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Why Risks Can Go Wrong

Human intuition is a bad guide to handling risk


A. People make terrible decisions about the future. The evidence is all around, from their investments in the
stock markets to the way they run their businesses. In fact, people are consistently bad at dealing with
uncertainty, underestimating some kinds of risk and overestimating others. Surely there must be a better way
than using intuition?
B. In the 1960s a young American research psychologist, Daniel Kahneman, became interested in people's
inability to make logical decisions. That launched him on a career to show just how irrationally people behave in
practice. When Kahneman and his colleagues first started work, the idea of applying psychological insights to
economics and business decisions was seen as rather bizarre. But in the past decade the fields of behavioural
finance and behavioural economics have blossomed, and in 2002 Kahneman shared a Nobel prize in economics
for his work. Today he is in demand by business organizations and international banking companies. But, he
says, there are plenty of institutions that still fail to understand the roots of their poor decisions. He claims that,
far from being random, these mistakes are systematic and predictable.
C. One common cause of problems in decision-making is over-optimism. Ask most people about the future, and
they will see too much blue sky ahead, even if past experience suggests otherwise. Surveys have shown that
people's forecasts of future stock market movements are far more optimistic than past long-term returns would
justify. The same goes for their hopes of ever-rising prices for their homes or doing well in games of chance.
Such optimism can be useful for managers or sportsmen, and sometimes turns into a self-fulfilling prophecy.
But most of the time it results in wasted effort and dashed hopes. Kahneman's work points to three types of
over-confidence. First, people tend to exaggerate their own skill and prowess; in polls, far fewer than half the
respondents admit to having below-average skills in, say, driving. Second, they overestimate the amount of
control they have over the future, forgetting about luck and chalking up success solely to skill. And third, in
competitive pursuits such as dealing on shares, they forget that they have to judge their skills against those of
the competition.
D. Another source of wrong decisions is related to the decisive effect of the initial meeting, particularly in
negotiations over money. This is referred to as the 'anchor effect'. Once a figure has been mentioned, it takes a
strange hold over the human mind. The asking price quoted in a house sale, for example, tends to become
accepted by all parties as the 'anchor' around which negotiations take place. Much the same goes for salary
negotiations or mergers and acquisitions. If nobody has much information to go on, a figure can provide comfort
- even though it may lead to a terrible mistake.
E. In addition, mistakes may arise due to stubbornness. No one likes to abandon a cherished belief, and the
earlier a decision has been taken, the harder it is to abandon it. Drug companies must decide early to cancel a
failing research project to avoid wasting money, but may find it difficult to admit they have made a mistake. In
the same way, analysts may have become wedded early to a single explanation that coloured their perception. A
fresh eye always helps.
F. People also tend to put a lot of emphasis on things they have seen and experienced themselves, which may
not be the best guide to decision-making. For example, somebody may buy an overvalued share because a
relative has made thousands on it, only to get his fingers burned. In finance, too much emphasis on information
close at hand helps to explain the tendency by most investors to invest only within the country they live in. Even
though they know that diversification is good for their portfolio, a large majority of both Americans and
Europeans invest far too heavily in the shares of their home countries. They would be much better off spreading
their risks more widely.
G. More information is helpful in making any decision but, says Kahneman, people spend proportionally too
much time on small decisions and not enough on big ones. They need to adjust the balance. During the boom
years, some companies put as much effort into planning their office party as into considering strategic mergers.

H. Finally, crying over spilled milk is not just a waste of time; it also often colours people's perceptions of the
future. Some stock market investors trade far too frequently because they are chasing the returns on shares they
wish they had bought earlier.
I. Kahneman reckons that some types of businesses are much better than others at dealing with risk.
Pharmaceutical companies, which are accustomed to many failures and a few big successes in their drugdiscovery programmes, are fairly rational about their risk-taking. But banks, he says, have a long way to go.
They may take big risks on a few huge loans, but are extremely cautious about their much more numerous loans
to small businesses, many of which may be less risky than the big ones. And the research has implications for
governments too. They face a whole range of sometimes conflicting political pressures, which means they are
even more likely to take irrational decisions.
Questions 1-6
List of headings
i

Not identifying the correct priorities

ii

A solution for the long term

iii

The difficulty of changing your mind

iv

Why looking back is unhelpful

Strengthening inner resources

vi

A successful approach to the study of decision-making

vii

The danger of trusting a global market

viii

Reluctance to go beyond the familiar

ix

The power of the first number

The need for more effective risk assessment

xi

Underestimating the difficulties ahead

Example

Answer

Paragraph A

Paragraph C

xi

1 Paragraph B
2 Paragraph D
3 Paragraph E

4 Paragraph F
5 Paragraph G
6 Paragraph H
Questions 7-10
Choose the correct answer A, B, C or D
Write your answers in boxes 7-10 on your answer sheet.
7

People initially found Kahneman's work unusual because he

saw mistakes as following predictable patterns.

was unaware of behavioural approaches.

dealt with irrational types of practice.

applied psychology to finance and economics.

The writer mentions house-owners attitudes towards the value of their homes to illustrate that

past failures may destroy an optimistic attitude.

people tend to exaggerate their chances of success.

optimism may be justified in certain circumstances.

people are influenced by the success of others.

9
A

Stubbornness and inflexibility can cause problems when people


think their financial difficulties are just due to bad luck.

avoid seeking advice from experts and analysts.

refuse to invest in the early stages of a project.

are unwilling to give up unsuccessful activities or beliefs.

10 Why do many Americans and Europeans fail to spread their financial risks when investing?
A

They feel safer dealing in a context which is close to home.

They do not understand the benefits of diversification.

They are over-influenced by the successes of their relatives.

They do not have sufficient knowledge of one anothers countries.

Questions 11-13
Answer the questions below, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.
11

Which two occupations may benefit from being over-optimistic?

12

Which practical skill are many people over-confident about?

13

Which type of business has a generally good attitude to dealing with uncertainty?

READING PASSAGE 2
There has always been a sense in which America and Europe owned film. They invented it at the end of the
nineteenth century in unfashionable places like New Jersey, Leeds and the suburbs of Lyons. At first, they saw

their clumsy new camera-projectors merely as more profitable versions of Victorian lantern shows, mechanical
curiosities which might have a use as a sideshow at a funfair. Then the best of the pioneers looked beyond the
fairground properties of their invention. A few directors, now mostly forgotten, saw that the flickering new
medium was more than just a diversion. This crass commercial invention gradually began to evolve as an art. D
W Griffith in California glimpsed its grace, German directors used it as an analogue to the human mind and the
modernising city, Soviets emphasised its agitational and intellectual properties, and the Italians reconfigured it
on an operatic scale.
So heady were these first decades of cinema that America and Europe can be forgiven for assuming that they
were the only game in town. In less than twenty years western cinema had grown out of all recognition; its
unknowns became the most famous people in the world; it made millions. It never occurred to its financial
backers that another continent might borrow their magic box and make it its own. But film industries were
emerging in Shanghai, Bombay and Tokyo, some of which would outgrow those in the west.
Between 1930 and 1935, China produced more than 500 films, mostly conventionally made in studios in
Shanghai, without soundtracks. China's best directors - Bu Wancang and Yuan Muzhi - introduced elements of
realism to their stories. The Peach Girl (1931) and Street Angel (1937) are regularly voted among the best ever
made in the country.
India followed a different course. In the west, the arrival of talkies gave birth to a new genre - the musical - but
in India, every one of the 5000 films made between 1931 and the mid-1950s had musical interludes. The films
were stylistically more wide ranging than the western musical, encompassing realism and escapist dance within
individual sequences, and they were often three hours long rather than Hollywood's 90 minutes. The cost of such
productions resulted in a distinctive national style of cinema. They were often made in Bombay, the centre of
what is now known as 'Bollywood'. Performed in Hindi (rather than any of the numerous regional languages),
they addressed social and peasant themes in an optimistic and romantic way and found markets in the Middle
East, Africa and the Soviet Union.
In Japan, the film industry did not rival India's in size but was unusual in other ways. Whereas in Hollywood the
producer was the central figure, in Tokyo the director chose the stories and hired the producer and actors. The
model was that of an artist and his studio of apprentices. Employed by a studio as an assistant, a future director
worked with senior figures, learned his craft, gained authority, until promoted to director with the power to
select screenplays and performers. In the 1930s and 40s, this freedom of the director led to the production of
some of Asia's finest films.
The films of Kenji Mizoguchi were among the greatest of these. Mizoguchi's films were usually set in the
nineteenth century and analysed the way in which the lives of the female characters whom he chose as his focus
were constrained by the society of the time. From Osaka Elegy (1936) to Ugetsu Monogatari (1953) and
beyond, he evolved a sinuous way of moving his camera in and around a scene, advancing towards significant
details but often retreating at moments of confrontation or strong feeling. No one had used the camera with such
finesse before.
Even more important for film history, however, is the work of the great Ozu. Where Hollywood cranked up
drama, Ozu avoided it. His camera seldom moved. It nestled at seated height, framing people square on,
listening quietly to their words. Ozu rejected the conventions of editing, cutting not on action, as is usually done
in the west, but for visual balance. Even more strikingly, Ozu regularly cut away from his action to a shot of a
tree or a kettle or clouds, not to establish a new location but as a moment of repose. Many historians now
compare such 'pillow shots' to the Buddhist idea that mu - empty space or nothing - is itself an element of
composition.
As the art form most swayed by money and market, cinema would appear to be too busy to bother with
questions of philosophy. The Asian nations proved and are still proving that this is not the case. Just as deep
ideas about individual freedom have led to the aspirational cinema of Hollywood, so it is the beliefs which
underlie cultures such as those of China and Japan that explain the distinctiveness of Asian cinema at its best.
Yes, these films are visually striking, but it is their different sense of what a person is, and what space and action
are, which makes them new to western eye.
Questions 14-18
14 The inventors of cinema regarded it as a minor attraction.

15 Some directors were aware of cinema's artistic possibilities from the very beginning.
16 The development of cinema's artistic potential depended on technology.
17 Cinema's possibilities were developed in varied ways in different western countries.
18 Western businessmen were concerned about the emergence of film industries in other parts of the world.
Questions 19-25
Chinese cinema

large number of 19

films produced in 1930s


some early films still generally regarded as 20
Indian cinema

films included musical interludes

films avoided 21

topics

Japanese cinema

unusual because film director was very 22

two important directors:

Mizoguchi - focused on the 23 restrictions faced by women


- camera movement related to 24 content of film
Ozu

- 25 camera movement

A emotional
F outstanding
K economic

B negative
G little

C expensive
H powerful

D silent
I realistic

E social
J stylistic

Question 26
26

Which of the following is the most suitable title for Reading Passage 2?

Blind to change: how is it that the west has ignored Asian cinema for so long?

A different basis: how has the cinema of Asian countries been shaped by their cultures and beliefs?

Outside Asia: how did the origins of cinema affect its development worldwide?

Two cultures: how has western cinema tried to come to terms with the challenge of the Asian market?

