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# ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

26.

Section 1.2

5(3t + 1) 2t 4 t
>
+
3
6
2
10(3t + 1) > 2t 4 + 3t
30t + 10 > 5t 4
25t > 14
14
t>
25
14

,
25

31.

2 0.01x
0.2
1.8 0.02x 2 0.01x
0.01x 0.2
x 20
[20, )

32. 9 0.1x

14
25

1
x7
3
6 x + 39 x 21
5 x 60
x 12
[12, )

27. 2 x + 13

20

## 33. 0.1(0.03x + 4) 0.02x + 0.434

0.003x + 0.4 0.02x + 0.434
0.017x 0.034
x 2
(, 2]

12

28.

y y y
< +
2 3 5
30 y + 15 y < 10 y + 6 y
29 y < 0
y<0
(, 0)
y+

1 5
3x x
3 2
18 x 2 15 x
3x 2
2
x
3
2

,
3

34.

2
3

3 y 1 5( y + 1)
<
3
3
3y 1 > 5 y + 5
6 > 2 y
3 > y
y < 3
(, 3)
3

2
5
r< r
29.
3
6
4r < 5r
0<r
r>0
(0, )

## 35. 12(50) < S < 12(150)

600 < S < 1800
36. t 3 and t 5 or 3 t 5.
37. The measures of the acute angles of a right
triangle sum to 90. If x is the measure of one
acute angle, the other angle has measure 90 x.
x < 3(90 x) + 10
x < 270 3x + 10
4x < 280
x < 70
The measure of the angle is less than 70.

30.

7
8
t> t
4
3
21t > 32t
53t > 0
t>0
(0, )
0

43

## 38. Let d be the number of disks. The stereo plus

d disks will cost 219 + 18.95d.
219 + 18.95d 360
18.95d 141
141
d
7.44
18.95
The student can buy at most 7 disks.
Problems 1.3
1. Let q = number of units sold.
Profit > 0
Total revenue Total cost > 0
20q (15q + 600,000) > 0
5q 600,000 > 0
5q > 600,000
q > 120,000
Thus at least 120,001 units must be sold.
2. Let q = number of units sold.
Total revenue Total cost = Profit
We want Profit > 0.
7.40q [(2.50 + 4)q + 5000] > 0
0.9q 5000 > 0
0.9q > 5000
5000
5
q>
= 5555
0.9
9
Thus at least 5556 units must be sold.
3. Let x = number of miles driven per year.
If the auto is leased, the annual cost is
12(420) + 0.06x.
If the auto is purchased, the annual cost is
4700 + 0.08x. We want Rental cost Purchase cost.
12(420) + 0.06x 4700 + 0.08x
5040 + 0.06x 4700 + 0.08x
340 0.02x
17,000 x
The number of miles driven per year must be at least 17,000.
4. Let N = required number of shirts. Then
Total revenue = 3.5N and
Total cost = 1.3N + 0.4N + 6500.
Profit > 0
3.5 N (1.3N + 0.4 N + 6500) > 0
1.8 N 6500 > 0
1.8 N > 6500
N > 3611.1
At least 3612 shirts must be sold.
5. Let q = number of magazines printed. Then the cost of publication is 1.30q. The number of magazines sold is
0.80q. The revenue from dealers is (1.50)(0.80q). If fewer than 100,000 magazines are sold, the only revenue is
from the sales to dealers, while if more than 100,000 are sold, there are advertising revenues of
0.20(1.50)(0.80q 100,000). Thus,

44

Section 1.3

## if 0.8q 100, 000

1.5(0.8)q
Revenue =
1.5(0.8)q + 0.2(1.5)(0.8q 100, 000) if 0.8q > 100, 000
q 125, 000
1.2q
=
1.44
q

30,
000
q
> 125, 000

## Profit = Revenue Cost

q 125, 000
1.2q 1.3q
=
1.44q 30, 000 1.3q q > 125, 000
q 125, 000
0.1q
=
0.14
q
30,
000
q

## > 125, 000

Clearly, the profit is negative if fewer than 125,001 magazines are printed.
0.14q 30, 000 0
0.14q 30, 000
q 214, 286
Thus, at least 214,286 magazines must be printed in order to avoid a loss.
6. Let q = number of clocks produced during regular work week, so 11,000 q = number produced in overtime.
Then
2q + 3(11,000 q) 25,000
q + 33,000 25,000
8000 q
At least 8000 clocks must be produced during the regular workweek.

