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THE
MUSICIANS
WORKBOOK
V
Scales & Glossary

Compiled by Tobe A. Richards

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Series

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From the:

SCALE

THE INTERVALS

Aeolian (AKA Natural Minor Scale)

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D Eb F G Ab Bb)

Algerian

1 2 b3 4 #4 5 b6 7
(C D Eb F F# G Ab B)

Altered

1 b2 b3 b4 b5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb Ab Bb)

Arabian (Version 1)

1 2 b3 4 #4 #5 6 7
(C D Eb F F# G# A B)

Arabian (Version 2)

1 2 3 4 #4 #5 b7
(C D E F F# G# Bb)

Arabian (Version 3)

1 2 3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C D E F Gb Ab Bb)

Augmented

1 #2 3 #4 #5 7
(C D# E F# G# B)

Auxiliary Augmented

1 2 3 #4 #5 #6
(C D E F# G# A#)

Auxiliary Diminished

1 2 b3 4 #4 #5 6 7
(C D Eb F F# G# A B)

Auxiliary Diminished Blues

1 b2 b3 3 b5 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb G A Bb)

Balinese

1 b2 b3 5 b6
(C Db Eb G Ab)

Blues

1 b3 4 #4 5 b7
(C Eb F F# G Bb)

Blues

1 b3 4 b5 5 b7
(C Eb F Gb G Bb)

Byzantine

1 b2 3 4 5 b6 7
(C Db E F G Ab B)

Chinese

1 3 #4 5 7
(C E F# G B)

Chinese Mongolian

12356
(C D E G A)

Chromatic

1 b2 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 b6 6 b7 7
(C Db D Eb E F Gb G Ab A Bb B)

Diatonic

12356
(C D E G A)

Diminished

1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 6 7
(C D Eb F Gb Ab A B)

Diminished - Half

1 b2 b3 3 b5 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb G A Bb)

Diminished - Whole

1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 6 7
(C D Eb F Gb Ab A B)

Diminished - Whole Tone

1 b2 b3 3 b5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb Ab Bb)

Dominant Bebop

1 2 3 4 5 6 b7 7
(C D E F G A Bb B)

Dominant Seventh

1 2 3 4 5 6 b7
(C D E F G A Bb)

Dorian

1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7
(C D Eb F G A Bb)

Dorian (Flattened Second)

1 b2 b3 4 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb F G A Bb)

Dorian Blues

1 2 b3 4 b5 5 6 b7
(C D Eb F Gb G A Bb)

Double Harmonic

1 b2 3 4 5 b6 7
(C Db E F G Ab B)

Egyptian

1 2 4 5 b7
(C D F G Bb)

Eight Tone Spanish

1 b2 #2 3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C Db D# E F Gb Ab Bb)

Enigmatic

1 b2 3 #4 #5 #6 7
(C Db E F# G# A# B)

Ethiopian ( A raray)

1234567
(C D E F G A B)

Ethiopian ( Geez and Ezel)

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D Eb F G Ab Bb)

Half-Step Whole Step Diminished

1 b2 b3 3 #4 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb E F# G A Bb)

Half-Whole Diminished

1 b2 b3 3 b5 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb G A Bb)

Harmonic Minor

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7
(C D Eb F G Ab B)

Hawaiian

1 2 b3 4 5 6 7
(C D Eb F G A B)

Hindu

1 2 3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D E F G Ab Bb)

Hindustan

1 2 3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D E F G Ab Bb)

Hirajoshi

1 2 b3 5 b6
(C D Eb G Ab)

Hungarian Gypsy

1 2 b3 #4 5 b6 7
(C D Eb F# G Ab B)

Hungarian Gypsy Persian

1 b2 3 4 5 b6 7
(C Db E F G Ab B)

Hungarian Major

1 #2 3 #4 5 6 b7
(C D# E F# G A Bb)

Hungarian Minor

1 2 b3 #4 5 b6 7
(C D Eb F# G Ab B)

Ionian (AKA Major Scale)

1234567
(C D E F G A B)

Japanese (In Sen)

1 b2 4 5 b7
(C Db F G Bb)

Japanese (Taishikicho)

1 2 3 4 #4 5 6 #6 7
(C D E F F# G A A# B)

Japanese (Tchikosucho)

1 2 3 4 #4 5 6 7
(C D E F F# G A B)

Japanese (Version 1)

1 b2 4 5 b6
(C Db F G Ab)

Japanese (Version 2)

1 2 4 5 b6
(C D F G Ab)

Javaneese

1 b2 b3 4 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb F G A Bb)

Jewish (Adonai Malakh)

1 b2 2 b3 4 5 6 b7
(C Db D Eb F G A Bb)

Jewish (Ahaba Rabba)

1 b2 3 4 5 b6 b7
(C Db E F G Ab Bb)

Jewish (Magen Abot)

1 b2 #2 3 #4 #5 #6 7
(C Db D# E F# G# A# B)

Kumoi

1 2 b3 5 6
(C D Eb G A)

Leading Whole Tone

1 2 3 #4 #5 #6 7
(C D E F# G# A# B)

Locrian

1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb)

Locrian - Half Diminished (Version 1)

1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb)

Locrian - Half Diminished (Version 2)

1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C D Eb F Gb Ab Bb)

Lydian

1 2 3 #4 5 6 7
(C D E F# G A B)

Lydian Augmented

1 2 3 #4 #5 6 7
(C D E F# G# A B)

Lydian Diminished

1 2 b3 #4 5 6 7
(C D Eb F# G A B)

Lydian Minor

1 2 3 #4 5 b6 b7
(C D E F# G Ab Bb)

Major (AKA Ionian Scale)

1234567
(C D E F G A B)

Major Bebop

1 2 3 4 5 b6 6 7
(C D E F G Ab A B)

Major Locrian

1 2 3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C D E F Gb Bb)

Melodic Minor (Ascending)

1 2 b3 4 5 6 7
(C D Eb F G A B)

Melodic Minor (Descending)

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D Eb F G Ab Bb)

Mixo-Blues

1 2 b3 3 4 b5 5 6 b7
(C D Eb E F Gb G A Bb)

Mixolydian

1 2 3 4 5 6 b7
(C D E F G A Bb)

Mixolydian Flattened Sixth

1 2 3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D E F G Ab Bb)

Mohammedan

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 7
(C D Eb F G Ab B)

Natural Minor (AKA Aeolian Scale)

1 2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C D Eb F G Ab Bb)

Neopolitan

1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 7
(C Db Eb F G Ab B)

Neopolitan Major

1 b2 b3 4 5 6 7
(C Db Eb F G A B)

Neopolitan Minor

1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb F G Ab Bb)

Nine Tone Scale

1 2 #2 3 #4 5 #5 6 7
(C D D # E F# G G# A B)

Octatonic (Half-Whole)

1 b2 b3 3 b5 5 6 b7
(C Db Eb E Gb G A Bb)

Octatonic (Whole-Half)

1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 6 7
(C D Eb F Gb Ab A B)

Oriental ( Version 1)

1 b2 3 4 b5 b6 b7
(C Db E F Gb Ab Bb)

Oriental (Version 2)

1 b2 3 4 b5 6 b7
(C Db E F Gb A Bb)

Overtone

1 2 3 #4 5 6 b7
(C D E F# G A Bb)

Overtone Dominant

1 2 3 #4 5 6 b7
(C D E F# G A Bb)

Pelog

1 b2 b3 5 b6
(C Db Eb G Ab)

Pentatonic (Neutral)

1 2 4 5 b7
(C D F G Bb)

Pentatonic Blues

1 b3 4 b5 5 b7
(C Eb F Gb G Bb)

Pentatonic Major

12356
(C D E G A)

Pentatonic Minor

1 b3 4 5 b7
(C Eb F G Bb)

Persian

1 b2 3 4 b5 b6 7
(C Db E F Gb Ab B)

Phrygian

1 b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7
(C Db Eb F G Ab Ab)

Prometheus

1 2 3 b5 6 b7
(C D E Gb A Bb)

Prometheus Neopolitan

1 b2 3 b5 6 b7
(C Db E Gb A Bb)

Romanian Minor

1 2 b3 #4 5 6 b7
(C D Eb F# G A Bb)

Six Tone Symmetrical

1 b2 3 4 #5 6
(C Db E F G# A)

Spanish Gypsy

1 b2 3 4 5 b6 b7
(C Db E F G Ab Bb)

Super Locrian

1 b2 #2 3 #4 #5 b7
(C Db D# E F# G# Bb)

Whole Tone

1 2 3 #4 #5 b7
(C D E F# G# Bb)

Whole-Half Diminished

1 2 b3 4 b5 b6 6 7
(C D Eb F Gb Ab A B)

CHORD

THE NOTES

THE INTERVALS

The 73 examples given below use the key of C as an example, but they can be easily transposed
into a different key using one of the transposition wheels supplied with this e-book. When a chord
is transposed, the relationship between the intervals remains constant.

