Anda di halaman 1dari 357

5/12/2010

Data & Information

The Business School

University of Kashmir
Definitions

 Fact – statement of some element of truth about a subject matter or a domain.

Example: milk is white, sun rises in east

 Intelligence – capacity to acquire, store, improve and apply knowledge

 Experience – what we have done and what has happened in past in a specific
area of work

 Common sense – natural ability to sense, judge or perceive situations ; grows


stronger over time

 Memory – ability to store and retrieve relevant experience at will, is part of


intelligence

 Learning – is knowledge or skill that is acquired by instruction or study

5/12/2010 10:21:02 PM Rafi A Khan 2


Definitions

 Knowledge. Information once analyzed, understood, and explained is

 knowledge or foreknowledge (predictions or forecasts).

Rafi A Khan
3
Data, Information and Systems

 Data vs. Information

– Data

• A ―given,‖ or fact; a number, a statement, or a picture

• Represents something in the real world

• The raw materials in the production of information

– Information

• Data that have meaning within a context

• Data in relationships

• Data after manipulation

Rafi A Khan
4
Data, Information and Systems

 Data Manipulation

– Example: customer survey

• Reading through data collected from a customer survey with


questions in various categories would be time-consuming and
not very helpful.

• When manipulated, the surveys may provide useful


information.

Rafi A Khan
5
Why Information Systems

Rafi A Khan
6
What Is an Information System?

Rafi A Khan
7
Systems

 Generating Information

– Computer-based ISs take data as raw material, process it,


and produce information as output.

Figure 1.1 Input-process-output

Rafi A Khan
8
Characteristics of Information

Rafi A Khan
Figure 1.2 Characteristics of useful information 9
Why Information Systems

Activities in an Information System

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

FEEDBACK

Rafi A Khan
10
Why Information Systems

Rafi A Khan
11
Information Needs of a Shopkeeper

Daily sales account

List of low stock items to be re-ordered

List of overstock items

Long overdue payments

Profit and loss account

Used to streamline day to day operations called Operational


information

Rafi A Khan
12
Information Needs of a Shopkeeper

 Slow or fast moving items

 Reliable supplier of items

 Sales trends

Used to improve profitability of shop called Tactical information

Rafi A Khan
13
Information Needs of a Shopkeeper

Whether to stock different varieties of items

Whether to diversify

Whether to start a new branch in a different locality

Whether to start an e-shop

Information to expand business and explore new opportunities


Known as Strategic Information

Rafi A Khan
14
Types of Information

Strategic : Needed for long range planning and directions.

• This is less/un- structured.

Tactical : Needed to take short range decisions to improve

• Profitability and Performance.

Operational : Needed for day to day operations of the


organization.

• Eg: Daily Sales, Billing.

Rafi A Khan
15
SYSTEM

System as a group of interrelated components working together toward a


common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized
transformation process.

Such a system has three basic interacting components or functions:

 Input: Involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be
processed. For example, raw materials, energy, data, and human effort must be
secured and organized for processing.

Rafi A Khan
16
SYSTEM

 Processing: Involves transformation process that converts input into output.


Examples to these are manufacturing process, the human breathing process,
etc.

 Output: Involves transferring elements that have been produced by


transformation process to their ultimate destination, Examples to these are
finished products, human services and management information that must be
transmitted to their human users.

Rafi A Khan
17
System

System

Input Process Output

Feedback and Control

Environment

Fig. Showing Elements of a System

Rafi A Khan
18
System

A system with feedback and control components is sometimes called a


cybernetic system, that is, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system.

 Feedback: It is data about the performance of a system. It is actually


measured in terms of the outcome to that of the predefined objectives
set out at the beginning of the process.

 Control: It involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine


whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goal.

Rafi A Khan
19
System Characteristics

 A system does not exist in a Vacuum; rather, it exists and function in an


environment containing other systems

 If a system is one of the components of a larger system, it is then


referred to as a subsystem, and the larger system is its environment.

 The system that has the ability to change itself or its environment in
order to survive is an adaptive system

Rafi A Khan
20
Types of System

 A large system can be split or decomposed into smaller subsystems


up to a certain level

 The decomposition of a system into subsystems can be in a serial


form or it could be in a matrix form

 In a serial system processing, the entire output of a subsystem is the


input to the next sub-system and so on.

 In the matrix arrangement the different outputs go to different sub-


systems. A subsystem receives more than one input from other
subsystems.

Rafi A Khan
21
Types of System

 If the process of input transformation is not visible and


understandable then we say that the system is a black box and
the process is not transparent

 Most of the systems can be viewed in a hierarchical structure.


Breaking the system in a hierarchical manner provides a way to
structured systems analysis. It gives a clear understanding of the
contribution of each subsystem in terms of data flow and
decisions, and its interface to the other subsystems.

Rafi A Khan
22
Types of System

The systems can be classified in different categories based on the


predictability of its output and the degree of information exchange
with the environment.

Deterministic- when the inputs, the process and the outputs of a


system are known with certainty. In a deterministic system, you can
predict the output with certainty.

Probabilistic- when the output can only be predicted in


probabilistic terms. The accounting system is deterministic while
the demand forecasting system is a probabilistic one.
Rafi A Khan
23
Types of System
 If a system is functioning in isolation from the environment, then the
system does not have any exchange with the environment nor is it
influenced by the environmental changes. Such a system is called a
closed system.

 If the system has exchange with the environment and is influenced by


the environment then it is called an open system.

 All kinds of accounting systems, viz., cash, stocks, attendance of


employees are closed systems. Most of the systems based on rules
and principles are closed systems.

 The systems which are required to respond to changes in the


environment, such as marketing, communication and forecasting are
open systems
Rafi A Khan
24
Types of System

Specify in the inputs, processes, and outputs of the following


systems. Determine what is required for each system to be
efficient and effective.

 Post Office

 Elementary school

 Grocery store

 Farm

Rafi A Khan
25
Types of System

Organization Inputs Processes Outputs

Post Office Letters mailed Delivery of mail Mail delivered

School Students Teaching Graduating


students
Grocery Store Food sold to
Food products Stocking, selling
customers
Farm Feedstock, seeds, Animals and Food delivered to
fertilizer plants market
growing

Rafi A Khan
26
System

List possible kinds of feedback for the systems in the previous question.

 Post Office: Customers' complaints, average days for a delivery, cost,


percent of lost mail

 School: Students' complaints, achievement on national tests, success


in job placement

 Grocery store: Customer feedback on quality, quantity, percent of


theft and waste, etc.

 Farm: Quality of output sold to market

Rafi A Khan
27
Information Systems

•Information system consists of physical and non-physical components


working together

•A computer combines with a software program may constitute an


information system, but only if the program is designed to produce
information that helps an organization or person to achieve a specific
goal.

Rafi A Khan
28
Information Systems

Management Information System (MIS) Computer-based or manual system


- transforms data into information to support the decision making.
MIS can be classified as performing three functions:

(1) To generate reports - for example, financial statements, inventory status


reports, or performance reports needed for routine or non-routine
purposes.
(2) To answer what-if questions asked by management. For example,
questions such as "What would happen to deposits if the bank increases
interest rates?" can be answered by MIS.
(3) To support decision making. This type of MIS is appropriately called
Decision Support System (DSS).
-DSS attempts to integrate the decision maker, the data base, and the
quantitative models being used.

Rafi A Khan
29
Information Systems?

Rafi A Khan
30
WHY INFORMATION SYSTEMS?
Major Business Functions

 Sales and marketing

 Manufacturing

 Finance

 Accounting

 Human resources

Rafi A Khan
31
MIS in Marketing

Marketing Management Information Systems:

 It supports managerial activity in the area of product


development, distribution, pricing decisions, promotional
effectiveness, and sales forecasting.

 It mainly relies on external sources of data like competitors


and customers.

Rafi A Khan
32
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Sales and Marketing Systems

Major functions of systems:

 Sales management, market research, promotion, pricing, new


products

Major application systems:

 Sales order info system, market research system, pricing


system

Rafi A Khan
33
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Sales and Marketing


Systems

Rafi A Khan
34
MIS in Manufacturing

Manufacturing Management Information Systems:

 Inventories are provided just in time to reduce costs of


warehousing huge inventories .

Rafi A Khan
35
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Manufacturing and Production Systems

Major functions of systems:


 Scheduling, purchasing, shipping, receiving, engineering,
operations

Major application systems:


 Materials resource planning systems, purchase order
control systems, engineering systems, quality control
systems

Rafi A Khan
36
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
37
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
38
MIS in Finance

Financial Management Information Systems:

 It provides financial information to all financial managers


within an organization including the chief financial officer.

 The chief financial officer analyzes historical and current


financial activity, future financial needs, and monitors and
controls the use of funds over time using the MIS

Rafi A Khan
39
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Financing and Accounting Systems

Major functions of systems:

 Budgeting, general ledger, billing, cost accounting

Major application systems:

 General ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable,


budgeting, funds management systems

Rafi A Khan
40
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
41
MIS in HR

Human Resources Management Information Systems:

 These systems are concerned with activities related to


workers, managers, and other individuals employed by the
organization.

 It includes, work-force analysis and planning, hiring,


training, and job assignments.