3
7. Let x = amount at 6 % and 30,000 x = amount at 5%. Then
4
3
1
interest at 6 % + interest at 5% interest at 6 %
4
2
x(0.0675) + (30,000 x)(0.05) (0.065)(30,000)
0.0175x + 1500 1950
0.0175x 450
x 25,714.29
3
Thus at least \$25,714.29 must be invested at 6 %.
4
8. Let L be current liabilities. Then
current assets
Current ratio =
current liabilities
570, 000
3.8 =
L
3.8L = 570,000
L = \$150,000
Let x = amount of money they can borrow, where x 0.
570, 000 + x
2.6
150, 000 + x
570,000 + x 390,000 + 2.6x
180,000 1.6x
112,500 x
Thus current liabilities are \$150,000 and the maximum amount they can borrow is \$112,500.

45

## 9. Let q be the number of units sold this month at

\$4.00 each. Then 2500 q will be sold at \$4.50
each. Then
Total revenue 10,750
4q + 4.5(2500 q) 10,750
0.5q + 11,250 10,750
500 0.5q
1000 q
The maximum number of units that can be sold
this month is 1000.

Problems 1.4
1.

13 = 13

2.

2 1 =

1 1
=
2 2

3. 8 2 = 6 = 6

200

q
+ 3 > 9000
q

## 200 + 3q > 9000

3q > 8800
q > 2933. 3
At least 2934 units must be sold.

4.

3 5
8
=
= 4 = 4
2
2

5.

7
2 = 7 = 7
2

## 11. For t < 40, we want

income on hourly basis
> income on per-job basis
9t > 320 + 3(40 t )
9t > 440 3t
12t > 440
t > 36.7 hr

7.

8.

## x < 10, 10 < x < 10

6. |3 5| |5 3| = |2| |2| = 2 2 = 0

9. Because 3 10 < 0 ,

## 12. Let s = yearly sales. With the first method, the

salary is 35,000 + 0.03s, and with the second
method it is 0.05s.
35, 000 + 0.03s > 0.05s
35, 000 > 0.02s
1, 750, 000 > s
The first method is better for yearly sales less
than \$1,750,000.

10. Because

## 13. Let x = accounts receivable. Then

450,000 + x
Acid test ratio =
398, 000
450,000 + x
1.3
398, 000
517,400 450,000 + x
x 67, 400
The company must have at least \$67,400 in
accounts receivable.
Apply It 1.4
3.

3 10 = 3 10 = 10 3 .

w 22 0.3

5 2 > 0,

11. a.

x7 < 3

b.

x2 <3

c.

x7 5

d.

x7 = 4

e.

x+4 < 2

f.

x <3

g.

x >6

h.

x 105 < 3

i.

5 2 = 5 2.

46

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

13.

p1 p2 9

14.

x < 3

Section 1.4

23.

7 4x = 5
4x = 7 5
4x = 2 or 12
1
x = or x = 3
2

3 < x < 3
3 < x < + 3
15.

16.

x =7
x = 7

24. 5 3x = 7
5 3x = 7
3x = 5 7
3x = 2 or 12
2
x = or x = 4
3

x = 2
x = 2 or 2
x = 2

17.

18.

19.

20.

x
=7
5
x
= 7
5
x = 35

25.

x <M
M < x < M
(M, M)
Note that M > 0 is required.

5
= 12
x
5
= 12
x
5
x=
12

26.

x < 3
x <3
3 < x < 3
(3, 3)

27.

x 5 = 9
x 5 = 9
x=59
x = 14 or x = 4

x
>2
4
x
x
< 2
or
>2
4
4
x < 8
or x > 8, so the solution is
(, 8) (8, ).

4 + 3x = 6
4 + 3x = 6
3x = 4 6
3x = 10 or 2
10
2
x=
or x =
3
3

28.

x 1
>
3 2
x
1
<
or
3
2
3
x<
or
2
3 3

, 2 2 , .

21. 5 x 2 = 0

5x 2 = 0
2
x=
5
29.
22.

7 4x = 5

7x + 3 = x
Here we must have x 0.
or (7x + 3) = x
7x + 3 = x
7x 3 = x
6x = 3
1
3
x= <0
x= <0
2
8
There is no solution.

x 1
>
3 2
3
x > , so the solution is
2

x+7 <3
3 < x + 7 < 3
10 < x < 4
(10, 4)

## 30. |2x 17| < 4

Because 4 < 0, the solution set is .

47

31.

1 1
>
2 2

1
1
<
2
2
x<0
(, 0) (1, )
x

36.