Two Note Chords


C4
C5 (Power Chord)

CF
CG

Three Note Chords (Triads)


C (Major)
Cm
C-5
C
C+
Csus2
Csus4

Four Note Chords


Cadd9
Cadd11
C7
Csus4add9
C6
C6+11 (no 3rd)
Cmadd9
Cm6
Cm(maj7)
C7
C7-5
C7+5
C7sus2
C7sus4
Cm7
Cm7-5
Cmaj7
Cmaj7-5
Cmaj7+5

Five Note Chords


Cadd9/11
C6add9
Cm6add9
Cm(maj9)
C7add11
C7add13
C7-5-9

(1 4)
(1 5)

CEG
C Eb G
C E Gb
C Eb Gb
C E G#
CDG
CFG

(1 3 5)
(1 b3 5)
(1 3 b5)
(1 b3 b5)
(1 3 #5)
(1 2 5)
(1 4 5)

CEGD
CEGF
C Eb Gb Bbb
CFGD
CEGA
C G A Gb
C Eb G D
C Eb G A
C Eb G B
C E G Bb
C E Gb Bb
C E G# Bb
C D G Bb
C F G Bb
C Eb G Bb
C Eb Gb Bb
CEGB
C E Gb B
C E G# B

(1 3 5 9)
(1 3 5 11)
(1 b3 b5 bb7)
(1 4 5 9)
(1 3 5 6)
(1 5 6 #11)
(1 b3 5 9)
(1 b3 5 6)
(1 b3 5 7)
(1 3 5 b7)
(1 3 b5 b7)
(1 3 #5 b7)
(1 2 5 b7)
(1 4 5 b7)
(1 b3 5 b7)
(1 b3 b5 b7)
(1 3 5 7)
(1 3 b5 7)
(1 3 #5 7)

CEGDF
C E G A D
C Eb G A D
C Eb G B D
C E G Bb F
C E G Bb A
C E Gb Bb Db

(1 3 5 9 11)
(1 3 5 6 9)
(1 b3 5 6 9)
(1 b3 5 7 9)
(1 3 5 b7 11)
(1 3 5 b7 13)
(1 3 b5 b7 b9)

C7-5+9
C7+5-9
C7+5+9
C7-9
C7+9
C7+11
C7-13
C7susb9
Cm7add11
Cm7-5-9
Cm7-9
C9
C9-5
C9+5
C9+11
C9sus4
Cm9
Cm9-5
Cmaj7+11
Cmaj9
Cmaj9-5
Cmaj9+5

Six Note Chords


C9-13
Cmaj9add6
Cmaj9+11
C11
C11-9
Cm11
Cmaj11

Seven Note Chords


C9+11-13
C13
C13+11
C13+9
C13-5-9
C13-9
C13sus4
Cm13
Cmaj13

C E Gb Bb D#
C E G# Bb Db
C E G# Bb D#
C E G Bb Db
C E G Bb D#
C E G Bb F#
C E G Bb Ab
C F G Bb Db
C Eb G Bb F
C Eb Gb Bb Db
C Eb G Bb Db
C E G Bb D
C E Gb Bb D
C E G# Bb D
C E G Bb D F#
C F G Bb D
C Eb G Bb D
C Eb Gb Bb D
C E G B F#
CEGBD
C E Gb B D
C E G# B D

(1 3 b5 b7 #9)
(1 3 #5 b7 b9)
(1 3 #5 b7 #9)
(1 3 5 b7 b9)
(1 3 5 b7 #9)
(1 3 5 b7 #11)
(1 3 5 b7 b13)
(1 4 5 b7 b9)
(1 b3 5 b7 11)
(1 b3 b5 b7 b9)
(1 b3 5 b7 b9)
(1 3 5 b7 9)
(1 3 b5 b7 9)
(1 3 #5 b7 9)
(1 3 5 b7 9 #11)
(1 4 5 b7 9)
(1 b3 5 b7 9)
(1 b3 b5 b7 9)
(1 3 5 7 #11)
(1 3 5 7 9)
(1 3 b5 7 9)
(1 3 #5 7 9)

C E G Bb D Ab
C E G A B D
C E G B D F#
C E G Bb D F
C E G Bb Db F
C Eb G Bb D F
CEGBDF

(1 3 5 b7 9 b13)
(1 3 5 6 7 9)
(1 3 5 7 9 #11)
(1 3 5 b7 9 11)
(1 3 5 b7 b9 11)
(1 b3 5 b7 9 11)
(1 3 5 7 9 11)

C E G Bb D F# Ab
C E G Bb D F A
C E G Bb D F# A
C E G Bb D# F A
C E Gb Bb Db F A
C E G Bb Db F A
C F G Bb D F A
C Eb G Bb D F A
CEGBDFA

(1 3 5 b7 9 #11 b13)
(1 3 5 b7 9 11 13)
(1 3 5 b7 9 #11 13)
(1 3 5 b7 #9 11 13)
(1 3 b5 b7 b9 11 13)
(1 3 5 b7 b9 11 13)
(1 4 5 b7 9 11 13)
(1 b3 5 b7 9 11 13)
(1 3 5 7 9 11 13)

Notes
Technically a chord must have three or more notes, but for the sake of this guide, the chords C4
and C5 are treated as two-note chords. Eleventh chords often omit the 3rd and thirteenth chords
often omit the 11th.

FRETTED INSTRUMENT TUNINGS


INSTRUMENT

ANDYLIN
ARCH MANDORE
ARCH MANDORE
ARCHLUTE
BAGLAMA - Greek
BAJO QUINTO
BAJO SEXTO
BAJO SEXTO - Mexican
BALALAIKA - Alto
BALALAIKA - Bass
BALALAIKA - Contrabass
BALALAIKA - Piccolo
BALALAIKA - Prima
BANDOLA - Oriental
BANDOLA - Columbian
BANDOLA LLANERA
BANDOLETA
BANDOLIM
BANDOLIN
BANDOLINETA
BANDOLONCELO
BANDORA - 6 Course
BANDORA - 7 Course
BANDURRIA - Standard tuning
BANDURRIA
BANJO - Bass
BANJO - 5-String Bluegrass
BANJO - 5-String Standard C
BANJO - 5-String Seeger Long Scale
BANJO - 5-String A Scale Bluegrass
BANJO - 5-String Pony Short Scale
BANJO - Guitar
BANJO - Guitar 12-String
BANJO - Irish Tenor
BANJO - Plectrum Standard
BANJO - Plectrum Open G
BANJO - Plectrum Chicago
BANJO - 7-String
BANJO - Tenor Jazz
BANJOLIM
BANJOLIN
BANJO-UKULELE (or Banjolele) C6
BANJO-UKULELE (or Banjolele) D6
BASS GUITAR
BASS GUITAR - 5-String
BASS GUITAR - 6-String
BASS GUITAR - 7-String

LOW TO HIGH TUNING

FCGC
CGCGC
CFCFC
FGABCDEFG
CFA DG
DAD
ADGCF
EADGCF
EADGBE
EEA
EAD
EAD
EEA
EEA
GDAE
F# B E A D G
A D F# B
GDAE
GDAE
GCEAE
CGDA
GDAE
CDGCEA
GCDGCEA
G# C# F# B E A
GBEADG
EADG
GDGBD
GCGBD
G B E G# B
A E A C# E
CGCEG
EADGBE
EADGBE
GDAE
CGBD
DGBD
DGBE
GGCDGBD
CGDA
GDAE
GDAE
GCEA
A D F# B
EADG
BEADG
BEADGC
BEADGCF

COURSES
Double
Single
Single

Single & Double


Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Double
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single

BASS GUITAR - 8-String


BASS GUITAR - 12-String
BIWA - 4-String Chikuzen
BIWA - 5-String Chikuzen
BIWA - Heike Tuning 1
BIWA - Heike Tuning 2
BIWA - Mekuraso 4 Bridge
BIWA - Mekuraso 5 Bridge
BIWA - Mekuraso 6 Bridge
BIWA - Nishiki
BIWA - Satsuma
BIZZAR (or Guitar-Bouzouki) - Irish
BIZZAR (or Guitar-Bouzouki) - Mandolin
BORDONUA
BOUZOUKI - Greek - 3-String
BOUZOUKI - Greek - 4-String
BOUZOUKI - Irish - Irish Tuning
BOUZOUKI - Irish - Mandolin Tuning
BOUZOUKI - Irish Bass
BRAGUINHA
CAVAQUINHO - Standard
CAVAQUINHO
CAVAQUINHO
CAVAQUINHO
CELLO - Fretted
CETARONE - 7 course
CETARONE - 5 course
CETERA
CHARANGO
CHARANGO - Quircuincho
CHARANGO - Ranka
CHARANGON
CHAR ANGON
CHILLADOR
CHIN CHIN (or qinqin)
CHITARRA BATTENTE
CITTERN - Celtic Long Scale - Irish
CITTERN - Celtic Long Scale - Mandolin
CITTERN - Celtic Longscale
CITTERN - Celtic Short Scale
CITTERN - Celtic Short Scale
CITTERN - Celtic Short Scale
CITTERN - Virchi (1574)
CUATRO - Puerto Rican
CUATRO - Venezuelan 4-String
CUATRO - Venezuelan 5-String
CUMBUS
CYTOLE
DAN TYBA
DOBRO (or Resophonic)
DOMRA - Alto 3-String