Rafi A Khan
42
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Human Resource Systems

Major functions of systems:

 Personnel records, benefits, compensation, labor relations,


training

Major application systems:

 Payroll, employee records, benefit systems, career path


systems, personnel training systems

Rafi A Khan
43
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
44
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
45
Key Elements of An Organization

 People: Managers, knowledge workers, data workers,


production or service workers

 Structure: Organization chart, products, geography

 Operating procedures: Standard operating procedures (SOP,


rules for action)

Rafi A Khan
46
IT/Tools for Managers

 Hardware: Physical equipment

 Software: Detailed preprogrammed instructions

 Storage: Physical media for storing data and the software

 Communications Technology: transfers data from one


physical location to another

 Networks: link computers to share data or resources

Rafi A Khan
47
IS & Organizations

Rafi A Khan
48
TOWARD THE DIGITAL FIRM

Rafi A Khan
49
Rafi A Khan
50
Information Sytems

Rafi A Khan
51
Major Types of Systems

• Executive Support Systems (ESS)


• Decision Support Systems (DSS)
• Management Information Systems (MIS)
• Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
• Office Systems
• Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)

Rafi A Khan
52
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
53
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)


Operational Level :

• Basic business systems that serve the operational level

• A computerized system that performs and records the daily


routine transactions necessary to the conduct of the business

Rafi A Khan
54
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
55
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
56
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)

Knowledge level
 Inputs : Design specs
 Processing : Modeling
 Outputs : Designs, graphics
 Users : Technical staff and professionals

Example: Engineering work station

Rafi A Khan
57
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Management Information System (MIS)

Management level
 Inputs : High-volume data
 Processing : Simple models
 Outputs : Summary reports
 Users : Middle managers

Example: Annual budgeting

Rafi A Khan
58
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
59
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
60
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Decision Support System (DSS)

Management level
 Inputs : Low/High volume data
 Processing : Interactive
 Outputs : Decision analysis
 Users : Professionals, Staff

Example: Forecasting

Rafi A Khan
61
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
62
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Executive Support System (ESS)

Strategic level
 Inputs : Aggregate data
 Processing : Interactive
 Outputs : Projections
 Users : Senior managers

Example: 5-year operating plan

Rafi A Khan
63
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
64
MAJOR TYPES OF SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

Rafi A Khan
65
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Business Processes and Information Systems


Business processes

 Manner in which work is organized, coordinated, and focused to produce


a valuable product or service

 Concrete work flows of material, information, and knowledge—sets of


activities

Rafi A Khan
66
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Business Processes and Information Systems


 Unique ways to coordinate work,

information, and knowledge

 Ways in which management chooses

to coordinate work

Rafi A Khan
67
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Business Processes and Information Systems


Information systems help organizations

 Achieve great efficiencies by automating parts of processes

 Rethink and streamline processes

Rafi A Khan
68
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Examples of Business Processes


 Manufacturing and production: Assembling product, checking
quality, producing bills of materials

 Sales and marketing: Identifying customers, creating customer


awareness, selling

Rafi A Khan
69
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Examples of Business Processes


 Finance and accounting: Paying creditors, creating financial
statements, managing cash accounts

 Human Resources: Hiring employees, evaluating performance,


enrolling employees in benefits plans

Rafi A Khan
70
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Business Processes and Information Systems

Cross-Functional Business Processes

 Transcend boundary between sales, marketing, manufacturing, and


research and development

 Group employees from different functional specialties to a complete


piece of work

Example: Order Fulfillment Process

Rafi A Khan
71
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Rafi A Khan
72
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Enterprise Applications

 Enterprise systems

 Supply chain management systems

 Customer relationship management systems

 Knowledge management systems

Rafi A Khan
73
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Traditional View of the Systems

 Within the business: There are functions, each having its uses of
information systems

 Outside the organization‘s boundaries: There are customers and


vendors

Functions tend to work in isolation

Rafi A Khan
74
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Figure 2-13
Rafi A Khan
75
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Rafi A Khan
76
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Benefits of Enterprise Systems


 Firm structure and organization: One organization

 Management: Firm-wide knowledge-based management processes

 Technology: Unified platform

 Business: More efficient operations and customer-driven business


processes

Rafi A Khan
77
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Challenges of Enterprise Systems


 Difficult to build: Require fundamental changes in the way the
business operates

 Technology: Require complex pieces of software and large


investments of time, money, and expertise

 Centralized organizational coordination and decision


making: Not the best way for the firms to operate

Rafi A Khan
78
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Supply Chain Management (SCM)


Supply Chain Management (SCM)
 Close linkage and coordination of activities involved in buying,
making, and moving a product

 Integrates supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and customer logistics


time

 Reduces time, redundant effort, and inventory costs

Rafi A Khan
79
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Supply Chain Management (SCM)


Supply Chain

 Network of organizations and business processes

 Helps in procurement of materials, transformation of raw materials


into intermediate and finished products

Rafi A Khan
80
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Supply Chain Management (SCM)


Limitations:

 Inefficiencies can waste as much as 25% of company‘s operating costs

 Bullwhip Effect: Information about the demand for the product gets
distorted as it passes from one entity to next

Rafi A Khan
81
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Rafi A Khan
82
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Supply Chain Management (SCM)


 Helps in distribution of the finished products to customers

 Includes reverse logistics - returned items flow in the reverse direction


from the buyer back to the seller

Rafi A Khan
83
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

How Information Systems Facilitate Supply Chain Management


 Decide when, what to produce, store, move
 Rapidly communicate orders
 Communicate orders, track order status
 Check inventory availability, monitor levels
 Track shipments
 Plan production based on actual demand
 Rapidly communicate product design change
 Provide product specifications
 Share information about defect rates, returns

Rafi A Khan
84
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Supply Chain Management (SCM)


 Supply chain planning system: Enables firm to generate forecasts for
a product and to develop sourcing and a manufacturing plan for the
product

 Supply chain execution system: Manages flow of products through


distribution centers and warehouses

Rafi A Khan
85
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Collaborative Commerce
 Uses digital technologies to enable multiple organizations to
collaboratively design, develop, build, move, and manage products

 Increases efficiencies in reducing product design life cycles, minimizing


excess inventory, forecasting demand, and keeping partners and
customers informed

Rafi A Khan
86
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Rafi A Khan
87
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Industrial Networks
Private Industrial Networks

 Web-enabled networks

 Link systems of multiple firms in an industry

 Coordinate transorganizational business processes

Rafi A Khan
88
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

 Manages all ways used by firms to deal with existing and potential new
customers

 Business and Technology discipline

 Uses information system to coordinate entire business processes of a firm

Rafi A Khan
89
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)


 Provides end-to-end customer care

 Provides a unified view of customer across the company

 Consolidates customer data from multiple sources and provides


analytical tools for answering questions

Rafi A Khan
90
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

ENTERPRISE APPLICATIONS

Rafi A Khan
91
Management Information Systems 8/e
Chapter 2 Information Systems in the Enterprise

Knowledge Management Systems

 Creating knowledge

 Discovering and codifying knowledge

 Sharing knowledge

 Distributing knowledge

Rafi A Khan
92
The End
Rafi A Khan
93
5/12/2010 94

Management Information Systems


Feasibility Study

Three types of feasibility :

 Technical Feasibility

 Economical Feasibility

 Operational Feasibility

Rafi A Khan
95
Technical Feasibility

 H/W - I/P, O/P, Communication, Storage

 S/W - Database, OS, Languages

 Application - System Packages, Management Science Models

Rafi A Khan
96
Economical Feasibility

 Costs - Sytems/Programmes, Operations, H/W, S/W

 Savings - Operating Expenses, Clerical Personnel,


Equipment

 Benefits - Tangible ---- Reduction in Production Cost

Intangible ---- Customer Satisfaction

Rafi A Khan
97
Operational Feasibility

 Management - Operating Management

Middle Management

Top Management

Rafi A Khan
98
Reports of MIS

 Periodic Scheduled Reports.

 Exception Reports.

 Demand Reports and Responses.

 Push Reporting.

99
Information Technology and MIS

 Information Technology is defined as that branch of computer science


that includes:

Hardware.

Software.

Communication Technology.

Storage systems and

Other Information processing technologies.

10
Computer Hardware-------
The physical equipment

Secondary storage
Communication •Magnetic disk
Devices
•Optical disk
•Magnetic tape
Central Buses
Processing Unit Primary Storage

Input Devices Output Devices


•Keyboard •Printers
•Computer mouse •VDT
•Touch screen •Plotters
•Source data automation •Audio output
10
Computer Software

Computer
Software

Application System
Software Software

General purpose
Application-Specific System Management System Development
Application
Programs Programs Programs
Programs

10
Communication Technology

 Communications technology allows systems to transfer data from one location to


another for the transmission of voice, data, images, sound and even video. It can
take the form of :-

• Wired transmission: The transmission media can be

• Twisted pair cable.

• Coaxial cable.

• Fiber-optic cable.
• Wireless transmission: This includes:-

• Microwave Transmission.

• Satellite Transmission.

10
Using Communication Technology for Business
Solutions
 The Internet is revolutionizing communications by providing a
worldwide network linking business, government, and scientific and
educational organizations to individuals. Internet use falls into several
major areas, including:

• Electronic mail/ Voice mail.

• World Wide Web.

• Chat.

• Electronic Data Interchange.

• Electronic Commerce.

• Mobile Commerce.
10
Using Communication Technology for Business Solutions

 Intranets

These help organizations in creating richer, more responsive information


environments in which members of an organization can exchange
ideas, share information and work together on common projects and
assignments regardless of their physical location.

10
Using Communication Technology for Business Solutions

 Extranets
These are privately owned networks that are extended to
authorized users outside the company e.g. authorized buyers,
retailers, distributors, customers. They are often used for
collaborating with other companies for:
1. Supply Chain Management.
2. Customer Relationship Management.
3. Product design and development.
4. Training efforts.

10
Enterprise application architecture presenting an overview of the major
cross-functional enterprise applications and their interrelationships.

Suppliers

Supply Chain Management.


Collaboration. Decision Support.
Knowledge Management.

Selling. Distribution.
Partner Relationship Management.
Sourcing. Procurement
Employees

Enterprise Resource Planning.

Partners
Internal Business Processes.

Customer Relationship
Management.
Marketing. Sales. Service

Customers
10
Supply Chain Management

 It is a cross-functional inter-enterprise system that uses information


technology to help support and manage the links between some of
company‘s key business processes and those of its suppliers, customers
and business partners.

 The goal of SCM is to create a fast, efficient and low-cost network of


business relationships, or supply chain, to get a company‘s products
from concept to market.

10
Enterprise Resource Planning

 Integrated cross-functional software that re-engineers manufacturing,


distribution finance, human resources and other basic business process
of a company to improve its efficiency, agility, and profitability.

 It focuses on the company‘s internal aspects giving them an integrated


real-time view of its core business processes.

 Simply the technological backbone of e-business.

10
Customer Relationship Management

 A cross-functional e-business application that integrates and automates


many customer serving processes in sales, direct marketing, account
and order management, and customer service and support.

 CRM systems create an IT framework of web-enabled software and


databases that integrates these processes with the rest of a company‘s
business operations.

Rafi A Khan
11
Knowledge Management

 Organizing and sharing the diverse forms of business information


created within an organization. Includes managing project and
enterprise document libraries, discussion databases, intranet website
databases, and other types of knowledge bases.

 Different phases of a knowledge management system (KMS).

• Capturing/Acquisition of data/information

• Transformation of Info. into Knowledge

• Knowledge Storage

• Disseminating/Sharing of Knowledge

Figure
Rafi A Khan
11
Capturing/Acquisition of Data/Information

 Various technologies that can help in capturing of information


are:

• Document Management System:

Document management system keeps track of masses


of data and information, which is stored in a secure file
vault where its integrity is guaranteed and all changes to it,
is monitored, controlled, and recorded providing far easy
and faster access to all the documents. It takes care of
creating, storing, editing, and distributing documents.

Rafi A Khan
11
Capturing/Acquisition of Data/Information

 Database

Database is a collection of data organized to serve many


applications efficiently by centralizing the data and minimizing
redundant data. It is a computerized record keeping system that stores,
maintains, and provides access to information.

