Papers About logistics.

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Papers About logistics.

© All Rights Reserved

- Next Wave Sourcing
- Social Procurement a Guide for Victorian Local Government
- Purchasing and Supply Management Practices
- Industrial Engineering Management
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- Lesson 2 Overview
- Solution Manual for Managing for Quality and Performance Excellence 9th Edition by Evans
- Epicor Supply Chain Management Suite BR ENS
- EO-SOP-Gate Pass-011.doc
- 060 High Performance Procurement Technology 110303143207 Phpapp01
- HondaSupplyTeam.doc
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- Resume Sagarikap

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Elsevier

175

Jae-Dong Hong

Departmrnt qflndustrial Engineering Technology, South Carolina State ilniver.sity. Orangeburg, SC 29117, USA

and

Jack C. Hayya

Department ~f~a~~ge~~ent Science, Pennsylvania State ~ni~?ersit~~,University Park, PA ~~8~2, USA

(Revised version accepted I 1 December 1991)

Abstract

We consider two Just-In-Time (JIT) purchasing models, one utilizing a few sources, and the other using the more conventional single source. We address the issue of splitting a large order quantity into multiple deliveries, taking account of

the increase in the aggregate ordering, transportation, and inspection costs. For multiple sourcing, we formulate and solve

a mathematical programming problem to obtain the optimal selection of suppliers and the size of the split orders. For

single sourcing. we provide a procedure that yields the optimal number of deliveries.

1. Introduction

The hallmark of JIT purchasing is the steady

purchase of high-quality parts in small lot sizes

on time from a single or a few sources of supply.

Implementing JIT purchasing requires a reduction in the number of suppliers. Without such a

reduction, JIT purchasing would become unmanageable. Having many suppliers may force

the buyer to concentrate on coordinating them

rather than on other important objectives, such

as improving quality and cost reduction. The JIT

approach is to build a collaborative contract between buyer and suppliers to permit acceptable

returns on investment to both sides and to force

both sides to strive for continuous improvement,

In order to do this, the splitting of a large order

quantity into small deliveries or allocating it

among a few suppliers coincides with the JIT

purchasing philosophy: Place one large orderfor

smartest conceivable lot size.

Some researchers [ 1-81 have suggested that

splitting an order among several vendors can offer savings in inventory holding costs, Other re-

09X-5273/92/$05.00

searchers, for example, Pan and Liao [S], assumed that the ordering cost remained constant

no matter how many vendors there were. Their

reasoning was that in many procurements a large

component of the ordering cost was fixed and the

marginal cost of including more deliveries was

relatively small [ 7 1. However, as Larson [ 91 argued, this was unrealistic, because in multiple

deliveries, the cost of transportation,

receiving,

and inspection should be introduced. Following

this avenue, Ramasesh [ 7 ] included the cost per

shipment in the equation of the total relevant cost

(TRC), It is interesting how the treatment of this

cost has evolved and we summarize in Table 1

the literature to date.

In this paper, we analyze the deterministic order-splitting EOQ model, assuming that the aggregate ordering cost, which includes transportation, inspection, as well as any other costs

incurred by order splitting, is a nondecreasing

function of the number of deliveries. We start

with the situation where there are a few suppliers. A mathematical programming problem of

selecting suppliers and allocating the order quantity among them is formulated. The objective

176

TABLE I

Chronological

summary of the literature on how the ordering

is treated wtth multiple deliveries or order splitting

Pan [4]

Ramasesh [ 6 ]

Pan and Liao

ISI

Kelle and Silver

[31

Ramasesh

[ 71

Ramasesh,

Ord. Hayya

and Pan [S]

Total relevant

Model

Ordering

Two vendors,

stochastic lead time,

constant demand

Improved Pan [ 41

Deterministic

EOQ

formulation

Multiple vendors.

Weibull lead-time

and constant unit

demand

number of vendors

Sameasin

[5]

Sameasin

[6]

cost

cost

Same as Pan [ 41

Not affected by the

number of deliveries

TRC functions not

developed and the

question of ordering

costs not explicitly

addressed

Same as in [4]. The

TRC function includes

the shipment cost

Allowed to increase to

offset savings in

holding costs

(1)

x, 20,

Vj,

where

1

= number of the suppliers selected,

{S,) = a subset of the suppliers selected,

= the quality level of supplierj,

?I

P

= predetermined quality level,

P

= the unit cost from supplierj, and

6

= predetermined, delivered cost of the item.

Using the TRC formula in the EOQ system, the

TRC with N split orders may be expressed as (see

Appendix)

cost.

For constraints in formulating the problem, we

choose two ~mpo~ant criteria: the delivered cost

and product quality [ 10, 1 1 ] , Later, we address

the issue of multiple deliveries/small-lot

shipments from a single source.