1 1
>
2 2
or x > 1

or

32. 1 3x > 2

1 3x > 2
3x > 1
1
x<
3

or 1 3x < 2
or 3x < 3

chemicals.
5 T1 T2 10

or x > 1

## The solution is , (1, ).

3

39.

1 5 8x 1
6 8x 4
3
1
x , which may be rewritten as
4
2
1
3
x .
2
4
1 3
The solution is , .
2 4

40.

x 0.01 0.005

Problems 1.5
1. The bounds of summation are 12 and 17; the
index of summation is t.
2. The bounds of summation are 3 and 450; the
index of summation is m.

3.

i =1

3x 8
4
2
3x 8
4
2
3x 8 8
3x 0

x > h

## Either x < h, or x > h. Thus either

x < h or x > + h, so the solution is
(, h) ( + h, ).

33. 5 8 x 1

35.

x7
5
3
x7
5
5
3
15 x 7 15
8 x 22
[8, 22]

3x 8
4
2
or 3x 8 8
or 3x 16
16
x0
or x
3
16

The solution is ( , 0] , .
3

or

= 3 + 6 + 9 + 12 + 15
= 45

4.

## 10 p = 10(0) + 10(1) + 10(2) + 10(3) + 10(4)

p =0

= 0 + 10 + 20 + 30 + 40
= 100

48

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 1.5

5.

(10k + 16) = [10(3) + 16] + [10(4) + 16] + [10(5) + 16] + [10(6) + 16] + [10(7) + 16] + [10(8) + 16] + [10(9) + 16]

k =3

= 46 + 56 + 66 + 76 + 86 + 96 + 106
= 532

11

6.

## (2n 3) = [2(7) 3] + [2(8) 3] + [2(9) 3] + [2(10) 3] + [2(11) 3]

n=7

= 11 + 13 + 15 + 17 + 19
= 75

7. 36 + 37 + 38 + 39 + " + 60 =

60

i =36

8. 1 + 8 + 27 + 64 + 125 =

k3

k =1

9. 53 + 54 + 55 + 56 + 57 + 58 = 5i
i=3
16

10. 11 + 15 + 19 + 23 + " + 71 = (7 + 4i )
i =1

2i
i=1

## 12. 10 + 100 + 1000 + " + 100, 000, 000 =

10 j
j=1

13.

14.

875

875

k =1

k =1

135

135

101

k =35

k =35

i =1

10 = 10 1 = 10(875) = 8750
2 = 2 1 = 21 = 2(101) = 202
n

15.

16.

n
1 1
1

5
5
n n 1 = 5 n (n) = 5
k =1
k =1
200

200

200

k =1

k =1

k =1

(k 100) = k 100 1 =

200(201)
100(200) = 20,100 20, 000 = 100
2

49

100

17.

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

50

k =51

23.

i =1

50

50

i =1

i =1

= 10 i + (10)(50) 1
50(51)
+ 500(50) = 12, 750 + 25, 000
2
= 37,750
= 10

18.

n +1 k3 = n +1 k3

k =1

k =1

n n 2 (n + 1)2
=

4
n +1
n3 (n + 1)
=
4

20

20

k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1

1 100
1

4 2500 k 2
50 k =1

100
1
1 1 100 2
(4) 1
k
50 k =1 50 2500 k =1

3k 2 200k
3 100 2 200 100
=
k 101 k
101
101 k =1
k =1
k =1

100

2
1
100(101)(201)
(100)

25
125, 000
6
1
6767
= 8
338,350 = 8
125, 000
2500
13, 233
=
2500

## 3 100(101)(201) 200 100 101

101
6
101
2
= 10,050 10,000 = 50
=

100

50

50

k =51
50

i =1

50

i =1
50

i =1

i =1

## k 2 = (i + 50)2 = (i 2 + 100i + 2500)

i =1

50(51)(101)
50(51)
+ 100
+ 2500(50)
6
2
= 42,925 + 127,500 + 125,000 = 295,425
=

50

(k + 50)2 =

k =1
50

k =1

k =1

k 2 + 100 k + 2500 1

k =1

n
3
3 9 n
(5) 1 k 2
n k =1 n n2 k =1
15
27 n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
= ( n)
6
n
n3
9(n + 1)(2n + 1)
= 15
2n 2

(k 2 + 100k + 2500)
50

5 n k

50

k =1
50

2
3

n

k =1
3 n
9 2
= 5
k
n k =1
n2
n

25.

= i 2 + 100 i + 25001

22.