F# B E A D G C F
BEADGC
B E F# B
E B E F# B
ACEA
A C# E A
EBEA
B E F# F#
Bb Eb Bb Bb
CGCGG
AEAB
GDAD
GDAD
A D F# B E
DAD
CFAD
GDAD
GDAE
DAEA
DGBD
DGBD
GCEG
GGBD
DGBE
CGDA
Eb Bb F C G D A
EBGDE
CDEFGGDG
GCEAE
GCEAE
GCGADG
CFADA
DGBEB
DGBEC

Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Double
Double
Single & Double
Double
Double
Double

ADGBE
DGDAD
DGDAE
EAEAE
GDAEA
GDADA
ADADA
DFBGDE
BEADG
A D F# B
A A D F# B
ABEADG
DGBE
GCDG
GBDGBD
EAD

Single or Dbl.
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Double
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single

DOMRA - Alto 4-String


DOMRA - Bass 3-String
DOMRA - Bass 4-String
DOMRA - Contrabass
DOMRA - Mezzo-Soprano 3-String
DOMRA - Piccolo 3-String
DOMRA - Prima 3-String
DOMRA - Prima 4-String
DOMRA - Tenor 3-String
DOMRA - Tenor 4-String
DULCIMER - Mountain - Aeolian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Aeolian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Aeolian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain Baritone - Mixolydian
DULCIMER - Mountain Bass - Mixolydian
DULCIMER - Mountain - Chromatic
DULCIMER - Mountain - Dorian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Dorian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Dorian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Dorian of A Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Ionian
DULCIMER - Mountain - Ionian
DULCIMER - Mountain - Ionian 4-string
DULCIMER - Mountain - Ionian of C Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Ionian (Reverse)
DULCIMER - Mountain - Jazz
DULCIMER - Mountain - Jazz
DULCIMER - Mountain - Locrian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Lydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Lydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Lydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Mixolydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Mixolydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Mixolydian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Mixolydian of A
DULCIMER - Mountain - Phrygian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Phrygian Mode
DULCIMER - Mountain - Phrygian Mode
ENGLISH GUITTAR (or English Guitar)
GHITA (or Dan Ghita, Luc Huyen Cam)
GUITAR - Baritone - 5th Below Standard
GUITAR - Baritone - 4th Below Standard
GUITAR - Blues
GUITAR - Classical 10-String
GUITAR - Classical 10-String Lute Style
GUITAR - DADGAD
GUITAR - Double Drop D
GUITAR - Drop D
GUITAR - Lute

CGDA
EAD
CGDA
EADG
BEA
BEA
EAD
GDAE
BEA
GDAE
CAD
Bb G C
GEA
AEA
DAD
D F# A D
GAD
FGC
ABE
DAA
AAD
GGC
DDDG
GEC
DGD
DG A D
DG G D
A G# C#
DGC
C F Bb
EAD
AEA
DAD
GDG
AAA
Bb D G
FAD
Eb G C
CEGCEG
CFCGC
ADGCEA
B E A D F# B
EADGCF
F# G# Bb C E A
DGBE
ABCDEAD
GBE
DADGAD
DADGBD
DADGBE
E A D F# B E

Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Single & Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single

GUITAR - Mid 1500s - 5-String


GUITAR - Mid 1500s - 5-String
GUITAR - Mid 1500s - 4-String
GUITAR - Octave
GUITAR - Open A
GUITAR - Open A Minor
GUITAR - Open Bb
GUITAR - Open C
GUITAR - Open D
GUITAR - Open D Minor
GUITAR - Open E
GUITAR - Open F
GUITAR - Open G
GUITAR - Raga
GUITAR - Rev. Gary Davis Bottleneck
GUITAR - 7-String
GUITAR - 7-String Russian
GUITAR - Skip James Open E Minor
GUITAR - Stephen Stills D
GUITAR - Standard Tuning
GUITAR - Tenor
GUITAR - Tenor Irish
GUITAR - Tenor Irish - Irish Tuning
GUITAR - Terz
GUITAR - 12-String
GUITARRA COLORADA
GUITARRA DE GOLPE
GUITARRA DE SON
GUITARRA DE SON
GUITARRA DE SON
GUITARRO
GUITARRN
GUITARRN CHILENO
GUITTERN
HALSZITHER
HUAPANGUERA
HUMMEL
JARANA HUASTECA
JARANA HUASTECA
JARANA JAROCHA
JARANA MOSQUITO
JARANA PRIMERA
JARANA SEGUNDA
JARANA TERCERA
KABOSI
KOBZA (or Cobza) - 4-String
LAOUTO (or Laghouto)
LAUD - Bass
LAUD - Contralto
LAUD - Laudon (or Big Laud)

DDGBE
ADGBE
DGBE
EADGBE
E A E A C# E
EAEACE
D Bb D F Bb D
CGCGCE
D A D F# A D
D A D F# A D
E B E G# B E
FACACF
DGDGBD
DADAAD
D A D F# A B
BEADGBE
DGBDGBD
EBEGBE
EADGBE
EADGBE
CGDA
GDAE
GDAD
G C F Bb D G
EADGBE
DGCEA
DGCEA
GADG
CDGC
ABEA
B F# D A E
ADGCEA
F# A D G C E A
GB
ADGBE
GDGBD
GDGBE
FFCCCB
GDGBE
G B D F# A
ADGBE
DGBEC
DGBEC
GAECG
ADGBE
DGGA
DADG
CGDA
EADG
G C# F# B E A
C F# B E A D G

Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single & Double
Single
Single, Triple &
Quadruple
Single
Double
Single
Single & Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Double
Single
Double
Single & Double

LAUD - Filipino Tuning


LAUD - Tenor Standard Spanish Tuning
LAUD - Tenor Standard Tuning
LAVTA
LEON
LIUQIN
LUTE - 6-Course Accord Nouveau 17th C.
LUTE - 6-Course Flat Tuning
LUTE - 6-Course New Alto (Virdung 1500)
LUTE - 8-Course New Descant
LUTE - 8-Course Old Descant
MANDOBASS
MANDOCELLO
MANDOLA - Tenor
MANDOLIN
MANDOLIN - Banjo
MANDOLIN - 5-String/5-Course
MANDOLIN - Guitar
MANDOLIN - Guitar 12-String
MANDOLIN - Octave (or Octave Mandola)
MANDOLIN - Piccolo
MANDOLINO LOMBARDO
MANDORA - 5-Course
MANDORA - 5-Course
MANDORA - 4-Course
MANDRIOLA
MAULINCHO (or Walaycho)
MEJORANA
MEJORANA
OCTAVINA
ORPHARION
PANDURINA
PIPA
PORTUGUESE GUITARRA - de Coimbra
PORTUGUESE GUITARRA - de Lisboa
PORTUGUESE GUITARRA - de Senhora
PORTUGUESE GUITARRA - de Severa
RAFFELE
RAJO
RAJO
RAMKIE
REQUINTO
REQUINTO - Long Scale
REQUINTO JAROCHO
REQUINTO JAROCHO
REQUINTO JAROCHO
RONROCO (or Ronrroco)
RUAN - Alto
RUAN - Alto - Fifths
RUAN - Bass (or Da-Ruan)
RUAN - Bass (or Da-Ruan) - Fifths

F# B E A D G
G# C# F# B E A
A D G C F Bb
CGDA
GADG
GDGD
ADFADF
G C F Ab C Eb
GCFADG
E# B A D G C# E A
E# B A D G C# E# A
EADG
CGDA
CGDA
GDAE
GDAE
CGDAE
EADGBE
EADGBE
GDAE
CGDA
GBEADG
CGCGC
CFCFC
GDGD
GDAE
DGBEB
DAABE
DGGBE
F# B E A D G
GCFADG
GDGD
ADEA
CGADGA
DABEAB
DABEAB
DABEAB
AAD
E A D F# B
DGCEA
CFAC
ADGCEA
G C F Bb D G
GADG
CDGC
ADGC
GCEAE
ADAD
GDAE
ADAD
GDAE

Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single or Dbl.
Single
Double
Double
Double
Single
Double
Double
Double
Triple
Double
Single
Single
Single & Double
Double
Double
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single