Database Management System (DBMS) is simply the software


that permits an organization to centralize data, manage them
efficiently, and provide access to the stored data by applications
programs. The DBMS acts as an interface between application
programs and the physical data files.

Rafi A Khan
11
Capturing/Acquisition of Data/Information

 Data Warehouse

An integrated collection of data extracted from operational,


historical and external databases and cleaned, transformed and
cataloged for retrieval and analysis to provide business intelligence for
business decision making.

 Search Engines

These are huge databases of web page files that have been
assembled automatically by machine.

Rafi A Khan
11
Transformation of Info. into Knowledge

Useful technologies for this phase of the knowledge management process


include:

 Multidimensional Data Analysis: Another term for multidimensional


data analysis is Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), which is a function
of business intelligence software that enables a user to easily and
selectively extract and view data from different points of view.

OLAP tools structure data hierarchically – the way managers think of


their enterprises, and also allows business analysts to rotate that data,
changing the relationships to get more detailed insight into corporate
information.

Rafi A Khan
11
Transformation of Info. into Knowledge

 Data mining or Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) provides an


organization with highly tangible benefits in the area of analysis. Data
mining is the nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown,
and potentially useful information from data. This encompasses a
number of different technical approaches such as clustering, data
summarization, learning classification rules, finding dependency net
works, analyzing changes, and detecting anomalies.

 Data mining software tools find hidden patterns and relationships in


large pools of data and infer rules from them that can be used to
predict future behavior and guide decision-making.

Rafi A Khan
11
Transformation of Info. into Knowledge contd.

 Decision Support Systems (DSS)

These are a specific class of computerized information system that


supports business and organizational decision-making activities.

 Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Rafi A Khan
11
Info/Knowledge Storage

 Knowledge repositories are widely recognized as key components of


most knowledge management systems. Once knowledge is captured, it
must be stored in a knowledge repository. A knowledge repository is a
collection of both internal and external knowledge.

Rafi A Khan
11
Info/Knowledge Dissemination

 The final phase is effectively communicating the captured "knowledge."


In fact, knowledge is not truly captured. Instead, what is captured is
information that is more easily transformed into knowledge by the
recipient. The key technologies that can be used for dissemination are:

• E-mail

• Teleconferencing, Data-conferencing

• Videoconferencing

• Groupware, and

• Intranets.

Rafi A Khan
11
5/12/2010 120

Decision Making
2009

Rafi A Khan
12
DECISION MAKING

System is a collection of objects such as people, resources,


concepts, and procedures intended to perform a function or
to serve a goal.

• Closed systems are totally independent.


• Open systems dependent on their environment.

• System effectiveness is the degree to which goals are achieved.


• System efficiency is a measure of the use of inputs (or resources)
to achieve outputs.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 121
Decision making is a process of choosing among alternative
courses of action for the purpose of attaining a goal or goals.

Simon’s 4 Phases of Decision Making

(1) intelligence

decision making (2) design problem solving

(3) choice decision making

problem solving (4) implementation

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 122
INTELLIGENCE PHASE
Organizational objectives
Search and scanning
Simplification/Assumption
Data collection
Reality Problem identification
Problem ownership
Problem classification
Problem statement
Problem statement

DESIGN PHASE
Validation of the model Formulate a model
Set criteria for choice
Search for alternatives
Predict and measure outcomes

Alternatives

CHOICE PHASE
Success Verification, testing of proposed solution
Solution to the model
Sensitivity analysis
Selection of best alternative (s)
Plan for implementation
Implementation
of solution Solution

Failure

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 123
1. Intelligence phase

 Scan the environment


 Analyze organizational goals (e.g. Inventory Management, Job
Selection, lack or an incorrect web presence)
 Collect data (Monitoring & analyzing)
 Identify problem
 Categorize problem
– Programmed (repetitive & routine) ---Scheduling of employees,
inventory level etc
– Non-programmed (Unstructured) --- Merger & Acquisitions
– Decomposed into smaller parts
 Assess ownership and responsibility for problem resolution

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 124
2. Design phase

• Formulate a model

• Set criteria for choice (Are we willing to take High risk


or we prefer low risk approach)

• Search for alternatives

• Predict and measure outcomes (E.g. Profit


Maximization)

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 125
3. Choice phase

•Each alternative must be evaluated

•Sensitivity analysis (determines robustness of any given alternative)

•Selection of best alternative (s)

•Plan for implementation

solution - set of values for the decision variables in a selected alternative

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 126
4. Implementation phase

•Putting a recommended solution to work

• Vague boundaries which include:


–Dealing with resistance to change
–User training
–Upper management support

•The problem is considered solved after the recommended solution to the


model is successfully implemented.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 127
Source: Based on Sprague, R.H., Jr., “A Framework for the Development of DSS.” MIS Quarterly, Dec. 1980, Fig. 5, p. 13.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 128
Decision Support Systems
 Intelligence Phase
– Automatic
• Data Mining
– Expert systems, CRM, neural networks
– Manual
• OLAP
• KMS
– Reporting
• Routine and ad hoc

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 12 129
Decision Support Systems

 Design Phase

– Financial and forecasting models

– Generation of alternatives by expert system

– Relationship identification through OLAP and data mining

– Use of KMS

– Business process models from CRM, RMS, ERP, and SCM

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 130
Decision Support Systems

 Choice Phase

– Identification of best alternative

– Identification of good enough alternative

– What-if analysis

– Goal-seeking analysis

– May use KMS, GSS, CRM, ERP, and SCM systems

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 131
Decision Support Systems

 Implementation Phase

– Improved communications

– Collaboration

– Training

– Supported by KMS, expert systems, GSS

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 132
5/12/2010 133

TYPES OF DECISIONS

Rafi A Khan
13
TYPES OF DECISIONS

Decisions are categorized along two dimensions:-

 The nature of the decision to be made

 The scope of the decision itself

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 134
TYPES OF DECISION
On the basis of the nature of the decision:-

1)Structured decision:-It‘s the one for which a well defined decision making
procedure exists.

2)Unstructured decision:- it is the one for which all the three decision phases
are unstructured.

3)Semi structured decision:- In this type one or two phases are structured and
the others are not.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 135
On the basis of scope of the decision itself.

1. Strategic Decision:- It is the one which effects the entire organization or a


major part of it for a long period of time

2. Tactical Decision:- It effects how a part of the organization does business


for a limited time in the future.

3. Operational Decision:- It is the one which effects a particular activity


currently taking place in an organization but either has a little impact on
the future.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 136
Combination of various types of Decisions

 Structured /operational

 Structured / tactical

 Structured/ strategic

 Semi-structured/ operational.

 Semi-structured/ tactical

 Semi-structured / strategic

 Unstructured/ operational

 Unstructured/ tactical

 Unstructured/ strategic

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 137
 Structured/Operational: Decide how to cut a log into boards in order
to minimize wastage.

The intelligence phase is trivial; if a log arrives at mill, it must be cut .

The design phases likewise fixed; the products that the mill produces
and hence the acceptable types of cuts.

The choice phase can be optimized mathematically because the value of


each potential board is known from business consideration and the
number of boards that can be operated via each communication of cuts
is a problem.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 138
 Structured /Tactical: Choosing the way in which to depreciate
corporate assets.

Resource allocation problems that can be solved by linear


programming methods are also in this category.

 Structured /Strategic: Deciding weather or not to proceed with an


R&D project on the bases of projected ROI

A plant location decision could be in this category if the only factors in


decisions are quantifiable, such as transportation costs of known raw
materials from known locations and of known products to known
markets.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 13 139
 Semistructured/Operational: Deciding to accept or reject an applicant
to a selective collage.

 Semitructured /Tactical: Choosing an insurance company for an


employee health program. Cost per employee is an important and
objective factor in this decision. Intangible factors include acceptability
of a company to the employee population and the relative importance
of different benefits: is 100 percent hospitalization coverage with Rs.
500 deductible amount better or worse than 80 percent coverage with
no deductible?

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 140
 Semitructured /Strategic: Deciding whether or not to enter a new
market. Sales projections, marketplace growth data, development cost
estimates and marketing expenses forecasts can combine to provide a
profit-and-loss forecast. However there are countless factors that could
make it totally worthless. Judgment of experienced managers is
needed for the final step.

 Unstructured/Operational: Dealing with a machine breakdown. There


is no set procedure what to do while awaiting repairs. The decision is
operational because the way a company deals with one machine failure
need not set a precedent for the next.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 141
 Unstructured /Tactical: Hiring decisions typically fall into this area,
especially if the job to be filled is above level where aptitude and
ability tests can be relied on as performance indicators.

 Unstructured/Strategic: Deciding how to respond to an unfriendly


takeover proposal made by a competitor. The action can have a long
term impact on the entire firm.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 142
Decision Support Frameworks

Type of Control

Type of Decision: Operational Control Managerial Control Strategic Planning

Structured Accounts receivable, Budget analysis, short- Investments, warehouse

(Programmed) accounts payable, order term forecasting, locations, distribution


entry personnel reports centers

Semistructured Production scheduling, Credit evaluation, Mergers and


inventory control budget preparation, acquisitions, new
project scheduling, product planning,
rewards systems compensation, QA, HR
policy planning
Unstructured Buying software, Negotiations, R&D planning,

(Unprogrammed) approving loans, help recruitment, hardware technology


desk purchasing development, social
responsibility plans
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 143
The components of the quantitative model
– result variable indicate how well the system performs
– decision variables describe the alternative course of action
– uncontrollable variables or parameters are not under the
control of the decision maker

Uncontrollable
variables

Mathematical
Decision variables Result variables
relationships

– intermediate result variables reflect intermediate outcomes

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 144
Examples of the Components of Models.
Decision Result Uncontrollable
Area Variables Variables Variables and Parameters
Financial investment Investment alternatives and Total profit Inflation rate
amounts Rate of return (ROI) Prime rate
How long to invest Earnings per share Competition
When to invest Liquidity level
Marketing Advertising budget Market share Customers' income
Where to advertise Customer satisfaction Competitors' actions
Manufacturing What and how much to Total cost Machine capacity
produce Quality level Technology
Inventory levels Employee satisfaction Materials prices
Compensation programs
Accounting Use of computers Data processing cost Computer technology
Audit schedule Error rate Tax rates
Legal requirements

Transportation Shipments schedule Total transport cost Delivery distance


Regulations
Services Staffing levels Customer satisfaction Demand for services

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 145
Example

Company makes special purpose computers.


Decision to be made: how many computers should be produced next month?
Two types of computers are considered: T1, T2.
They require different days of labour, different costs for material.

Uncontrollable
variables
constraints on labour
and budget

Decision variables Mathematical


Result variables
relationships
X1 = NofT1 Maximise profit
X2 = NofT2 Total profit
subject to constraints

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 146
Principle of choice is a decision regarding the acceptability of a
solution approach.

