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Vol. 55 No.

2 2011

Journal of Apicultural Science

31

QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF HONEYBEE QUEENS


AS AFFECTED BY THE NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION
OF QUEEN CELLS WITHIN QUEEN REARING COLONIES
M o h a m m a d A . A b d A l - F a t t a h 1,
A d e l M . M a z e e d 1, N o r a A b d A l - H a d y 2
Department of Economic Entomology and Pesticides, Fac. Agric., Cairo University, Egypt
2
Bee research center, Institute of plant protection, Ministry of Agriculture
e-mail: a_alfattah@yahoo.com

Received 31 January 2011; Accepted 27 May 2011

S u m m a r y
The effect of the number of introduced queen cells (15, 24, 48, 66), cell bar level (upper,
middle, lower) and queen cell position within a grafted frame (middle, peripheral) on the
percentages of sealed queen cell and queen emergence, the development time, and the
weight of newly emerged queens, were observed during the spring and summer seasons.
The results indicated the percentage of sealed queen cells was affected by the number of introduced
queen cells, but not by the level bar or position in the rearing frame, during the two seasons.
The percentage of queen emergence in spring was significantly affected by the three factors, but
in the summer - only by the number of queen cells. Also, both development time and weight
of emerged queens were affected by the three factors. Queen quality, based on queen weight, was
also investigated. In spring, only heavy queens (190-200 mg) appeared when 15 queen cells were
introduced, but heavy queens appeared in low percentages when 24 or 48 cells were introduced,
and heavy queens completely disappeared with the introduction of 66 queen cells. Queens emerged
from cells on the middle rearing bars and the middle positions of each bar had a high frequency
of heavy weight in comparison with those reared on the upper or lower bars and located at the
peripheral of the bars.

Keywords: Queens, weight, development time, percentage of emergence, queen cell number,
location.

Introduction
It is known that the honeybee queen
is the key to success for both the colony
and the beekeeper. The beekeepers have
exploited the biology of queen rearing
so as to offer queens for breeding or for
commercial purposes. Laidlaw (1979),
Morse (1979), DeGrandi-Hoffman et
al. (1993) agreed, that not only the genetic
factors but also the external and internal
conditions through the rearing operation,
affect the potentiality and quality of the
resulting queens. Furthermore, the factors
involved in the selection of the future
queens are of interest in understanding
the biology of honeybee reproduction,
and in themselves are of importance for

commercial queen rearing (Breed et al.,


1985).
The location of a given queen larvae
within the queen rearing colony and the
number the colony received, were taken into
consideration by many specific researchers.
Location and number affect the quality of
the resulting queens (Eckert and Shaw,
1960; Zhu, 1981; Rawash et al., 1983;
Fell and Morse, 1984; Spivak et al.,
1992; Sharaf El-Din et al., 2000; Abd
Al-Fattah et al., 2007). The production
and quality of queens are also affected by
the rearing season (DeGrandi-Hoffman
et al., 1993; Abou El-Enain, 2000;
Abd Al-Fattah et al., 2003; Hassan
and Mazeed, 2003).

32
On the other hand, due to the relation of
queen weight with the number of ovarioles,
many researchers considered the weight
of newly emerged queens as reliable
criterion for the evaluation of queen quality
(Weaver, 1957; Hoopingarner and
Farrar, 1959; Marza, 1965; Woyke,
1971; Szabo, 1973; Abd Al-Fattah and
El-Shemy, 1996; Zeedan, 2002; Taha,
2005).
It is important to point out that the
relationship between the nursery worker
population within the rearing colony, and
quality of the resulting queens is given
much attention by many breeders. Taber
(1979) found that 500 young nursery
workers were sufficient to raise a good
queen. However, Zhu (1981) reported
that a 10-comb colony, with an average of
1000-1500 nurse bees to feed each queen
larvae, could raise 20-30 queen cells in one
batch. Also, a higher amount of royal jelly
was harvested (Ali, 1994) and heavier
queens were obtained (Abd Al-Fattah
et al., 2003), when queen rearing colonies
consisted of 10 combs covered with bees,
than those colonies which contained less
than 10 combs.
The objective of the present work was to
evaluate the quantity and quality of newly
emerged queens, that were reared within
queenless honeybee colonies. Colonies,
which received different numbers of larval
queen cells fixed at various levels and
positions in the artificial queen rearing
frame.