Quiet roads ahead


The roar of passing vehicles could soon be a thing of the past

A. The noise produced by busy roads is a growing problem. While vehicle designers have worked hard to
quieten engines, they have been less successful elsewhere. The sound created by the tyres on the surface of the
road now accounts for more than half the noise that vehicles create, and as road building and car sales continue
to boom - particularly in Asia and the US - this is turning into a global issue.
B. According to the World Health Organization, exposure to noise from road traffic over long periods can lead
to stress-related health problems. And where traffic noise exceeds a certain threshold, road builders have to
spend money erecting sound barriers and installing double glazing in blighted homes. Houses become harder to
sell where environmental noise is high, and people are not as efficient or productive at work.
C. Already, researchers in the Netherlands - one of the most densely populated countries in the world - are
working to develop techniques for silencing the roads. In the next five years the Dutch government aims to have
reduced noise levels from the country's road surfaces by six decibels overall. Dutch mechanical engineer Ard
Kuijpers has come up with one of the most promising, and radical, ideas. He set out to tackle the three most
important factors: surface texture, hardness and ability to absorb sound.
D. The rougher the surface, the more likely it is that a tyre will vibrate and create noise. Road builders usually
eliminate bumps on freshly laid asphalt with heavy rollers, but Kuijpers has developed a method of road
building that he thinks can create the ultimate quiet road. His secret is a special mould 3 metres wide and 50
metres long. Hot asphalt, mixed with small stones, is spread into the mould by a railmounted machine which
flattens the asphalt mix with a roller. When it sets, the 10-millimetre-thick sheet has a surface smoother than
anything that can be achieved by conventional methods.
E. To optimise the performance of his road surface - to make it hard wearing yet soft enough to snuff out
vibrations - he then adds another layer below the asphalt. This consists of a 30-millimetre-thick layer of rubber,
mixed with stones which are larger than those in the layer above. 'It's like a giant mouse mat, making the road
softer,' says Kuijpers.
F. The size of the stones used in the two layers is important, since they create pores of a specific size in the road
surface. Those used in the top layer are just 4 or 5 millimetres across, while the ones below are approximately
twice that size - about 9 millimetres. Kuijpers says the surface can absorb any air that is passing through a tyre's
tread (the indentations or ridges on the surface of a tyre), damping oscillations that would otherwise create
noise. And in addition they make it easier for the water to drain away, which can make the road safer in wet
weather.
G. Compared with the complex manufacturing process, laying the surface is quite simple. It emerges from the
factory rolled, like a carpet, onto a drum 1.5 metres in diameter. On site, it is unrolled and stuck onto its
foundation with bitumen. Even the white lines are applied in the factory.
H. The foundation itself uses an even more sophisticated technique to reduce noise further. It consists of a
sound-absorbing concrete base containing flask-shaped slots up to 10 millimetres wide and 30 millimetres deep
that are open at the top and sealed at the lower end. These cavities act like Helmholtz resonators - when sound
waves of specific frequencies enter the top of a flask, they set up resonances inside and the energy of the sound
dissipates into the concrete as heat. The cavities play another important role: they help to drain water that seeps

through from the upper surface. This flow will help flush out waste material and keep the pores in the outer
layers clear.
I. Kuijpers can even control the sounds that his resonators absorb, simply by altering their dimensions. This
could prove especially useful since different vehicles produce noise at different frequencies. Car tyres peak at
around 1000 hertz, for example, but trucks generate lower-frequency noise at around 600 hertz. By varying the
size of the Kuijpers resonators, it is possible to control which frequencies the concrete absorbs. On large
highways, trucks tend to use the inside lane, so resonators here could be tuned to absorb sounds at around 600
hertz while those in other lanes could deal with higher frequency noise from cars.
J. Kuijpers believes he can cut noise by five decibels compared to the quietest of today's roads. He has already
tested a l00-metre-long section of his road on a motorway near Apeldoorn, and Dutch construction company
Heijmans is discussing the location of the next roll-out road with the country's government. The success of
Kuijpers' design will depend on how much it eventually costs. But for those affected by traffic noise there is
hope of quieter times ahead.
Questions 27-32
27 a description of the form in which Kuijpers' road surface is taken to its destination
28 an explanation of how Kuijpers makes a smooth road surface
29 something that has to be considered when evaluating Kuijpers' proposal
30 various economic reasons for reducing road noise
31 a generalisation about the patterns of use of vehicles on major roads
32 a summary of the different things affecting levels of noise on roads
Questions 33-35
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage
Cross section of Kuijpers proposed noise-reducing road

33

34

35

Questions 36-40
Complete the table below using the list of words (A-K) from the box below.
Write the correct letters in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

Kuijpers noise-reducing road: components and function

Layer

Component

Function

upper and lower

stones

reduce oscillations caused by 36

create pores which help 37

foundation

to heat.
help to remove 39
can be adapted to absorb different 40
A frequencies
B the engine
C rubbish
D resonators
E air flow

slots

convert 38

F dissipation
G sound energy
H pores
I lanes
J drainage
K sources
A song on the brain
Some songs just won't leave you alone. But this may give us clues about how our brain works
A Everyone knows the situation where you can't get a song out of your head. You hear a pop song on the radio or even just read the song's title and it haunts you for hours, playing over and over in your mind until you're
heartily sick of it. The condition now even has a medical name 'song-in-head syndrome'.
But why does the mind annoy us like this? No one knows for sure, but it's probably because the brain is better
at holding onto information than it is at knowing what information is important. Roger Chaffin, a psychologist at
the University of Connecticut says, 'It's a manifestation of an aspect of memory which is normally an asset to us,
but in this instance it can be a nuisance.'
This eager acquisitiveness of the brain may have helped our ancestors remember important information in the
past. Today, students use it to learn new material, and musicians rely on it to memorise complicated pieces. But
when this useful function goes awry it can get you stuck on a tune. Unfortunately, superficial, repetitive pop
tunes are, by their very nature, more likely to stick than something more inventive.
D The annoying playback probably originates in the auditory cortex. Located at the front of the brain, this
region handles both listening and playback of music and other sounds. Neuroscientist Robert Zatorre of McGill
University in Montreal proved this some years ago when he asked volunteers to replay the theme from the TV
show Dallas in their heads. Brain imaging studies showed that this activated the same region of the auditory
cortex as when the people actually heard the song.
E Not every stored musical memory emerges into consciousness, however. The frontal lobe of the brain gets to
decide which thoughts become conscious and which ones are simply stored away. But it can become fatigued or
depressed, which is when people most commonly suffer from song-in-head syndrome and other intrusive
thoughts, says Susan Ball, a clinical psychologist at Indiana University School of Medicine in Indianapolis. And
once the unwanted song surfaces, it's hard to stuff it back down into the subconscious. 'The more you try to
suppress a thought, the more you get it,' says Ball. 'We call this the pink elephant phenomenon. Tell the brain not
to think about pink elephants, and it's guaranteed to do so,' she says.
F For those not severely afflicted, simply avoiding certain kinds of music can help. 'I know certain pieces that
are kind of "sticky" to me, so I will not play them in the early morning for fear that they will run around in my
head all day,' says Steven Brown, who trained as a classical pianist but is now a neuroscientist at the University
of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. He says he always has a song in his head and, even more
annoying, his mind never seems to make it all the way through. 'It tends to involve short fragments between,
say, 5 or 15 seconds. They seem to get looped, for hours sometimes,' he says.
G Brown's experience of repeated musical loops may represent a phenomenon called 'chunking', in which
people remember musical phrases as a single unit of memory, says Caroline Palmer, a psychologist at Ohio State
University in Columbus. Most listeners have little choice about what chunks they remember. Particular chunks
may be especially 'sticky' if you hear them often or if they follow certain predictable patterns, such as the chord
progression of rock 'n' roll music. Palmer's research shows that the more a piece of music conforms to these

patterns, the easier it is to remember. That's why you're more likely to be haunted by the tunes of pop music than
by those of a classical composer such as J. S. Bach.
H But this ability can be used for good as well as annoyance. Teachers can tap into memory reinforcement by
setting their lessons to music. For example, in one experiment students who heard a history text set as the lyrics
to a catchy song remembered the words better than those who simply read them, says Sandra Calvert, a
psychologist at Georgetown University in Washington DC.
I This sort of memory enhancement may even explain the origin of music. Before the written word could be
used to record history, people memorised it in songs, says Leon James, a psychologist at the University of
Hawaii. And music may have had an even more important role. All music has a message.' he says. This
message functions to unite society and to standardise the thought processes of people in society.
Questions 1-3
1.

The writer says that song-in-head syndrome' may occur because the brain

confuses two different types of memory.

cannot decide what information it needs to retain.

has been damaged by harmful input.

cannot hold onto all the information it processes.

2.

A tune is more likely to stay in your head if

it is simple and unoriginal.

you have musical training.

it is part of your culture.

you have a good memory.

3.

Robert Zatorre found that a part of the auditory cortex was activated when volunteers

listened to certain types of music.

learned to play a tune on an instrument.

replayed a piece of music after several years.

remembered a tune they had heard previously.

Questions 4-7
4 The memorable nature of some tunes can help other learning processes.
5 Music may not always be stored in the memory in the form of separate notes.
6 People may have started to make music because of their need to remember things.
7 Having a song going round your head may happen to you more often when one part of the brain is tired.
List of people
A Roger Chaffin
B Susan Ball
C Steven Brown
D Caroline Palmer
E Sandra Calvert
F Leon James
Questions 8-13
8 a claim that music strengthens social bonds
9 two reasons why some bits of music tend to stick in your mind more than others
10 an example of how the brain may respond in opposition to your wishes
11 the name of the part of the brain where song-in-head syndrome begins
12 examples of two everyday events that can set off song-m-head syndrome
13 a description of what one person does to prevent song-in-head syndrome

Worldly Wealth
Can the future population of the world enjoy a comfortable lifestyle, with possessions, space and mobility,
without crippling the environment?
The world's population is expected to stabilize at around nine billion. Will it be possible for nine billion people
to have the lifestyle enjoyed today only by the wealthy? One school of thought says no: not only should the
majority of the world's people resign themselves to poverty forever, but rich nations must also revert to simpler
lifestyles in order to save the planet.
Admittedly, there may be political or social barriers to achieving a rich world. But in fact there seems to be no
insuperable physical or ecological reason why nine billion people should not achieve a comfortable lifestyle,
using technology only slightly more advanced than that which we now possess. In thinking about the future of
civilization, we ought to start by asking w hat people want. The evidence demonstrates that as people get richer
they w ant a greater range of personal technology, they want lots of room (preferably near or in natural
surroundings) and they w ant greater speed in travel. More possessions, more space, more mobility.
In the developed world, the personal technologies of the wealthy, including telephones, washing machines and
ears, have become necessities within a generation or two. Increasing productivity that results m decreasing costs
for such goods has been responsible for the greatest gains in the standard of living, and there is every reason to
believe that this will continue.
As affluence grows, the amount of energy and raw- materials used for production of machinery w ill therefore
escalate. But this need not mean an end to the machine age. Rather than being throw n away, materials from old
machinery can be recycled by manufacturers. And long before all fossil fuels are exhausted, their rising prices
may compel industrial society not only to become more energy efficient but also to find alternative energy
sources sufficient for the demands of an advanced technological civilization nuclear fission, nuclear fusion,
solar energy, chemical photosynthesis, geothermal, biomass or some yet unknown source of energy.
The growth of cities and suburbs is often seen as a threat to the environment. However, in fact the increasing
amount of land consumed by agriculture is a far greater danger than urban sprawl. Stopping the growth of farms
is the best way to preserve many of the world's remaining wild areas. But is a dramatic downsizing of farmland
possible? Thanks to the grow th of agricultural productivity, reforestation and re-wilding has been under way
in the industrial countries for generations. Since 1950 more land in the US has been set aside in parks than has
been occupied by urban and suburban growth. And much of what was farmland in the nineteenth century is now
forest again. Taking the best Iowa maize growers as the norm for world food productivity, it has been calculated
that less than a tenth of present cropland could support a population of 10 billion.
In The Environment Game, a vision of a utopia that would be at once high-tech and environmentalist. Nigel
Calder suggested that nourishing but unpalatable primary food produced by industrial techniques - like yeast
from petroleum may be fed to animals, so that we can continue to eat our customary meat, eggs. milk, butter,
and cheese and so that people in underdeveloped countries can have adequate supplies of animal protein for the
first time.'
In the long run. tissue-cloning techniques could be used to grow desired portions of meat by themselves. Once
their DNA has been extracted to create cow less steaks and chicken less drumsticks, domesticated species of
livestock, bred for millennia to be stupid or to have grotesquely enhanced traits, should be allowed to become
extinct, except for a few specimens in zoos. However, game such as wild deer, rabbits and wild ducks w ill be
ever more abundant as farms revert to wilderness, so this could supplement the laboratory-grown meat in the
diets of tomorrow's affluent.
With rising personal incomes come rising expectations of mobility. This is another luxury of todays rich that
could become a necessity of tomorrows global population - particularly if its members choose to live widely
dispersed in a post-agrarian wilderness. In his recent book Free Flight. James Fallows, a pilot as well as a writer,
describes serious attempts by both state and private entrepreneurs in the USA to promote an air taxi' system
within the price range of todays middle class and perhaps tomorrows global population.