• Normative models
– chosen alternative is the best of all possible alternatives
– suboptimisation
– optimisation models

• Descriptive models describe things as they are, or as they are


believed to be.
– no guarantee a solution is optimal
– simulation

Generating alternatives
– automatically by the model
– by using heuristics

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 147
Predicting the outcomes of alternatives
1. Decision making under certainty
Decision maker knows exactly what the outcome of
each course of action will be - deterministic environment.
2. Decision making under risk
Each alternative has several possible outcomes,
each with a given probability of occurrence
- probabilistic or stochastic decision situation.
3. Decision making under uncertainty
Several outcomes are possible for each course of action,
their probabilities are not known.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 148
Measuring outcomes
The value of the an alternative is judged in terms of
goal attainment.

Scenario describes the decision and uncontrollable variables


and parameters for a specific modelling situation.
Of special interest are:
– the worst possible scenario
– the best possible scenario
– the most likely scenario

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 14 149
Search
• Analytical techniques
– mathematical formulae
– algorithm: step-by-step search process
• Blind search
– complete enumeration
– incomplete search
• Heuristic search (derived from the Greek word for discovery)
rules guide the search process

Normative models:
– analytical techniques
– complete, exhaustive enumeration
Descriptive models:
– blind search
– using heuristics
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 150
Evaluation
• Multiple goals
– Today's management systems want to achieve
multiple goals simultaneously.
– Goals are usually partially or totally conflicting.

• Sensitivity analysis

Checks the impact of a change in the input data or parameters


on the proposed solution (the result variable)
1. Automatic sensitivity analysis
tells the range within which an input variable or parameter
can vary without impact on the proposed solution
one change at a time
2. Trial and error
some input data are changed
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 151
• What-if-analysis
What will happen to the solution if an input variable or
a parameter is changed?
e.g. what will happen to the total inventory cost if the cost of
carrying inventories increases by 10%?
• Goal seeking analysis
Computes the amount of inputs necessary to achieve a desired level
of an input (goal).
e.g. How many nurses are needed to reduce the average waiting time
of a patient in the emergency room to less than 10 minutes.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 152
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 153
Literature:
1. (a) Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Fifth Edition
E.Turban, Jay Aronson,
Prentice Hall, 1998.
(b) Decision Support Systems and Expert Systems,
Management Support Systems, E.Turban, Fourth Edition,
Prentice Hall, 1995.

2. Knowledge-based Decision Support Systems, With Applications


in Business, 2nd Edition, M. Klein, L. Methlie,
Wiley, 1995.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 154
SUMMARY

 Systems are composed of inputs, outputs, processes, and


decision makers.

 A model is simplified representation or abstraction of reality.


They can be iconic, analog, or mathematical.

 Decision making involves four major phases: intelligence, design,


choice, and implementation.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 155
Models

A model is a simplified representation or abstraction of reality.

1. Iconic model is a physical replica of a system.

2. Analog model gives a symbolic representation of reality,


behaves like the real system but does not look like it.

3. Mathematical (quantitative) models use mathematical relationships


Benefits:
– compression of time
– easy model manipulation
– low cost of the analysis
– cost of making mistakes is less than mistakes on real system
– can model risk and uncertainty
– a very large number of solutions can be analysed
– enhance learning and training

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 156
3. Optimisation
model generates an optimal solution
Limitations:
– works if the problem is structured and deterministic

4. Heuristics
Informal knowledge of how to solve problems efficiently and
effectively, how to plan steps in solving a complex problem,
how to improve performance, and so forth.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 157
Modelling Process

Example: How much to order for the grocery?


The Question: How much bread to stock each day?

1. Trial-and-error
experimentation on the real system
Not appropriate if:
– too many alternatives to explore
– the cost of making errors is very high
– the environment keeps changing

2. Simulation
assume the appearance of the characteristics of reality
Problems:
– no guarantee that the solution is optimal one
– professional development
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 158
Definition of DSS

 DSS is an interactive computer-based systems, which help decision makers


utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems.

 DSS is an interactive computer-based systems, which help decision makers


utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 15 159
Definition of DSS

 Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a class of computerized information


systems that support decision-making activities. DSS are interactive
computer-based systems and subsystems intended to help decision makers
use communications technologies, data, documents, knowledge and/or
models to successfully complete decision process tasks.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 160
Components of DSS

Other computer Internet, intranet,


based systems extranet.

Data management Model management External models

Knowledge-based
subsystems

User interface

Manager (user)
Organizational KB

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 161
Components of DSS
Data management subsystem
 The data management subsystem includes a data base, which contains
relevant data for the situation and is managed by software call the database
management system (DBMS) .the data management subsystem can be
interconnected with the corporate data warehouse, a repository for
corporate relevant decision making data.
Model management subsystem
 This is software package that includes financial, statistical, management
science, or other quantitative models that provide the system analytical
capabilities and appropriate software management. Modeling languages in
building custom models are also included, this software is often called a
model base management system (MBMS). This component can be
connected to corporate or external storage of models.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 162
Components of DSS
Knowledge based management subsystem

 This subsystem can support any of the other subsystems or act as an


independent component. It provides intelligence to augment the decision
maker‘s own. It can be interconnected with the organization‘s knowledge
depository, which is called the organizational knowledge base.

User interface subsystem

 The user communicates with and commands the DSS through this
subsystem. The user is considered part of the system. Researchers assert that
some of unique contributions of DSS are derived from the intensive
interaction between the computer and the decision maker.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 163
Internal data
THE DATA MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM s ources

External
data Finance Marketing Production Personal Other
Source

Extraction
Private personal
Organizational data
knowledge base

Decision support
database
Corporate data
warehouse

Query
Facility
Database management
System Interface
oRetrieval management
oInquiry
oUpdate
oReport generation
oDelete
Data directory Model management

Knowledge-based
Rafi A Khan s ubsystem
5/12/2010 16 164
THE DATA MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM

 The data management subsystem is composed of the following elements:

 DSS database

 Database management system

 Data directory.

 Query facility.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 165
THE DATABASE
 A database is a collection of interrelated data organized to meet the needs
and struc-ture of an organization and can be used by more than one person
for more than one ap-plication

 The data in the DSS database are extracted from internal and external data
sources, as well as from personal data belonging to one or more Users.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 166
DATA ORGANISATION

 In small ad hoc DSS, data can be entered directly into models some times
extracted directly from larger databases.

 In large organizations that use extensive data ,such as Wal-Mart, AT&T,


and United Air Lines data are organized in a data warehouse and used
when needed .

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 167
EXTRACTION
 To create a DSS database or a data warehouse it is often necessary to capture
data from several sources. This operation is called extraction.

 It basically consists of importing of files, summarization, standardization,


filtration, and condensation of data.

 The data for the warehouse are extracted from internal and external sources.
The extraction process is frequently managed by a DBMS.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 168
DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

 A database is created, accessed, and updated by a DBMS.

 Most DSS are built with a standard commercial relational DBMS that
provides capabilities such as it captures or extracts data for inclusion in a
DSS database ,it updates (adds, deletes, edits, changes) data records and
files, retrieves data ,provides data security etc.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 16 169
THE QUERY FACILITY
 Query facility is necessary to access, manipulate, and query data.

 The query facility includes a special query language.

 Important functions of DSS query system are selection and manipulation


operation (e.g., the ability to follow a computer instruction such as "Search
for a sales in zone B during June 2000 and summarize sales by salesperson").

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 170
THE DIRECTORY

 The data directory is a catalog of all the data in the database.

 It contains data definitions and its main function is to answer questions


about the availability of data items, their source, and their exact meaning.

 The directory is especially appropriate for supporting the intelligence phase


of the decision-making process by helping to scan data and identify problem
areas or opportunities.

 It supports the addition of new entries, deletion of entries, and retrieval of


information on specific objects.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 171
General Functions of the DBMS
Data Definition

 Provides a data definition language (DDL) that allows users to describe


the data entities and their associated attributes and relationships

 Allows for the interrelation of data from multiple sources

Data Manipulation

 Provides the user with a query language to interact with the database

 Allows for capture and extraction of data

 Provides rapid retrieval of data for ad hoc queries and reports

 Allows for the construction of complex queries for retrieval and data
manipulation Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 172
Data Integrity

 Allows the user to describe rules (integrity constraints) to maintain the


integrity of the database

 Assists in the control of erroneous data entry based on the defined integrity
constraints

Access Control

 Allows identification of authorized users

 Controls access to data various elements and data manipulation activities


within the database

 Tracks usage and access to data by authorized users

Concurrency Control

 Provides procedures for controlling simultaneous access to the same data


by more than one user
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 173
5/12/2010 174

Improved data sharing.

The DBMS helps create an environment in which end users have


better access to more and better-managed data. Such access takes it
possible for end users to respond quickly to changes in their
environment.
Transaction Recovery
Provides a mechanism for restart and reconciliation of the database in
the event of hardware failure
Records information on all transactions at certain points to enable
satisfactory database restart

Minimized data inconsistency.

Data inconsistency exists when different versions of the same data


appear in different places.
Rafi A Khan
17
Improved decision making.

 Better-managed data and improved data access make it possible to


generate better quality information, on which better decisions are based.

Increased end-user productivity.

 The availability of data, combined with the tools that transform data
into usable information, empowers end users to make quick, informed
decisions that can make the difference between success and failure in the
global economy.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 175
Structure of Model Management System
Models (model base)
•Strategic, tactical, operational
•Statistical, financial, marketing,
Model directory
mgt. science, accounting etc
•Model building blocks

Model execution,
integration, and command
Model base management processor
•Modeling commands : creation
•Maintenance: update
•Database interface
•Modeling language

Data management Interface management Knowledge –


based
subsystem
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 176
Functions of the MBMS

 Creates models easily and quickly, either from scratch or from the building
blocks

 Allows users to manipulate models so that they can conduct experiments


and sensitivity analyses ranging from what-if to goal seeking

 Stores, retrieves and manages a wide variety of different types of models


in a logical and integrated manner

 Accesses and integrates the model building blocks

 Catalogs and displays the directory of models for use by several


individuals in the organization

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 177
Functions of the MBMS
 Tracks model data and application use

 Interrelates model with appropriate linkages with the database and


integrates them within the DSS

 Manages and maintains the model base with management functions


analogous to database management: store, access, run, update, link, catalog,
and query

 Use multiple models to support problem solving

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 178
USER INTERFACE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Data management Knowledge- based Model management
and DBMS subsystem and MBMS

User Interface
Management System
(UIMS)

Language Processor

Input Output

Action Display
Languages Languages

Printers, plotters

Users

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 17 179
General Functions of the DSS Interface

 Allows for interaction with the DSS in a variety of dialog styles

 Accommodates the user with a variety of input devices

 Presents data with a variety of formats and output devices

 Gives user help capabilities, prompting, diagnostic and suggestion routines,


or any other flexible support.