Material and Methods


This work was undertaken in Egypt, at
the Apiary of the Agricultural Experimental
Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo
University, during the spring and summer
seasons of 2006 and 2007.
For this purpose, 5 strong queenless
colonies of Carniolan F1 were treated as
starter colonies, and each received about
half a kilogram of 1:1 (w/w) sugar syrup at
two days interval. Each queenless colony
received 135 grafted queen cups divided on
three successive patches (45 cups/patch).
Each patch of grafted cups spent 24 hours

within the center of a starter queenless


colony, and then it was removed. The
accepted queen cells were prepared to be
put immediately in the finisher colonies of
various tested categories.
Concerning finisher colonies, 12 strong
Carniolan F1 colonies were chosen, each
contained 6-8 brood combs and provided
with the same sugar syrup for 2 weeks
before and during the period of queen
rearing. The 12 Carniolan F1 colonies
were divided into 4 equal groups, each
of 3 colonies. The number of worker
populations in these colonies were almost
the same, and counted according to the
method of Lensky and Slabezky
(1981). The populations ranged between
15000 to 15905 workers with an average
of 15605.
The following factors were studied in
relation to quantity and quality of the
produced queens.
Number of queen cells received by the
finisher colony:
Four categories (15, 24, 42, and
66 cells/col.) of the accepted queen
cells were individually tested in known
populated queenless finisher colonies.
The introduced queen cells, which were
included in each category, were equally
distributed on 3 bars hung within a rearing
frame. The category of 66 queen cells was
prepared using two rearing frames, one
of them carried 42 cells and the other
one carried the rest of the cells (as shown
in Fig. 1). Each category was repeated
3 times, so they were put into 3 finisher
colonies.
Level of bar carrying larval queen
cells within rearing frame:
The above mentioned categories of the
introduced queen cells were affixed on
wooden bars at three levels within each
rearing frame. The upper bar was hung
5.4 cm apart from the top bar of the
rearing frame. The middle and lower bars
were hung under the upper one, with the
same distance between each other. Each of
the 3 bars carried an equal number of the
introduced queen cells for each queen cell
category (Fig. 1).

Vol. 55 No. 2 2011

Journal of Apicultural Science

Position of queen cells on bars of


rearing frames:
The net length of each of the three bars
was approximately 41.5 cm. This means
that the length was, divided vertically into
three positions, two lateral, being 10.5 cm.
on each side, which were considered as the
peripheral position, and one at the middle,
being 20.5 cm long, (Fig. 1). The distance
between two adjacent queen cells on the
bare varied according to the category to
which the queen cells belonged.
All the previous factors were considered
in the spring and summer seasons of 2006
and 2007.
The following parameters were chosen
to evaluate the influence of the previous
factors on quantity and quality of the
resulting queens:
Percentage of sealed queen cells:
Sealed queen cells (%) = (No. sealed
queen cells No. introduced queen cells
X100).
Percentage of emerged virgin queens:
Queen emergence (%) = (No. emerged
queens/No. sealed queen cells X100).
Development time of queens:
Larval queen cells of each tested category
were inserted within the experimental
queenless finisher colonies. Two days
later the queen cells were checked for
capping at 3 hour intervals throughout the
day. Monitoring took place from 8.00 am
to 8.00 p.m. during the summer and from
9.00 a.m to 6.00 p.m during spring. Each
queen cell was lifted after registering the
capping time. Then, after 9 days from
the introduction of the queen cells to the
finisher colonies, each mature queen cell
was individually separated in the same
location by a cylindrical plastic mesh cage to
prevent escaping or to prevent the emerged
queens from fitting through. The finisher
colonies were checked for emerging queen
at 3 hour intervals throughout the day. So,
queens that emerged at night were excluded
because the end of the post capping period
was not registered. The queen developing
time was then calculated as follows:
Queen developing time = [Post capping
development time (in h.) 24 ] + 8 days

33

Where 8 days = period of egg and


uncapped larval stages, as reported by
Spivak et al. (1992).
Weight of virgin queens at emergence:
This parameter was recorded using an
electric balance to the nearest 0.01 mg.
Data were analyzed using split-split
plot design in randomized complete
block design after transforming all the
percentages by the arcsine transformation
method (Sokal and Rohlf, 1995). The
different means were compared using
Duncan's multiple Range Test.
The frequency distribution of the
different weight classes of the virgin
queens was established with respect to
the effect of the different treatments under
study. For this purpose, 3 weight classes
were formed as follows:
Class 1: 130 - 140 mg,
Class 2: 160 - 170 mg,
Class 3: 190 - 200 mg.
All the analysis was carried out using
Almo statistical Package (Holm , 2010).