Two of the chief obstacles to the science fiction fantasy of the personal plane or hover car are price and danger.
While technological improvements are driving prices down, piloting an aircraft in three dimensions is still more
difficult than driving a car in two. and pilot error causes more fatalities than driver error. But before long our
aircraft and cars will be piloted by computers which arc never tired or stressed.
So perhaps there are some grounds for optimism when viewing the future of civilization. With the help of
technology, and without putting serious strains on the global environment, possessions, space and mobility can
be achieved for all the projected population of the world.

Questions 14-19
YES

if the statement reflects the writer's claims

NO

if the statement contradicts the writer's claims

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
14 Today's wealthy people ignore the fact that millions are living in poverty.
15 There are reasons why the future population of the world may not enjoy a comfortable lifestyle.
16 The first thing to consider when planning for the future is environmental protection.
17 As manufactured goods get cheaper, people will benefit more from them.
18 It may be possible to find new types of raw materials for use in the production of machinery.
19 The rising prices of fossil fuels may bring some benefits.
Questions 20-25: one word only
Space for an increased population
According to the writer, the use of land for 20

is the most serious threat to the environment.

However, in the US. there has already been an increase in the amount of land used for 21

Far less land would be required to feed the world's population if the 22

forests.

of the land could be

improved worldwide. It has also been claimed that the industrial production of animal foods could allow greater
access to animal 23
by the entire worlds population.

Scientists could use 24

from domesticated animals to help produce meat by tissue cloning, and

these species could then be allowed to die out. In addition to this type of meat. 25

will also be

widely available.
Questions 26-27
Choose the correct answer, A. B, C or D
26

Greater mobility may be a feature of the future because of changes in

the location of housing.

patterns of employment.

centres of transport.

the distribution of wealth.

27

Air transport will be safe because of

new types of aircraft.

better training methods.

three-dimensional models.

improved technology.

Space: The Final Archaeological Frontier


Space travel may still have a long nay to go, bur the notion of archaeological research and
heritage management in space is already concerning scientists and environmentalists.

In 1993, University of Hawaiis anthropologist Ben Finney, who for much of his career has studied the
technology once used by Polynesians to colonize islands in the Pacific, suggested that it would not be premature
to begin thinking about the archaeology of Russian and American aerospace sites on the Moon and Mars. Finney
pointed out that just as todays scholars use archaeological records to investigate how Polynesians diverged
culturally as they explored the Pacific, archaeologists will someday study off-Earth sites to trace the
development of humans in space. He realized that it was unlikely anyone would be able to conduct fieldwork in
the near future, but he was convinced that one day such work would be done.
There is a growing awareness, however, that it wont be long before both corporate adventurers and space
tourists reach the Moon and Mars. There is a wealth of important archaeological sites from the history of space
exploration on the Moon and Mars and measures need to be taken to protect these sites. In addition to the threat
from profit- seeking corporations, scholars cite other potentially destructive forces such as souvenir hunting and
unmonitored scientific sampling, as has already occurred in explorations of remote polar regions. Already in
1999 one company was proposing a robotic lunar rover mission beginning at the site of Tranquility Base and
rumbling across the Moon from one archaeological site to another, from the wreck of the Ranger S probe to
Apollo 17 s landing site. The mission, which would leave vehicle tyre- marks all over some of the most famous
sites on the Moon, was promoted as a form of theme-park entertainment.
According to the vaguely worded United Motions Outer Space Treaty of 1967. what it terms space junk
remains the property of the country that sent the craft or probe into space. But the treaty doesnt explicitly
address protection of sites like Tranquility Base, and equating the remains of human exploration of the heavens
with space junk leaves them vulnerable to scavengers. Another problem arises through other international
treaties proclaiming that land in space cannot be owned by any country or individual. This presents some
interesting dilemmas for the aspiring manager of extraterrestrial cultural resources. Does the US own Neil
Armstrong's famous first footprints on the Moon but not the lunar dust in which they were recorded? Surely
those footprints are as important in the story of human development as those left by hominids at Laetoli,
Tanzania. But unlike the Laetoli prints, which have survived for 3.5 million years encased in cement-like ash.
those at Tranquility Base could be swept away with a casual brush of a space tourists hand. To deal with
problems like these, it may be time to look to innovative international administrative structures for the
preservation of historic remains on the new frontier.
The Moon, with its wealth of sites, will surely be the first destination of archaeologists trained to work in space.
But any young scholars hoping to claim the mantle of historys first lunar archaeologist will be disappointed.
That distinction is already taken.
On November 19. 1969. astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean made a difficult manual landing of the
Apollo 12 lunar module in the Moons Ocean of Storms, just a few hundred feet from an unmanned probe.
Surveyor J. that had landed in a crater on April 19. 1967. Unrecognized at the time, this was an important
moment in the history of science. Bean and Conrad were about to conduct the first archaeological studies on the
Moon.
After the obligatory planting of the American flag and some geological sampling, Conrad and Bean made their
way to Surveyor 3. They observed that the probe had bounced after touchdown and carefully photographed the
impressions made by its footpads. The whole spacecraft was covered in dust, perhaps kicked up by the landing.
The astronaut-archaeologists carefully removed the probes television camera, remote sampling arm. and pieces
of tubing. They bagged and labelled these artefacts, and stowed them on board their lunar module. On their
return to Earth, they passed them on to the Daveson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and the Hughes Air and
Space Corporation in bl Segundo, California. There, scientists analyzed the changes in these aerospace artefacts.
One result of the analysis astonished them. A fragment of the television camera revealed evidence of the bacteria
Streptococcus mitis. I or a moment it was thought Conrad and Bean had discovered evidence for life on the
Moon, but after further research the real explanation became apparent. While the camera was being installed in
the probe prior to the launch, someone sneezed on it. The resulting bacteria had travelled to the Moon, remained
in an alternating freezing.' boiling vacuum for more than two years, and returned promptly to life upon reaching
the safety of a laboratory back on Earth.

The finding that not even the vastness of space can stop humans from spreading a sore throat was an unexpected
spin-off. Rut the artefacts brought back by Rean and Conrad have a broader significance. Simple as they may
seem, they provide the first example of extraterrestrial archaeology and perhaps more significant for the history
of the discipline formational archaeology, the study of environmental and cultural forces upon the life history of
human artefacts in space.
Questions 28-33
Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 28-33 on your answer sheet.
28 Ben Finney's main academic work investigates the way that
29 Ben Finney thought that in the long term
30 Commercial pressures mean that in the immediate future
31 Academics are concerned by the fact that in isolated regions on Earth.
32 One problem with the 1967 UN treaty is that
33 The wording of legal agreements over ownership of land in space means that
A activities of tourists and scientists have harmed the environment.
B some sites in space could be important in the history of space exploration.
C vehicles used for tourism have polluted the environment.
D it may be unclear who has responsibility for historic human footprints.
E past explorers used technology in order to find new places to live.
F man-made objects left in space are regarded as rubbish.
G astronauts may need to work more closely with archaeologists.
H important sites on the Moon may be under threat.
Questions 34-38
Choose NO MORE THAN ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
During the assembly of the Surveyor 3 probe, someone 34

on a TV camera.

The TV Camera was carried to the Moon on Surveyor 3


The TV Camera remained on the Moon for over 35

Apollo 12 astronauts 36

the TV camera

years

The TV camera was returned to Earth for 37

The Streptococcus mitis bacteria were found.


The theory that this suggested there was 38

on the Moon was rejected.

Scientists concluded that the bacteria can survive lunar conditions.


Questions 39-40
Choose TWO letters A-E
The TWO main purposes of the writer of this text are to explain
A

the reasons why space archaeology is not possible.

the dangers that could follow from contamination of objects from space.

the need to set up careful controls over space tourism.

the need to preserve historic sites and objects in space.

the possible cultural effects of space travel.

READING PASSAGE 1
Green virtues of green sand
Revolution in gloss recycling could help keep water clean
A For the past 100 years special high grade white sand dug from the ground at Leighton Buzzard in the UK. has
been used to filter tap water to remove bacteria and impurities but this may no longer be necessary. A new
factory that turns used wine bottles into green sand could revolutionise the recycling industry and help to filter
Britains drinking water. Backed by $1.6m from the European Union and the Department for Environment, Food
and Rural Affairs (Defra), a company based in Scotland is building the factory, which will turn beverage bottles
back into the sand from which they were made in the first place. The green sand has already been successfully
tested by water companies and is being used in 50 swimming pools in Scotland to keep the water clean.
B The idea is not only to avoid using up an increasingly scarce natural resource, sand but also to solve a crisis in
the recycling industry. Britain uses 5.5m tonnes of glass a year, but recycles only 750,000 tonnes of it. The
problem is that half the green bottle glass in Britain is originally from imported wine and beer bottles. Because

there is so much of it, and it is used less in domestic production than other types, green glass is worth only $25 a
tonne. Clear glass, which is melted down and used for whisky bottles, mainly for export, is worth double that
amount.
C Howard Drvden. a scientist and managing director of the company. Drvden Aqua, of Bonnyrigg, near
Edinburgh, has spent six years working on the product he calls Active Filtration Media, or AFM. He concedes
that he has given what is basically recycled glass a fancy name' to remove the stigma of what most people
would regard as an inferior product. He says he needs bottles that have already contained drinkable liquids to be
sure that drinking water filtered through the AFM would not be contaminated. Crushed down beverage glass has
fewer impurities than real sand and it performed better in trials. *The fact is that tests show that AFM does the
job better than sand, it is easier to clean and reuse and has all sorts of properties that make it ideal for other
applications.' he claimed.
D The factory is designed to produce 100 tonnes of AFM a day, although Mr Dryden regards this as a largescale pilot project rather than full production. Current estimates of the UK market for this glass for filtering
drinking water, sewage, industrial water, swimming pools and fish farming are between 175.000 to 217.000
tonnes a year, which w ill use up most of the glass available near the factory. So he intends to build five or six
factories in cities where there are large quantities of bottles, in order to cut down on transport costs.
E The current factory will be completed this month and is expected to go into full production on January 14th
next year. Once it is providing a regular product, the governments drinking water inspectorate will be asked to
perform tests and approve it for widespread use by water companies. A Defra spokesman said it was hoped that
AFM could meet approval within six months. The only problem that they could foresee was possible
contamination if some glass came from sources other than beverage bottles.
F Among those who have tested the glass already is Caroline Fitzpatrick of the civil and environmental
engineering department of University College London. We have looked at a number of batches and it appears
to do the job.' she said. Basically, sand is made of glass and Mr Dryden is turning bottles back into sand. It
seems a straightforward idea and there is no reason we can think of why it would not work. Since glass from
wine bottles and other beverages has no impurities and clearly did not leach any substances into the contents of
the bottles, there was no reason to believe there would be a problem, Dr Fitzpatrick added.
G Mr Dryden has set up a network of agents round the world to sell AFM. It is already in use in central
America to filter water on banana plantations where the fruit has to he washed before being despatched to
European markets. It is also in use in sewage works to filter water before it is returned to rivers, something
which is becoming legally necessary across the European Union because of tighter regulations on sewage
works. So there are a great number of applications involving cleaning up water. Currently, however, AFM costs
$670 a tonne, about four times as much as good quality sand. Hut that is because we haven't got large-scale
production. Obviously, when we get going it will cost a lot less, and be competitive with sand in price as well.
Mr Dryden said. I believe it performs better and lasts longer than sand, so it is going to be better value too.'
H If AFM takes off as a product it will be a big boost for the government agency which is charged with finding
a market for recycled products. Crushed glass is already being used in road surfacing and in making tiles and
bricks. Similarly. AFM could prove to have a widespread use and give green glass a cash value.
Questions 1-10
Reading Passage 1 has 8 paragraphs labelled A-H Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter A-H in boxes 1-10 on your answer sheet.
NB You may use any letter more than once.
1 a description of plans to expand production of AFM
2 the identification of a potential danger in the raw material for AFM

3 an example of AFM use in the export market


4 a comparison of the value of green glass and other types of glass
5 a list of potential applications of AFM in the domestic market
6 the conclusions drawn from laboratory checks on the process of AFM production
7 identification of current funding for the production of green sand
8 an explanation of the chosen brand name for crushed green glass
9 a description of plans for exporting AFM
10 a description of what has to happen before AFM is accepted for general use
Questions 11-14
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Green sand
The use of crushed green glass (AFM) may have two significant impacts: it may help to save a diminishing 11
while at the same time solving a major problem for the 12
in the UK.