 Stores input and output data.

 Provides support for communication among and between multiple DSS


users

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 180
General Functions of the DSS Interface
 variety of formats included menu driven, question/answer, procedural
command language, or natural command language

 Provides for the presentation of data in a variety of formats

 Allows for detailed report definition and generation by the DSS user

 Allows for the creation of forms, tables, and graphics for data output

 Can provide multiple ―windows‖ or views of the data to be available


simultaneously

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 181
CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS
 DSS provides support for decision makers mainly in semi-structured and
unstructured situations by bringing together human judgment and
computerized information.

 Support is provided for various managerial levels, ranging from top


executives to line managers.

 Support is provided to individuals as well as to groups.

 DSS provides support to several interdependent or sequential decisions.


The decisions may be made once, several times or repeatedly.

 DSS supports all phases of decision making process; intelligence, design,


choice and implementation.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 182
CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS
 DSS are adaptive over time. DSS are flexible and so users can add, delete,
combine, change or rearrange basic elements.

 User Interface – Interactive and friendly.

 DSS attempt to prove the effectiveness of decision making rather than its
efficiency.

 The decision maker has complete control over all steps of the decision
making process in solving a problem. A DSS specifically aims to support
and not to replace the decision maker.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 183
CHARACTERISTICS OF DSS
 End users should be able to construct and modify simple systems by
themselves. Larger systems can be built with assistance from information
system (IS) specialists.

 A DSS usually utilizes models for analyzing decision making situations. The
modeling capability enables experimenting with different strategies under
different configurations.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 184
Benefits of DSS Use

 Extend the decision-maker‘s ability to process information and knowledge

 Extend the decision-maker‘s ability to tackle large-scale, time-consuming,


complex problems
 Improve the time associated with making a particular decision

 Improve the reliability of a particular decision process or outcome


 Encourage exploration and discovery on the part of the decision-maker

 Reveal new approaches to thinking about a particular problem space or


decision context
 Generate new evidence in support of a particular decision or confirmation
of existing assumptions
 Create a strategic or competitive advantage over competing organizations

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 185
Limitations of DSS Use

 DSSs cannot yet be designed to contain distinctly human decision-


making talents such as creativity, imaginativeness, or intuition

 The power of a DSS is limited by the computer system upon which it is


running, its design, and the knowledge it possesses at the time of its
use

 Language and command interfaces are not yet sophisticated enough to


allow for natural language processing of user directives and inquiries

 DSSs are normally designed to be narrow in scope of application thus


limiting their generalizability to multiple decision-making contexts
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 186
DSS Classification

1. Alter’s Output Classification (1980)

2. Holsapple and Whinston’s Classification

1. Text-oriented DSS
2. Database-oriented DSS
3. Spreadsheet-oriented DSS
4. Solver-oriented DSS
5. Rule-oriented DSS
6. Compound DSS

Rafi A Khan
18 187
Alters' Classification of DSS

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 188
Alter’s Classification of DSS

Data-Driven DSS

 Data-Driven DSS take the massive amounts of data available through the
company's TPS and MIS systems and cull from it useful information which
executives can use to make more informed decisions.

 Data- Driven DSS emphasize access to and manipulation of large databases


of structured data

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 18 189
Alter’s Classification of DSS

Model-Driven DSS

 A second category, Model-Driven DSS (accounting and financial models,


representational models, and optimization models).

 Model-Driven DSS emphasize access to and manipulation of a model.

 Model-Driven DSS use data and parameters provided by decision-makers to


aid them in analyzing a situation, but they are not usually data intensive.

 Very large databases are usually not needed for Model-Driven DSS.

Primarily used for the typical "what-if" analysis. That is, "What if we
increase production of our products and decrease the shipment time?"

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 190
DSS Classifications

Holsapple and Whinston’s Classification

1. Text-oriented DSS
2. Database-oriented DSS
3. Spreadsheet-oriented DSS
4. Solver-oriented DSS
5. Rule-oriented DSS
6. Compound DSS

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 191
Holsapple and Winston Classification

TEXT ORIENTED DSS

 Textually represented information that could have a bearing on decision.

 Documents to be electronically created, revised and viewed as needed.

 Information Technologies such as documents imaging, hypertext etc can be


incorporated into this type.

 DMS, KMS, Content Mgt System, Business rule system

DATABASE ORIENTED DSS

 In this type of DSS the database plays a major role in the DSS structure.

 Strong report generation and query capabilities.

 Data are organized in a highly structured format.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 192
Holsapple and Winston Classification
SPREADSHEET ORIENTED DSS
 Spreadsheet is a modeling language that allows the user to write models to
execute DSS analysis.
 Tools- Statistical packages, linear programming package (Solver), financial
and management science models.
 The most popular tools used are Excel and Lotus 1-2-3.

SOLVER ORIENTED DSS


 A solver is an algorithmic or procedure written as a computer program for
performing certain computations for solving a particular problem type.
 EOQ for calculating optimal ordering quantity or a linear regression routine
for calculating trend.
 Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 and quatro pro can be used to develop such a system.

 C++, Lingo etc


Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 193
Holsapple and Winston Classification

RULE ORIENTED DSS

 The knowledge component of DSS includes both procedural and inferential


(Reasoning) rules, often in an expert system, format.

 Assignment Algorithm for Flight Scheduling

COMPOUND DSS

 It is a hybrid system that includes two or more of the fine basic structures
explained above. It can be built by using a set of independent DSS, each
specializing in one area.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 194
Other DSS Classification

 Personal

 Group

 Organizational

 Custom VS Readymade

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 195
DSS Classification

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF DSS

INSTITUTIONAL DSS

 Deal with decisions of a recurring nature. An institutionalized DSS can be


developed and refined as it evolves over a number of years because the DSS
is used repeatedly to solve identical or similar problems.

 Portfolio Management

ADHOC DSS

 Deals with specific problems that are usually neither anticipated nor
recurring. Adhoc decisions often involve strategic planning issues
sometimes management control problems.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 196
Knowledge-Driven DSS

Knowledge-Driven DSS

 It suggest or recommend actions to managers.

 These DSS are computer systems with specialized problem-solving


expertise.

 The "expertise" consists of knowledge about a particular domain,


understanding of problems within that domain, and "skill" at solving some
of these problems.

 A related concept is Data Mining. It refers to a class of analytical


applications that search for hidden patterns in a database.

 Data mining is the process of searching through large amounts of data to


produce data content relationships.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 197
Document-Driven DSS

 A new type of DSS, a Document-Driven DSS is evolving to help managers


retrieve and manage unstructured documents and Web pages.

 The Web provides access to large document databases including databases


of hypertext documents, images, sounds and video.

 Examples of documents that would be accessed by a Document-Based DSS


are policies and procedures, product specifications, catalogs, and corporate
historical documents, including minutes of meetings, corporate records, and
important correspondence.

 A search engine is a powerful decision aiding tool associated with a


Document-Driven DSS.

Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 198
Communications-Driven and Group DSS

 Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) came first, but now a broader
category of Communications-Driven DSS or groupware can be identified.

 It includes communication, collaboration and decision support technologies


that do not fit within those DSS types identified.

 A Group DSS is a hybrid Decision Support System that emphasizes both the
use of communications and decision models.

 A Group Decision Support System is an interactive computer-based system


intended to facilitate the solution of problems by decision-makers working
together as a group.

 Groupware supports electronic communication, scheduling, document


sharing, two-way interactive video, White Boards, Bulletin Boards, and
Email.
Rafi A Khan
5/12/2010 19 199
1. Impact on Structured Tasks, where standard procedures, decision
rules and information flows can be reliably Predefined.
MIS

2. Payoff – Improvement in efficient by reducing costs, turnaround


time , replacing clerical personnel or increasing their productivity.
1. Impact mostly on Structured problems (rather than tasks), in which
Mgt. Sci / OR

the objective, data and constraints can be prespecified.

2. Payoff – generation of better solutions for general categories of


problems (e.g. inventory).
1. Impact is on decisions in which there is sufficient structure for
computer and analytic aids to be of value but where the managers
DSS

judgment is essential.

2. Payoff – extending the range and capability of managers decision


process to help them improve their effectiveness.
Rafi A Khan
20
3. Relevance for managers decision making – indirect (e.g. by
providing reports and access to data.
MIS

4. MIS application is routine and done periodically.

3. Relevance for managers – provision of detailed recommendation


Mgt. Sci / OR

and new methods handling complex problems.

4. Application are nonroutine, as needed.

3. Relevance for managers – creation of supportive tool, under their


own control..
DSS

4. Application are nonroutine, as needed.

Rafi A Khan
20
5/12/2010

Knowledge Management

The Business School


University of Kashmir

Rafi A Khan
20
Knowledge Management

 Ancient

 Collaboration at the organizational level

 Could revolutionize collaboration and computing

5/12/2010 10:21:04 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
20
Knowledge Management

Helps organizations

 Identify

 Select

 Organize

 Disseminate

 Transfer

Important information and expertise within the organizational


memory in an unstructured manner

5/12/2010 10:21:04 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
20
Knowledge

 Understanding gained through experience or study

 Know-how or familiarity with how to do something

 Information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable

 Accumulation of facts, procedural rules or heuristics

 Knowledge is INFORMATION IN ACTION

 Actionable (relevant) information available in the right format, at


the right time, and at the right place for decision making
(TIWANA2000)

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
20
Knowledge

 Fact – statement of some element of truth about a subject matter or a domain.

Example: milk is white, sun rises in east.

 Heuristics – rule of thumb based on years of experience.

Example: strike on independence day in our state

 Intelligence – capacity to acquire, improve and apply knowledge.

 Experience – what we have done and what has happened in past in a specific
area of work

 Common sense – natural ability to sense, judge or perceive situations ; grows


stronger over time.

 Memory – ability to store and retrieve relevant experience at will, is part of


intelligence.