RUAN - Soprano
RUAN - Tenor
RUAN - Tenor - Fifths
SAZ - Baglama
SAZ - Bozuk
SAZ - Cura
SAZ - Cura Baglama (or Tambura)
SAZ - Divan
SAZ - Meydan
SAZ
SAZ
SAZ
SAZ
SAZ
SEIS - Puerto Rican
SEIS - Venezuelan
SITAR
SOCAVON (or Bocona)
STEEL GUITAR - 8-String A6
STEEL GUITAR - Hawaiian 8-String
STEEL GUITAR - Hawaiian 7-String
STEEL GUITAR - Hawaiian 6-String
STEEL GUITAR - Hawaiian 6-String
STEEL GUITAR - Hawaiian 6-String
STEEL GUITAR - 6-String E7th
STEEL GUITAR - 6-String E7th
STRUMSTICK
STRUMSTICK - Alto
STRUMSTICK - Alto
STRUMSTICK - Chromatic 3-String
STRUMSTICK - Chromatic 4-String
STRUMSTICK - Grand
STRUMSTICK - Grand
STRUMSTICK - Grand
STRUMSTICK - Long Scale
STRUMSTICK - Ukulele
TAMBURA - Bulgarian
TAMBURITZA - Berde
TAMBURITZA - Brac (or Basprim)
TAMBURITZA - Bugarija (or Kontra)
TAMBURITZA - Celo
TAMBURITZA - Prim (or Bisernica)
TAR - Persian or Modern Iranian
TAR - Persian or Modern Iranian
TARO PATCH (or Taropatch)
THEORBO
TIMPLE - 4-String
TIMPLE - 5-String
TIPLE - Argentine
TIPLE - Chilean

GDAE
DADA
CGDA
GDA

Single
Single
Single
Double

GDA
CGC
EDA
DGC
CFC
F# B E A D G
DFCEAD
CCGCGCF
GDAB
F# A C# E F# A C# E
E F# A C# E A C#
C E A E A C# E
E A E A C# E
GBDGBD
G B D F# B D
B D E G# B E
E D D G# B E
GDG
CGC
AEA
CGC
CGDA
DAD
CGC
EAE
CGC
GCEA
DGBE
EADG
EADG
GBDG
EADG
EADG
DAD
CGC
GCEA
FGABCDEF
GCFADG
CEAD
GCEAD
GADGBE
DGBE

Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single
Single
Single & Double
Single
Single
Double
Double
Double
Single & Double
Single
Single
Double
Triple

TIPLE - Colombian
TIPLE - Martin
TIPLE - Venezuelan
TIPLE DOLIENTE
TRES CUBANO - Open C
TRES CUBANO - Open D
TRES CUBANO - Open E Minor
TRES CUBANO - Open D Minor
TRICORDIA
UKULELE - Akulele Sopranino
UKULELE - Akulele Soprano
UKULELE - Baritone
UKULELE - Concert
UKULELE - Soprano C6
UKULELE - Soprano D6
UKULELE - Tenor
VIHUELA
VIHUELA DE MANO
VIHUELA DE MANO
VIOLA - Fretted
VIOLA AMARANTINA
VIOLA BEIROA
VIOLA CAIPIRA
VIOLA CAMPANIA
VIOLA DA GAMBA - Bass
VIOLA DA GAMBA - Pardessus
VIOLA DA GAMBA - Tenor
VIOLA DA GAMBA - Treble
VIOLA DA MADEIRA (or Viola de Arame)
VIOLA DA TERRA
VIOLA DE ARAME (or Viola da Madeira)
VIOLA DE BRAGUESA (or Braguesa Guitar)
VIOLA DE BRAGUESA - alternative
VIOLA DE BRAGUESA - alternative
VIOLA DE BRAGUESA - alternative
VIOLA DE COCHO
VIOLA DE COCHO
VIOLA DE COCHO
VIOLA DE TERCEIRA - 15-String
VIOLA DE TERCEIRA - 18-String
VIOLA DE DIZ CORDAS (or 10-Sting Gtr.)
VIOLA SERTANEJA
VIOLA TOEIRA - 12-String
VIOLA TOEIRA - 15-String
VIOLO (or Viola Francesa)
VIOLO - Brazil
VIOLO DE SETE CORDAS
VIOLIN - Fretted
WALAYCHO (or Hualaycho, Waylacho)
WALDZITHER - Octave Higher Open G
WALDZITHER - Open G

DGBE
A D F# B
DGBE
EADGC
GCE
A D F#
GBE
FDA
GDAE
DGBE
GCEA
DGBE
GCEA
GCEA
A D F# B
GCEA
ADGBE
GCFADG
C F Bb A D G
CGDA
DABEA
DADGBD
A D F# A D
CFCEG
DGCEA
GCEADG
GCFADG
DGCEAD
GDGBD
ADGBD
GDGBD
CGADG
ADGBE
DABEA
EADGB
DABEA
GDEAD
GCEAD
EADGBE
EADGBE
DGBE
A D F# A D
ADGBE
ADGBE
EADGBE
ADGBE
BEADGBE
GDAE
DGBEB
GDGBD
GDGBD

Triple
Double & Triple
Triple
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Triple
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single & Double
Double & Triple
Single & Double
Double
Double
Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Double & Triple
Double & Triple
Double
Double
Double & Triple
Double & Triple
Single
Single
Single
Single
Double
Single & Double
Single & Double

WALDZITHER - Standard Open C


YUEQIN

CGCEG
GDGD

Single & Double


Single or Dbl.

FRETLESS INSTRUMENT TUNINGS


INSTRUMENT

DOUBLE BASS
CELLO (or violincello)
HURDY-GURDY
NEVUD (or New Oud)
OUD - Arabic (popular)
OUD - Arabic (maqarmat)
OUD - Arabic (Iraqi)
OUD - Arabic (Iraqi alternative)
OUD- Armenian
OUD - Turkish
OUD - Turkish (alternative)
VIOLA
VIOLIN

LOW TO HIGH TUNING


EADG
CGDA
AAGC
C# F# B E A D
DGADGC
CFADGC
CDGCFF
DEADGG
EABEAD
ADEADG
F# B E A D G
CGDA
GDAE

COURSES

Single
Single
Single & Double
Double
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single
Single

TERM
a
a capella
a capriccio
a due
a piacera
a punto darco
a tempo
abellimenti
aber
accelerando (accel.)
achtel
acciaccatura
accidental

DESCRIPTION

for, at, in, etc


for choral music without accompaniment
in a humorous manner
in two parts
at pleasure; same as ad libitum
with the point of the bow
in time or return to normal time
ornaments
but
quickening
quaver
crushing; violent pressure
a sharp, double sharp, at, double at or
natural
acoustic(s)
sound, the theory and study there of
ad libitum
at the musicians pleasure
adjustable bridge
a bridge on a stringed instrument where the
height and position of the strings can be
altered. Some can be individually adjusted
affectuoso
affectionate, with tender warmth
agitato
agitated, excited, restless
agrments
ornaments
ais
A sharp
aisis
double A sharp
akustische
acoustic
al ne
to the end
alicate para torcer cordas string winding device for making loops on
Portuguese guitarra strings. The guitarra
unusually requires loops on both ends of the
strings. Generally abbreviated to alicates
all unisono
in unison
alla
in the style of
alla breve
the half note rather than the quarter note
takes the beat
alla zoppa
in a limping manner
allargando
growing broader
allegretto
moderately quickly; slower than allegro
allegro
lively
allentando
slowing down
altte
bass ute
alto
viola
am griffbrett
play on or near on the ngerboard
amabile
sweet, amiable, lovable
amoroso
loving
ancora
again
andante
moderate tempo; at walking pace
andantino
slightly faster than andante
animando
becoming animated
animato
animated

LANGUAGE
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
German
Italian
German
Italian
English
English
Latin
English
Italian
Italian
French
German
German
German
Italian