However, according to Howard Dryden, only glass from bottles that have been used for 13

used in the production process. AFM is more effective than 14

can be

as a water filter, and also has other

uses.

NATURAL CHOICE
Coffee and chocolate
What's the connection between your morning coffee, wintering North American birds and the cool shade of a
tree? Actually, unite a lot, says Simon Birch.
When scientists from Londons Natural History Museum descended on the coffee farms of the tiny Central
American republic of F.l Salvador, they were astonished to find such diversity of insect and plant species.
During 18 months' work on 12 farms, they found a third more species of parasitic wasp than arc known to exist
in the whole country of Costa Rica. They described four new species and are aware of a fifth. On 24 farms they
found nearly 300 species of tree when they had expected to find about 100.
El Salvador has lost much of its natural forest, with coffee farms covering nearly 10% of the country. Most of
them use the shade-grown method of production, which utilises a semi-natural forest ecosystem. Alex Munro,
the museums botanist on the expedition, says: Our findings amazed our insect specialist. Theres a very
sophisticated food web present. The wasps, for instance, may depend on specific species of tree.

It's the same the world over. Species diversity is much higher where coffee is grown in shade conditions. In
addition, coffee (and chocolate) is usually grow n in tropical rainforest regions that are biodiversity hotspots.
These habitats support up to 70% of the planets plant and animal species, and so the production methods of
cocoa and coffee can have a hugely significant impact,' explains Dr Paul Donald of the Royal Society for the.
Protection of Birds.
So what does shade-grown mean, and why is it good for wildlife? Most of the world's coffee is produced by
poor farmers in the developing world. Traditionally they have grown coffee (and cocoa) under the shade of
selectively thinned tracts of rain forest in a genuinely sustainable form of farming. Leaf fall from the canopy
provides a supply of nutrients and acts as a mulch that suppresses weeds. The insects that live in the canopy
pollinate the cocoa and coffee and prey on pests. The trees also provide farmers with fruit and wood for fuel.
Bird diversity in shade-grown coffee plantations rivals that found in natural forests in the same region. says
Robert Rice from the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. In Ghana, West Africa. - one of the world's biggest
producers of cocoa - 90% of the cocoa is grown under shade, and these forest plantations are a vital habitat for
wintering European migrant birds. In the same way. the coffee forests of Central and South America are a refuge
for wintering North American migrants.
More recently, a combination of the collapse in the world market for coffee and cocoa and a drive to increase
yields by producer countries has led to huge swathes of shade-grown coffee and cocoa being cleared to make
way for a highly intensive, monoculture pattern of production known as full sun. But this system not only
reduces the diversity of flora and fauna, it also requires huge amounts of pesticides and fertilisers. In Cote
dIvoire, which produces more than half the world's cocoa, more than a third of the crop is now grown in fullsun conditions.
The loggers have been busy in the Americas too, where nearly 70% of all Colombian coffee is now produced
using full-sun production. One study carried out in Colombia and Mexico found that, compared with shade
coffee, full-sun plantations have 95% fewer species of birds.
In LI Salvador. Alex Munro says shade-coffee farms have a cultural as well as ecological significance and
people are not happy to see them go. But the financial pressures are great, and few of these coffee farms make
much money. One farm we studied, a cooperative of 100 families, made just S 10,000 a year S100 per family
and that's not taking labour costs into account.
The loss of shade-coffee forests has so alarmed a number of North American wildlife organisations that they 're
now harnessing consumer power to help save these threatened habitats. They are promoting a certification'
system that can indicate to consumers that the beans have been grown on shade plantations. Bird-friendly
coffee, for instance, is marketed by the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. The idea is that the small extra cost
is passed directly on to the coffee farmers as a financial incentive to maintain their shade-coffee farms.
Not all conservationists agree with such measures, however. Some say certification could be leading to the loss
not preservation of natural forests. John Rappole of the Smithsonian Conservation and Research Center, for
example, argues that shade- grown marketing provides an incentive to convert existing areas of primary forest
that are too remote or steep to be converted profitably to other forms of cultivation into shade-coffee
plantations.
Other conservationists, such as Stacey Philpott and colleagues, argue the case for shade coffee. But there are
different types of shade growing. Those used by subsistence farmers are virtually identical to natural forest (and
have a corresponding diversity), while systems that use coffee plants as the understorey and cacao or citrus trees
as the overstorey may be no more diverse than full-sun farms. Certification procedures need to distinguish
between the two. and Ms Philpott argues that as long as the process is rigorous and offers financial gains to the
producers, shade growing does benefit the environment.
Questions 15-19
TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this


15 More species survive on the farms studied by the researchers than in the natural El Salvador forests.
16 Nearly three-quarters of the Earth's wildlife species can be found in shade- coffee plantations.
17 Farmers in El Salvador who have tried both methods prefer shade-grown plantations.
18 Shade plantations are important for migrating birds in both Africa and the Americas.
19 Full-sun cultivation can increase the costs of farming.
Questions 20-23
20 Encouraging shade growing may lead to farmers using the natural forest for their plantations.
21 If shade-coffee farms match the right criteria, they can be good for wildlife.
22 There may be as many species of bird found on shade farms in a particular area, as in natural habitats there.
23 Currently, many shade-coffee farmers earn very little.
A
B
C
D
E

Alex Munroe
Paul Donald
Robert Rice
John Rappole
Stacey Philpott

Questions 24-27
Classify the features described below as applying to
A the shade-grown method
B the full-sun method
C both shade-grown and full-sun methods
Write the correct letter A-C in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
24 can be used on either coffee or cocoa plantations
25 is expected to produce bigger crops
26 documentation may be used to encourage sales
27 can reduce wildlife diversity;
Painters of time
'The world's fascination with the mystique of Australian Aboriginal art.'
A The works of Aboriginal artists are now much in demand throughout the world, and not just in Australia,
where they are already fully recognised: the National Museum of Australia, which opened in Canberra in 2001,

designated 40% of its exhibition space to works by Aborigines. In Europe their art is being exhibited at a
museum in Lyon. France, while the future Quai Branly museum in Paris
-

which will be devoted to arts and civilisations of Africa. Asia, Oceania and the Americas

plans to commission frescoes by artists from Australia.

B Their artistic movement began about 30 years ago. but its roots go back to time immemorial. All the works
refer to the founding myth of the Aboriginal culture, the Dreaming. That internal geography, which is rendered
with a brush and colours, is also the expression of the Aborigines' long quest to regain the land which was stolen
from them when Europeans arrived in the nineteenth century. Painting is nothing without history.' says one such
artist. Michael Nelson Tjakamarra.
C There arc now fewer than 400.000 Aborigines living in Australia. They have been swamped by the country's
17.5 million immigrants. These original natives' have been living in Australia for 50.000 years, but they were
undoubtedly maltreated by the newcomers. Driven back to the most barren lands or crammed into slums on the
outskirts of cities, the Aborigines were subjected to a policy of assimilation, which involved kidnapping
children to make them better integrated' into European society, and herding the nomadic Aborigines by force
into settled communities.
D It was in one such community, Papunya, near Alice Springs, in the central desert, that Aboriginal painting first
came into its own. In 1971, a white schoolteacher. Geoffrey Bardon, suggested to a group of Aborigines that
they should decorate the school walls with ritual motifs. so as to pass on to the younger generation the myths
that were starting to fade from their collective memory, lie gave them brushes.
colours and surfaces to paint on cardboard and canvases. He was astounded by the result. But their art did not
come like a bolt from the blue: for thousands of years Aborigines had been painting' on the ground using sands
of different colours, and on rock faces. They had also been decorating their bodies for ceremonial purposes. So
there existed a formal vocabulary.
E This had already been noted by Europeans. In the early twentieth century. Aboriginal communities brought
together by missionaries in northern Australia had been encouraged to reproduce on tree bark the motifs found
on rock faces. Artists turned out a steady stream of works, supported by the churches, which helped to sell them
to the public, and between 1950 and I960 Aboriginal paintings began to reach overseas museums. Painting on
bark persisted in the north, whereas the communities in the central desert increasingly used acrylic paint, and
elsewhere in Western Australia women explored the possibilities of wax painting and dyeing processes, known
as batik.
F What Aborigines depict are always elements of the Dreaming, the collective history that each community is
both part of and guardian of. I he Dreaming is the story of their origins, of their Great Ancestors, who passed
on their knowledge, their art and their skills (hunting, medicine, painting, music and dance) to man. The
Dreaming is not synonymous with the moment when the world was created. says Stephane Jacob, one of the
organisers of the Lyon exhibition. For Aborigines, that moment has never ceased to exist. It is perpetuated by
the cycle of the seasons and the religious ceremonies which the Aborigines organise. Indeed the aim of those
ceremonies is also to ensure the permanence of that golden age. The central function of Aboriginal painting,
even in its contemporary manifestations, is to guarantee the survival of this world. The Dreaming is both past,
present and future.'
G Each work is created individually, with a form peculiar to each artist, but it is created within and on behalf of
a community who must approve it. An artist cannot use a 'dream' that does not belong to his or her community,
since each community is the owner of its dreams, just as it is anchored to a territory marked out by its ancestors,
so each painting can be interpreted as a kind of spiritual road map for that community.
H Nowadays, each community is organised as a cooperative and draws on the services of an art adviser, a
government-employed agent who provides the artists with materials, deals with galleries and museums and
redistributes the proceeds from sales among the artists.

Today, Aboriginal painting has become a great success. Some works sell for more than $25,000, and exceptional
items may fetch as much as $180,000 in Australia.
'By exporting their paintings as though they were surfaces of their territory, by accompanying them to the
temples of western art. the Aborigines have redrawn the map of their country, into whose depths they were
exiled,* says Yves Le Fur. of the Quai Branlv museum. Masterpieces have been created. Their undeniable
power prompts a dialogue that has proved all too rare in the history of contacts between the two cultures.
Questions 28-33
List of headings
i

Amazing results from a project

ii

New religious ceremonies

iii

Community art centres

iv

Early painting techniques and marketing systems

Mythology and history combined

vi

The increasing acclaim for Aboriginal art

vii

Belief in continuity

viii

Oppression of a minority people

28 Paragraph A
29 Paragraph B
30 Paragraph C
31Paragraph D
32 Paragraph E
33 Paragraph F
Questions 34-37
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
For 34

, Aborigines produced ground and rock paintings.

Early twentieth century: churches first promoted the use of 35

Mid-twentieth century: Aboriginal paintings were seen in 36

for paintings.

Early 1970s: Aboriginal painted traditional patterns on 37

in one commodity

Questions 38-40
Choose the correct answer, A, B, C or D
Write your answers in boxes 38-40 on your answer sheet.
38

In Paragraph G, the writer suggests that an important feature of Aboriginal art is

its historical context.

its significance to the group.

its religious content.

its message about the environment.

39

In Aboriginal beliefs, there is a significant relationship between

communities and lifestyles.

images and techniques.

culture and form.

ancestors and territory.

40
A

In Paragraph I. the writer suggests that Aboriginal art invites Westerners to engage with
the Australian land.

their own art.

Aboriginal culture.

their own history.

