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RB-EG-UE301 Comparison ASME B31.1, B31.3 and B31.

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ASME B31.1 (2008)
Power piping: typically found in electric power
generating stations, in heating and cooling
systems

ASME B31.3 (2008)


Process piping: typically found in petroleum
refineries, chemical, pharmaceutical, textile and
paper plants

Applicable: boiler external piping from first joint up Exclusions:


to and including first block valve for boilers where:
piping systems pressure above 0 and less 105
steam or vapor is generated over 100 kPa
kPa nonflammable, nontoxic and not
damaging to human tissues
high temperature water over 1103 kPa and/or
temperatures of 120 Celsius
power boilers covered in BPV code and
external piping covered in B31.1
Excluding: fatigue due to pressure cycling
tubes, tube headers, crossovers and manifolds
of fired heaters

pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps

Including: fatigue due pressure cycling and


thermal cycling

ASME B31.8 (2007)


Gas transportation and distribution systems:
piping transporting products, predominantly gas

Exclusions:

pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps

metal temperatures below -28.88 Celsius (-20 F)


or over 232.22 Celsius (450 F)

piping beyond customer's meter set assembly

piping in refineries, natural gasoline extraction,


gas treating plants

vent piping to substantially atmospheric


pressures

wellhead assemblies

proprietary items such as equipment

liquid petroleum transportation systems, slurry


transportation, carbon dioxide and liquefied
natural gas piping systems

Allowable stress:

Allowable stress:

Allowable stress:

as per tables in Appendix A

shear to remain below 80%, bearing to remain


below 160% of allowable stress

basis are same as ASME section II Part D


Appendix 1 except for cast iron and ductile
iron

as per Table A-1 and A-2


shear to remain below 80%, bearing to remain
below 160% of allowable stress

basis for bolting, cast iron, other material

flanges due to leakage below 75%

allowable stress of unlisted material (not


conforming 323.1.2) can not be used

as per table Appendix D times temperature


derating factor in table 841.116A

Materials: material of unknown specification shall


not be used for pressure containing components

Materials: material of unknown specification shall


not be used for pressure containing components

Materials: material only as per Appendix A

Quality factor E: depending type of weld,


radiography and material

Quality factor E: depending type of weld,


radiography and material

Quality factor E: depending type of weld,


radiography and material

Factor y: factor depending Ferritic, Austenitic,


Nickel and design temperature
Factor W: weld strength reduction factor

Factor W: weld strength reduction factor


Factor f: stress range factor
Factor F: design factor
Factor T: temperature derating factor, compensate
material allowable stress values for temperature,
Table 841.166A

Pipe under internal pressure (104.1.2 and


104.1.4 (in creep)):

Pipe under internal pressure (304.1.2):

Pipe under internal pressure (841.11):

P = internal design pressure

P = internal design pressure

P = internal design pressure

D = outside diameter of pipe

D = nominal outside diameter of pipe

D0 = outside diameter of pipe

S = stress value for material

S = specified minimum yield strength

SE = maximum allowable stress, including quality


factor

E = quality factor

E = longitudinal joint factor, table 841.115A

t = pressure design thickness

t = wall thickness

y = coefficient, also from table 304.1.1

F = design factor from table 841.114A

W = Weld strength reduction factor

T = Temperature derating factor from table


841.116A

tm = minimum required thickness


y = coefficient table 104.1.2A
A = additional thickness to compensate threading,

ASME B31.1 (2008)

ASME B31.3 (2008)

ASME B31.8 (2007)

provide additional strength, corrosion allowance


W = Weld strength reduction factor when in creep
range, is 1 outside creep range (table 102.4.7)
Bend under internal pressure (102.4.5):

Bend under internal pressure (304.2.1):

Bend under internal pressure (841.231):


For cold bends the deflection of longitudinal axis
and the radius is limited according table in
paragraph 841.231

pipe under internal pressure where I for intrados is: pipe under internal pressure where I for intrados is: Hot bends are to be designed and manufactured
according ASME B16.49, the internal pressure
rating shall not be less than that which is calculated
for straight seamless pipe and the intrados wall
thickness should be:

and I for the extrados is:

and I for the extrados is:

where the t the wall thickness of the pipe is


and at sidewall I = 1.0,
and at sidewall I = 1.0,
R = radius of pipe bend
R = radius of pipe bend
Elbows under internal pressure (102.4.5):

Elbows under internal pressure (304.2.1):

Elbows under internal pressure (841.231?):