Portuguese
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
German
French
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian

a piacere
appassionato
appoggiatura
arco
arioso
arpa
arpeggio
as
ases
assai
attacca
au talon
aubade
ausdruckswoll
B at bass (Bb at)
back
bagatelle
ballo
bar (or bar-line)
barytonhorn
bass clarinet
bass ute
basset horn
bassethorn
bassklarinette
basson
bassoon
be
bcarre
bmol
bemolle
ben, bene
bequando
beruhigen
bewegt
bewegter
bien
bindung
bis
biscroma
blockte
body
bogen
bottleneck

at the performers discretion


Italian
impassioned
Italian
leaning
Italian
with the bow
Italian
a short solo in the style of an air
Italian
harp
Italian
the notes of a chord are played in
succession rather than simultaneously
Italian
A at
German
A double at
German
very
Italian
attack; without a break
Italian
with the nut or heel of the bow
German
morning music as opposed to serenade
French
with expression
German
lowest member of the tuba family
English
the back of stringed instruments. These can
be at, rounded or bowl shaped
English
short piece; light and humorous
French
dance
Italian
a vertical line drawn across a musical stave
creating logical subdivisions
English
euphonium
German
pitched an octave lower than a standard
clarinet
English
member of the ute family pitched a fourth
below a standard ute
English
alto member of the clarinet family
English
basset horn
German
bass clarinet
German
bassoon
French
double reeded lower pitched member of the
woodwind family
English
at
German
natural (accidental)
French
at
French
at
Italian
well
Italian
natural (accidental)
Italian
to calm, to quiet
German
moved; animated
German
more agitated
German
very, well
French
slur or tie
German
twice or to be played twice
French
demisemiquaver
Italian
recorder
German
the resonating chamber of stringed
instruments
English
bow
German
a hollow metal tube that slips over a nger on

the left hand and is used for sliding from note


to note on a guitar. Used in blues and rock English
bottom block
internal construction element on the bottom
of the body of stringed instruments
English
bund
fret on a lute etc.
German
brace
vertical line joining two or more staves
together
English
bracing
strips of wood glued to the internal top and
back of stringed instruments, providing
rigidity and different acoustics according to
the conguration
English
bratsche
viola
German
breve
note value equal to eight crochets. No longer
used. Latin for short
Latin
bridge pins
generally plastic removable pegs holding the
ball-ends of metal strings in place on guitars English
brillante
with brilliance or vivacity
Italian
bugle
valve or keyless member of the brass family
generally used to give military signals
English
bugle clefs
the keyed bugle
French
cadence
harmonic progression suggesting a
musical conclusion
Latin
cadence
trill
French
cadenza
a passage for solo instrument in free,
improvisatory style
Italian
calando
diminishing in dynamic and speed
Italian
cambiare
to change
Italian
cambiata
changed note
Italian
cantabile
in singable style
Italian
cantata
to be sung as opposed to sonata; to be
played
Italian
capotasto
removeable bar for use on the fretboard of a
fretted instrument to change key
Italian
cdez
go a little slower
French
ces
C at
German
ceses
C double at
German
chanson
song
French
chevalet
bridge on a stringed instrument
French
chitarra
guitar
Italian
chiuso
stopped, in horn playing
Italian
chord
three or more notes sounded together
English
clarinet
single reeded member of the woodwind
family
English
clarinete
clarinet
Spanish
clarinette
clarinet
French
clarinette basse
bass clarinet
French
clarinetto
clarinet
Italian
clarinetto basso (clarone) bass clarinet
Italian
coda
concluding section in a piece of music
Italian
col, colla
with the
Italian
coll arco
with the bow
Italian

come
come
common time
comodo
compound time

like
like, as
four crotchets in a bar or 4/4 time
comfortable, easy. Not to fast or slow
time where each beat in the bar is
divisible by three
con
with...
con brio
with brilliance or vivacity
con dolore
with sorrow
con forza
with force or strength
con fuoco
with re
con giusto
with taste, tting mood and tempo
con passione
with passion
con sordino
with mute
con spirito
with spirit
concert pitch
standard international pitch
concitato
agitated
contrabassoon
pitched an octave below a standard bassoon
contrafagotto
contrabassoon (double bassoon)
contrebasson
contrabassoon (double bassoon)
contrefagot
contrabassoon (double bassoon)
cor anglais (English horn) lower pitched member of the oboe family
cor de basset
basset horn
corda
string
corde
string
corde vide
open string
cornet
member of the valved brass family of
instruments generally found in military bands
corneta
cornet
cornet pistons (piston) cornet
corno di bassetto
basset horn
corno ingls
cor anglais (English horn)
corno inglese
cor anglais (English horn)
coro
chorus or choir
corona
pause sign placed over a note in the shape
of a crown
counterpoint
two or more parts played against each other
creating a harmonius musical structure
crescendo
increasing in volume
croche
quaver
croma
quaver
crotchet
note value equal to a fourth of a semibreve
coul
slide
cutaway
a section of body that has been sculpted to
make access easier to the higher frets on
guitars
da capo
go back to the beginning
daher
from there
dal
from the
dal segno (or D.S.)
go back to a point in the music marked by
the sign D.S.

French
Italian
English
Italian
English
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
Italian
English
Italian
French
Spanish
French/English
French
Italian
French
French
English
Italian
French
Italian
Spanish
Italian
Italian
Italian/Latin
English
Italian
French
Italian
English
French
English
Italian
German
Italian
Italian

dmpfer
decrescendo
deciso
delicato
dtach
demisemiquaver

mute
gradually get softer
with decision
delicately
detached
value equal to half a semiquaver or a thirtysecond part of a semibreve
demitone
semitone
des
D at
deses
D double at
dessus
treble
dise
sharp
diesis
sharp
di molto
extremely..
diminuendo
getting softer
dis
D sharp
disis
D double sharp
diskant
soprano, treble
do
rst note of the major scale (C)
doh
rst note of the major scale (C)
dolce
sweetly
dolente
doleful, sorrowful
doloroso
sorrowful
doppio movimento
twice as quickly
double bar
two vertical lines on a stave indicating the
end of a piece of music
double croche
semiquaver
doucement
gently or sweetly
doux
soft, light
drngen
pressing on
dreiklang
triad
dringend
urgent
drohend
threatening or menacing
duple time
time where the number of beats in a bar is
a multiple of two. 2/4 time etc.
dur
major
e, ed
and
e at/f bass (Eb/F bass) mid-pitched members of the valved tuba
family of brass instruments
e poi
and then
echoton
with an echo
clatant
sparkling, brilliant
eighth note
quaver
eilen
to hurry
einfach
simply
einleiten
to lead into
einleitung
introduction
eis
E sharp
eisis
E double sharp
en dehors
outside, emphasized
en fuse
dissolving in

German
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
French
German
German
French
French
Italian
Italian
Italian
German
German
German
Italian
English
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
French
French
French
German
German
German
German
English
German
Italian
English
Italian
French
French
American English
German
German
German
German
German
German
French
French

enchainez
encore
englisch horn
english horn
ensemble
entracte
entre
equal temperament
erschtterung
es
eses
espressivo
estinto
et
etwas
euphonium
f hole
fa
facilimente
fado
fagot
fagott
fagotto
fah
feierlich
fermata
fermate
feroce
fes
ato
fteenth
fe
gure
nale
ne
ngerboard (fretboard)
ngerpick/thumbpick
oritura
s
sis
ve-three chord
ageolett-tne

link up
French
again
French
cor anglais (English horn)
German
cor anglais
American English
a group of musicians or singers
French
music played inbetween the acts of an
opera, musical or play
French
Introductory piece of music
French
the accepted universal western system
where all the semitones are of equal value English
a violent shaking, deep emotion
German
E at
German
E double at
German
expressively
Italian
barely audible or extinct
Italian
and
French
somewhat, rather
German
highest pitched member of the tuba family
with four valves
English
soundholes found on the body of instruments
including the violin, cello and some guitars English
fourth note of the major scale (F)
Italian/French
easily, without strain
Italian
Portuguese street song
Portuguese
bassoon
Spanish
bassoon
German
bassoon
Italian
fourth note of the major scale (F)
Italian
Solemn, exalted
German
pause, rest
Italian
pause, rest
German
ferocious
Italian
F at
German
breath
Italian
interval of two octaves
English
small ute, pitched a little higher than the
piccolo
English
brief musical phrase
English
last movement of a work
Italian
end, close
Italian
front section on the neck of stringed
instruments where the ngers press the
strings down onto to form notes
English
metal, plastic or other material slipped the
top of the ngers or thumb to form an
articial nail for plucking the strings
English
owering. Embellished
Italian
F sharp
German
F double sharp
German
basic triad such as C E G
English
harmonics
German

at
note is lowered by 1 semitone
English
auta dritto
recorder
Italian
auta
ute
Spanish
auta baja
bass ute
Spanish
auta de pico
recorder
Spanish
auta dulce
recorder
Spanish
auta recta
recorder
Spanish
autato (or autando)
harmonics
Italian
autin
piccolo
Spanish
auto
ute
Italian
auto a becco
recorder
Italian
auto dolce
recorder
Italian
auto piccolo (or ottavino) piccolo
Italian
autone
bass ute
Italian
ebile
mournful
Italian
eissend
owing
German
te
ute
German
chtig
eeting, transient
German
gelhorn
soprano member of the valved brass saxhorn
family
German
ute
member of the woodwind family, played
horizontally and built from silver or wood
English
te
ute
French
te bec
recorder
French
te alto
bass ute
French
te douce
recorder
French
te droite
recorder
French
fois
times, as in number of
French
forte
loud
Italian
fortissimo
very loud
Italian
fortspinnung
continuation
German
forza
vigorously
Italian
forzando (fz)
forcing; strongly accented
Italian
frei
free
German
fret
narrow strip of metal or other material on a
ngerboard facilitating the stopping of a
string
English
fret markers
mother of pearl or plastic markers set into
the ngerboard at varying intervals to
indicate which note the player is fretting
English
frog
nut of a violin or violin bow
American English
frosch, am
played at the nut of the bow
German
fundamental
lowest note in an harmonic sequence
English
fuoco
re
Italian
furioso
furiously
Italian
gamme
scale
French
ganz
entirely, altogether
German
ganze note
semibreve
German
ganzton
whole tone
German
garbato
graceful
Italian
gebrochen
broken
German