2
2

100

20

(5k 2 + 3k ) = 5 k 2 + 3 k

20(21)(41)
20(21)
+3
6
2
= 5(2870) + 3(210) = 14,980

21.

4 100 k

= 5

20.

3 10

100

24.
19.

2
k 1

10
k =1

1 9
k2
= 3

10 k =1 100
3 9
1 9 2
= 1
k
10 k =1 1000 k =1
3
1 9(10)(19)
= (9)

10
1000
6
3
1 3(19)
= (9)

10
100 2
483
=
200
9

10k = 10 (i + 50)

n
k2
1
=
(n + 1)(2n + 1) (n + 1)(2n + 1) k 2
k =1
k =1
n

50(51)(101)
50(51)
=
+ 100
+ 2500(50)
6
2
= 42,925 + 127,500 + 125,000 = 295,425

26.

1
n(n + 1)(2n + 1) n

=
(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
6

50

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 1.6

Apply It 1.6

n
((n 1)d + 2a)
2
7
= ((7 1)1.5M\$ + 2(27M\$))
2
= 3.5(9M\$ + 54M\$)
= 3.5(63M\$)
= 220.5M\$
The total revenue for 20092015, inclusive, is
220.5M\$.
s7 =

## 4. Each term of the sequence is obtained by adding

18 to the previous term. The first term, c1 , is
183.
c1 = 183

c2 = 183 + 18 = 201
c3 = 201 + 18 = 219
c4 = 219 + 18 = 237
c5 = 237 + 18 = 255

## 9. This is the sum s2 , of the first 21 terms of a

c6 = 255 + 18 = 273
The terms of the sequence are 183, 201, 219,
237, 255, 273.

## geometric sequence ck with first term a = 1000

and common ratio r = 1.07. Using the formula
from Example 10, the sum is

a(1 r n )
1 r
1000(1 1.0721 )
=
1 1.07
1000
=
(1 1.0721 )
0.07
44, 865.18
On Barts 21st birthday, there is \$44,865.18 in
the account.
s21 =

## 5. Each term of the sequence is obtained by

multiplying the previous term by 1.06. Since the
first term is \$9.57, the sequence can be written as

(9.57(1.06)k 1 )k4 =1 .
6. This is an arithmetic sequence of length 7 with
first term a = 1237 12 = 1225 and common
difference d = 12. We write ek for the
sequence of enrollments.
e1 =
= 1225

Problems 1.6

e2 = e1 12 = 1225 12 = 1213
e3 = e2 12 = 1213 12 = 1201

3
1. a = 2 , , 2.3, 57
7
a3 = 2.3

e4 = e3 12 = 1201 12 = 1189
e5 = e4 12 = 1189 12 = 1177
e6 = e5 12 = 1177 12 = 1165
e7 = e6 12 = 1165 12 = 1153
The sequence of enrollments is 1225, 1213,
1201, 1189, 1177, 1165, 1153.

2. b = 1, 13, 0.9,

5
, 100, 39
2

b6 = 39
3. (ak )7k =1 = (3k )

## 7. This is a geometric sequence of length 4 with

first term a = 0.92(23,500) = 21,620 and
common ratio r = 0.92. We write pk for the
sequence of populations, rounding to the nearest
person.
p1 =
= 21, 620
p2 = (0.92) p1 = (0.92)21, 620 = 19, 890.4 19, 890
p3 = (0.92) p2 = (0.92)19, 890 = 18, 298.8 18, 299
p4 = (0.92) p3 = (0.92)18, 299 = 16, 835.08 16, 835
The sequence of populations is 21,620, 19,890,
18,299, 16,835.

a4 = 34 = 81
4. (ck )9k =1 = (3k + k )

c4 = 34 + 4 = 81 + 4 = 85
5. (ak ) = (2 + (k 1)3)
a24 = 2 + (24 1)3 = 2 + (23)3 = 2 + 69 = 71
6. (bk ) = (5 2k 1 )

b6 = 5 26 1 = 5 25 = 5 32 = 160

## arithmetic sequence bk with first term a = 27M\$

and common difference d = 1.5M\$. Using the
formula from Example 9, the sum is
51

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

17. a1 = 1, a2 = 2, ak + 2 = ak +1 ak
a3 = a2 a1 = 2 1 = 2
a4 = a3 a2 = 2 2 = 4
a5 = a4 a3 = 4 2 = 8
a6 = a5 a4 = 8 4 = 32
a7 = a6 a5 = 32 8 = 256

7. (ak ) = (k 4 2k 2 + 1)

a2 = 24 2(22 ) + 1 = 16 8 + 1 = 9
8. (ak ) = (k 3 + k 2 2k + 7)

a3 = 33 + 32 2(3) + 7 = 27 + 9 6 + 7 = 37
9. 1, 2, 5, 8
3 is added to each term.