Elbows manufactured according standards listed in Elbows manufactured according standards listed in No specific design rules are listed for fabricated
Table 126.1 are suitable for use at the pressureTable 326.1 are suitable for use at the pressureelbows
temperature ratings specified by such standards.
temperature ratings specified by such standards.
(Does this mean or allow that an elbow can be
Elbows not according above standards or for which Elbows not according above standards or for which calculated according a bend with uniform thickness?
design formulas and not given in the code shall be design formulas and not given in the code shall be Refer B31.3)
based on calculations consistent with the design
based on calculations consistent with the design
criteria of this code. These calculations shall be
criteria of this code. These calculations shall be
substantiated by one or more of the means stated substantiated by one or more of the means stated
in A B C or D of 104.7.2 (Does this mean or allow in A B C or D of 304.7.2, or the elbow can be
that an elbow can be calculated according a bend calculated according the Bend calculation, refer
with uniform thickness? Refer B31.3)
304.2.2.
Miter bends under internal pressure (104.3.3):

Miter bends under internal pressure (304.2.3):

Miter bends under internal pressure (841.232):

1. Only straight pipe calculations required if:

1. When theta =< 22.5 deg than max. allowable


pressure shall be the lesser of (t = T - c):

1. If system hoop stress > 40% of specified


minimum yield strength miter bends are not
permitted. Deflections caused by misalignment up to
3 deg are not considered as miters.

2. Pressure shall be limited to 70 kPa if:


and

2. If 10% < hoop stress < 40% SMYS the deflection


of each miter shall not exceed 12.5 deg.

or
3. If hoop stress < 10% SMYS the total deflection
angle shall not exceed 90 deg.

and thickness is not less than required for straight


pipe
3. Pressure shall be limited to 700 kPa if:

2. When theta > 22.5 deg than max. allowable


pressure shall calculated as (t = T - c):

and
and thickness is not less than required for straight
pipe

4. If hoop stress > 10% SMYS the distance


measured at the crotch shall not be less than one
pipe diameter

For all miter bends the R1 shall not be less than:

4. For pressure over 700 kPa: proof test, FEA, etc


required with a defined minimum for closely
spaced and widely spaced miter bend
with A:
(T-c) =< 13 mm A = 25
13 < (T-c) =< 22 mm A = 2(T-c)
(T-c) > 22 mm A = 2(T-c)/3 + 30
Reducer under internal pressure (104.6):

Reducer under internal pressure (304.6.1(b)):

Reducer under internal pressure (831.373):

1. Flanged reducer according Table 126.1 are


considered suitable at the specified pressure
temperature ratings.

1. Reducers according Table 326.1 shall be


considered suitable for use at established
pressure-temperature ratings or corresponding
straight pipe with 87.5% of nominal wall thickness.

1. Steel butt welded fittings shall comply with ASME


B16.9 or MSS Standard Practice and shall have
pressure and temperature ratings based on stresses
for pipe of the same of equivalent material (831.31b)

2. Concentric reducers not listed in Table 326.1

2. Other pressure containing components shall be

2. Where butt welding reducers are made to a


nominal pipe thickness, the reducers shall be

ASME B31.1 (2008)

ASME B31.3 (2008)

ASME B31.8 (2007)

considered suitable for use with pipe of the same


nominal thickness.

may be designed according closures as per ASME designed the according design philosophy of this
VIII div.1
code substantiated by one of:

3. Components not covered by the standards listed


in Table 126.1 shall be based on calculation
consistent with this code. Calculations are to be
substantiated by one of:

3. Eccentric reducers not listed in Table 326.1 are


qualified as unlisted components and shall be
designed and documented substantiated by one
of:

- extensive, successful service experience

- extensive, successful service experience

- extensive, successful service experience

- engineering calculations

- experimental analysis

- experimental analysis

- proof test

- proof test

- detailed stress analysis, such as finite element


analysis

- detailed stress analysis, such as finite element


analysis

3. Closure heads such as flat, ellipsoidal, spherical


or conical heads are allowed for use under this
code. Such items may be designed in accordance
with ASME VIII div.1 (UG32).

(Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?)

(Is ASME VIII div.1 UG32 acceptable?)

Stubon under internal pressure (104.3.1(D)):

Stubon under internal pressure (304.3.3):

Required reinforcement area is

Required reinforcement area is

- experimental analysis
- proof test

Stubon under internal pressure (831.4 and app.