gedehnt
gedampft
gehalten
geheimnisvoll
gehend
geige
geistlich
gemchlich
gemessen
gemtlich
generalpause
ges
gesangvoll
geschlagen
geses
gesprochen
gesteigert
gestopft
gestragen
gewhnlich
giocoso
gioioso
gis
gisis
giusto
gleichmssig
glissando
grace note
grandevole
grandezza
grandioso
grave
grazioso
grlots
griffbrett
gruppo (or groppo)
gruppo
gruppetto
guitare
guitarre
h
halbe
half note
half step
half tone
harfe
harmonics

held back
muted
sustained
mysterious
move at a moderate speed
violin
religious; sacred
comfortable
measured
comfortable; easy
rest of one or more bars
G at
songful. Same as cantabile
struck
G double at
spoken
intensied
stopped note by placing the hand in the bell
of the horn
slow and sustained
usual, customary
merry, playful
joyful
G sharp
G double sharp
proper, reasonable, exact
equal, symmetrical
sliding
a musical ornament written to embellish a
melody
pleasing
grandeur
grandly
solemn and slow
graceful
sleigh bells
ngerboard or fretboard
group
trill
small group
guitar
guitar
B natural
minim
minim
semitone
semitone
harp
soft bell-like tones produced by lightly
touching the strings at certain points on the
ngerboard

German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
Italian
Italian
German
German
Italian
German
Italian
English
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
German
German
German
American English
American English
American English
German
English

harpe
hauptstimme
halbe
halbton
halt
harmony
hauptzeitmass
hautbois
hautbois damour
haut-dessus
haut-contre
headstock
heel
heftiger
heiter
hemidemisemiquaver
heptachord
hervorgehoben
hervortretend
hexachord
hrbar
il, la
immer
impetuoso
innig
intavolatura
intonation
inversion
jack socket

key note
key signature
klang
klangvoll
klarinette
klavier
kleine te
klingen lassen
kontrabass (kontraba)
kontrafagott
konzert
kornett

harp
most important voice in the phrase
half
semitone
stop, hold
the relationship and structure of chords
original tempo
oboe
oboe damore
soprano
alto
the upper part of stringed instruments
housing the tuners
part of a stringed instrument where the neck
joins the body. Situated at the back.
more passionate, violent
cheerful
note value of two hemidemisemiquavers to
a demisemiquaver or sixteen to every
crotchet
scale of seven notes
emphasised
prominently
scale of six notes
audible
the
always
in an energetic manner
heartfelt; quietly intense
tablature
accuracy of pitch on an instrument
changing the order of the notes in a chord.
i.e. the chord of C major would change from
C E G to E G C
an input found on electric and electronic
instruments such as the guitar or synthesizer
for plugging in a lead to feed directly to an
amplier, mixing desk or recording device
rst note of a scale or key
sharps or ats placed at the start of a piece
of music, dictating the key
sound, sonority
sonorous, full-sounding
clarinet
keyboard
piccolo
allow to sound
double bass
contrabassoon (double bassoon)
concert
cornet

French
German
German
German
German
English
German
French
French
French
French
English
English
German
German
English
Greek
German
German
Greek
German
Italian
German
Italian
German
Italian
English
English

English
English
English
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German

krftig
kreuz
kurz
la
lacrimoso
lah
laissez vibrer
lamentoso
langsam
largamente
larghetto
largo
leading-note
lebhaft
legato
legatissimo
legatura
lgature
leger lines (or ledger l.)
lgrement
leggiero
leicht
leidenschaftlich
leier
leise
leiser
leitton
lent
lentement
lento
liason
libretto
licenza
li
liebesoboe
lied
liederbuch
liniensystem
loco
lontano
lower bout
luftpause
lunga pausa
lusingando
lustig
ma
machine heads

strong, forceful, vigorous


sharp
short
sixth note of the major scale (A)
tearfully, sad
sixth note of the major scale (A)
let vibrate
in a mournful style
slow
in a dignied manner, broadly
slow and broad, but less so than largo
slow and broad
seventh note in a scale. For example in the
scale of C major
lively
smoothly
smooth as possible
slur or tie
slur or tie
shortened lines above or below a musical
stave indicating the pitch of the notes
Lightly
Light
Lightly
passionate
hurdy-gurdy
soft, gentle
softer
leading note
slow
slowly
slow
tie
text or book of an opera or musical
licence, freedom
tied
oboe damore
song
songbook
stave or staff
in the normal place
distant
the widest section, near the bottom of an
instrument like a guitar. This generates the
lowest frequencies (or more bass)
breathing rest
long pause or rest
alluring, attering
merry, cheerful
but
the metal geared tuners found on guitars

German
German
German
Italian/Italian
Italian
English
French
Italian
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
English
French
German
German
German
German
German
German
French
French
Italian
French
Italian
Italian
French
German
German
German
German
Italian
Italian
English
German
Italian
Italian
German
Italian

maestoso
main
majeur
mancando
manieren
marcato
marcia
marqu
marsch
martellato
marziale
mssig
me
measure
medesimo tempo
mehr
mlodie
meno
meno mosso
menuet
Menuett
messa di voce
mesto
metronome
mezzo
mi
microtones
middle C
minacciando
minaccevole
minuet
misterioso
mit
moderato
modr
modulation
moll
molto
monter
morendo
mosso
moto
mouvement
movimento
musicology
nach
nachdruck

and some other instruments


majestic, dignied
hand (droite right; gauche left)
major
dying away
ornaments
emphasized
march
marked, with emphasis
march
hammered stroke played with very short
bows at the point
martial, war-like
moderate
third note of the major scale (E)
bar
in the same tempo
more
melody
less
less movement, slower
minuet
minuet
placing of the voice
mournful, sad
mechanical or electronic device for keeping
time
half
third note of the major scale (E)
intervals between semitones
Reference point for the piano found in the
approximate middle of the keyboard
in a menacing manner
alternative name for minacciando
French dance in 3/4 time
mysteriously
with
moderate speed
moderate speed
change of key
minor
much, very
to tune up to the correct pitch
dying away and becoming slower
lively
motion
time, speed
speed
study of musical composition and history
in the manner of
emphasis

English
Italian
French
French
Italian
German
Italian
Italian
French
German
Italian
Italian
German
English
American English
Italian
German
French
Italian
Italian
French
German
Italian
Italian
English
Italian
Italian
English
English
Italian
Italian
French
Italian
German
Italian
French
English
German
Italian
French
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
Italian
English
German
German

nachgehend
nachlassend
natural
neben
nebenstimme
neck
nehmen
neue
nicht
niente
nobilimente
noch
nocturne
nol
noire
non
notation
noter
notturno
nut
nut
oboe
oboe damore
oboe de amor
octet
ohne
obbligato
octave
oeuvre
ohne
oktave
ondul
open notes
open string
opus
ornaments
ossia
ostinato

following
relaxing
a note that isnt sharp or at
secondary
the second most important voice in the
phrase
part of a stringed instrument housing the
ngerboard
to take
new
non, not
reduce the tone of the instrument to a near
whisper. Nothing
nobly
still, yet
night piece
Christmas carol
crotchet or quarter-note
not
written music
a little wooden stick used by mountain
dulcimer players to slide up and down the
ngerboard to form notes and chords
night piece
strip of ivory or composite material found at
the headstock end of stringed instruments
used to raise the strings above the fboard
part of the bow held by the player
double reeded member of the woodwind
family
a member of the oboe family. Larger than a
regular oboe, with a pear-shaped bell
oboe damore
composition for eight musicians
without
essential, obligatory
interval between the rst or root note and
the eighth note on the diatonic scale
opus or work
without
octave
unduLating
notes played without applying pressure to
strings on the ngerboard
a string that isnt fretted with the ngers of
the left hand
work or piece of music
added embellishments applied to music
either extemporaneously or by design
or. A simplied passage
a repeated musical passage

English
German
German
English
German
German
German
Italian
Italian
German
English
French
French
Italian
English
English
Italian
English
English
English
Italian/English
Spanish
English
German
Italian
English
French
German
German
French
English
English
Latin
English
Italian
Italian

tez (or ter)


ottava
ouverture
overture
parlando
parlante
parte
partition
partitur
partitura
pateticamente
pausa
pause
pause
pegs
pentatonic scale
perdendosi
perfect
pesante
petite te
peu
phantasie
piacere
piacevole
piangendo
piangevole
pianissimo
piano
piccolo
pick (or picking)
pickguard
pick-up

pieno
pietoso
pitch pipes
pi
piuttosto
pizzicato
placidamente
plectrum (or pick)

remove (for example, a mute)