Sustainable architecture - lessons from the ant


Termite mounds were the inspiration for an innovative design in sustainable living
Africa owes its termite mounds a lot. Trees and shrubs take root in them. Prospectors mine them, looking for
specks of gold carried up by termites from hundreds of metres below. And of course, they are a special treat to
aardvarks and other insectivores.
Now, Africa is paying an offbeat tribute to these towers of mud. The extraordinary Eastgate Building in Harare,
Zimbabwes capital city, is said to be the only one in the world to use the same cooling and heating principles as
the termite mound.
Termites in Zimbabwe build gigantic mounds inside which they farm a fungus that is their primary food source.
This must be kept at exactly 30.5C, while the temperatures on the African yeld outside can range from 1.5C at
night only just above freezing to a baking hot 40C during the day. The termites achieve this remarkable feat by
building a system of vents in the mound. Those at the base lead down into chambers cooled by wet mud carried
up from water tables far below, and others lead up through a Hue to the peak of the mound. By constantly
opening and closing these heating and cooling vents over the course of the day the termites succeed in keeping
the temperature constant in spite of the wide fluctuations outside.
Architect Mick Pearce used precisely the same strategy when designing the Eastgate Building, which has no air
conditioning and virtually no heating. The building the country's largest commercial and shopping complex uses
less than I0% of the energy of a conventional building ns size. These efficiencies translated directly to the
bottom line: the Eastgates owners saved $3.5 million on a $36 million building because an air- conditioning
plant didn't have to be imported. These savings were also passed on to tenants: rents are 20% lower than in a
new building next door.
The complex is actually two buildings linked by bridges across a shady, glass-roofed atrium open to the breezes.
Fans suck fresh air in from the atrium, blow it upstairs through hollow spaces under the floors and from there
into each office through baseboard vents. As it rises and warms, it is drawn out via ceiling vents and finally
exits through forty- eight brick chimneys.
To keep the harsh, high yeld sun from heating the interior, no more than 25% of the outside is glass, and all the
windows are screened by cement arches that just out more than a metre.
During summers cool nights, big fans flush air through the building seven times an hour to chill the hollow
floors. By day, smaller fans blow two changes of air an hour through the building, to circulate the air which has
been in contact with the cool floors. For winter days, there are small heaters in the vents.
This is all possible only because Harare is 1600 feet above sea level, has cloudless skies, little humidity and
rapid temperature swings days as warm as 3lC commonly drop to 14C at night. You couldnt do this in New

York, with its fantastically hot summers and fantastically cold winters, Pearce said. But then his eyes lit up at
the challenge.' Perhaps you could store the summer's heat in water somehow.
The engineering firm of Ove Amp & Partners, which worked with him on the design, monitors daily
temperatures outside, under the floors and at knee, desk and ceiling level. Ove Arup's graphs show that the
temperature of the building has generally stayed between 23"C and 25C. with the exception of the annual hot
spell just before the summer rains in October, and three days in November, when a janitor accidentally switched
off the fans at night. The atrium, which funnels the winds through, can be much cooler. And the air is fresh far
more so than in air-conditioned buildings, where up to 30% of the air is recycled.
Pearce, disdaining smooth glass skins as igloos in the Sahara, calls his building, with its exposed girders and
pipes, spiky. The design of the entrances is based on the porcupine-quill headdresses of the local Shona tribe.
Elevators are designed to look like the mineshaft cages used in Zimbabwe's diamond mines. The shape of the
fan covers, and the stone used in their construction, are echoes of Great Zimbabwe, the ruins that give the
country its name.
Standing on a roof catwalk, peering down inside at people as small as termites below. Pearce said he hoped
plants would grow wild in the atrium and pigeons and bats would move into it. like that termite fungus, further
extending the whole 'organic machine metaphor. The architecture, he says, is a regionalised style that responds
to the biosphere, to the ancient traditional stone architecture of Zimbabwe's past, and to local human resources.
Questions 1-5
1

Why do termite mounds have a system of vents?

to allow the termites to escape from predators

to enable the termites to produce food

to allow the termites to work efficiently

to enable the termites to survive at night

Why was Eastgate cheaper to build than a conventional building?

Very few materials were imported.

Its energy consumption was so low.

Its tenants contributed to the costs.

No air conditioners were needed.

Why would a building like Eastgate not work efficiently in New York?

Temperature change occurs seasonally rather than daily.

Pollution affects the storage of heat in the atmosphere.

Summer and winter temperatures are too extreme.

Levels of humidity affect cloud coverage.

What does Ove Arups data suggest about Eastgates temperature control system?

It allows a relatively wide range of temperatures.

The only problems are due to human error.

It functions well for most of the year.

The temperature in the atrium may fall too low.

Pearce believes that his building would be improved by

becoming more of a habitat for wildlife.

even closer links with the history of Zimbabwe.

giving people more space to interact with nature.

better protection from harmful organisms.

Questions 6-10
Use NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
6

Warm air leaves the offices through 6

The warm air leaves the building through 7

Heat from the sun is prevented from reaching the windows by 8

When the outside temperature drops 9

10

On cold days 10

bring air in from outside.

raise the temperature in the offices.

Questions 11-13
Answer the question below, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Which three parts of the Eastgate Building reflect important features of Zimbabwes history and culture?
A

entrances

quill

cages

elevators

fan covers

stone

Inside the mind of the consumer


Could brain-scanning technology provide an accurate way to assess the appeal of new products and the
effectiveness of advertising?
A MARKETING people are no longer prepared to take your word for it that you favour one product over
another. They want to scan your brain to see which one you really prefer. Using the tools of neuroscientists, such
as electroencephalogram (EEG) mapping and functional magnetic-resonance imaging (fMRI), they are trying to
learn more about the mental processes behind purchasing decisions. The resulting fusion of neuroscience and
marketing is inevitably, being called 'neuromarketing.
B The first person to apply brain-imaging technology in this way was Gerry Zaltman of Harvard University, in
the late 1990s. The idea remained in obscurity until 2001, when BrightHouse, a marketing consultancy based in
Atlanta, Georgia, set up a dedicated neuromarketing arm, BrightHouse Neurostrategies Group. (BrightHouse
lists Coca-Cola, Delta Airlines and Home Depot among its clients.) But the company's name may itself simply
be an example of clever marketing. BrightHouse does not scan people while showing them specific products or
campaign ideas, but bases its work on the results of more general f MRI -based research into consumer
preferences and decision-making carried out at Emory University in Atlanta.
C Can brain scanning really be applied to marketing? The basic principle is not that different from focus groups
and other traditional forms of market research. A volunteer lies in an f MRI machine and is shown images or
video clips. In place of an interview or questionnaire, the subject's response is evaluated by monitoring brain
activity. f MRI provides real-time images of brain activity, in which different areas light up depending on the
level of blood flow. This provides clues to the subject's subconscious thought patterns. Neuroscientists know, for
example, that the sense of self is associated with an area of the brain known as the medial prefrontal cortex. A
flow of blood to that area while the subject is looking at a particular logo suggests that he or she identifies with
that brand.
D At first, it seemed that only companies in Europe were prepared to admit that they used neuromarketing. Two
carmakers, DaimlerChrysler in Germany and Ford's European arm, ran pilot studies in 2003. But more recently,
American companies have become more open about their use of neuromarketing. Lieberman Research
Worldwide, a marketing firm based in Los Angeles, is collaborating with the California Institute of Technology
(Caltech) to enable movie studios to market-test film trailers. More controversially, the New York Times recently
reported that a political consultancy, FKF Research, has been studying the effectiveness of campaign
commercials using neuromarketing techniques.
E Whether all this is any more than a modern-day version of phrenology, the Victorian obsession with linking
lumps and bumps in the skull to personality traits, is unclear. There have been no large-scale studies, so scans of
a handful of subjects may not be a reliable guide to consumer behaviour in general. Of course, focus groups and
surveys are flawed too: strong personalities can steer the outcomes of focus groups, and people do not always
tell opinion pollsters the truth. And even honest people cannot always explain their preferences.
F That is perhaps where neuromarketing has the most potential. When asked about cola drinks, most people
claim to have a favourite brand, but cannot say why they prefer that brands taste. An unpublished study of
attitudes towards two well- known cola drinks. Brand A and Brand 13. carried out last year in a college of
medicine in the US found that most subjects preferred Brand B in a blind tasting fMRI scanning showed that
drinking Brand B lit up a region called the ventral putamen, which is one of the brain s reward centres, far
more brightly than Brand A. But when told which drink was which, most subjects said they preferred Brand A,
which suggests that its stronger brand outweighs the more pleasant taste of the other drink.

G People form many unconscious attitudes that are obviously beyond traditional methods that utilise
introspection, says Steven Quartz, a neuroscientist at Caltech who is collaborating with Lieberman Research.
With over $100 billion spent each year on marketing in America alone, any firm that can more accurately
analyse how customers respond to products, brands and advertising could make a fortune.
H Consumer advocates are wary. Gary Ruskin of Commercial Alert, a lobby group, thinks existing marketing
techniques are powerful enough. Already, marketing is deeply implicated in many serious pathologies, he
says. That is especially true of children, who are suffering from an epidemic of marketing- related diseases,
including obesity and type-2 diabetes. Neuromarketing is a tool to amplify these trends.
I Dr Quartz counters that neuromarketing techniques could equally be used for benign purposes. There are
ways to utilise these technologies to create more responsible advertising, he says. Brain-scanning could, for
example, be used to determine when people are capable of making free choices, to ensure that advertising falls
within those bounds.
J Another worry is that brain-scanning is an invasion of privacy and that information on the preferences of
specific individuals will be misused. But neuromarketing studies rely on small numbers of volunteer subjects, so
that seems implausible. Critics also object to the use of medical equipment for frivolous rather than medical
purposes. But as Tim Ambler, a neuromarketing researcher at the London Business School, says: A tool is a
tool, and if the owner of the tool gets a decent rent for hiring it out, then that subsidises the cost of the
equipment, and everybody wins. Perhaps more brain-scanning will some day explain why some people like the
idea of neuromarketing, but others do not.
Questions 14-19
Reading Passage 2 has ten paragraphs A-J
List of headings
i

A description of the procedure

ii

An international research project

iii

An experiment to investigate consumer responses

iv

Marketing an alternative name

A misleading name

vi

A potentially profitable line of research

vii

Medical dangers of the technique

viii

Drawbacks to marketing tools

ix

Broadening applications

What is neuromarketing

14 Paragraph B
15 Paragraph C
16 Paragraph D
17 Paragraph E

18 Paragraph F
19 Paragraph G
Questions 20-22
Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 20-22 on your answer sheet.
20 Steven Quartz
21 Gary Ruskin
22 Tim Ambler
List of opinions
A Neuromarketing could be used lo contribute towards the cost of medical technology.
B Neuromarketing could use introspection as a tool in marketing research.
C Neuromarketing could be a means of treating medical problems.
D Neuromarketing could make an existing problem worse.
E Neuromarketing could lead to the misuse of medical equipment.
F Neuromarketing could be used to prevent the exploitation of consumers.