 Learning
5/12/2010 – is knowledge
10:21:05 PM or skill that
Rafi A is
RafiA acquired by instruction or20
Khan
Khan study
Knowledge Types

 Explicit knowledge

– Objective, rational, technical

– Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports

– Codified

– Leaky knowledge

 Tacit knowledge

– Subjective, experiential learning

– Highly personalized
Rafi
– Difficult to formalize
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM RafiA Khan
A Khan
20
Knowledge Types

 Shallow (surface) knowledge

– Indicates minimal understanding of the problem area

Example – If u don‘t have petrol in your car, the car


wont start

 Deep knowledge

– Indicates maximal understanding of the problem area

Example – why don‘t a car starts when it has no petrol


(need to know various
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM components
Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan of car) 20
Knowledge Types

– Descriptive – data, information

– Procedural – how to do something

– Reasoning – policies or rules

– Linguistic – vocabulary or grammar

– Presentation – graphing, messaging

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
20
Data, Information and Knowledge

INFORMATION
Processed Relevant and
actionable

DATA KNOWLEDGE

Relevant and actionable data

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Knowledge Management (KM)

 A process of capturing, transformation, and diffusion of


knowledge throughout an enterprise so that it can be
shared and thus REUSED

 Helps organizations find, select, organize, disseminate,


and transfer important information and expertise

 Transforms data / information into actionable knowledge


to be used effectively anywhere
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan in the organization
A Khan
21 by
KM Objectives

 Create knowledge repositories

 Improve knowledge access

 Enhance the knowledge environment

 Manage knowledge as an asset

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
KMS Manage

 Knowledge creation through learning

 Knowledge capture

 Knowledge sharing and communication through


collaboration

 Knowledge access

 Knowledge use and reuse

 Knowledge archiving

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

 Create knowledge

 Capture knowledge

 Refine knowledge

 Store knowledge

 Manage knowledge

 Disseminate knowledge
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Create Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Create Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
21
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Store
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Store
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Store
Knowledge

Manage
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Store
Knowledge

Manage
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Disseminate
Store
Knowledge
Knowledge

Manage
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Cyclic Model of KM

Capture
Knowledge

Create Knowledge Refine


Knowledge

Disseminate
Store
Knowledge
Knowledge

Manage
Knowledge

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
Why Adopt KM

 Cost savings

 Better performance

 Demonstrated success

 Share Best Practices

 Competitive Advantage

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
KM Methods, Technologies, and Tools

 Email or messaging
 Document management
 Search engines
 Enterprise information portal
 Data warehouse
 Groupware
 Workflow management
 Web-based training
 Others

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
22
5/12/2010

Knowledge Acquisition
Techniques
The Business School

University of Kashmir
Rafi A Khan
22
Knowledge Acquisition

The following are main methods of knowledge acquisition :

• Production Rule
• Frames
• Semantic Network

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Production Rules

IF-THEN

 Independent part, combined with other pieces, to produce


better result

 Model of human behavior

 Examples

– IF condition, THEN conclusion

– Conclusion, IF condition

– If condition, THEN conclusion1 (OR) ELSE conclusion2


5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Frames

 Organized structure of knowledge

 Put related knowledge in one area called frame

 A frame consists of slots representing a part of


knowledge
 Each slot has a value in the form of data,
information, process and rules
 Frame can be related to other frames

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Frames(Engine Overheating)

Slot : Symptoms Value

Temp More than 80 deg


Water Boiling Slot : Inspection
Speed Retardation Value
Check Water Level
Oil in Engine Slot : Treatment Value
Carburetor
Stop Engine & Drain
Water
Start Engine & pour cold
Water
Increase oil level
Adjust Carburetor
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Semantic Networks

 Graphical
depictions

 Nodes and links


connecting nodes

 Node represents an
Entity & link
represents
Association

 Hierarchical
relationships
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Inferencing

 Inferencing means deriving a conclusion based on statements


that only imply that conclusion.

 Every rule in knowledge base can be checked to see whether


its premise (principle) or conclusion can be satisfied by
previously made assertions.

 This process can be done in two directions :

–Forward

–Backward

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Inference Techniques

Forward Chaining
Forward chaining is a data-driven approach . We start from available
information as it becomes available or from a basic idea, and then we try to
draw conclusions.

Backward chaining
Backward chaining is a goal-driven approach in which you start from an
expectation of what is going to happen (hypothesis) and then seek evidence
that supports (or contradicts) your expectation.

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Example

Investment Decision : Whether to invest in IBM Stocks


The following variables are used:
– A= Have Rs.10,000
– B= Younger than 30
– C= Education at college level
– D= Annual income of atleast Rs.40,000
– E= Invest in securities
– F= Invest in growth stocks
– G= Invest in IBM stock (the potential goal)

The facts: we assume that an investor has Rs.10,000(that A is true) and


that she is 25 years old (B is true). She would like advice on
investing in IBM stock(yes or no for the goal).

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Example

The Rules:Our knowledge base includes the following five rules:


 R1: IF a person has Rs10,000 to invest and has a college degree THEN she should
invest in securities
 R2: IF a persons annual income is atleast Rs40,000 to invest and has a college
degree THEN she should invest in growth stocks
 R3: IF a person is < 30 and is investing in securities THEN she should invest in
growth stocks
 R4: IF a person is < 30 and >22 THEN she has a college degree

 R5:IF a person wants to invest in growth stocks then the stock should be IBM
– R1: IF A and C, THEN E
– R2: IF D and C,THEN F
– R3: IF B and E, THEN F
– R4: IF B, THEN C
– R5: IF F, THEN G
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Forward Chaining

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
23
Backward Chaining

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
The End
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Experts

 Experts

– Have special knowledge, judgment, and experience

– Can apply these to solve problems

• Higher performance level than average person

• Faster Solutions

• Recognize Patterns

 Expertise

– Task specific knowledge of experts


5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA
• Acquired from reading, Khan
training,
A Khan
practice 24
Expert System

Expert Systems: a computer application that employs a set of rules based


on human knowledge to solve problems that require human expertise

 Information systems that solve problems by capturing knowledge for a

very specific and limited domain of human expertise are called expert
systems

– For example, diagnosing a cars ignition system, classifying biological


specimen

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Common Expert System Architecture

User

User
Interface

Inference
Engine

Knowledge Base

User Environment

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
KBES

Knowledge based expert system (KBES) has three basic


components:

• Knowledge base

• User control mechanism

• Inference Mechanism

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
User Interface

 Design of the UI focuses on human concerns such as ease of use,


reliability and reduction of fatigue

 Design should allow for a variety of methods of interaction

(input, control and query)

 Mechanisms include touch screen, keypad, light pens, voice

command, hot keys

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Knowledge Base

 Contains the domain-specific knowledge acquired from the

domain experts

 Can consist of all the theoretical foundations, facts, judgments,

rules, formulas, intuitions and experience

 The success of an ES relies on the completeness and accuracy of

its knowledge base

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Inference Engine

 Here, the knowledge is put to use to produce solutions

 Interprets the knowledge available and performs logical

deductions in a given situation.

 It is a strategy used to search through rule base

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Applications of Expert Systems

 DENDRAL project
– Applied knowledge or rule-based reasoning commands
– Deduced likely molecular structure of compounds
 MYCIN
– Rule-based system for diagnosing bacterial infections
 XCON
– Rule-based system to determine optimal systems
configuration
 Credit analysis
– Ruled-based systems for commercial lenders
 Pension fund adviser
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
24
Applications

 Finance
– Insurance evaluation, credit analysis, tax planning, financial planning
and reporting, performance evaluation
 Data processing
– Systems planning, equipment maintenance, vendor evaluation, network
management
 Marketing
– Customer-relationship management, market analysis, product planning
 Human resources
– HR planning, performance evaluation, scheduling, pension management,
legal advising
 Manufacturing
– Production planning, quality management, product design, plant site
selection, equipment maintenance and repair
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Benefits of Expert Systems

 Increased outputs
 Increased productivity
 Decreased decision-making time
 Increased process and product quality
 Reduced downtime
 Capture of scarce expertise
 Flexibility
 Ease of complex equipment operation
 Elimination of expensive monitoring equipment
 Operation in hazardous environments
 Access to knowledge and help desks
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Benefits of Expert Systems

 Ability to work with incomplete, imprecise, uncertain data

 Provides training

 Enhanced problem solving and decision-making

 Rapid feedback

 Facilitate communications

 Reliable decision quality

 Ability to solve complex problems

 Ease of knowledge transfer to remote locations


5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Limitations

 Knowledge not always readily available

 Difficult to extract expertise from humans

 Lack of end-user trust

 Knowledge subject to biases

 Systems may not be able to arrive at conclusions

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
The End
5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
5/12/2010

The Data Warehouse

Department of Management Studies

University of
Rafi A Khan Kashmir
25
Objective

 How operational data and decision support data differ

 What a data warehouse is, how data for it are prepared, and how it is
implemented

 What data mining is and what role it plays in decision support

 What online analytical processing (OLAP) is

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
The Need for Data Analysis

 Managers must be able to track daily transactions to evaluate how the


business is performing

 By tapping into operational database, management can develop strategies


to meet organizational goals

 Data analysis can provide information about short-term tactical


evaluations and strategies

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Operational Data vs. Decision Support Data

 Operational Data
– Mostly stored in relational database
– Optimized to support transactions representing daily operations
 DSS Data
– Give tactical and strategic business meaning to operational data
– Differs from operational data in following three main areas:
• Time span
• Granularity
• Dimensionality

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Operational Data vs. Decision Support Data

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
25
Operational Data vs. Decision Support Data

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
The Data Warehouse

 Integrated, subject-oriented, time-variant, nonvolatile collection of data


that provides support for decision making

 Usually a read-only database optimized for data analysis and query


processing

 Requires time, money, and considerable managerial effort to create

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Characteristics of a Data Warehouse

• Subject orientation: data is organized based on how the users refer to it.
• Integrated: all inconsistencies regarding naming convention and value
representations are removed.
• Non-volatile: data is stored in read-only format and do not change over
time.
• Time Variant: data are not current but normally time-series.
• Summarized: operational data are mapped into a decision-usable
format.
• Large Volume: time-series datasets are normally quite large.
• Not Normalized: DW data can, and often is, redundant.
• Metadata: data about data is stored.
• Data Sources: internal and external unintegrated operational systems.