Results
The percentage of sealed queen cells:
The rates of sealed queen cells differed
significantly between the different
categories of the queen cell numbers in
spring but did not differ significantly
in summer (F=7.59, df=3, p<0.05;
F=3.58, df=3, p>0.05, for spring and
summer, resp.). The rate was higher in the
first category than in the others. The first
category differed significantly from the
third and fourth categories in spring and
from only the fourth category in summer
(Tab. 1).
Concerning the effect of the horizontal
position, and although the whole statistical
test did not show significant difference
in summer (F=0.32, df=2, p>0.05), the
individual comparisons showed significant
differences between the upper bar and
both the middle and bottom bar. In
spring, however, there was no significant
difference between the three categories
(F=0.79, df=2, p>0.05).
With respect to the effect of vertical
level of the larval queen cells on this

34

Fig. 1. Four categories of queen cup numbers distributed on the bars


of three frames: 15 queen cups (A); 24 queen cups (B); 42 queen cells
(C); 66 queen cups (B and C).

Vol. 55 No. 2 2011

Journal of Apicultural Science

feature, the best results were obtained by


introducing them at the middle location
in spring (94.77%) and at the peripheral
in summer (90.32%). The two locations
were significantly different in summer
but not in spring (Tab. 1) (F=5.17, df=1,
p<0.05; F=0.33, df=1, p>0.05, in summer
and spring, resp.).
The rate of emergence:
In spring, although the whole analysis
of variance did not show a significant
difference (F=0.96, df=3, p>0.05), queen
emergence rate was significantly higher
for the first category of introduced queen
cell numbers than other categories. In
summer, a significant difference was
found between the third and fourth ones
(F=20.69, df=3, p<0.05).
The queen cells located on the upper bar
showed a significantly higher emergence
rate than the other bars in summer,
although the whole test did not show
significant differences (F=2.76, df=2,
p>0.05). In spring, both the whole
statistical and individual test did not show
significant differences between the three
categories (F=1.92, df=2, p>0.05).
No significant difference was observed
between queen emergence percentages on
the middle and peripheral sites (Tab. 2)
(F=1.17, df=1, p>0.05; F=1.39, df=1,
p>0.05, for spring and summer, resp.).
The development time of the queens:
The shortest queen development time
(14.59 and 15.03 days) was registered
when the lowest number of larval queen
cells were put in the queen rearing
colonies. The longest queen development
time (15.4 and 15.34 days) was obtained
when the highest numbers were introduced
during the summer and spring, respectively
(Tab. 3), (F=18.94, df=3, p< 0.05; F=70.8,
df=3, p<0.05, for spring and summer,
resp.). The shortest queen development
time also occurred when the queen cells
were reared on the upper bar of the queen
rearing frame (15 days and 15.07 days)
in both seasons (F=11.59, df=2, p<0.05;
F=4.49, df=2, p<0.05, for spring and
summer, resp.).

