( K rf ) I , J 1/ 2 ,K
coarse scale
f qIC, J 1,K
TI , J 1/ 2 , K ( PI , J 1,K PI , J , K )
J1
I1
fine scale
I+1
West
East
J+1
South
Figure 1. Diagram to illustrate the nearwell upscaling method
111
NearWell Approach
f q
q
k
k
f w
k ro o (1 f w )
k rw w f w
t
k
t
k
1 S wc Sorw
no
krw
S S
krw Sorw w wc
1
S
wc
orw
nw
1 S w Sorw
Pcwo Pc Swc
1 S wc Sorw
np
GasOil Systems:
S g S gc
krg krg Swc
1 Slc S gc
ng
1 S g Slc
kro kro Sgc
1 S gc Slc
ngo
S g S gc
Pcgo Pc Slc
1 Slc S gc
n pg
112
Class Problem.
Generate the relative permeability and capillary pressure data using the following
information on the wateroil and gasoil systems:
Swc = 0.25,
Sorw = 0.35,
Sgc = 0.05,
(kro)Swc= 0.85,
(krw)Sorw = 0.4,
(Pc)Swc= 20 psi
kro)Sgc= 0.60,
(krg)Swc
no = 0.9,
nw = 1.5,
(Pc)slc
Sorg = 0.23
= 0.95
np= 0.71
Analytical Expressions
So*
So
1 S wc
S w*
S w S wc
1 S wc
S g*
Sg
1 S wc
113
Equatio
n
1 S
* 3
o
* 3
o
(57)
1 S 1 S
(58)
1 S 1 S
(59)
* 3.5
o
* 2
o
* 4
o
* 2
o
*1.5
o
*2
o
1 S w
1 S wc
S S wc
k rw w
1 S wc
Sw
1
(1 / Pc2 )dSw
Swc
(1 / Pc2 )dSw
Sw
Swc
1
Swc
(1 Pc2 )dSw
Pc
(1 Pc2 )dSw
Sw
2 GasOil System
S S or
k ro o
1 S or
k rg
So
(1 P )dS
(1 P )dS
S S or
1 o
S
g S gc
2
c
o
1
o
2
c
1/P2c
(1 P )dS
(1 P )dS
So
1
o
2
c
2
c
Sw
114
115
k rw
S *w w
k ro @ S wc
1 S wc Soc
k rw @ S oc
Sw kro krw
Step 2. Calculate the normalized water saturation S*w for each set of relative
permeability curves and lists the calculated values in column 4 by
using the following expression:
S *w
S w S wc
1 S wc Soc
Step 3. Calculate the normalized relative permeability for the oil and
water phase at different water saturations by using the following
relationships and list results in column 5 and 6:
k ro*
k ro
k ro Swc
*
krw
krw
krw Soc
S*w
2006Tarek Ahmed & Associates, Ltd. All Rights Reserved.
116
S*w
Step 5. Determine the average normalized relative permeability values for oil
and water as a function of the normalized water saturation by select
arbitrary values of S*w and calculate the average of k*ro and k*rw by
applying the following relationships:
h k k
n
*
ro avg
*
ro i
i 1
h k i
h k k
n
*
rw avg
*
rw i
i 1
h k
i 1
i 1
where
n= Total number of core samples
hi= Thickness of sample i
ki= Absolute permeability of sample i
Step 6. The last step in this methodology involves denormalizing the average
curve to reflect actual reservoir and conditions of Swc and Soc. These
parameters are the most critical part of the methodology and,
therefore, a major effort should be spent in determining
representative values.
When representative critical saturations have been estimated, it is
again convenient to perform the denormalization calculations in a
tabular form as illustrated below:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
*
Sw Sw* 1 Swc Soc Swc kro (kro )avg k ro
Swc
*
krw (krw
) avg k rw
Soc
Where average (kro)Swc and average (krw)Soc are the average relative
permeability of oil and water at connate water and critical oil, respectively, and
n
n
given by:
h k krw Soc i
h k k ro Swc i
k rw Soc i 1 n
k ro Swc i 1 n
h k i
h k
i 1
i 1
117
The Swc and Soc are usually determined by averaging the core data, log analysis, or
correlations. Versus graphs, such as: (kro)Swc vs. Swc, (krw)Soc vs. Soc, and Soc vs.