French
octave
Italian
overture
French
introductory piece to an orchestral work
English
singing in speaking style
Italian
singing in speaking style
Italian
voice-part
Italian
score
French
score
German
score
Italian
pathetically
Italian
pause, rest
Italian
pause, rest
English
silence
French/German
tuning pegs found on certain types of stringed
instruments including violins and lutes
English
a scale with ve notes to the octave
English
dying away and becoming slower
Italian
intervals of the octave, fth and fourth. These
are called perfect consonances
English
heavy, weighting, ponderos
Italian
piccolo
French
little
French
fantasy
German
pleasure
Italian
agreeable
Italian
crying or in a plaintive manner
Italian
plaintively
Italian
very soft
Italian
soft
Italiam
higher pitched member of the ute family
English
playing a succession of independent notes
with the right hand in a rhythmical fashion on
many types of stringed instrument
English
alternative name for the scratchplate
English
a magnetic device that interacts with a metal
string producing a specic tone through
an amplier. A guitar can have as many as
3 or 4 pickups, each producing a different
tonal range (bass, middle, treble etc.)
English
full
Italian
compassionate, sympathetic
Italian
a set of four or six little pipes that produce a
set note from each pipe. This is used to tune
instruments such as the guitar or mandolin English
more
Italian
faster, rather
Italian
plucked
Italian
peacefully
Italian
small piece of plastic, wood, ivory or horn
held between the ngers for plucking the

pltzlich
plus
pochettino
pochetto
poco
poco a poco
poi
point
point dorgue
point
pomposo
ponticello
port de voix
portamento
porte
posaune
postlude
poussez
praeludium
precipitato (precipitoso)
presto
prestissimo
prima
pult
punta darco
puring
quadruple croche
quarter-note
quarter tone
quartet
quartett
quartetto
quartuor
quasi
quaver
querstand
quintet
quintett
quintette (or quintuor)
quintsaite
rabbia
raddappiamento
rallentando (rall.)
ranks

strings.
suddenly
more
very little, very lightly
very little
little, a little, slightly
little by little
then
end of the bow
pause, rest
instruction that notes of equal length should
be played in an inequal manner
pompous
bridge on a stringed instrument
portamento
gliding from one note to the next
stave or staff
trombone
closing piece of music
quick the tempo
prelude
impetuously
lively, fastest speed in normal use
fastest possible speed of which the player
capable
rst
a shared music stand by two players.
Called a desk
point of the bow
decorative binding around the outside of the
body of most stringed instruments
hemidemisemiquaver
crotchet
half a semitone
composition for four performers
quartet
quartet
quartet
almost, nearly
note value of eight quavers to a semibreve
or two to one crotchet
false relation
composition for ve performers
quintet
quintet
name for the E or rst string of the violin
rage
doubling
gradually slowing down
two strings tuned to the same note. Usually
referring to members of the lute family

English
German
French
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
French
French
Italian
German
French
Italian
French
German
English
French
Latin
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
German
Italian
English
French
American English
English
English
German
Italian
French
Italian
English
German
English
German
French
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
English

rasch
ray
re
rcit (or rcitatif)
recital
recitative
recitativo
recorder

quick
second note of the major scale (D)
second note of the major scale (D)
recitative
performance by two performers
singing in the form of dramatic speech
recitative
family of ve end blown utes of the
woodwind family (sopranino, descant, treble,
tenor and bass)
recueilli
mediative, collected
reduction
simplied arrangement of a piece of music
rduction
reduction
refrain
a repeating theme or chorus
rjouissance
enjoyment
related
the harmonic relationship between one key
and another
repeat
a section of music to be repeated indicated
by two vertical lines followed by two vertical
dots. At the end of a passage these are
reversed
rptition
rehearsal
religioso
with devotion
replica
repeat
reprise
repeat. Often used to indicate a repetition
of a leading theme or tune
resonance
the tonal vibrations of one body in another
body
rest
a silence
retenu
held back, in relation to speed
rezitativ (sprechgesang) recitative
rhapsody
instrumental piece reecting heroic or
national pride
rhythm
the tempo and structure indicating the ow
of a piece of music
ribs
internal construction of the body of a
stringed instrument
rigo
stave or staff
ripieno
full
ripresa
repeat
risoluto
resolutely
risvegliato
in an animated fashion
ritardando (rit.)
gradually getting slower
ritenuto (riten.)
suddenly slower, held back
ritmo
rhythm
ritmico
rhythmical
ritorrnello
return
roll
rapid succession of notes on a drum
creating an impression of continuous sound
ronde
semibreve
root
the rst or key note in a chord

German
English
Italian/French
French
English
English
Italian
English
French
English
French
English
French
English

English
French
Italian
Italian
English
English
English
French
German
English
English
English
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
French
English

rosette
rubato
ruhig
saddle
saite
saiteninstrument
saltando
salterio tedesco
sanft
sans
sassophone
satz
sautill
scale
scale length
scala
schellen
scherzando
scherzo
schlag
schlgel
schlaginstrumente
schleppen
schleifer
schluss
schlssel
schmetternd
schon
schwach
schwerer
schwermtig
schwindend
schwung
schwungvol
sciolto
score
scorrevole
scratchplate

scroll
secco
sechzehntel
seconda volta

decorative inlay around the soundhole of


stringed instruments
robbed time, speeding up and slowing down
calm
upper part of the bridge that the strings pass
over
string
stringed instrument
leaping
dulcimer
soft, gentle
without
saxophone
movement of a sonata
leaping
a succession of notes either ascending or
descending
the distance betweem the nut and the bridge
on stringed instruments
scale
sleigh bells
playfully
a musical joke
beat
drumstick
percussion instruments
to drag
slide or slur
end or conclusion
clef
blaring (horn players instruction)
already
weak, soft
heavier, more difcult
dejected, sad
dying away
swinging
spirited
free and easy
written music for more than one instrument
scurrying, gliding
situated on the body, below the rst string of
many stringed instruments. Placed there to
stop the player damaging the body with a
pick or plectrum
decorative curl at the top of the headstock
on many stringed instruments such as the
violin and cello
dry, short
semiquaver
second time

English
Italian
German
English
German
German
Italian
Italian
German
French
Italian
German
French
English
English
Italian
German
Italian
Italian
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
German
Italian
English
Italian

English
English
Italian
German

segno, dal
segue
sehr
seiten
semibreve
semichroma
semiminima
semplice
semiquaver
semitone
sempre
semplice
sensibilita
sensible
senza
septet
septuor
sequence
serenade
serio (or seria)
serioso
serr
settimino
seulement
sextet
sextette (or sextuor)
sfogato
shake
sforzando (sforzato)
shake
sharp
si
sight reading
simile
simple time
sinfonie
sinistra
sino (or sin)
sino al
sistema
sixteenth-note
slancio
slargando
slentando

repeat from the sign


moving seemlessly from one musical phrase
or section to another
very
side
longest note in modern notation. Originally
half the value of the extinct breve
semiquaver
crotchet
in a simple manner
note value equal to a sixteenth of a
semibreve or half the length of a quaver
half a whole tone. In equal temperament
there are twelve semitones to an octave
always
simple
sensitive
sensitive
without
composition for seven performers
septet
repetition of a musical pattern at another
pitch
song of love and devotion
serious
serious
tightened. To be played tensely and quickly
septet
only
composition for six performers
sextet
evaporated, in an airy fashion
another name for a trill
forcing. abbreviated to sfz or sf
alternative name for trill
raises the pitch of note by a semitone
seventh note of the major scale (B)
the ability to read music straight from the
page on rst viewing
the same
time where each beat in the bar is
divisible by two
symphony
left hand
until
up to the
stave or staff
semiquaver
impetus
broadening
getting slower