35

Queens reared at the middle location


of the rearing frame spent a significantly
shorter period than those reared on the
peripheral site, in summer (F=12.16,
df=1, p<0.05), while there is no
significant difference between the
two locations in spring (F=0.96, df=1,
p>0.05).
The weight of virgin queens:
The weight of virgin queens was affected
significantly by all factors under study.
Concerning the effect of the number of
the introduced queen cells, the best result
was obtained when 15 larval queen cells
were introduced into the queen rearing
colony (Tab. 4) (F=13.16, df=3, p<0.05;
F=40.9, df=3, p<0.05), in comparison
with the remaining categories, and also
when they were put at the middle location
(F=138.3, df=1, p<0.05; F=106.14,
df=1, p<0.05) of the middle bar
(F=36.5,
df=2;
p<0.05;
F=13.08,
df=2, p<0.05) for spring and summer, resp.
The frequency distribution of the weights
of the resulting queens was affected by the
number of introduced queen cells. The
light and intermediate weights disappeared
and the resulting queens all belonged to
the heavy weight category, when 15queen
cells/col. were introduced in spring.
In the summer season, however, only the
intermediate weight class appeared, with a
percentage of 15.78% (Fig. 2).
For
the
second
category
(24 cells/colony), the intermediate class
prevailed in the spring season. The
intermediate class appeared with 37.5%,
in comparison to 5.36% for the heavy
class. The light class still did not appear.
In summer, the light class appeared at
8.62% and the intermediate class still
prevailed with 24.14%, and the heavy
class was represented by 3.45%. In the 42
and 66 cells/colony categories, the heavy
class disappeared, except in the summer
when 42 cells were used. The intermediate
class dominated over the light ones in
both seasons, but the difference was
most obvious when the third category
(42 cells/colony) was used.

Season

100
96.3
96.07
98.15
97.63A
97.22
88.9
80.26
72.22
84.65A

Middle

Effect of number of nursed queen cells, cell bar level and cell position within rearing frame
in queenless building colonies on percentage of queen emergence during the spring and summer season (%).

Number of
Upper bar
Middle bar
Lower bar
introduced
Middle Peripheral Average Middle Peripheral Average Middle Peripheral Average
queen cells
15
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
24
100
91.67
95.84
100
100
100
88.9
88.9
88.9
Spring
42
100
95.45
97.73
93.75
100
96.88
94.45
85.9
90.18
66
94.44
95.83
95.14
100
90.47
95.24
100
96.97
98.49
Mean
68.61
95.74
97.17a
98.44
97.62
98.03a
95.84
92.94
94.39a
15
91.67
100
95.84
100
100
100
100
100
100
24
100
100
100
77.80
91.67
84.74
88.9
91.67
90.29
Summer
42
85.20
95.49
89.84
70.37
80.53
75.45
85.20
77.80
81.50
66
66.67
87.50
77.09
72.23
70.83
71.53
77.77
58.33
68.05
Mean
85.89
95.75
90.82a
80.1
85.76
82.93b
87.97
81.95
84.96ab
Means in the same row followed by the same letter do not differ significantly according to Duncans multiple test at 0.05 probability.

Season

Number .of
Upper bar
Middle bar
Lower bar
introduced
Middle Peripheral Average Middle Peripheral Average Middle Peripheral Average Middle
queen cells
15
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
24
100
100
100
100
91.67
95.84
91.67
91.67
91.67
97.22
Spring
42
94.43
87.50
90.97
90.27
91.07
90.67
94.43
91.67
93.05
93.04
66
83.34
91.69
87.52
88.9
91.69
90.30
94.22
87.5
90.86
88.82
Mean
94.44
94.8
94.62 a
94.79
93.61
94.2 a
95.08
92.71
93.9 a
94.77 A
15
100
100
100
100
100
100
88.9
97.77
93.34
96.3
24
100
100
100
77.8
100
88.9
88.9
91.67
90.29
88.9
Summer
42
96.3
91.67
93.99
71.6
80.57
76.09
81.5
86.10
83.8
83.13
66
83.33
83.33
83.33
84.7
69.43
77.07
72.23
83.33
77.78
80.09
Mean
94.91
93.75
94.33a
83.53
87.5
85.51b
82.88
89.72
86.3b
87.11A
Means in the same row followed by the same letter do not differ significantly according to Duncans multiple test at 0.05 probability.

Effect of number of nursed queen cells, cell bar level and cell position within rearing frame
on the percentage of sealed queen cells during the spring and summer season. (%).

100 a
95.84 ab
91.56 bc
89.56 c
94.24
99.78 a
93.06 ab
84.62 ab
79.39 b
88.72

100
93.52
93.78
94.42
95.43A
100
94.45
84.27
72.22
87.73A

100a
94.92b
94.93b
96.29b
96.53
98.61a
91.67a
82.26b
72.22c
86.19

Peripheral Average

Mean

Table 2.