2. JIT purchasing with multiple vendors

Suppose that n suppliers are available. Let

a ( y1)A, denote the cost of placing n split orders

simultaneously, where A, is the cost of placing a

single full-order. We consider the problem of selecting suppliers and allocating the full order

quantity between them subject to cost and quality constraints. Let Xi denote the percentage of

the order quantity assigned to supplier i, i= 1, 2,

. ..) M.The objective is to minimize the total relevant cost per unit time incurred from splitting the

order quantity among the suppliers selected, subject to the constraints that the delivered cost is

less than and that the product quality is higher

than some predetermined

levels. This relationship can be formulated as follows: Find the numher t)f suppliers I and the percentages ofthe order

ordering

minimize

TRC( - ) = Aggregate

cost + Holding cost subject to

where

Q, =the full order quantity that is to be split

among y1suppliers,

D = constant demand rate, and

r = the carrying charge.

After algebraic manipulations

(see the Appendix), letting v,~denote the delivered cost of the

single source and Q!(I) denote the proportion of

the increase in the aggregate ordering cost, the

objective function in ( 1) can be rewritten as

maximize=v,-cu(t)

C ZJ,.X~.

(3)

jt{.Si;

increase in the aggregate ordering cost

the savings accrued from order splitting

pletely offset. From ( 3 ), @(I) is upper

by

tolerable

at which

are combounded

Now, after substituting (3) into f I), ( 1) becomes a nonlinear integer programming problem. We see that for a given number of suppliers,

it can be solved by computer software. An eff-

177

cient way to find a solution can be stated as

follows:

(i ) Include all the suppliers considered in

the supplier set, {S,}. Solve the problem in ( 1)

using the software.

(ii) Eliminate from the supplier set that

supplier who has the smallest percentage of the

order quantity assigned. Solve the problem. If infeasible, return the eliminated supplier back to

the supplier set, eliminate the supplier with the

next smallest percentage, and solve the problem

again.

(iii) Repeat step (ii) until the number of

suppliers in the solution set is one.

(iv) Compare the resulting TRC for each

fixed I, choose the smallest TRC. This gives the

optimal number of suppliers and the corresponding order splits.

TABLE 2

Data used in examples 1 and 2

D=50,000units,A,=5.0($),r=5(%)

I= 1

fl

Required

level

Supplier

Factor

Price ( $ )

Quality(%)

5.45

98.0

5.60

98.5

5.85

99.0

5.93

99.8

5.80

99.0

Legend

D

=demand per unit time

AS =ordering cost with one vendor or a single delivery

=inventory holding rate per unit per unit time

r

(u(l) =ordering cost multiplier

TABLE 3

4 suppliers. The data are in Table 2. Using GINO

[ 12 1, we find the optimal solutions for each given

I listed in Table 3.

When the unit cost from the single source is assumed to be $5.80, the upper limits for the tolerable increase in the aggregate ordering cost, i.e.,

&, from Eq. (4 ) and cy(l) from Table 2 are

4

3

2

1

0.167

0

0

0.220

0.265

0.348

0.345

0.330

0.325

0.514

0

0.486

no feasible solution

$373.7

367.5**

379.5

4817

3809

2635

I

n(l)

3.742

3.6

3.005

2.8

2.014

2

Infeasible

1

a(0

3, but is less than 1 when 1=4. As expected, if

cy(1) > d (I), order splitting among 1 suppliers is

not feasible. Thus, letting

(5)

the optimal I can be determined

from

6(1*) =maximum(b(l)}.

I= I,...,n

(6)

increased to $5.85, the solutions we find are the

same except for 1= 1:

f=l,

x,=x2=x4=0,

TRC*=$382.4,Qf

(=EOQ)

= 1307.

Now assume that supplier 3 is selected as the single source. Then, a long-term purchasing agreement that splits a large order quantity into equal

deliveries may be negotiated. Letting A (m) denote the aggregate ordering cost as a function of

the number of split orders m the TRC is given by

TRC(Q,)

x,=1

=A(mPlQ,

+QrnWm,

(7)

1 <m<mm,,,

1

6(l)

0.142

0.205

0.014

Inf.

In (7 ), we assume that the number of split orders

is constrained by a reasonable maximum, mmax.

The optimal order quantity and the correspond-

178

A(m)

Islope

Ordering

cost per

Full

Order

I

I

I

ply

Slope

0

) m

A(l)

1

shapes

Number

of

,5 : A

of the ordering

:

:

Convex

Concave

Step

Function

A(I),

where

ing TRC can be found by setting the first derivative of (7 ) equal to zero and substituting it into

(7). Thus,

(8)

and

TRC(Q*,)=dw.

Function

cost function

Q:,=J2DA(m)m/h

Deliveries

(9)

Function

of split deliveries.

and ,u, the ith element of the set y,; In the following section, using the convex, concave and step

ordering cost functions shown in Fig. 1, we provide theoretical and numerical solutions for the

optimal number of deliveries.