Italian
Italian
German
German
English/Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
English
Italian
Italian
Italian
French
Italian
English
French
English
Latin
Italian
Italian
French
Italian
French
English
French
Italian
English
Italian
English
English
French/Italian
English
Italian
English
German
Italian
Italian
Italian
Italian
American English
Italian
Italian
Italian

slide
slur
smorzando
soave
soggeto
soh
sol
solenne
solennemente
solo
soltanto
sombre
sombre
son
son touffes
son harmoniques
sonata
sonagli
sonore
sopra
sordino
sospiro
sostenuto
sotto
sotto voce
soubrette
sound board
soundhole
soupir
sourdine
sousaphone
soutenu
spezzato
spianato
spiccato
spinto
spirito
spiritoso
spitze
sprechgesang
sprechstimme
staccato

the movement of two grace notes up to the


principal note
English
curved line under or over a group of notes
indicating they are to be performed smoothly English
dying away
Italian
suave, gentle
Italian
subject, theme
Italian
fth note of the major scale (G)
English
fth note of the major scale (G)
Italian/French
solemn
Italian
solemnly
Italian
alone
Italian
solely
Italian
somber, dark
French
dark, somber
Italian
sound
French
damped sound
French
harmonics
French
a piece of music for a solo keyboard
instrument or a solo instrument accompanied
by the piano
English
sleigh bells
Italian
sound with full tone
Italian
above
Italian
mute
Italian
crotchet rest
Italian
sustained
Italian
under
Italian
with a barely audible sound
Italian
cunning, shrewd
French
wooden top on instruments over which the
strings are stretched to produce and amplify
the sound
English
opening on the top of mainly stringed
instruments to project and amplify the sound English
crotchet rest
French
mute
French
member of the tuba family to be worn around
the neck. Generally used in marching bands English
held, sustained, owing smoothly
French
divided
Italian
smooth and even
Italian
with a light bouncing motion of the bow on
the strings
Italian
pushed, urged on
Italian
spirit
Italian
lively, with spirit
Italian
point
German
speech-song
German
speaking voice
German
detached, short
Italian

staff
stndchen
stark
stave
steel
steg
stentando
stimme
stopping

strap button
strascinando
streich
strepitoso
stretto
stimmgabel
strich
string winder
stringendo
strings

strum (or strumming)


strumento
stck
study
subito
suite
suivez
sul
sul ponticello
sul tasto
summation tone
suono
sur
sur la touche
suspension

alternative name for a stave


serenade
strong, loud
set of ve horizontal lines housing the notes
and ornaments in written music. Plainsong
only used four lines
a heavy little metal cylinder used by steel
guitar players to slide from note to note on
the fretboard
bridge on a stringed instrument
delaying, retarding, labouring
voice
with stringed instruments the placing of the
left hand ngers on the strings and
ngerboard to produce a higher pitch, as
opposed to open string playing
button on the bottom underside of the body
for holding a strap in place. These can also
be seen on the heel of many instruments
dragging
bow
noisy
close, narrow, drawn together
tuning fork
bow stroke
a device that ts over the tuner or machine
head of a stringed instrument, making the
process of re-stringing a lot quicker
quickening
lengths of metal, nylon, gut or composite
material of different diameters stretched
over a neck and soundboard on instruments
such as guitars, harps, violins and zithers
striking all, or the majority of the strings on a
stringed instrumented simultaneously in a
rhythmical, up or down motion
instrument
piece of music or composition
a practice piece
suddenly
a set of connected musical pieces forming
a whole work
follow
on the
on the bridge
play on or near on the ngerboard
very faint note
sound, tone
over, on
play on or near on the ngerboard
the sounding of a sustained note or chord

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German
German
English
English
German
Italian
German

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English
Italian
German
Italian
Italian
German
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English
Italian

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English
Italian
German
English
Italian
English
French
Italian
Italian
Italian
English
Italian
French
French

sympathetic strings
symphonie
symphony
system
tablatur
tablature (or tab)
tacet
tactus
tailpiece

takt
taktstrich
talon
tanto
tardo
tardando
tastar
tastiera
tasto
tastura
te
tema
temperament
tempo
tempo primo
tempo rubato
temps
tenendo
teneramente
tenor horn
tenorhorn
tenuto
tertian harmony
tessitura
testo
thirty-second note
ti
tie
timbre
time signature

while a second chord is played


English
additional strings which vibrate while the
main strings are sounded, as on the sitar
English
symphony
French/German
an orchestral work in three or four
movements
English
stave or staff. abbreviated from liniensystem German
tablature
German
notation system where the notes are
represented by numbers or letters and the
horizontal lines represent the strings
English
is silent
Latin
beat
Latin
nal resting place for the strings after the
bridge on some stringed instruments. Usually
metal and joined to the bottom underside of
the body
English
bar, beat, time
German
barline
German
nut of the bow
French
so much
Italian
slow
Italian
becoming slower
Italian
touching
Italian
ngerboard or fretboard
Italian
key of a keyboard instrument
Italian
keyboard
Italian
seventh note of the major scale (B)
English
theme
Italian
tuning system where the intervals are tuned
away from the natural scale
English
time
Italian
return to original time
Italian
robbed time
Italian
beat
French
sustaining
Italian
tenderly
Italian
member of the valved brass family belonging
to the saxhorn group (tuba, euphonium etc.) English
tenor horn
German
held, sustained
Italian
harmony based on a triad or third
English
average range of a vocal part
Italian
text
Italian
demisemiquaver
American English
seventh note of the major scale (B)
curved line joining together two notes of
identical pitch into a continuous sound
English
tonal quality
French
vertical numbers found at the beginning of a
piece of music indicating the note values in

tir
toccata
ton
ton
tonart
tone (or whole-tone)
tonic
tonic sol-fa
tonkunst
tonleiter
tonstck
top
top block
tosto
touche
tranquillo
transition
transposition
trauernd
trumerisch
traurig
tremblement
tremolo
tremelo arm or bar

trs
triad
trill
trille
triller
trio
triple croche
triple stop
triple time
tristement
tristement
tromba (clarino)
trombone

each bar
English
downward stroke of the bow
French
musical piece for a keyboard instrument
Italian
key, mode or pitch
French
sound, music
German
key, mode
German
interval of a major second such G to A, rather
than semitones G to G sharp
English
rst note in a scale
English
a method of musical training where the notes
are sung to syllables
English
art of sound or music
German
scale
German
piece of music
German
the soundbound or front of the body of
stringed instruments
English
internal construction element on stringed
instruments under the base of the neck
where it joins the body
English
quick, rapid
Italian
ngerboard or fretboard
French
tranquil, quiet, calm
Italian
change of key
English
the writing or performing of a piece of music
in a different key from the original
English
mournfully
German
dreamy
German
sad
German
trill
French
a quick reiteration of the same tone on a
string instrument
Italian
a metal bar xed to the bridge or tailpiece of
an electric guitar to temporarily alter the
string tension, which in turn changes the
pitch, creating a vibrato effect.
English
very
French
a three-note chord, such as C major
English
a very fast alteration between a note and the
note a second above it
English
trill
French
trill
German
composition for three parts
English
demisemiquaver
French
three note chord played on bowed musical
instruments
English
time featuring three beats to the bar
English
sadly
French
sadly
Italian
trumpet
Italian
member of the brass family with a u-shaped
slide instead of valves
English/French/Italian

trompete
trompette
tronco
troppo
troubadours
trumpet
truss rod
tuba
tuners
tuning fork
turn
tutte le corde
tutti
twang bar
tympanon
uber
bertnend
umkehrung
ubung
un poco
una corda
unison (unis.)
unmore
unruhig
unter
unterbrechung
up bow
upper bout

ut
valse
valzer
vamp
variation
veloce
verhalten
verklingen lassen
verzweiungsvoll
vibrato
vibrato arm
viertel
vide
vif

trumpet
trumpet
truncated
too much
poet-musicians from the early middle ages
valved member of the brass family
metal rod inserted into the neck of guitars
to keep the neck straight or correct bowing
lower pitched members of the brass family
in three sizes, the euphonium, the Eb/F bass
and the Bb bass. All have valves.
for tightening up a string to the correct pitch
on stringed instruments
two-pronged metal device for sounding the
pitch of a note
an ornament which makes a turn around a
particular note, starting with the note above
all the strings
all
colloquial name for a vibrato arm
dulcimer
over, above
drowning out
turning round, inversion
exercise
a little
one string
same pitches played by several instruments
humour
restless
under, lower
interuption, suspension
stroke of the bow from the point to the heel
the narrower section, near the top of the
body on an instrument like a guitar. This
generates the higher frequencies (or more
treble)
the note C in French
waltz
waltz
an improvised accompaniment
modication of a musical theme
fast
restrained, held back
let die away
full of despair
slight change of pitch on same note
same as a tremelo arm
crotchet
empty
lively

German
French
Italian
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French
English
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English
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Italian
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French
Italian
German
German
German
English

English
French
French
Italian
English
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Italian
German
German
German
Italian
English
German
French
French

vigoroso
vihuela de brao
viola
viola da braccio
violine
violon
virtuoso
vite
vivace
vivo
voce
volante
volta
volti
volume
vorspiel
vorwrts
wagner tuba
waist
waltz
walzer
wechsel
weg
whammy bar
whole-note
wieder
wie oben
wuchtig
zart
zeitmass
zero fret
ziemlich
zurckhaltend
zurckkehrend zum
zweiunddreissigstel

vigorous, strong
violin
alto member of the violin family
violin
violin
violin
a musician of extraordinary talent
fast, quick
lively
lively
voice
fast and light
turn or time
turn over the page
loudness of sound
prelude
forward, onward
a group of ve brass instruments designed
for Wagners Ring Cycle
the middle or dipped section in the body of
a guitar
dance in triple or 3/4 time
waltz
change
away, beyond
colloquial name for a vibrato arm
semibreve
again
as above, as before
weighty, heavy
tenderly, delicately
tempo
an extra fret to aid tuning stability situated
just in front of the nut on the neck of some
stringed instruments
suitable, tting
slowing in speed
return to
demisemiquaver

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