100
94.45
90.08
90.29
93.71 A
99.26
97.22
86.11
78.7
90.32B

Peripheral Average

Mean

Table 1.
36

15

15.27

15.03

15.22

15.07
0.05

14.56

15

14.98

15.24

42

66

Mean
se

15

24

42

66

15.3

15.22

15.17

14.50

15.08
0.06

15.03

15.01

24

15.01

15.01

15

15.27

15.10

15.09

15.25

14.8

14.94

14.67

15.12
0.07

14.53

15.32

15.07
b 0.06

15.07

15.07

15

15.53

15.33

15.25

14.50

15.16
0.08

15.34

15.23

15.04

15.01

15.39

15.07

15.10

14.59

15.14 b
0.07

15.33

15.15

15.06

15.01

15.34

15.25

15

14.61

15.21
0.05

15.29

15.25

15.22

15.07

15.78

15.43

15.28

14.73

15.38
0.11

15.57

15.39

15.48

15.08

15.56

15.34

15.14

14.67

15.29 a
0.08

15.43

15.32

15.35

15.08

Lower bar
Middle Peripheral Average

Middle bar
Middle Peripheral Average

15.25

15.02

15.02

15.01

Number of
Upper bar
introduced
Middle
Peripheral
Average
queen cells

Mean

Table 3.

15.28

15.01

14.98

14.61

15.13 A
0.05

15.28

15.12

15.1

15.03

15.54

15.33

15.23

14.58

15.2 A
0.15

15.39

15.21

15.18

15.03

15.03c
0.04
15.14b
0.03
15.16b
0.15
15.34a
0.09
15.17
0.06
14.59c
0.07
15.11b
0.02
15.18b
0.15
15.41a
0.14
15.07
0.17

Middle Peripheral Average

Mean
14.95
15.05
15.0 b
14.92
15.15
15.03 b
15.05
15.31
15.18 a 14.97 A
15.13 B
se
0.14
0.18
0.16
0.12
0.22
0.16
0.16
0.22
0.19
0.14
0.21
Means in the same row followed by the same letter do not differ significantly according to Duncans multiple test at 0.05 probability.

Summer

Spring

Season

Effect of number of nursed queen cells, cell bar level and cell position within rearing frame
in queenless building colonies on the development time (days) of reared queen during the spring and summer season.

Vol. 55 No. 2 2011


Journal of Apicultural Science
37

155.5

167.9
7.21

154.03

164.9
5.56

168.67

162.8

176.5
7.18

192.23

182.77

183.27

172.72

182.8
3.98

42

66

Mean se

15

24

42

66

Mean se

160.10

165.57

180

157.77

171.67

178.9

24

173.77
185.4
4.14

173.84a
4.69

187.33

187.23

163.38

171.69

174.17

193.35

181.4
7.87

172.19b
7.17
186.12

164.4

173.23

187.8

200

159.15

163.22

175.29

191.12

Middle

167
7.52

151.84

158.1

177.23

183.33

168.8
8,10

153.6

159.13

172.5

190

176.5a
5.58

162.81

172.72

182.2

188.34

175.1a
7.96

159

166.18

180.15

195

Peripheral Average

Middle bar

171.5
6

167.07

175.83

157.5

185.56

172
6.55

156.9

171.67

170.57

188.9

Middle

160.4
4.69

148.73

167.17

168.74

156.9

161.4
9.05

145.33

152.33

161.4

186.67

165 b
3.31

157.9

171.5

163.1

171.23

166.7c
7.7

151.12

162

166

187.79

Peripheral Average

Lower bar

176.8A
5.95

171.19

182.14

175.83

190.38

176.6B
7.06

161.37

171.19

179.09

194.82

Middle

Means in the same row followed by the same letter do not differ significantly according to Duncans multiple test at 0.05 probability.

Summer

Spring

186.67

Peripheral Average

195.57

Middle

Upper bar

15

Number of
Season introduced
queen
cells

Table 4.

165.B
5.27

151.53

161.79

170.51

173.41

166.1A
8.08

151.48

156.41

168.52

187.78

191.3a
3.6
173.81b
7.21
163.8c
2.16
156.42c
4.61
171.3
7.55
181.9 a
9.3
173.2 b
9.59
172 b
0.66.
161.36 c
3.01
170.9
4.27

Peripheral Average

Mean

Effect of number of nursed queen cells, cell bar level and cell position within rearing frame
in queenless building colonies on the weight (mg) of the newly emerged queens during the spring and summer season.