Questions 23-26
Complete the summary below using words from the passage.
Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.
Neuromarketing can provide valuable information on attitudes to particular 23
reliable than surveys, where people can be 24

or focus groups, where they may be influenced by

others. It also allows researchers to identify the subjects 25

thought patterns. However, some

people are concerned that it could lead to problems such as an increase in disease among 26

Questions 27-32
TRUE

if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE

if the statement contradicts the information

. It may be more

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this


27 When Peter Osbeck visited Ascension, he found no inhabitants on the island.

28 The natural vegetation on the island contained some species which were found nowhere else.
29 Joseph Hooker assumed that human activity had caused the decline in the island's plant life.
30 British sailors on the island took part in a major tree planting project.
31 Hooker sent details of his planting scheme to a number of different countries.
32 The bamboo and prickly pear seeds sent from England were unsuitable for Ascension.
The accidental rainforest
According to ecological theory, rainforests are supposed to develop slowly over millions of years. But now
ecologists are being forced to reconsider their ideas

When PeterOsbeck. a Swedish priest, stopped off at the mid-Atlantic island of Ascension in 1752 on his way
home from China, he wrote of a heap of ruinous rocks with a bare, white mountain in the middle. All it boasted
was a couple of dozen species of plant, most of them ferns and some of them unique to the island.
And so it might have remained. But in 1843 British plant collector Joseph Hooker made a brief call on his return
from Antarctica. Surveying the bare earth, he concluded that the island had suffered some natural calamity that
had denuded it of vegetation and triggered a decline in rainfall that was turning the place into a desert. The
British Navy, which by then maintained a garrison on the island, was keen to improve the place and asked
Hooker's advice. He suggested an ambitious scheme for planting trees and shrubs that would revive rainfall and
stimulate a wider ecological recovery. And, perhaps lacking anything else to do, the sailors set to with a will.
In 1845, a naval transport ship from Argentina delivered a batch of seedlings. In the following years, more than
200 species of plant arrived from South Africa, from England came 700 packets of seeds, including those of two
species that especially liked the place: bamboo and prickly pear. With sailors planting several thousand trees a
year, the bare white mountain was soon cloaked in green and renamed Green Mountain, and by the early
twentieth century the mountain's slopes were covered with a variety of trees and shrubs from all over the world.
Modern ecologists throw up their hands in horror at what they see as Hookers environmental anarchy. T he
exotic species wrecked the indigenous ecosystem, squeezing out the islands endemic plants. In fact. Hooker
knew well enough what might happen. However, he saw greater benefit in improving rainfall and encouraging
more prolific vegetation on the island.
But there is a much deeper issue here than the relative benefits of sparse endemic species versus luxuriant
imported ones. And as botanist David Wilkinson of Liverpool John Moores University in the UK pointed out
after a recent visit to the island, it goes to the heart of some of the most dearly held tenets of ecology.
Conservationists' understandable concern for the fate of Ascensions handful of unique species has, he says,
blinded them to something quite astonishing the fact that the introduced species have been a roaring success.
Today's Green Mountain, says Wilkinson, is a fully functioning man-made tropical cloud forest' that has grown
from scratch from a ragbag of species collected more or less at random from all over the planet. But how could
it have happened? Conventional ecological theory says that complex ecosystems such as cloud forests can
emerge only through evolutionary processes in which each organism develops in concert with others to fill
particular niches. Plants eo-evolve with their pollinators and seed dispersers, while microbes in the soil evolve
to deal with the leaf litter.
But thats not what happened on Green Mountain. And the experience suggests that perhaps natural rainforests
are constructed far more by chance than by evolution. Species, say some ecologists, dont so much evolve to
create ecosystems as make the best of what they have. The Green Mountain system is a man-made system that
has produced a tropical rainforest without any co-evolution between its constituent species, says Wilkinson.

Not everyone agrees. Alan Gray, an ecologist at the University of Edinburgh in the UK. argues that the surviving
endemic species on Green Mountain, though small in number, may still form the framework of the new'
ecosystem. The new arrivals may just be an adornment, with little structural importance for the ecosystem.
But to Wilkinson this sounds like clutching at straws. And the idea of the instant formation of rainforests sounds
increasingly plausible as research reveals that supposedly pristine tropical rainforests from the Amazon to southeast Asia may in places be little more titan the overgrown gardens of past rainforest civilisations.
The most surprising thing of all is that no ecologists have thought to conduct proper research into this humanmade rainforest ecosystem. A survey of the islands flora conducted six years ago by the University of
Edinburgh was concerned only with endemic species. They characterised everything else as a threat. And the
Ascension authorities are currently turning Green Mountain into a national park where introduced species, at
least the invasive ones, are earmarked for culling rather than conservation.
Conservationists have understandable concerns, Wilkinson says. At least four endemic species have gone extinct
on Ascension since the exotics started arriving. But in their urgency to protect endemics, ecologists are missing
out on the study of a great enigma.
As you walk through the forest, you see lots of leaves that have had chunks taken out of them by various
insects. There are caterpillars and beetles around.' says Wilkinson. But where did they come from? Are they
endemic or alien? If alien, did they come with the plant on which they feed or discover it on arrival? Such
questions go to the heart of how- rainforests happen.
The Green Mountain forest holds many secrets. And the irony is that the most artificial rainforest in the world
could tell us more about rainforest ecology than any number of natural forests.
Questions 33-37
Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-G from the box below.
Write the correct letter A-G in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.
33 The reason for modern conservationists concern over Hooker's tree planting programme is that
34 David Wilkinson says the creation of the rainforest in Ascension is important because it shows that
35 Wilkinson says the existence of Ascensions rainforest challenges the theory that
36 Alan Gray questions Wilkinsons theory, claiming that
37 Additional support for Wilkinson's theory comes from findings that
A other rainforests may have originally been planted by man.
B many of the island's original species were threatened with destruction.
C the species in the original rainforest were more successful than the newer arrivals.
D rainforests can only develop through a process of slow and complex evolution.
E steps should be taken to prevent the destruction of the original ecosystem.
F randomly introduced species can coexist together.
G the introduced species may have less ecological significance than the original ones.

Questions 38-40
38 Wilkinson suggests that conservationists' concern about the island is misguided because
A

it is based on economic rather than environmental principles.

it is not focusing on the most important question.

it is encouraging the destruction of endemic species.

it is not supported by the local authorities.

39

According to Wilkinson, studies of insects on the island could demonstrate

the possibility of new ecological relationships.

a future threat to the ecosystem of the island.

the existence of previously unknown species.

a chance for the survival of rainforest ecology.

40

Overall, what feature of the Ascension rainforest does the writer stress?

the conflict of natural and artificial systems

the unusual nature of its ecological structure

the harm done by interfering with nature

the speed and success of its development

A Chronicle of Timekeeping
Our conception of time depends on the way we measure it
A According to archaeological evidence, at least 5,000 years ago, and long before the advent of the Roman
Empire, the Babylonians began to measure time, introducing calendars to co-ordinate communal activities, to
plan the shipment of goods and, in particular, to regulate planting and harvesting. They based their calendars on
three natural cycles: the solar day, marked by the successive periods of light and darkness as the earth rotates
on its axis; the lunar month, following the phases of the moon as it orbits the earth; and the solar year, defined
by the changing seasons that accompany our planet's revolution around the sun.
B Before the invention of artificial light, the moon had greater social impact. And, for those living near the
equator in particular, its waxing and waning was more conspicuous than the passing of the seasons. Hence, the
calendars that were developed at the lower latitudes were influenced more by the lunar cycle than by the solar
year. In more northern climes, however, where seasonal agriculture was practised, the solar year became more
crucial. As the Roman Empire expanded northward, it organised its activity chart for the most part around the
solar year.
C Centuries before the Roman Empire, the Egyptians had formulated a municipal calendar having 12 months of
30 days, with five days added to approximate the solar year. Each period of ten days was marked by the
appearance of special groups of stars called decans. At the rise of the star Sirius just before sunrise, which
occurred around the all-important annual flooding of the Nile, 12 decans could be seen spanning the heavens.
The cosmic significance the Egyptians placed in the 12 decans led them to develop a system in which each
interval of darkness (and later, each interval of daylight) was divided into a dozen equal parts. These periods
became known as temporal hours because their duration varied according to the changing length of days and
nights with the passing of the seasons. Summer hours were long, winter ones short; only at the spring and
autumn equinoxes were the hours of daylight and darkness equal. Temporal hours, which were first adopted by
the Greeks and then the Romans, who disseminated them through Europe, remained in use for more than 2,500
years.
D In order to track temporal hours during the day, inventors created sundials, which indicate time by the length
or direction of the sun's shadow. The sundial's counterpart, the water clock, was designed to measure temporal
hours at night. One of the first water clocks was a basin with a small hole near the bottom through which the
water dripped out. The falling water level denoted the passing hour as it dipped below hour lines inscribed on
the inner surface. Although these devices performed satisfactorily around the Mediterranean, they could not
always be depended on in the cloudy and often freezing weather of northern Europe.
E The advent of the mechanical clock meant that although it could be adjusted to maintain temporal hours, it
was naturally suited to keeping equal ones. With these, however, arose the question of when to begin counting,
and so, in the early 14th century, a number of systems evolved. The schemes that divided the day into 24 equal
parts varied according to the start of the count: Italian hours began at sunset, Babylonian hours at
sunrise, astronomical hours at midday and 'great clock' hours, used for some large public clocks in Germany, at
midnight. Eventually these were superseded by 'small clock', or French, hours, which split the day into two 12hour periods commencing at midnight.
F The earliest recorded weight-driven mechanical clock was built in 1283 in Bedfordshire in England. The
revolutionary aspect of this new timekeeper was neither the descending weight that provided its motive force
nor the gear wheels (which had been around for at least 1,300 years) that transferred the power; It was the part
called the escapement. In the early 1400s came the invention of the coiled spring or fusee which maintained
constant force to the gear wheels of the timekeeper despite the changing tension of its mainspring. By the 16th
century, a pendulum clock had been devised, but the pendulum swung in a large arc and thus was not very
efficient.

G To address this, a variation on the original escapement was invented in 1670, in England. It was called the
anchor escapement, which was a lever-based device shaped like a ship's anchor. The motion of a pendulum
rocks this device so that it catches and then releases each tooth of the escape wheel, in turn allowing it to turn a
precise amount. Unlike the original form used in early pendulum clocks, the anchor escapement permitted
the pendulum to travel in a very small arc. Moreover, this invention allowed the use of a long pendulum which
could beat once a second and thus led to the development of a new floorstanding case design, which became
known as the grandfather clock.
H Today, highly accurate timekeeping instruments set the beat for most electronic devices. Nearly all computers
contain a quartz-crystal clock to regulate their operation. Moreover, not only do time signals beamed down from
Global Positioning System satellites calibrate the functions of precision navigation equipment, they do so as
well for mobile phones, instant stock-trading systems and nationwide power-distribution grids. So integral
have these time-based technologies become to day-to-day existence that our dependency on them is recognised
only when they fail to work.
Questions 1-4
Write the correct letter, A-H, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet
1

a description of an early timekeeping invention affected by cold temperatures

an explanation of the importance of geography in the development of the calendar in farming communities 3
a description of the origins of the pendulum clock 4 details of the simultaneous efforts of different societies
to calculate time using uniform hours
Questions 5-8
Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet.
List of Nationalities
A Babylonians
B Egyptians
C Greeks
D English
E Germans
F French
5 They devised a civil calendar in which the months were equal in length.
6 They divided the day into two equal halves.
7 They developed a new cabinet shape for a type of timekeeper.
8 They created a calendar to organise public events and work schedules.
Questions 9-13
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
How the 1670 lever-based device worked

10

11

12

13

READING PASSAGE 2
A
An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the
United States, which were becoming quite congested. The resulting structure of air traffic control has
greatly increased the safety of flight in the United States, and similar air traffic control procedures are also in
place over much of the rest of the world.
B
Rudimentary air traffic control (ATC) existed well before the Grand Canyon disaster. As early as the 1920s, the
earliest air traffic controllers manually guided aircraft in the vicinity of the airports, using lights and flags, while
beacons and flashing lights were placed along cross-country routes to establish the earliest airways.
However, this purely visual system was useless in bad weather, and, by the 1930s, radio communication was
coming into use for ATC. The first region to have something approximating todays ATC was New York City,
with other major metropolitan areas following soon after.
C
In the 1940s, ATC centres could and did take advantage of the newly developed radar and improved radio
communication brought about by the Second World War, but the system remained rudimentary. It was only after
the creation of the FAA that full-scale regulation of Americas airspace took place, and this was fortuitous,
for the advent of the jet engine suddenly resulted in a large number of very fast planes, reducing pilots margin
of error and practically demanding some set of rules to keep everyone well separated and operating safely in the
air.
D
Many people think that ATC consists of a row of controllers sitting in front of their radar screens at the nations
airports, telling arriving and departing traffic what to do. This is a very incomplete part of the picture. The FAA
realised that the airspace over the United States would at any time have many different kinds of planes,
flying for many different purposes, in a variety of weather conditions, and the same kind of structure was
needed to accommodate all of them.
E
To meet this challenge, the following elements were put into effect. First, ATC extends over virtually the entire
United States. In general, from 365m above the ground and higher, the entire country is blanketed by controlled
airspace. In certain areas, mainly near airports, controlled airspace extends down to 215m above the ground,
and, in the immediate vicinity of an airport, all the way down to the surface. Controlled airspace is that airspace
in which FAA regulations apply. Elsewhere, in uncontrolled airspace, pilots are bound by fewer regulations. In
this way, the recreational pilot who simply wishes to go flying for a while without all the restrictions imposed by
the FAA has only to stay in uncontrolled airspace, below 365m, while the pilot who does want the protection
afforded by ATC can easily enter the controlled airspace.
F
The FAA then recognised two types of operating environments. In good meteorological conditions, flying would
be permitted under Visual Flight Rules (VFR), which suggests a strong reliance on visual cues to maintain an
acceptable level of safety. Poor visibility necessitated a set of Instrumental Flight Rules (IFR), under which the
pilot relied on altitude and navigational information provided by the planes instrument panel to fly safely. On a
clear day, a pilot in controlled airspace can choose a VFR or IFR flight plan, and the FAA regulations were
devised in a way which accommodates both VFR and IFR operations in the same airspace. However, a pilot can
only choose to fly IFR if they possess an instrument rating which is above and beyond the basic pilots license
that must also be held.