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
The Data Warehouse (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
The Data Warehouse (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:05 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Dependent
Data Mart

Extract/Summarize Data
External
Data

OLAP tools

ETL Routine
Operational (Extract/Transform/Load) Data
Database(s) Warehouse Data Mining Tools

Ad-hoc Queries
Independent
Data Mart

Reporting Tools

Monitoring/
Fig. Data warehouse process model
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Data Warehousing Benefits
 Increase in knowledge worker productivity
 Supports all decision makers‘ data requirements
 Provide ready access to critical data
 Insulates operation databases from adhoc processing
 Provides high-level summary information
 Provides drill down capabilities

Yields
– Improved business knowledge
– Competitive advantage
– Enhances customer service and satisfaction
– Facilitates decision making
– Help streamline business processes
266
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
The Data Mart

 Data mart

– Small, single-subject data warehouse subset

– Each is more manageable data set than data warehouse

– Provides decision support to small group of people

– Typically lower cost and lower implementation time than data


warehouse

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Twelve Rules that Define
a Data Warehouse

 Data warehouse and operational environments are separated

 Data warehouse data are integrated

 Data warehouse contains historical data over long time horizon

 Data warehouse data are snapshot data captured at given point in time

 Data warehouse data are subject oriented

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Twelve Rules that Define
a Data Warehouse (continued)

 Data warehouse data are mainly read-only with periodic batch updates
from operational data

– No online updates allowed

 Data warehouse development life cycle differs from classical systems


development

 Data warehouse contains data with several levels of detail: current detail
data, old detail data, lightly summarized data, and highly summarized
data

 Data warehouse environment is characterized by read-only transactions to


very large data sets

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
26
Twelve Rules that Define
a Data Warehouse (continued)

 Data warehouse environment has system that traces data sources,


transformations, and storage

 Data warehouse‘s metadata are critical component of this environment

 Data warehouse contains a mechanism for resource usage that enforces


optimal use of data by end users

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
OLAP Activities

 Generating queries

 Requesting ad hoc reports

 Conducting statistical and other analyses

 Developing multimedia applications

271
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
Online Analytical Processing

 Advanced data analysis environment that supports decision making,


business modeling, and operations research

 OLAP systems share four main characteristics:

– Use multidimensional data analysis techniques

– Provide advanced database support

– Provide easy-to-use end-user interfaces

– Support client/server architecture

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
Multidimensional Data Analysis Techniques

 Data are processed and viewed as part of a multidimensional structure

 Particularly attractive to business decision makers

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
OLTP vs OLAP

On-Line Transaction Processing On-Line Analytical Processing


• Time-critical • Small delays tolerable
• In-place data update • Append only
• Current data • Historical and current data
• Functional transaction focus • Reporting (information
delivery) focus
• Store details only • Store summary + details
(e.g. counts and aggregates)
• Only keeps company internal data • Warehouse also keeps external data

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
Multidimensional Data Analysis Techniques

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
Multidimensional Data Analysis Techniques (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
OLAP Architecture

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
OLAP Architecture (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
OLAP Architecture (continued)

 Designed to use both operational and data warehouse data


 Defined as an ―advanced data analysis environment that supports decision
making, business modeling, and an operation‘s research activities‖
 In most implementations, data warehouse and OLAP are interrelated and
complementary environments

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
27
Multi Dimensional Data

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Multi Dimensional Data

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Drill Down & Roll Up

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Drill Down & Roll Up

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

30 July
Fruit
Fresh Produce Vegetables 15 August
15 Sept
Dairy

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

30
Fruit July
Fresh Produce Vegetables 15 August
15 Sept
Dairy

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

30
Fruit July
Fresh Produce Vegetables 15 August
15 Sept
Dairy

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

30
Fruit July
Fresh Produce Vegetables 15 August
15 Sept
Dairy

2 4 1 1 21-30 sept
3 3 4 2 10-20 sept
1st-10 sept
2 1 3 4
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
28
Fresh Produce 60 82 63 59 July
Tinned Food 30 84 79 64 August
Toiletries 50 15 46 73 Sept

30
Fruit July
Fresh Produce Vegetables 15 August
15 Sept
Dairy

Apples 2 4 1 1 21-30 sept


Fruits Mangoes 3 3 4 2 10-20 sept
1st-10 sept
Oranges 2 1 3 4
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Some Tools in the Marketplace

• Data Warehousing
• Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Data Transformation Service
• Oracle 9i Warehouse Builder
• IBM Red Brick Warehouse, and DB2
• NCR/Teradata
• SAS Data Warehousing (Warehouse Administrator)

• OLAP
• Cognos PowerPlay
• Business Objects Analytics
• Microstrategy 7i
• Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Analysis Service
+ MDX query language for decision support
+ Microsoft Data Analyzer
• Oracle 9i OLAP
Data Warehouse, OLAP, and Data Mining solutions are sometimes listed
under the title ‗Business Intelligence‘ (BI) software.
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD)

• Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is the automated discovery


of patterns and relationships in large databases.

• Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) as it is also known, is the


nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and potentially
useful information from data.

• KDD is the search for relationships and global patterns that exist in
large databases but are `hidden' among the vast amount of data, such
as a relationship between patient data and their medical diagnosis.
These relationships represent valuable knowledge about the database
and the objects in the database

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD)

 Selection:
Extraction of the data from a database that is relevant to the
data mining analysis.
 Preprocessing:
Ensuring that values have a uniform meaning, eliminating
missing values in the data, and inaccurate (inconsistent) data.
 Data Transformation:
Converting the data into a two-dimensional table and
eliminating unwanted fields so the results are valid.
 Data mining:
The extraction of patterns from the data using by an
appropriate set of algorithms.
 Interpretation:
The transformation of the identified patterns into knowledge
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
KDD PROCESS

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Trends leading to Data Flood
 More data is generated:

– Bank, telecom, other business


transactions ...

– Scientific data: astronomy,


biology, etc

– Web, text, and e-commerce

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Big Data Examples

 Europe's Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) has 16 telescopes, each


of which produces 1 Gigabit/second of astronomical data over a 25-day
observation session

– storage and analysis a big problem

 AT&T handles billions of calls per day

– so much data, it cannot be all stored -- analysis has to be done ―on the
fly‖, on streaming data

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Largest databases in 2003

 Commercial databases:

– Winter Corp. 2003 Survey: France Telecom has largest decision-support


DB, ~30TB; AT&T ~ 26 TB

 Web

– Alexa internet archive: 7 years of data, 500 TB

– Google searches 4+ Billion pages, many hundreds TB

– IBM WebFountain, 160 TB (2003)

– Internet Archive (www.archive.org),~ 300 TB

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
From terabytes to exabytes to …

 UC Berkeley 2003 estimate: 5 exabytes (5 million terabytes) of new data


was created in 2002.
www.sims.berkeley.edu/research/projects/how-much-info-2003/

 US produces ~40% of new stored data worldwide

 2006 estimate: 161 exabytes (IDC study)

– www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2007-03-05-data_N.htm

 2010 projection: 988 exabytes

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Largest Databases in 2005

Winter Corp. 2005 Commercial Database


Survey:

1. Max Planck Inst. for Meteorology ,


222 TB

2. Yahoo ~ 100 TB (Largest Data


Warehouse)

3. AT&T ~ 94 TB
www.wintercorp.com/VLDB/2005_TopTen_Survey/TopTenWinners_2005.asp

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
29
Data Growth

In 2 years, the size of the largest database TRIPLED!

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Data Growth Rate

 Twice as much information was created in 2002 as in 1999 (~30% growth


rate)

 Other growth rate estimates even higher

 Very little data will ever be looked at by a human

Knowledge Discovery is NEEDED to make sense and use of data.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Machine Learning / Data Mining
Application areas

 Science

– astronomy, bioinformatics, drug discovery, …

 Business

– CRM (Customer Relationship management), fraud detection, e-commerce,


manufacturing, sports/entertainment, telecom, targeted marketing, health care,

 Web:

– search engines, advertising, web and text mining, …

 Government

– surveillance, crime detection, profiling tax cheaters, …

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Application Areas

What do you think are some of the most important and


widespread business applications of Data Mining?

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Data Mining for Customer Modeling

 Customer Tasks:

– attrition prediction

– targeted marketing:

• cross-sell, customer acquisition

– credit-risk

– fraud detection

 Industries

– banking, telecom, retail sales, …

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Customer Attrition: Case Study

 Situation: Attrition rate at for mobile phone customers is around


25-30% a year!

 With this in mind, what is our task?


– Assume we have customer information for the past N
months.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Customer Attrition: Case Study

Task:

 Predict who is likely to attrite next month.

 Estimate customer value and what is the cost-effective offer to


be made to this customer.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Customer Attrition Results

 Verizon Wireless built a customer data warehouse


 Identified potential attires
 Developed multiple, regional models
 Targeted customers with high propensity to accept the offer
 Reduced attrition rate from over 2%/month to under 1.5%/month (huge
impact, with >30 M subscribers)
(Reported in 2003)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Assessing Credit Risk: Case Study

 Situation: Person applies for a loan

 Task: Should a bank approve the loan?

 Note: People who have the best credit don‘t need the loans, and people
with worst credit are not likely to repay. Bank‘s best customers are in the
middle

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
Credit Risk - Results

 Banks develop credit models using variety of machine learning methods.

 Mortgage and credit card proliferation are the results of being able to
successfully predict if a person is likely to default on a loan

 Widely deployed in many countries

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
30
e-commerce

 A person buys a book (product) at Amazon.com

What is the task?

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Successful e-commerce – Case Study

 Task: Recommend other books (products) this person is likely to buy

 Amazon does clustering based on books bought:

– customers who bought ―Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data


Mining‖, also bought ―Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning
Tools and Techniques with Java Implementations‖

 Recommendation program is quite successful

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Security and Fraud Detection - Case Study

 Credit Card Fraud Detection


 Detection of Money laundering

– FAIS (US Treasury)

 Securities Fraud

– NASDAQ KDD system

 Phone fraud

– AT&T, Bell Atlantic, British Telecom/MCI

 Bio-terrorism detection at Salt Lake Olympics 2002

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Data Mining and Privacy

 in 2006, NSA (National Security Agency) was reported to be mining years


of call info, to identify terrorism networks

 Social network analysis has a potential to find networks

 Invasion of privacy – do you mind if your call information is in a gov


database?

 What if NSA program finds one real suspect for 1,000 false leads ?
1,000,000 false leads?

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Related Fields

Machine Visualization
Learning
Data Mining and
Knowledge Discovery

Statistics Databases

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Statistics, Machine Learning and
Data Mining

 Statistics:
– more theory-based
– more focused on testing hypotheses
 Machine learning
– more heuristic(experience-based techniques that help in
problem solving, learning and discovery)
– focused on improving performance of a learning agent
– also looks at real-time learning and robotics – areas not part of
data mining
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
– integrates theory and heuristics
– focus on the entire process of knowledge discovery, including
data cleaning, learning, and integration and visualization of
results
 Distinctions are fuzzy

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM
witten&eibe Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Data mining

Many Definitions…
– A short one…
Search for Valuable Information in Large Volumes of Data.

– A long one…
Exploration & Analysis, by Automatic or Semi-Automatic Means,
of Large Quantities of Data in order to Discover Meaningful
Patterns & Rules.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Data Mining

 Data Mining is the step in the process of knowledge discovery in


databases, that inputs predominantly cleaned, transformed data, searches
the data using algorithms, and outputs patterns and relationships to the
interpretation/evaluation step of the KDD

 Data mining is a process that uses a variety of data analysis tools to


discover patterns and relationships in data that may be used to make valid
predictions.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Data Mining

 Data Mining constitutes one step in the KDD process.

 The transformed data is used in the data mining step. It is in this step that
the actual search for patterns of interest is performed.

 The appropriate data mining algorithm (linear/logistic regression, neural


networks, association rules, etc.) for the data mining task (classification,
database segmentation, rule generation, etc) are applied.