Swc should be constructed to determine if a significant correlation exists. Often plots
of Swc and Sor versus log k may demonstrate a reliable correlation to determine
endpoint saturations as shown schematically below :
Class Problem
Relative permeability measurements are made on three core samples. The measured data
are summarized below:
Sw
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.65
0.72
Core Sample #1
Core Sample #2
Core Sample #3
h = 1ft
k = 100 md
Soc = 0.35
Swc = 0.25
h = 1ft
k = 80 md
Soc = 0.28
Swc = 0.30
h=1
k = 150 md
Soc = 0.35
Swc = 0.20
kro
0.850*
0.754
0.557
0.352
0.131
0.000

krw
0.000
0.018
0.092
0.198
0.327
0.400*

kro
0.800
0.593
0.393
0.202
0.111
0.000
krw
0
0.077
0.191
0.323
0.394
0.500*
kro
1.000*
0.872
0.839
0.663
0.463
0.215
0.000

krw
0.000
0.008
0.027
0.088
0.176
0.286
0.350*

It is believed that a connate water saturation of 0.27 and a critical oil saturation of
30% better describe the formation. Generate the oil and water relative
permeability data using the new critical saturations.
118
UPSCALING
Renormalization (ongoing)
238
119
Vb
(k IJK ) coarse
(k
i
ijk
) 2fine
nm z
240
120
Permeability Tensor
Permeability tensors allow a more rigorous representation
of permeability. The method uses the numerical solution
of the PDE that governs singlephase steady state flow conditions
to calculate kxx, kyy,and kzz. The equation for the system consisting
of finescale blocks that fall inside the coarse black is:
p
(k xx ) (k yy ) (k zz ) 0
x
x
y
y
z
z
k2
. .
.
.
k3
p ( x 0) p o
k4
p ( x L) p L
p
y
p
z
dp/dy = 0
0
y 0, Ly
0
z 0 , Lz
The numerical solutions to the above equations provides the pressure distribution
And flow rates in the fine scale system; with coarse grid permeability as given by:
241
Renormalization
The Method uses the analogy between flow in
Porous media and electric circuits to calculate Kcoarse.
The approach based on averaging the permeability
over small regions (2x2x2 of the finescale block) to
form a new average permeability with the equation
as derived from circuit analogs.
k1
k2
k3
k4
KA
KA
KB
KC
KD
KCoarse
4 A (k1 k 3 ) (k 2 k 4 )
3 B (k1 k 2 k 3 k 4 ) A
A k 2 k 4 (k1 k 3 ) k1 k 3 (k 2 k 4 )
B (k1 k 2 ) (k 3 k 4 ) (k 1 k 3 ) (k 2 k 4 )
242
121
RQI 0.0314*
1
3) Flow Zone Indicator (FZI) :
FZI
RQI
z
122
k 1014( FZI ) 3
3
(1 ) 2
Loglog
X (FZI)1
RQI
X (FZI)2
X (FZI)3
45o
123
RQI vs PHIZ
z
Ourhoud Field Wells
10.00
HFU12
HFU11
HFU10
HFU9
HFU8
HFU7
HFU6
HFU5
HFU4
HFU3
HFU2
HFU1
RQI
1.00
0.10
0.01
0.01
0.10
PHIz
1.00
Class Problem:
The following tabulated data shows properties of core plugs from different field locations.
Determine the numbers of HFU
.