18. a1 = 1, ak +1 = aa
k

a2 = aa1 = a1 = 1

(1 + (k 1) 3) 4k =1

a3 = aa2 = a1 = 1

a4 = aa = a1 = 1

10. 5, 3, 1, 1, ...
2 is subtracted from each term.

a5 = aa4 = a1 = 1

(5 (k 1) 2)
k =1

a6 = aa = a1 = 1
5

a7 = aa = a1 = 1

11. 2, 4, 8, 16
Each term is multiplied by 2.

and so on...
Thus, a17 = 1.

((1) k +1 2k )k4 =1

12. 5,

b
19. b1 = 1, bk +1 = k
k
b1 1
b2 = = = 1
1 1
b2 1
b3 =
=
2 2
1
b3 2 1
b4 =
= =
3 3 6
1
b
1
b5 = 4 = 6 =
4 4 24
1
b5 24
1
b6 =
=
=
5
5 120

5 5 5
, ,
, ...
3 9 27

## Each term is multiplied by

1
.
3

1 k 1
5
3

k =1
13. ((i + 3)3 ) and ( j 3 9 j 2 + 9 j 27)

i = 1 gives 43 = 64.
j = 1 gives 1 9 + 9 27 = 26
The sequences are not equal.

20. a1 = 1, ak +1 = (k + 1) + ak
a2 = 2 + a1 = 2 + 1 = 3
a3 = 3 + a2 = 3 + 3 = 6
a4 = 4 + a3 = 4 + 6 = 10
a5 = 5 + a4 = 5 + 10 = 15
a6 = 6 + a5 = 6 + 15 = 21
a7 = 7 + a6 = 7 + 21 = 28
a8 = 8 + a7 = 8 + 28 = 36

## 14. (k 2 4) and ((k + 2)(k 2))

The sequences are equal since

k 2 4 = (k + 2)(k 2)

15.
and
k 1
2k
2 k =1

k =1

2

b1 = 22.5

## The sequences are not equal.

16. ( j 3 9 j 2 + 27 j 27)j =1 and ((k 3)3 )
k =1
3

b2
b3
b4
b5

## For all k, (k 3) = k 9k + 27k 27, so the

sequences are equal.

## = 0.9 + b1 = 0.9 + 22.5 = 23.4

= 0.9 + b2 = 0.9 + 23.4 = 24.3
= 0.9 + b3 = 0.9 + 24.3 = 25.2
= 0.9 + b4 = 0.9 + 25.2 = 26.1

52

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

Section 1.6

22. a = 0, d = 1, bk +1 = d + bk
b1 = 0

b2
b3
b4
b5

1
28. a = 3, r = , ck +1 = ck r
3
c1 = 3
c
3
c2 = 1 = = 1
3 3
c
1 1
c3 = 2 = =
3 3 3
1
c3 3 1
c4 =
= =
3 3 9
1
c
1
c5 = 4 = 9 =
3 3 27

= 1 + b1 = 1 + 0 = 1
= 1 + b2 = 1 + 1 = 2
= 1 + b3 = 1 + 2 = 3
= 1 + b4 = 1 + 3 = 4

## 23. a = 96, d = 1.5, bk +1 = d + bk

b1 = 96
b2 = 1.5 + b1 = 1.5 + 9.6 = 94.5
b3 = 1.5 + b2 = 1.5 + 94.5 = 93
b4 = 1.5 + b3 = 1.5 + 93 = 91.5
b5 = 1.5 + b4 = 1.5 + 91.5 = 90

## 29. 27th term, a = 3, d = 2

Arithmetic sequence
bk = (k 1)d + a
b27 = (27 1)(2) + 3 = 55

24. a = A, d = D, bk +1 = d + bk
b1 = A
b2 = D + b1 = D + A = + D
b3 = D + b2 = D + D + A = A + 2 D
b4 = D + b3 = D + A + 2 D = A + 3D
b5 = D + b4 = D + A + 3D = A + 4 D