38

Vol. 55 No. 2 2011

Journal of Apicultural Science

39

Fig. 2. Frequency distribution of queen weight under the influence of number of introduced queen cells.

Fig. 3. Frequency distribution of queen weight under the influence of cell bar level.

The queens with heavy weight appeared


significantly in higher percentages when
reared from queen cells located on the
middle bar in both the spring (19.7%) and
summer (17%) seasons, than those located
on the upper (9.5% and 5.4%) or lower
(2.1% and 8.1%) bars, in the spring and
summer seasons, respectively. On the other
hand, the light queens were represented in
a higher percentage for queen cells located
on the lower bar (8.8% and 6.6%) than
those on the middle (2.3% and 3.4%) or
upper (2.1%, 3.7%) bars, during the two
seasons, respectively (Fig. 3).

The queen cells located in the middle


areas of the rearing bar gave a higher
number of relatively frequent, heavy
weight queens, than those located in the
peripheral areas. The percentage of heavy
queen weights were 16.1% and 16.2%
for the middle position, in comparison
with those located at the peripheral sites.
Those located at the peripheral sites had
percentages of 3.3% and 2.1%, in spring
and summer, respectively.
On the other hand, the frequency of
queen with light weight was significantly
higher for queens resulting from queen
cells located in the peripheral areas of the
rearing frame than those located in the
middle (Fig. 4).

40

Fig. 4. Frequency distribution queen weight under the influence of queen cell location on the cell bar.

Discussion
In this study, the weight was considered
as qualitative criterium of the honeybee
queens (Taranov, 1973; Schaper, 1985;
Page and Erickson, 1986; Mazeed,
1992; Zeedan, 2002), while the sealing
and emergence rate as quantitative criteria
of honeybee queens (Mohanna, 1969;
Sharaf El-Din et al., 2000; Abd AlFattah et al., 2007). The different weights
of the resulting queens may be attributed
to the existence of different genotypes of
rearing colonies (Laidlaw and Eckert,
1950; Ruttner, 1988; Abou El-Enain,
2000) or the grafted larvae (Rawash et al.,
1983; Diab, 1986; Mazeed, 1992). Our
colonies and the grafted larvae belong to
the Carniolan race, so the effect of different
genotypes could be excluded. On the other
hand, the environmental factors within
rearing colonies may also affect the quality
of the produced queens (Macicka, 1985;
DeGrandi-Hoffman et al., 1993) .
The different values of queen weights
were classified into 3 classes, representing
the results in the form of frequency
distribution. Such a classification showed
that all of the resulting queens belonged to
the heavy-class-queens, when 15 grafted
queen cells were inserted in colonies with
about 15 thousands workers. The findings
of Zhu (1981) and Abd Al-Fattah et
al., (2003) support our presented result.

The small number of queen larvae (15 to


24 cells) may give the nursery workers
a better chance of providing them with
enough food and the required temperature,
in comparison with the higher numbers
of larvae (42-66 cells) during spring.
However, the suitable summer temperature
positively reflected on queen weights. There
was a positive result when a high number
of larvae were introduced (DeGrandiHoffman et al., 1993; Li, 2000).
By using high numbers of queen cells,
the differences between summer and spring
queen weights becomes less obvious. This
less obvious difference was due to the
decrease in the required nursery workers
per each queen cell. Taber (1979) reported
that 500 young nursery workers were
sufficient to raise a good queen.
Certain conditions may also affect the
chosen larvae. This is seen when workers
choose larvae located in a defined location
on the rearing frame, as our results
indicated. The frequency of heavy queen
weights decreased, when the queens
emerged from queen cells located at the
upper and lower levels in the rearing
frames, whether in the spring or summer,
but queen weight increased when they were
located on the middle bar. The same trend
was repeated with respect to those reared
at the middle and the peripheral locations
of the frame bar, in the two seasons.