124
Solution:
a
J (S w )b
Sw
0.207
J ( S w ) 0.5852
125
Sw=
a
J (S w )b
J ( S w ) = 0.21645
pc
pc
0.21645
h
0.21645
144
pc = (
h
)
144
Sw above FWL
FOIL Function
The FOIL function (Cuddy and coworkers(1993) proposed a simple mathematical
function that relates the Bulk Water Volume BWV to the height h above the free
water level by using 2constant mathematical expression:
A
hB
A 1
Sw B
h
BWV S w
It should be noted that a loglog plot of the J(Sw) vs. Sw (as shown on
next slide) will yield a linear relationship of the form:
S w a J (S w )
126
a
J (S w )b
Sw
0.207
J ( S w ) 0.5852
Reservoir Heterogeneity
The reservoir heterogeneity is then defined as a variation in reservoir properties as
a function of space. Ideally, if the reservoir is homogeneous, measuring a
reservoir property at any location will allow us to fully describe the reservoir. The
task of reservoir description is very simple for homogeneous reservoirs. On the
other hand, if the reservoir is heterogeneous, the reservoir properties vary as a
function of a spatial location. These properties may include permeability, porosity,
thickness, saturation, faults and fractures, rock facies and rock characteristics. For
a proper reservoir description, we need to predict the variation in these reservoir
properties as a function of spatial locations. There are essentially two types of
heterogeneity:
Vertical Heterogeneity
Areal Heterogeneity
127
Reservoir Heterogeneity
Vertical Heterogeneity
Dykstra and Parsons permeability variation V
Lorenz coefficient L
Areal Heterogeneity
The Polygon Method
The Inverse Distance Method
The Inverse Distance Squared Method
Triangulation Method
Delaunay Triangulation
255
Vertical Heterogeneity
Perhaps the area of the greatest uncertainty in designing a waterflood is the
quantitative knowledge of the permeability variation within the reservoir.
The degree of permeability variation is considered by far the most
significant parameter influencing the vertical sweep efficiency. To calculate
the vertical sweep efficiency, the engineer must be able to address the
following three problems:
1. How to describe and define the permeability variation in mathematical
terms
2. How to determine the minimum number of layers that are sufficient to
model the performance of the fluid
3. How to assign the proper average rock properties for each layer (called
the Zonation Problem)
8/13/2011
128
8/13/2011
k50 k84.1
k50
129
Step 1.
Step 2.
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5.
Read the corresponding permeability values at 84.1% and 50% of thickness. these
two values are designated as k84.1 and k50.
Step 6.
k 50 k 84.1
k 50
It should be noted that if all the permeabilities are equal, the numerator of the
above equation would be zero, and the V would also be zero. This would
be the case for a completely homogeneous system. The Dykstra and
Parsons method is commonly referred to as a Permeability Ordering
Technique
260
130
Class Problem:
The following conventional core analysis data are available from three wells.
Depth
ft
Well #1
k
md
53895391
5393
5395
5397
5399
5401
5403
5405
5406
5409
166
435
147
196
254
105
158
153
128
172
Well #2
Porosit
Depth
k
y
ft
md
%
17.4
53975398.5 72
18.0
539.95
100
16.7
5402
49
17.4
5404.5
90
19.2
5407
91
16.8
5409
44
16.8
5411
62
15.9
5413
49
17.6
5415
49
17.2
5417
83
porosi
ty
%
15.7
15.6
15.2
15.4
16.1
14.1
15.6
14.9
14.8
15.2
Dept
ft
Well #3
k
md
54015403
5405
5407
5409
5411
5413
5415
5417
5419
28
40
20
32
35
27
27
9
30
poros
ity
%
14.0
13.7
12.2
13.6
14.2
12.6
12.3
10.6
14.1
131
132
Positional Method
The positional method describes layers according to their relative location
within the vertical rock column. This method assumes that the injected fluid
remains in the same elevation (layer) as it moves from the injector to the
producer. The method have been successfully demonstrated this in predicting
the performance in several Projects. The average permeability in a selected
layer (elevation) should be calculated by applying the geometricaverage
permeability as given by:
k avg
hi ln(ki )
exp i 1 n
hi
i 1
k avg (k1 k 2 k 3 . . . k n ) n
k avg (k1 k 2 k 3 . . . k n )
1
n
133
Class Problem
Using the core analysis data given below for ten wells system, assign the
proper average permeability for each layer if the reservoir is divided into:
10 equalthickness layers; each with 1 ft. thickness
5 equalthickness layers; each with 2 ft. thickness
134
Class Problem
Using the data given in the previous problem, determine the average
layer permeability for a 10 layered system, assuming a uniform porosity.