## 30. 9th term, a = 2.7, d = 0.3

Arithmetic sequence
bk = (k 1)d + a
b9 = (9 1)(0.3) + 2.7 = 0.3

25. a = 2, r = 0.5, ck +1 = ck r
c1 = 2
c2 = c1 (0.5) = 2(0.5) = 1
c3 = c2 (0.5) = 1(0.5) = 0.5
c4 = c3 (0.5) = 0.5(0.5) = 0.25
c5 = c4 (0.5) = 0.25(0.5) = 0.125

## 31. 11th term, a = 1, r = 2

Geometric sequence

ck = a r k 1

## c11 = 1 2111 = 210 = 1024

32. 7th term, a = 2, r = 10
Geometric sequence

## 26. a = 50, r = (1.06)1 , ck +1 = ck r

c1 = 50
50
c2 = c1 (1.06)1 =
47.17
1.06
50
c3 = c2 (1.06)1 =
44.50
(1.06)2
50
c4 = c3 (1.06)1 =
41.98
(1.06)3
50
c5 = c4 (1.06)1 =
39.60
(1.06)4

ck = a r k 1

7

33.

((k 1)3 + 5) =

k =1

(3k + 2)

k =1
7

= 3 k + 2 1
k =1

k =1

7(7 + 1)
=3
+ 2(7)
2
= 98

## 27. a = 100, r = 1.05, ck +1 = ck r

c1 = 100
c2 = c1 (1.05) = 100(1.05) = 105
c3 = c2 (1.05) = 105(1.05) = 110.25
c4 = c3 (1.05) = 110.25(1.05) = 115.7625
c5 = c4 (1.05) = 115.7625(1.05) = 121.550625

34.

k =1

k =1

k =1

(k 2 + 9) = 2 k + 9 1
9(9 + 1)
=2
+ 9(9)
2
= 171

53

35.

k =1

36.

40.

k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1
7

6(6 + 1)
= 0 .5
+ 1.8(6)
2
= 21.3

34

34

k =1

k =1
34

1
100 2
k =1

k 1

a(1 r n )
1 r
10(1 27 )
=
1 2
= 1270

34

= 10 k 5 1

41.

34(34 + 1)
= 10
5(34)
2
= 5780

42.

k =1

50(1.07)k 1 =

k =1

10

k =1

k =1
10

43.

j 1

j =1

a
1
3
=
=
1
1 r 1
2
3

2 (17)k 1

k =1

sum.

44.

1
50 1.07
k =1

a(1 r n )
1 r

50 1 1.107
=
1 1.107

k =1

45.

k 1

k =1

10

1
50 1.05
k =1
a
=
1 r
50
=
1 1.105

50(1.05)1k =

( )

3 (1.5)k 1

## Since |r| = |1.5| > 1, it is not possible to find the

sum.

50(1.07)1k = 50(1.07)( k 1)
=

a
3
=
=6
1 r 1 1
2

i =0

50(1 1.0710 )
=
1 1.07
690.82
10

3 = 3

a(1 r n )
1 r

10

k 1

1
3
i =0
Let j = i + 1. Then i = j 1. Thus

( )

10

1
3 2
k =1

a(1 r n )
1 r

100 1 12

=
1 12

10 2k 1

k =1

199.80

39.

## ((k 1)10 + 5) = (10k 5)

10

38.

5 2 k = 5 2 k 2 1 2

= 0.5 k + 1.8 1

k =1

37.

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

k 1

= 1050

46.

375.76

j =1

j =1

75(1.09)1 j = 75 1.09
a
1 r
75
=
1 1.109
=

908.33
54

j 1

Section 1.6

## 47. Let the inventory level at the end of day k be I k .

Then I k = 90 + (3)k .

72

100(1.005)i1 =

I19 = 90 + (3)(19) = 33

i =1

a(1 r n )
1 r

100(1 1.00572 )
1 1.005
\$8640.89
=

## 48. The inventory sequence is 95 + (6)k. The first

seven terms are 89, 83, 77, 71, 65, 59, and 53.
The tenth term is 95 + (6)(10) = 35.

56. 21 7 = 14 years
= 14 12 months
= 168 months
Let Lisas deposit amount be R. The
accumulated value of the deposits is

## 49. The sequence for the account balance is

125.00 + (5.00)k, where k is the number of
months. After 9 months, the account contains
125.00 + (5.00)(9) = \$80.00.

## R + R(1.004) + R(1.004)2 + " + R(1.004)167 ,

which is the sum of 168 terms of a geometric
series with first term a = R and common ratio
r = 1.004. The sum is

k

## 125.00(1.05) , where k is the number of years.

After 9 years, the account balance is
125.00(1.05)9 \$193.92.