Vol. 55 No. 2 2011

Journal of Apicultural Science

The frequency of heavy queen weights


increased when the queen cells were
located at the middle location of each bar,
as previously reported by Visscher, 1986;
DeGrandi-Hoffman et al., 1993.
In addition, the quantity of the produced
queens is of interest to queen breeders. In
this study, the sealing, development period
and emergence rate of the queens were
noted.
The rate of sealing and emergence was
not influenced by the level and position
at which the queen cells were held or
constructed, within the rearing frame
during spring. However, during summer,
the level of bars carrying queen cells was
more pronounced than the position of queen
cells on the same bar. The upper bar level
significantly exceeded the other levels. On
the other hand, the number of queen cells
that was received by queenless rearing
colonies had the highest effect for these
parameters. The highest rate was attained
with the lowest number of introduced
queen cells.
In the present work, it is worth noting
that the arrangement of queen cells bars
within the rearing frame was in the range of
brood nest temperature. In the other studies,
Sharaf El-Din et al. (2000) and Abd
Al-Fattah et al. (2007) claimed that the
best results were from queen cells reared on
the middle and lower bar levels. Visscher
(1986), however, found that queens are
reared more readily in the upper, than in the
lower part of the brood nest. The different
results may be attributed to use different
numbers of bars in the rearing frame and/or
different distances between each other, so
the effect of upper and middle bar in one
study would be equivalent to the effect of
middle and lower ones in the other. Due to
suitable temperature and greater frequency
of encounters between nurse bees and the
presented cells at the upper location, the
shortest queen development period was
during the spring and summer seasons.

41

Conclusion
As the results indicate, and under the
conditions of our queen rearing colonies,
the number of introduced queen cells was
more important than the other factors
under study with respect to its effect on
all parameters. The second important
factor was the location of the rearing bar
in the queen-rearing frame, followed by the
location of queen cells on the rearing bar.
Queens obtained from the introduction of
a few queen cells into the rearing colony at
the middle location of the middle bar, were
heavier than those obtained from the other
locations. More queens were obtained from
those reared on the upper bar of the rearing
frame.

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ILO I JAKO MATEK PSZCZELICH UZYSKANYCH Z RODZIN


WYCHOWUJCYCH W ZALENOCI OD LICZBY
I ROZMIESZCZENIA MATECZNIKW
M. A. Abd Al-Fattah, A. M. Mazzed, N. Abd Al-Hady
S t r e s z c z e n i e
Obserwacje prowadzono wiosn i latem 2006 i 2007 roku w regionie Giza (Egipt). Badano
wpyw liczby poddanych larw (15, 24, 48, 66), poziomu listewki z larwami (grna, rodkowa,
dolna) i pooenia larw na ramce (na rodku lub w czci peryferyjnej) na procent liczby przyjtych
matecznikw w rodzinie wychowujcej i wygryzionych matek pszczelich, dugoci rozwoju i masy
nowo wygryzionych matek pszczelich. Wykazano, e procent przyjtych (zakrytych) matecznikw
cznie w obu latach bada, zaley od liczby poddanych larw, ale nie zaley od poziomu listewki
oraz od pooenia larw na ramce. Stwierdzono take, e wszystkie trzy badane czynniki istotnie
wpyway na procent wygryzionych matek pszczelich wiosn, natomiast latem procent ten zalea
tylko od liczby poddanych larw. Wszystkie trzy czynniki wpyway na dugo rozwoju i mas
wygryzionych matek w obu terminach wychowu. Jako wygryzionych matek pszczelich okrelano
na podstawie masy ich ciaa. Cikie matki (190-200 mg) wygryzay si w okresie wiosennym, gdy
do rodzin wychowujcych poddawano 15 komrek z larwami. Procent cikich matek by niski,
gdy do rodzin wychowujcych poddawano 24 lub 48 komrek, a przy 66 komrkach poddanych
do rodzin nie obserwowano cikich matek. Jednoczenie, cikie matki uzyskiwano czciej
z komrek umieszczonych na rodkowej listewce oraz w rodkowej jej czci w porwnaniu
z matkami wychowanymi na grnych lub dolnych listewkach i pooonych w ich zewntrznych
czciach.

Sowa kluczowe: matki pszczele, masa, okres rozwoju, wygryzanie, liczba matecznikw,
umiejscowienie.