4. Ordering cost functions

SV(m)=&%{~-J-1.

(10)

is that area below the 45 line, A( m ) =

mA ( 1 ),m z 1. In order to maximize SV (m ) in

( lo), it is necessary and sufficient to minimize

A(m)/m.

We state it as follows:

Lemma. Multiple deliveries are worthwhile only

when A (m) /m <A ( 1) and the optimal number

of deliveries m * should satisfy

A convex exponential, a logarithmic, and a linear step ordering cost functions can be expressed

as

A>0

A( 1 )ew[A(m-1) I,

(for the exponential),

A>0

A(l)+dn(m),

(for the logarithmic ),

A(m)=

(12)

rA(1)

l,lG:mdm,,

.

A(m*)/m*=mi~~~m{A(~,)/~,},

(11)

, mgeI <mQm,

179

(i) Exponential function. From the lemma,

equating A( m)/m to A ( 1) yields the critical

value of the parameter A,

Ah(m)=Zn{m/(m-l)}.

(13)

m, which implies that, for a given value of m, if

,J is greater than Ab( m), then order splitting is

uneconomical.

Letting Z(m) =A (m)/m

and

setting the first derivative of Z( m) equal to zero

yields

fi=Ll/nJ,

(14)

from ( 11) , m * should satisfy

A(m*)/m*

(15)

=minimum{A(*)/*,

A(Kz+ l)/(fi+

l)}.

the critical value, ;Ib, is given by

~h(m)=A(l)(m-l)/ln(m).

The first derivative

(16)

of Z( m) yields

dZ(m)/dm=(A(l)+~ln(m)-J)/m.

(17)

dm<O,Vm. Thus,

(a) If3L>Ab(mmax),m*=1.

(b) IfAh

<A,<&,(y),1 bw<ydm,,,,

multiple deliveries are feasible in [ w+ 1, mmax ] and

m=m,,,.

(iii) Linear step function. Since the ordering

cost remains the same in a given interval of

(m,- I, m,l ,g= l,...,k, we only consider the value

of the upper limit of the interval. Let Ak denote

the slope of that line which connects A( 1) with

A(k). Then Ak is

&=(A(k)-A(l))l(m,-m,).

The connected line can now be treated as a

straight-line ordering cost function for that interval. From the lemma, the critical value for each

interval is

;Ih(mk)=A(l)(mk-l)l(mk-m,).

(18)

Note that the critical value depends upon the upper limit of the interval. The slope of the connected line for each interval is compared to

1 h( mk) to check whether multiple deliveries are

worthwhile. Thus, in order to find m*, the following three steps are needed:

(i ) Find feasible intervals using Eq. ( 18 ).

(ii) Find feasible solutions in the feasible

intervals.

(iii) Find the optimal solution m* using Eq.

(11).

Illustrative example 2. For illustration, we set the

maximum number of deliveries at mm_ = 20 for

supplier 3. Other input data are same as in example 1.

(i) Exponential function. From Eq. ( 13),

Ab(mmax) is 0.1577. We set 2=0.15; then, from

the lemma, the set of feasible integer solutions of

m becomes M/=(1, 2,...,20}. Using (14) and

(15), we find that m*=6. From (8)-( lo), we

compute that Qk =4659.7, TRC( QL ) =$227.1,

andSV(m*)=$155.3.

(ii) Logarithmic function. For illustration, we

set A= 14. Since from (16), Ah(6) andAh(7) are

13.9527 and 15.4 169, multiple deliveries are feasible in the range [ 7,201. We tind that m*= 20

and that Qz = 179 15, TRC( Q> ) = $262.0, and

SV(m*)=$120.4.

(iii) Linear step function. We use the following ordering cost step function for illustration:

5.0,

16mG

1,

14.8,

l<m<

3,

3<md

4,

I 19.8,

31.3,

4<m<

6,

A(m)=

39.2,

6<md

8,

45.7,

8<md 10,

77.6, lO<m< 15,

99.4, lS<m<20.

From (18), we find that the intervals 1, 2, 3, 5,

and 8 are feasible and that the feasible solutions

are m = 3, 4, 8, and 20. Out of the feasible solutions, m*= 8 and the corresponding QG = 10354,

TRC(Q*,)=$378.6,andSV(m*)=$3.8.

180

5. Summary

and conclusion

partnership between the buyer and the suppliers.

The suppliers now become part of a team that is

motivated

to deliver high-quality

parts, frequently, and on time. Lack of trust in suppliers

leads the buyer to spread the risk between many

vendors. But trust leads to long-term and mutually beneficial relationships and contribute to

high quality and cost reduction. For implementation of JIT purchasing with multiple vendors,

it is important to find out what the marginal ordering costs are. For example, quantity discounts

may disappear if a large order is split among several vendors. Also the transportation cost will increase due to multiple deliveries, be it single or

multiple sourcing.