## a(1 r n ) R(1 1.004168 )

=
.
1 r
1 1.004
Lisa wants this amount to equal \$1000. Solving
1000(0.004)
for R, Lisa finds R =
\$4.19.
1 1.004168

## Pk = 50, 000(1.08)k . The population at the end

of 2020 is P11 = 50, 000(1.08)11 = 116, 582.
52. The population k years from now is

## 57. We need the present value of an infinite

sequence of payments of \$500 each. The
payment k years from now has a present value of

Pk = 24, 000(0.95)k .
53. We seek the sum of the sequence

## the infinite sequence with first term 500(1.05)1

sequence is
arithmetic with first term 12,000 and last term
12,000 + 7(1000) = 19,000. The sum is
8(12, 000 + 19, 000)
= \$124, 000.
2

series is

60

54.

## 58. In the calculation in Problem 57 we ultimately

just divide the value of a payment by the interest
500
rate. In the present case, we have
= \$5000.
0.10

300(1.01)k

k =1
60

=
=

1 1
300 1.01 1.01
k =1
60

300 1
1.01 1.01
k =1

a(1 r n )
1 r
300 1 1
1.01
1.01

=
1 1.101

1
1.01

k 1

## 59. No, it is not. The differences between successive

terms are far from constant. In fact, the sequence
of differences is 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ..., the
Fibonnaci sequence starting with 0, 1.

( )

a
500(1.05) 1
=
= \$10, 000.
1 r
1 1.051

## 60. No, it is not. The ratios between successive terms

are far from constant. In fact, for factorial
sequence starting with 1!, the sequence of ratios
is 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ....

60

13, 486.51
The selling price of the car is \$13,486.51.

55

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

61. a = d = r = p = b = 2
bk +1 = d + bk = 2 + bk : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10

7.

ck +1 = ck r = ck 2: 2, 4, 8, 16, 32

## ek +1 = bek = 2ek : 2, 4, 16, 65,536, 265,536

Chapter 1 Review Problems
1. 3x 1 2( x 3)
3x 1 2 x 6
x 5
[5, )

8.

2. 2x (7 + x) x
2x 7 x x
7 0, which is true for all x, so < x < , or
(, ).
3. (5x + 2) < (2x + 4)
5x 2 < 2x 4
3x < 2
2
x>
3
2

3 ,

9.

10.

4. 2(x + 6) > x + 4
2x 12 > x + 4
3x > 16
16
x<
3
16

, 3

11.

x+5 1
2
3
2
2(x + 5) 3(1) 6(2)
2x + 10 3 12
2x 5
5
x
2
5

, 2

x x x
>
3 4 5
20 x 15 x > 12 x
5 x > 12 x
0 > 7x
0>x
(, 0)
1
1
s 3 (3 + 2s )
4
8
2s 24 3 + 2s
0 27, which is true for all s. Thus
< s < , or (,).
1
1
(t + 2)
3
4
4(t + 2) 3t + 48
4t + 8 3t + 48
t 40
[40, )
4 3x = 9
4 3 x = 9
3 x = 4 9
or 3x = 13
3 x = 5
5
13
x=
or
x=
3
3

## 5. 3 p(1 p ) > 3(2 + p) 3 p 2

3 p 3 p2 > 6 + 3 p 3 p2
0 > 6, which is false for all x. The solution set is
.

12.

5x 6
=0
13
5x 6
=0
13
5x 6 = 0
6
x=
5

6. 2 6 p < 7
2

12 5 p < 7
5 p < 5
p >1
(1, )

5 < 2z 3 < 5
2 < 2z < 8
1 < z < 4
(1, 4)
56

Chapter 1 Review

## 19. Let x be the number of issues with a decline, and

x + 48 be the number of issues with an increase.
Then
x + (x + 48) = 1132
2x = 1084
x = 542

2
x+5
3

14. 4 <

2
x + 5 < 4
3
2
x < 9
3
27
x<
2

2
x+5 > 4
3
2
or
x > 1
3
3
or x >
2
27 3

The solution is , , .
2 2

or

## 20. Let x = purchase amount excluding tax.

x + 0.065 x = 3039.29
1.065 x = 3039.29
x = 2853.79
Thus tax is 3039.29 2853.79 = \$185.50.
21. Let q units be produced at A and 10,000 q at B.
Cost at A + Cost at B 117,000
[5q + 30,000] + [5.50(10,000 q) + 35,000]
117,000
0.5q + 120,000 117,000
0.5q 3000
q 6000
Thus at least 6000 units must be produced at
plant A.