G
Controlled airspace is divided into several different types, designated by letters of the alphabet. Uncontrolled
airspace is designated Class F, while controlled airspace below 5,490m above sea level and not in the vicinity of
an airport is Class E. All airspace above 5,490m is designated Class A. The reason for the division of Class E
and Class A airspace stems from the type of planes operating in them. Generally, Class E airspace is where one
finds general aviation aircraft (few of which can climb above 5,490m anyway), and commercial turboprop
aircraft. Above 5,490m is the realm of the heavy jets, since jet engines operate more efficiently at higher
altitudes. The difference between Class E and A airspace is that in Class A, all operations are IFR, and pilots
must be instrument-rated, that is, skilled and licensed in aircraft instrumentation. This is because ATC control of
the entire space is essential. Three other types of airspace, Classes D, C and B, govern the vicinity of airports.
These correspond roughly to small municipal, medium-sized metropolitan and major metropolitan airports
respectively, and encompass an increasingly rigorous set of regulations. For example, all a VFR pilot has to do
to enter Class C airspace is establish two-way radio contact with ATC. No explicit permission from ATC to enter
is needed, although the pilot must continue to obey all regulations governing VFR flight. To enter Class B
airspace, such as on approach to a major metropolitan airport, an explicit ATC clearance is required. The
private pilot who cruises without permission into this airspace risks losing their license.
Questions 14-19

14 Paragraph A

Example

Answer

Paragraph B

15

Paragraph C

16

Paragraph D 17 Paragraph E 18 Paragraph F 19 Paragraph G


List of Headings
i

Disobeying FAA regulations

ii

Aviation disaster prompts action

iii

Two coincidental developments

iv

Setting altitude zones

An oversimplified view

vi

Controlling pilots licences

vii

Defining airspace categories

viii

Setting rules to weather conditions

ix Taking off safely

First steps towards ATC

Questions 20-26
TRUE
FALSE

if the statement agrees with the information


if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN

if there is no information on this

20 The FAA was created as a result of the introduction of the jet engine.
21 Air Traffic Control started after the Grand Canyon crash in 1956.
22 Beacons and flashing lights are still used by ATC today.
23 Some improvements were made in radio communication during World War II.
24 Class F airspace is airspace which is below 365m and not near airports.
25 All aircraft in Class E airspace must use IFR.
26 A pilot entering Class C airspace is flying over an average-sized city.
|

|
Telepathy

Can human beings communicate by thought alone? For more than a century the issue of telepathy has divided
the scientific community, and even today it still sparks bitter controversy among top academics
Since the 1970s, parapsychologists at leading universities and research institutes around the world have risked
the derision of sceptical colleagues by putting the various claims for telepathy to the test in dozens of rigorous
scientific studies. The results and their implications are dividing even the researchers who uncovered them.
Some researchers say the results constitute compelling evidence that telepathy is genuine. Other
parapsychologists believe the field is on the brink of collapse, having tried to produce definitive scientific proof
and failed. Sceptics and advocates alike do concur on one issue, however: that the most impressive evidence so
far has come from the so-called 'ganzfeld' experiments, a German term that means 'whole field'. Reports of
telepathic experiences had by people during meditation led parapsychologists to suspect that telepathy might
involve 'signals' passing between people that were so faint that they were usually swamped by normal brain
activity. In this case, such signals might be more easily detected by those experiencing meditation-like
tranquillity in a relaxing 'whole field' of light, sound and warmth.
The ganzfeld experiment tries to recreate these conditions with participants sitting in soft reclining chairs in a
sealed room, listening to relaxing sounds while their eyes are covered with special filters letting in only soft
pink light. In early ganzfeld experiments, the telepathy test involved identification of a picture chosen from a
random selection of four taken from a large image bank. The idea was that a person acting as a 'sender' would
attempt to beam the image over to the 'receiver' relaxing in the sealed room.
Once the session was over, this person was asked to identify which of the four images had been used. Random
guessing would give a hit-rate of 25 per cent; if telepathy is real, however, the hit-rate would be higher. In 1982,
the results from the first ganzfeld studies were analysed by one of its pioneers, the American parapsychologist

Charles Honorton. They pointed to typical hit-rates of better than 30 per cent - a small effect, but one
which statistical tests suggested could not be put down to chance.
The implication was that the ganzfeld method had revealed real evidence for telepathy. But there was a crucial
flaw in this argument - one routinely overlooked in more conventional areas of science. Just because chance had
been ruled out as an explanation did not prove telepathy must exist; there were many other ways of getting
positive
results. These ranged from 'sensory leakage' - where clues about the pictures accidentally reach the receiver - to
outright fraud. In response, the researchers issued a review of all the ganzfeld studies done up to 1985 to show
that 80 per cent had found statistically significant evidence. However, they also agreed that there were still too
many problems in the experiments which could lead to positive results, and they drew up a list demanding new
standards for future research.
After this, many researchers switched to autoganzfeld tests - an automated variant of the technique which used
computers to perform many of the key tasks such as the random selection of images. By minimising human
involvement, the idea was to minimise the risk of flawed results. In 1987, results from hundreds of autoganzfeld
tests were studied by Honorton in a 'meta-analysis', a statistical technique for finding the overall results from
a set of studies. Though less compelling than before, the outcome was still impressive.
Yet some parapsychologists remain disturbed by the lack of consistency between individual ganzfeld studies.
Defenders of telepathy point out that demanding impressive evidence from every study ignores one basic
statistical fact: it takes large samples to detect small effects. If, as current results suggest, telepathy produces hitrates only marginally above the 25 per cent expected by chance, it's unlikely to be detected by a typical ganzfeld
study involving around 40 people: the group is just not big enough. Only when many studies are combined in a
meta-analysis will the faint signal of telepathy really become apparent. And that is what researchers do seem to
be finding.
What they are certainly not finding, however, is any change in attitude of mainstream scientists: most still totally
reject the very idea of telepathy. The problem stems at least in part from the lack of any plausible mechanism for
telepathy.
Various theories have been put forward, many focusing on esoteric ideas from theoretical physics. They include
'quantum entanglement', in which events affecting one group of atoms instantly affect another group, no matter
how/ far apart they may be. While physicists have demonstrated entanglement with specially prepared atoms,
no-one knows if it also exists between atoms making up human minds. Answering such questions would
transform parapsychology. This has prompted some researchers to argue that the future lies not in collecting
more evidence for telepathy, but in probing possible mechanisms. Some work has begun already, with
researchers trying to identify people who are particularly successful in autoganzfeld trials. Early results show
that creative and artistic people do much better than average: in one study at the University of
Edinburgh, musicians achieved a hit-rate of 56 per cent. Perhaps more tests like these will eventually give the
researchers the evidence they are seeking and strengthen the case for the existence of telepathy
Questions 27-30
A the discovery of a mechanism for telepathy.
B the need to create a suitable environment for telepathy.
C their claims of a high success rate.
D a solution to the problem posed by random guessing.
E the significance of the ganzfeld experiments.
F a more careful selection of subjects.

G a need to keep altering conditions.


27

Researchers with differing attitudes towards telepathy agree on

28 Reports of experiences during meditation indicated 29 Attitudes to parapsychology would alter


drastically with 30 Recent autoganzfeld trials suggest that success rates will improve with
Questions 31-40

Telepathy Experiments

Name/Date

Description

Result

Flaw

Involved a person acting as a 31


, who picked out one 32
Ganzfeld
studies
1982

from a random selection Hit-rates were


higher than
with random
guessing.
of four, and a 33
, who

Positive results could be produced by


factors such as 34
or 35

then tried to identify it.

The 39
36
Autoganzfeld
studies

between different

were used for key

tasks to limit the amount of 37


in carrying out the tests.

The results were


then subjected
to a 38

test results was put down to the fact


that sample groups were not 40
(as with most ganzfeld

1987
studies).

READING PASSAGE 1 test 3


LAND OF THE RISING SUN
A
Japan has a significantly better record in terms of average mathematical attainment than England and Wales.
Large sample international comparisons of pupils' attainments since the 1960s have established that not only did
Japanese pupils at age 13 have better scores of average attainment, but there was also a larger proportion of 'low'
attainers in England, where, incidentally, the variation in attainment scores was much greater. The percentage of
Gross National Product spent on education is reasonably similar in the two countries, so how is this higher and
more consistent attainment in maths achieved?

B
Lower secondary schools in Japan cover three school years, from the seventh grade (age 13) to the ninth grade
(age 15). Virtually all pupils at this stage attend state schools: only 3 per cent are in the private sector. Schools
are usually modem in design, set well back from the road and spacious inside. Classrooms are large and pupils
sit at single desks in rows. Lessons last for a standardised 50 minutes and are always followed by a 10-minute
break, which gives the pupils a chance to let off steam. Teachers begin with a formal address and mutual
bowing, and then concentrate on whole-class teaching.
Classes are large - usually about 40 - and are unstreamed. Pupils stay in the same class for all lessons throughout
the school and develop considerable class identity and loyalty. Pupils attend the school in their own
neighbourhood, which in theory removes ranking by school. In practice in Tokyo, because of the
relative concentration of schools, there is some competition to get into the 'better' school in a particular area.
C
Traditional ways of teaching form the basis of the lesson and the remarkably quiet classes take their own notes
of the points made and the examples demonstrated. Everyone has their own copy of the textbook supplied by the
central education authority, Monbusho, as part of the concept of free compulsory education up to the age of 15.
These textbooks are, on the whole, small, presumably inexpensive to produce, but well set out and logically
developed. (One teacher was particularly keen to introduce colour and pictures into maths textbooks: he felt this
would make them more accessible to pupils brought up in a cartoon culture.) Besides approving textbooks,
Monbusho also decides the highly centralised national curriculum and how it is to be delivered.
D
Lessons all follow the same pattern. At the beginning, the pupils put solutions to the homework on the board,
then the teachers comment, correct or elaborate as necessary. Pupils mark their own homework: this is an
important principle in Japanese schooling as it enables pupils to see where and why they made a mistake, so that
these can be avoided in future. No one minds mistakes or ignorance as long as you are prepared to learn from
them.
After the homework has been discussed, the teacher explains the topic of the lesson, slowly and with a lot of
repetition and elaboration. Examples are demonstrated on the board; questions from the textbook are worked
through first with the class, and then the class is set questions from the textbook to do individually. Only rarely
are supplementary worksheets distributed in a maths class. The impression is that the logical nature of the
textbooks and their comprehensive coverage of different types of examples, combined with the
relative homogeneity of the class, renders work sheets unnecessary. At this point, the teacher would circulate
and make sure that all the pupils were coping well.
E
It is remarkable that large, mixed-ability classes could be kept together for maths throughout all their
compulsory schooling from 6 to 15. Teachers say that they give individual help at the end of a lesson or after
school, setting extra work if necessary. In observed lessons, any strugglers would be assisted by the teacher or
quietly seek help from their neighbour. Carefully fostered class identity makes pupils keen to help each other anyway, it is in their interests since the class progresses together.
This scarcely seems adequate help to enable slow learners to keep up. However, the Japanese attitude towards
education runs along the lines of 'if you work hard enough, you can do almost anything'. Parents are kept closely
informed of their children's progress and will play a part in helping their children to keep up with class, sending
them to 'Juku' (private evening tuition) if extra help is needed and encouraging them to work harder. It seems to
work, at least for 95 per cent of the school population.
F

So what are the major contributing factors in the success of maths teaching? Clearly, attitudes are important.
Education is valued greatly in Japanese culture; maths is recognised as an important compulsory subject
throughout schooling; and the emphasis is on hard work coupled with a focus on accuracy.
Other relevant points relate to the supportive attitude of a class towards slower pupils, the lack of competition
within a class, and the positive emphasis on learning for oneself and improving one's own standard. And the
view of repetitively boring lessons and learning the facts by heart, which is sometimes quoted in relation to
Japanese classes, may be unfair and unjustified. No poor maths lessons were observed. They were mainly good
and one or two were inspirational.
IELTS 8 - Reading Practice Test 3
Questions 1-5
List of Headings
i

The influence of Monbusho

ii

Helping less successful students

iii

The success of compulsory education

iv

Research findings concerning achievements in maths

The typical format of a maths lesson

vi

Comparative expenditure on maths education

vii

Background to middle-years education in Japan

viii

The key to Japanese successes in maths education

ix

The role of homework correction

Example

Answer

Section A

iv

Section

Section

Section

D 4

Section

E 5

Section

Questions 6-9
Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 1?
In boxes 6-9 on your answer sheet, write
YES

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer

NO

if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN

if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

6
There is a wider range of achievement amongst English pupils studying maths than amongst their Japanese
counterparts.
7
The percentage of Gross National Product spent on education generally reflects the level of attainment in
mathematics.
8
Private schools in Japan are more modern and spacious than state-run lower secondary schools.
9
Teachers mark homework in Japanese schools.
Questions 10-13
Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 10-13 on your answer sheet.
10

Maths textbooks in Japanese schools are

cheap for pupils to buy.

well organised and adapted to the needs of the pupils.

written to be used in conjunction with TV programmes.

not very popular with many Japanese teachers.