 It is necessary to remove redundant and irrelevant patterns from the set of


useful patterns. Once a set of good patterns have been discovered, they
then have to be reported to the end user. This can be done can be done
textually, by way of reports or using visualizations such as graphs,
spreadsheets, diagrams, etc.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
31
Data Mining

 Data mining tools do the following:

– Analyze data

– Uncover problems or opportunities hidden in data relationships

– Form computer models based on their findings

– Use models to predict business behavior

 Require minimal end-user intervention

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Data Mining (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Major Data Mining Tasks

 Classification: predicting an item class


 Clustering: finding clusters in data
 Associations: e.g. A & B & C occur frequently
 Visualization: to facilitate human discovery
 Summarization: describing a group
 Deviation Detection: finding changes
 Estimation: predicting a continuous value
 Link Analysis: finding relationships
 …

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Data Mining Tasks: Classification

Learn a method for predicting the instance class from


pre-labeled (classified) instances

Many approaches:
Statistics,
Decision Trees,
Neural Networks,
...

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Data Mining Tasks: Clustering

Find “natural” grouping of


instances given un-labeled data

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Data Mining (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
We want to know ...

 Given a database of 100,000 names, which persons are the least likely to
default on their credit cards?

 Which types of transactions are likely to be fraudulent given the


demographics and transactional history of a particular customer?

 If I raise the price of my product by Rs. 2, what is the effect on my ROI?

 If I offer only 2,500 airline miles as an incentive to purchase rather than


5,000, how many lost responses will result?

 If I emphasize ease-of-use of the product as opposed to its technical


capabilities, what will be the net effect on my revenues?

 Which of my customers are likely to be the most loyal?


Data Mining helps extract such information

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Major Data Mining Characteristics and Objectives

 Data are often buried deep

 Client/server architecture

 Sophisticated new tools--including advanced visualization tools

 End-user miner empowered by data drills and other power query tools with
little or no programming skills

 Often involves finding unexpected results

 Tools are easily combined with spreadsheets, etc.

 Parallel processing for data mining

327
5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi
RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Difference between OLAP & Data Minig

OLAP is part of the spectrum of decision support tools. Traditional query and
report tools describe what is in a database. OLAP goes further; it‘s used to
answer why certain things are true. The user forms a hypothesis about a
relationship and verifies it with a series of queries against the data. For
example, an analyst might want to determine the factors that lead to loan
defaults. He or she might initially hypothesize that people with low
incomes are bad credit risks and analyze the database with OLAP to verify
(or disprove) this assumption. If that hypothesis were not borne out by the
data, the analyst might then look at high debt as the determinant of risk. If
the data did not support this guess either, he or she might then try debt
and income together as the best predictor of bad credit risks.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Difference between OLAP & Dataminig

OLAP analysis is essentially a deductive process.

The OLAP analyst generates a series of hypothetical patterns and


relationships and uses queries against the database to verify them or disprove
them.

It becomes much more difficult and time-consuming to find a good


hypothesis, when the number of variables being analyzed is in the dozens or
even hundreds? and analyze the database with OLAP to verify or disprove it.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
32
Difference between OLAP & Dataminig

Data mining , rather than verify hypothetical patterns, it uses the data itself to
uncover such patterns. It is essentially an inductive process.

For example, suppose the analyst who wanted to identify the risk factors for
loan default were to use a data mining tool. The data mining tool might
discover that people with high debt and low incomes were bad credit risks (as
above), but it might go further and also discover a pattern the analyst did not
think to try, such as that age is also a determinant of risk.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data mining Applications

 Many organizations are using data mining to help manage all phases of the
customer life cycle, including acquiring new customers, increasing revenue
from existing customers, and retaining good customers.

 Telecommunications and credit card companies are two of the leaders in


applying data mining to detect fraudulent use of their services.

 Insurance companies and stock exchanges are also interested in applying


this technology to reduce fraud.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data mining Applications

Retail/Marketing
 Identify buying patterns from customers

 Find associations among customer demographic characteristics


 Predict response to mailing campaigns

 Market basket analysis


 Retailers are making more use of data mining to decide which products to
stock in particular stores (and even how to place them within a store), as
well as to assess the effectiveness of promotions and coupons.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data mining Applications

Medicine
 Characterise patient behaviour to predict office visits

 Identify successful medical therapies for different illnesses

 Medical applications are another fruitful area: data mining can be used to
predict the effectiveness of surgical procedures, medical tests or
medications.
 Pharmaceutical firms are mining large databases of chemical compounds
and of genetic material to discover substances that might be candidates for
development as agents for the treatments of disease.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data mining Applications

Banking

 Detect patterns of fraudulent credit card use

 Identify `loyal' customers

 Predict customers likely to change their credit card affiliation

 Determine credit card spending by customer groups

 Find hidden correlations between different financial indicators

 Identify stock trading rules from historical market data

 Companies active in the financial markets use data mining to determine


market and industry characteristics as well as to predict individual
company and stock performance.

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data mining Applications

Insurance and Health Care

 Claims analysis - i.e which medical procedures are claimed together

 Predict which customers will buy new policies

 Identify behaviour patterns of risky customers

 Identify fraudulent behaviour

Transportation

 Determine the distribution schedules among outlets

 Analyse loading patterns

 Analyse loading patterns

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data Mining (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Data Mining (continued)

5/12/2010 10:21:06 PM Rafi


RafiA Khan
A Khan
33
Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi
A. Khan
A Khan
33
Systems Development Life Cycle

 Four phases

– Planning

– Analysis

– Design

– Implementation

 Cyclical

 Can return to other phases

 Waterfall model

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
33
Tools

 Computer-aided software design tools


– CASE tools- Oracle 9i developer suite, Rational rose,
Paradigm Plus

 RAD design tools- Sybase power Designer. Oracle Internet


Development Suite, Rational RequisitePro

 Code debugging methods -

 Testing and quality assurance tools - Red Views WebLoad,


Load Runner, Rational RequisitePro, SilkPerformer

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Successful Project Management

 Define requirements

 Manage change

 Get support from upper management

 Establish timelines, milestones, and budgets based on realistic


goals

 Involve users

 Document everything

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Implementation Failures

 Lack of stakeholder involvement

 Incomplete requirements

 Unrealistic expectations

 Project champion leaves

 Lack of skill or expertise

 Inadequate human resources

 New technologies

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Project Management Tools

 Project management software can allow:

– Collaboration among disparate teams

– Resource and program management

– Portfolio management

– Web enabled

– Analyses of project data

S/W Examples : Microsoft project, PlanView, ActiveProject

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Alternative Development Methodologies

 Parallel Development
– Multiple development on separate systems (Design & Implementation
Phases)
– Database, Model base, UI and Knowledge can be developed in parallel
 RAD
– Quick development allowing fast, but limited functionality
– Methods of RAD
• Phased development
– Sequential serial development (Break system into Pieces)
• Prototyping ( Analysis, Design & Implementation repeatedly)
– Rapid development of portions of projects for user input and
modification
– Small working model or may become functional part of final
system
• Throwaway prototyping
– Pilot test or simple development platforms
Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi
A. Khan
A Khan
34
Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi
A. Khan
A Khan
34
Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi
A. Khan
A Khan
34
Tools

 Computer-aided software design tools

– CASE tools - Oracle 9i developer suite, Rational rose, Paradigm Plus


 RAD design tools- Sybase power Designer. Oracle Internet Development
Suite, Rational RequisitePro
 Code debugging methods -

 Testing and quality assurance tools - Red Views WebLoad, Load Runner,
Rational RequisitePro, SilkPerformer

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
DSS Prototyping

 Short steps

– Planning
– Analysis
– Design
– Prototype
 Immediate user feedback

 Iterative

– In development of prototype

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Successful Project Management

 Define requirements

 Manage change

 Get support from upper management

 Establish timelines, milestones, and budgets based on realistic


goals

 Involve users

 Document everything

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
34
Implementation Failures

 Lack of stakeholder involvement

 Incomplete requirements

 Unrealistic expectations

 Project champion leaves

 Lack of skill or expertise

 Inadequate human resources

 New technologies

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
Project Management Tools

 Project management software can allow:

– Collaboration among disparate teams

– Resource and program management

– Portfolio management

– Web enabled

– Analyses of project data

S/W Examples : Microsoft project, PlanView, ActiveProject

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
Agile Development

 Rapid prototyping used for rapidly changing requirements

 Used for:

– Unclear or rapidly changing requirements

– Speedy development

 Heavy user input

 Incremental delivery with short time frames

 Tend to have integration problems

Example : Extreme Programming (XP), Scrum, Crystal.

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
DSS Prototyping

 Advantages  Disadvantages
– User and management – Changing requirements
involvement – May not have thorough
– Short user-reaction understanding of benefits
time(Feedback from user) and costs
– Short intervals between – Poorly tested
iterations – Dependencies, security,
– Low cost & Short and safety may be ignored
development time – High uncertainty
– Improved user – Problem may get lost
understanding of system
– Reduction in quality
– Higher costs due to
multiple productions
Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi
A. Khan
A Khan
35
Change Management

 Crucial to DSS
 People resistant to change
 Examine cause of change
 May require organizational culture shift
 Lewin-Schein change theory steps
– Unfreeze
• Create awareness of need for change
• People support what they help create
– Move
• Develop new methods and behaviors
• Create and maintain momentum
– Refreeze
• Reinforce desired changes
• Establish stable environment

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
DSS Technology Levels
DSS primary tools
–Fundamental elements
•Programming languages, graphics, editors, query systems
DSS generator (engine)
–Integrated software package for building specific DSS
•Modeling, report generation, graphics, risk analysis
•These range from spreadsheets such as Excel—perhaps with some add-
ins or a more sophisticated generator such as MicroStrategy‘s DSS
Architect.
Specific DSS
–For some problem types there may be a commercially available package
that can be acquired and customized
DSS primary tools are used to construct integrated tools that are used to
construct specific tools

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
DSS

 Hardware

– PCs to multiprocessor mainframes

 Software

– Involves multiple criteria

– Develop in house, outsource, or buy off the shelf

– Off the shelf software rapidly updated; many on market

– Prices fluctuate

– Different tools available

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
DSS
 Team developed DSS requires substantial effort to build and
manage
 End user developed DSS
– Decision-makers and knowledge workers develop to
solve problems or enhance productivity
• Advantages
– Short delivery time
– User requirements specifications are eliminated
– Reduced implementation problems
– Low costs
• Risks
– Quality may be low
– May have lack of documentation
– Security risks may increase

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35
DSS

 Microstrategy 8

 Hyperion System 9 BI+

 Business Object XI

 Microsoft Biztalk server2004

 IBM Websphere Commerce Suite

 Oracle Daily Business Intelligence(DBI)

Friday, July 18, 2008 RafiRafi


A. Khan
A Khan
35