In this paper, we examine the issue of how to

handle these additional costs analytically. For the

multiple sourcing model, we determine the optimal number of suppliers and the proportional

splitting of a large order by formulating a mathematical programming problem, subject to an

aggregate delivered unit cost and an aggregate

predetermined

quality level. For the single

sourcing model, there must be a necessary condition for the use of multiple deliveries in the traditional EOQ formulation. This condition is that

the increase in the aggregate ordering cost should

not exceed the savings in the holding cost and

other benefits resulting from the multiple deliveries. Three hypothetical aggregate ordering cost

functions are investigated: a convex exponential,

a concave logarithmic, and a step-function. We

find that

(i) For the multiple sourcing model, the feasible region for the ordering cost depends upon

the percentage of the full order assigned to a supplier, which is a function of the delivered unit

cost. The optimal number of suppliers is found

from the analysis of the aggregate ordering costs,

since the interplay of the marginal increase of

these costs with the reduction of the holding costs

dictates whether another supplier can be added.

(ii) For a multiple delivery single-sourcing

model, we find that if the ordering cost A(m) is

concave in terms of the number of deliveries m

we must go all the way with multiple deliveries,

aslongasA(m)dmA(l).ifA(m)

isconvexand

should contain the optimal number of deliveries

rn*.

Appendix

single full order is expressed as

TRC~Q)=~.~D/~+~*r~/2.

With n split orders, the aggregate ordering

per unit time, AOC, is given by

AOC=a(n)A,D/

~x,Q,.

I=1

(Al)

cost

(A2)

The inventory holding cost per unit time is obtained by multiplying carrying charge r by the average inventory in dollars. Now the total amount

of inventory in dollars during one cycle of order,

TAI, is the sum of the amount of inventory in

dollars delivered from n suppliers, which can be

expressed as

cycle of order, AVI, can be found dividing TAI

by one cycle of order. So,

(A3)

Multiplying AVI in (A3) by r yields the holding

cost per unit time and adding it to the aggregate

ordering cost in (A2 ) yields Eq. ( 2 ) .

Now, if 1 suppliers are selected, then Q7 and

TRC; can be obtained by setting the first derivative of Eq. (2) equal to zero and substituting

the expression for QT into (2). We obtain

and

181

TRC[( . )*= [ 2cu( I)A,Dr

1 u,.x,] I*.

je is/i

(A4)

1split orders. Then, from (A2 ) ,

W(I) =TRC, (*)*-TRC,(

= (2DA,r)2f

( v,y2

*)*

(AS)

7

equivalent to maximizing the savings in the TRC

with 1 split orders, SV (i), the objective function

in ( 1) can be written as Eq. ( 3 ) .

References

Hayya, J.C., Ord, J.K. and Pan, A., 1986. On lot-splitting with and without planned shortages. DSI Proc.:

1103-I 105.

Hayya, J.C., Christy, D.P. and Pan, A., 1987. Reducing

inventory uncertainty: A reorder point system with two

vendors. Prod. Inv. Manage., 28 (2 ): 43-49.

Kelle, P. and Silver, E.D., 1990. Safety stock reduction

by order splitting. Nav. Res. Log. Quart., 37: 725-743.

10

11

12

(s, @ inventory system where unit demand is constant

and lead time variable. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation.

Penn. State University.

Pan, A. and Liao, C., 1989. An inventory model under

just-in-time purchasing agreements. Prod. Inv. Manage., 30( I): 49-52.

Ramasesh, R.V., 1988. Single and dual sourcing in stochastic lead-time inventory models: A comparative

analysis. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Penn. State

University.

Ramasesh, R.V., 1990. Recasting the traditional inventory model to implement just-in-time purchasing. Prod.

Inv. Manage., 31(l): 71-75.

Ramasesh, R.V., Ord, J.K., Hayya, J.C. and Pan, A. Sole

versus dual sourcing in stochastic lead-time (3, Qj inventory models. Manage. Sci., 37(4): 428-443.

Larson, P.D., 1989. An inventory model which assumes

the problem away: A note on Pan and Liao. Prod. Inv.

Manage., 30(4): 73-74.

Hay, E.J., 1987. Will the real just-in-time purchasing

please stand up? In: Just-in-Time Reprints. Amer. Prod.

Inv. Contr. Sot., Falls Church, VA.

Pan, A.C., 1989. Allocation of order quantity among

suppliers. J. Purch. Mater. Manage., Fall: 36-39.

Liebman, J., Lasdon. L., Schrage, L. and Waren, A., 1986.

Modeling and Optimization with GINO. Scientific Press,

CA.

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