11 When a new maths topic is introduced,


A

students answer questions on the board.

students rely entirely on the textbook.

it is carefully and patiently explained to the students.

it is usual for students to use extra worksheets.

12

How do schools deal with students who experience difficulties?

They are given appropriate supplementary tuition.

They are encouraged to copy from other pupils.

They are forced to explain their slow progress.

They are placed in a mixed-ability class.

13

Why do Japanese students tend to achieve relatively high rates of success in maths?

It is a compulsory subject in Japan.

They are used to working without help from others.

Much effort is made and correct answers are emphasised.

There is a strong emphasis on repetitive learning.

READING PASSAGE 2 -Biological control of pests

The continuous and reckless use of synthetic chemicals for the control of pests which pose a threat to
agricultural crops and human health is proving to be counter-productive. Apart from engendering widespread
ecological disorders, pesticides have contributed to the emergence of a new breed of chemical-resistant, highly
lethal superbugs.
According to a recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), more than 300 species of
agricultural pests have developed resistance to a wide range of potent chemicals. Not to be left behind are the
disease-spreading pests, about 100 species of which have become immune to a variety of insecticides now in
use.
One glaring disadvantage of pesticides application is that, while destroying harmful pests, they also wipe out
many useful non-targeted organisms, which keep the growth of the pest population in check. This results in what
agroecologists call the treadmill syndrome. Because of their tremendous breeding potential and genetic
diversity, many pests are known to withstand synthetic chemicals and bear offspring with a built-in resistance to
pesticides.
The havoc that the treadmill syndrome can bring about is well illustrated by what happened to cotton farmers
in Central America. In the early 1940s, basking in the glory of chemical-based intensive agriculture, the farmers
avidly took to pesticides as a sure measure to boost crop yield. The insecticide was applied eight times a year in
the mid-1940s, rising to 28 in a season in the mid-1950s, following the sudden proliferation of three new
varieties of chemical-resistant pests.
By the mid-1960s, the situation took an alarming turn with the outbreak of four more new pests, necessitating
pesticide spraying to such an extent that 50% of the financial outlay on cotton production was accounted for by
pesticides. In the early 1970s, the spraying frequently reached 70 times a season as the farmers were pushed to
the wall by the invasion of genetically stronger insect species.
Most of the pesticides in the market today remain inadequately tested for properties that cause cancer and
mutations as well as for other adverse effects on health, says a study by United States environmental agencies.
The United States National Resource Defense Council has found that DDT was the most popular of a long list of
dangerous chemicals in use.
In the face of the escalating perils from indiscriminate applications of pesticides, a more effective and
ecologically sound strategy of biological control, involving the selective use of natural enemies of the pest
population, is fast gaining popularity - though, as yet, it is a new field with limited potential. The advantage of
biological control in contrast to other methods is that it provides a relatively low-cost, perpetual control system
with a minimum of detrimental side-effects. When handled by experts, bio-control is safe, non-polluting and
self-dispersing.
The Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control (CIBC) in Bangalore, with its global network of research
laboratories and field stations, is one of the most active, non-commercial research agencies engaged in pest
control by setting natural predators against parasites. CIBC also serves as a clearing-house for the export and
import of biological agents for pest control world-wide.
CIBC successfully used a seed-feeding weevil, native to Mexico, to control the obnoxious parthenium weed,
known to exert devious influence on agriculture and human health in both India and Australia. Similarly the
Hyderabad-based Regional Research Laboratory (RRL), supported by CIBC, is now trying out an Argentinian
weevil for the eradication of water hyacinth, another dangerous weed, which has become a nuisance in many
parts of the world. According to Mrs Kaiser Jamil of RRL, The Argentinian weevil does not attack any other
plant and a pair of adult bugs could destroy the weed in 4-5 days. CIBC is also perfecting the technique for
breeding parasites that prey on disapene scale insects - notorious defoliants of fruit trees in the US and India.
How effectively biological control can be pressed into service is proved by the following examples. In the late
1960s, when Sri Lankas flourishing coconut groves were plagued by leaf-mining hispides, a larval parasite
imported from Singapore brought the pest under control. A natural predator indigenous to India, Neodumetia
sangawani, was found useful in controlling the Rhodes grass-scale insect that was devouring forage grass in
many parts of the US. By using Neochetina bruci, a beetle native to Brazil, scientists at Kerala Agricultural

University freed a 12-kilometre-long canal from the clutches of the weed Salvinia molesta, popularly called
African Payal in Kerala. About 30,000 hectares of rice fields in Kerala are infested by this weed.
Questions 14-17
14

The use of pesticides has contributed to

a change in the way ecologies are classified by agroecologists.

an imbalance in many ecologies around the world.

the prevention of ecological disasters in some parts of the world.

an increase in the range of ecologies which can be usefully farmed.

15

The Food and Agriculture Organisation has counted more than 300 agricultural pests which

are no longer responding to most pesticides in use.

can be easily controlled through the use of pesticides.

continue to spread disease in a wide range of crops.

may be used as part of bio-controls replacement of pesticides.

16
A

Cotton farmers in Central America began to use pesticides


because of an intensive government advertising campaign.

in response to the appearance of new varieties of pest.

as a result of changes in the seasons and the climate.

to ensure more cotton was harvested from each crop.

17

By the mid-1960s, cotton farmers in Central America found that pesticides

were wiping out 50% of the pests plaguing the crops.

were destroying 50% of the crops they were meant to protect.

were causing a 50% increase in the number of new pests reported.

were costing 50% of the total amount they spent on their crops.

Questions 18-21
YES
NO

if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer


if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer

NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this
18 Disease-spreading pests respond more quickly to pesticides than agricultural pests do.
19 A number of pests are now born with an innate immunity to some pesticides.
20 Biological control entails using synthetic chemicals to try and change the genetic make-up of the pests
offspring.
21 Bio-control is free from danger under certain circumstances.
Questions 22-26
Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-I, below.

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 22-26 on your answer sheet.

A forage grass.

F parthenium weed.

B rice fields.

G Brazilian beetles.

C coconut trees.

H grass-scale insects.

D fruit trees.

I larval parasites.

E water hyacinth.

22

Disapene scale insects feed on

23

Neodumetia sangawani ate

24

Leaf-mining hispides blighted

25

An Argentinian weevil may be successful in wiping out

26

Salvinia molesta plagues

READING PASSAGE 3
Collecting Ant Specimens
Collecting ants can be as simple as picking up stray ones and placing them in a glass jar, or as complicated as
completing an exhaustive survey of all species present in an area and estimating their relative abundances. The
exact method used will depend on the final purpose of the collections. For taxonomy, or classification, long
series, from a single nest, which contain all castes (workers, including majors and minors, and, if present,
queens and males) are desirable, to allow the determination of variation within species. For ecological studies,
the most important factor is collecting identifiable samples of as many of the different species present as
possible. Unfortunately, these methods are not always compatible. The taxonomist sometimes overlooks whole
species in favour of those groups currently under study, while the ecologist often collects only a limited number
of specimens of each species, thus reducing their value for taxonomic investigations.
To collect as wide a range of species as possible, several methods must be used. These include hand collecting,
using baits to attract the ants, ground litter sampling, and the use of pitfall traps. Hand collecting consists of
searching for ants everywhere they are likely to occur. This includes on the ground, under rocks, logs or other
objects on the ground, in rotten wood on the ground or on trees, in vegetation, on tree trunks and under
bark. When possible, collections should be made from nests or foraging columns and at least 20 to 25
individuals collected. This will ensure that all individuals are of the same species, and so increase their value for
detailed studies. Since some species are largely nocturnal, collecting should not be confined to daytime.
Specimens are collected using an aspirator (often called a pooter), forceps, a fine, moistened paint brush, or
fingers, if the ants are known not to sting. Individual insects are placed in plastic or glass tubes (1.5-3-0
ml capacity for small ants, 5-8 ml for larger ants) containing 75% to 95% ethanol. Plastic tubes with secure tops
are better than glass because they are lighter, and do not break as easily if mishandled.
Baits can be used to attract and concentrate foragers. This often increases the number of individuals collected
and attracts species that are otherwise elusive. Sugars and meats or oils will attract different species and a range
should be utilised. These baits can be placed either on the ground or on the trunks of trees or large shrubs. When
placed on the ground, baits should be situated on small paper cards or other flat, light-coloured surfaces, or in
test-tubes or vials. This makes it easier to spot ants and to capture them before they can escape into the
surrounding leaf litter.

Many ants are small and forage primarily in the layer of leaves and other debris on the ground. Collecting these
species by hand can be difficult. One of the most successful ways to collect them is to gather the leaf litter in
which they are foraging and extract the ants from it. This is most commonly done by placing leaf litter on a
screen over a large funnel, often under some heat. As the leaf litter dries from above, ants (and other animals)
move downward and eventually fall out the bottom and are collected in alcohol placed below the funnel. This
method works especially well in rain forests and marshy areas. A method of improving the catch when using a
funnel is to sift the leaf litter through a coarse screen before placing it above the funnel. This will concentrate
the litter and remove larger leaves and twigs. It will also allow more litter to be sampled when using a limited
number of funnels.
The pitfall trap is another commonly used tool for collecting ants. A pitfall trap can be any small container
placed in the ground with the top level with the surrounding surface and filled with a preservative. Ants are
collected when they fall into the trap while foraging.
The diameter of the traps can vary from about 18 mm to 10 cm and the number used can vary from a few to
several hundred. The size of the traps used is influenced largely by personal preference (although larger sizes are
generally better), while the number will be determined by the study being undertaken. The preservative used is
usually ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, as alcohol will evaporate quickly and the traps will dry out.
One advantage of pitfall traps is that they can be used to collect over a period of time with minimal maintenance
and intervention. One disadvantage is that some species are not collected as they either avoid the traps or do not
commonly encounter them while foraging.
Questions 27-30
Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?
27 Taxonomic research involves comparing members of one group of ants.
28 New species of ant are frequently identified by taxonomists.
29 Range is the key criterion for ecological collections.
30 A single collection of ants can generally be used for both taxonomic and ecological purposes.
Questions 31-36
Classify the following statements as referring to
A hand collecting
B

using bait

sampling ground litter

using a pitfall trap

Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 31-36 on your answer sheet.


31 It is preferable to take specimens from groups of ants.
32 It is particularly effective for wet habitats.
33 It is a good method for species which are hard to find.

34 Little time and effort is required.


35 Separate containers are used for individual specimens.
36 Non-alcoholic preservative should be used.
Questions 37-40
Label the diagram below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

37

38

39

40