Well #1
Depth
ft
53895391
5393
5395
5397
5399
5401
5403
5405
5406
5409
Well #2
Well #3
k
md
Porosity
%
Depth
ft
k
md
porosity
%
Depth
ft
k
md
porosity
%
166
435
147
196
254
105
158
153
128
172
17.4
18.0
16.7
17.4
19.2
16.8
16.8
15.9
17.6
17.2
53975398.5
539.95
5402
5404.5
5407
5409
5411
5413
5415
5417
72
100
49
90
91
44
62
49
49
83
15.7
15.6
15.2
15.4
16.1
14.1
15.6
14.9
14.8
15.2
54015403
5405
5407
5409
5411
5413
5415
5417
5419
28
40
20
32
35
27
27
9
30
14.0
13.7
12.2
13.6
14.2
12.6
12.3
10.6
14.1
Lorenz Coefficient L
Schmalz and Rahme (1950) introduced a single parameter that describes the
degree of heterogeneity within a pay zone section. The term is called Lorenz
Coefficient and varies between zero, for a completely homogeneous system, to
one for a completely heterogeneous system.
The following steps summarize the methodology of calculating Lorenz Coefficient:
Step 1. Arrange all the available permeability values in a descending order.
Step 2. Calculate the cumulative permeability capacity kh and cumulative
volume capacity h.
Step 3. Normalize both cumulative capacities such that each cumulative capacity
ranges from 0 to 1.
Step 4. Plot the normalized cumulative permeability capacity versus the
normalized cumulative volume capacity on a Cartesian scale.
135
271
A
B
136
Class Problem
Using the data given in last Example, calculate Lorenz Coefficient assuming a
uniform porosity.
Well #1
Depth
ft
53895391
5393
5395
5397
5399
5401
5403
5405
5406
5409
Well #2
Well #3
k
md
Porosity
%
Depth
ft
k
md
porosity
%
166
435
147
196
254
105
158
153
128
172
17.4
18.0
16.7
17.4
19.2
16.8
16.8
15.9
17.6
17.2
53975398.5
539.95
5402
5404.5
5407
5409
5411
5413
5415
5417
72
100
49
90
91
44
62
49
49
83
15.7
15.6
15.2
15.4
16.1
14.1
15.6
14.9
14.8
15.2
Dept
ft
54015403
5405
5407
5409
5411
5413
5415
5417
5419
k
md
porosity
%
28
40
20
32
35
27
27
9
30
14.0
13.7
12.2
13.6
14.2
12.6
12.3
10.6
14.1
137
Class problem
Using Lorenz approach and the data in D&P example, calculate the average
permeability for a tenlayered system reservoir. Compare the results with those of
Dykstra and Parsons method.
138
Areal Heterogeneity
( x)
i 1
i 1
i xi
i 1
Where:
Z*(x) = estimate of the regionalized variable at location x
Z (xi) = measured value of the regionalized variable at position xi
i = weight factor
n = number of nearby data points
277
i 1 i
n
i
di
1
i
di
i 1 d i
n
278
139
Class Problem:
The illustration below shows the locations of four wells and distance
between the wells and point x. The average permeability in each well
location is given below
Well #
1
2
3
4
Permeability, md
73
110
200
140
Well #3
410 ft
Well #4
380 ft
Well #2
170 ft
Well #1
Estimate the permeability at location x by the polygon and the two inverse
distance methods.
k
k
280
140
Triangulation Method
Z=ax+by+c
k1 = a x1 + b y1 + c
k2 = a x2 + b y2 + c
k3 = a x3 + b y3 + c
63 a + 140 b + c =696
64 a + 129 b + c =227
71 a + 140 b + c =606
141