F):
Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

= angle between branch and run

= angle between branch and run

with
A is additional thickness for
corrosion and tolerances, tmh from straight pipe
calculation (104.1.2)

reinforcement by header

excess header, with

reinforcement by branch with

header excess area,

attached reinforcement, weld area and other


area

with

Assessment:

branch excess

attached reinforcement, weld area and other


area

Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio of


allowable working stress, maximum multiplication
factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))

Assessment:
tr is reinforcement pad thickness
weld area

Area A2, A3 and A4 to be multiplied by the ratio of


allowable working stress, maximum multiplication
factor is 1.0 (para. 304.3.3(f3))

area reinforcement ring


If
then assess

area saddle on right angle connections


Assessment:

If
then assess

Area A2,A3, A4 and A5 to be multiplied by the ratio


of allowable working stress, maximum
multiplication
factor is 1.0
(para.
104.3.1(D.2.3))

Tee (extruded outlet) under internal pressure


(104.3.1(G)):

Tee (extruded outlet) under internal pressure


(304.3.4):

Tee (extruded outlet) under internal pressure


(831.4 ref. App. F):

Required reinforcement area is

Required reinforcement area is

Required reinforcement area is

K = 1.0 when

K = 1.0 when

K = 1.0 when d/D > 0.60


K = 0.6+(2d)/(3D) when 0.15 < d/D <= 0.60

K=

when

K=

K = 0.7 when d/D <= 0.15

when

reinforcement by header

K = 0.7 when
K = 0.7 when

reinforcement by
reinforcement by header
reinforcement by branch with

reinforcement by branch with

header
reinforcement by branch

ASME B31.1 (2008)

ASME B31.3 (2008)

ASME B31.8 (2007)

with

excess branch area

excess branch area

Assessment:
excess branch area

Assessment:
Assessment:
If

then assess

If

then assess

Weldolet (branch) under internal pressure


(104.3.1(D)):

Weldolet (branch) under internal pressure


(304.3.3):

Weldolet (branch) under internal pressure (831.4


ref. App. F):

Required reinforcement area is

Required reinforcement area is

Required reinforcement area is (Fig. F-5):

reinforcement by header, with

reinforcement by

reinforcement by header

header, with
reinforcement by branch with

attached reinforcement, weld area and other


area

reinforcement by branch with


reinforcement by branch

Assessment:

with
with
= thickness pad or height of 60 deg angle fitting with
with in reinforcement material
= thickness pad or a height of 0
= area provided by deposited weld metal
= area provided by deposited weld metal and
excess weldolet area in reinforcement
attached reinforcement
zone
Assessment:
Assessment:
Area A2, A3 and A4 to be multiplied by the ratio of
Area A2,A3, A4 and A5 to be multiplied by the ratio allowable working stress, maximum multiplication
of allowable working stress, maximum
factor is 1.0 (para. 304.3.3(f3))
multiplication factor is 1.0 (para. 104.3.1(D.2.3))
Cap under internal pressure (104.4.1(B)):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG-32


app.1-4

Cap under internal pressure (304.4.1(b)):


Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG-32
app.1-4

Area A2 and A3 to be multiplied by the ratio of


allowable working stress, maximum multiplication
factor is 1.0 (para. 831.4(f))

Cap under internal pressure (831.372 and


831.373):
Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG-32
app.1-4

L = radius dish
L = radius dish

r = radius knuckle

L = radius dish

r = radius knuckle

r = radius knuckle
or

or

or
Flat closure under internal pressure
(104.4.1(b)):

Flat closure under internal pressure


(304.4.1(b)):

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG 34

Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG 34

Flange under internal pressure (104.5.1(B)):

Flange under internal pressure (304.5.1(b)):

Flange under internal pressure (831.2):

Can be calculated according ASME VIII div.1 app.


2 using B31.3 allowable stresses and temperature
limits with:

Can be calculated according ASME VIII div.1 app.


2 using B31.3 allowable stresses and temperature
limits with:

Allowed to use:

= design gauge pressure


= bolt design stress at atmospheric
temperature

= design gauge pressure


= bolt design stress at atmospheric
temperature

= bolt design stress at design temperature

= bolt design stress at design temperature

= product SE

= product SEW

Flat closure under internal pressure (831.373):


Can be calculated with ASME VIII div.1 UG 34

ASME B16 series as listed in Appendix A such as


B16.5.
Also MSS SP-44.
For slip-on welding flanges reference is made to
ASME VIII div.1 design.
Can ASME VIII div.1 be used for calculation?

ASME B31.1 (2008)

ASME B31.3 (2008)

Blind flange under internal pressure


(104.5.2(B)):

Blind flange under internal pressure


(304.5.2(b)):

Can be calculated according ASME VIII div.1 UG34 with:

Can be calculated according ASME VIII div.1 UG34 with:

= sum of allowances
= internal design gauge pressure
= product SE

Can ASME VIII div.1 be used?

= internal design gauge pressure


= product SEW
= pressure design thickness as per ASME VIII
div. 1 UG-34

Blanks (spade) under internal pressure


(304.5.3(B)):

Blanks (spade) under internal pressure


(304.5.3(b)):

= inside diameter of gasket

Blind flange under internal pressure:

= sum of allowances

= pressure design thickness as per ASME VIII


div. 1 UG-34

= sum of allowances

ASME B31.8 (2007)

Blanks (spade) under internal pressure:


Can ASME VIII div.1 be used?

= sum of allowances
= inside diameter of gasket

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