15. 3 2 x 4

3 2x 4
2x 1
1
x
2

or 3 2x 4
or 2x 7
7
or x
2
1

The solution is , , .
2 2

16.

(k + 3)3

## = (10)2 (25) + (20)2 (25)

= 2500 + 10, 000

k =1
8

=
=

(k 3 + 9k 2 + 27k + 27)

k =1
8

k =1
2

k =1
2

k =1

k =1

= 12,500 ft 3
Let r be the radius (in feet) of the new tank.
Then
4 3
r = 12,500
3
r 3 = 9375

k 3 + 9 k 2 + 27 k + 27 1

8 (8 + 1)
8(8 + 1)(2 8 + 1)
+9
4
6
8(8 + 1)
+ 27
+ 27(8)
2
= 4320
=

11

17.

i =4

11

= i i
i =1
2

r = 3 9375 21.0858
The radius is approximately 21.0858 feet.
23. Let c = operating costs
c
< 0.90
236, 460
c < \$212,814

i =1

## 11 (11 + 1)2 32 (3 + 1)2

4
4
= 4320
The second sum is a reindexing of the original
sum. Considering Problem 16, let i = k + 3, then
k = 1 gives i = 4 and k = 8 gives i = 11.
=

24. a = 32, d = 3, bk +1 = d + bk
b1 = 32
b2 = 3 + 32 = 35
b3 = 3 + 35 = 38
b4 = 3 + 38 = 41
b5 = 3 + 41 = 44

p 0.40p = c
0.6p = c
c
5c
2
=
= c + c
p=
0.6 3
3

## Thus the profit is

2
2
, or 66 %, of the cost.
3
3
57

## 25. a = 100, r = 1.02, ck +1 = ck r

c1 = 100
c2 = 100(1.02) = 102
c3 = 102(1.02) = 104.04
c4 = 104.04(1.02) = 106.1208
c5 = 106.1208(1.02) = 108.243216

t 150 t
+
= 120
3
1
t + 450 3t = 360
2t = 90
t = 45
Switch after 45 minutes.
3. Use the reasoning in Exercise 1, with M
unknown and m = 120.
t M t
+
= 120
2
1
t + 2M 2t = 240
t = 240 2M
t = 2M 240
The switch should be made after
2M 240 minutes.

26. a = 32, d = 3, bk = a + d (k 1)
5

k =1

k =1

## (32 + 3(k 1)) = (29 + 3k )

5

k =1

k =1

= 29 1 + 3 k
5(5 + 1)
= 29(5) + 3
2
= 190
27. a = 100, r = 1.02, ck +1 = ck r , sn =
5

100(1.02)k 1 = s5 =

k =1

## 4. Use the reasoning in Exercise 2, with M

unknown and m = 120.
t M t
+
= 120
3
1
t + 3M 3t = 360
2t = 360 3M
1
t = (3M 360)
2
The switch should be made after
1
(3M 360) minutes.
2

a(1 r n )
1 r

100(1 1.025 )
520.40
1 1.02

## Explore and ExtendChapter 1

1
1. Here m = 120 and M = 2 (60) = 150. For LP,
2
t
r = 2, so the first t minutes take up
of the 120
2
available minutes. For SP, r = 1, so the
150 t
remaining 150 t minutes take up
of the
1
120 available.
t 150 t
+
= 120
2
1
t + 300 2t = 240
t = 60
t = 60
Switch after 1 hour.

5.

x = 600

x = 310

1
2. Here m = 120 and M = 2 (60) = 150. For EP,
2
t
r = 3, so the first t minutes will take up
of the
3
120 available minutes. For SP, r = 1, so the
150 t
remaining 150 t minutes take up
of the
1
120 available.

## 6. Both equations represent audio being written

onto 74-minute CDs. In the first equation, 18
hours (1080 minutes) are being written to a CD
using a combination of 12-to-1 and 20-to-1
compression ratios. Here, x gives the maximum
amount of audio (600 minutes or 10 hours) that
can be written using the 12-to-1 compression
ratio. In the second equation, 26.5 hours
(1590 minutes) is being written using 15-to-1
and 24-to-1 compression ratios. A maximum of
310 minutes can be written at 15-to-1.
58

## ISM: Introductory Mathematical Analysis

t
of the m available
R
M t
minutes, the remaining M t minutes use
r
of the m available.
t M t
+
=m
R
r
t M t
+
=m
R r r
M
1 1
t = m
r
R r
r R mr M
t
=
r
rR
R (mr M )
t=
rR

59