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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)

Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

OPTIMIZING AND FLEXIBLE DISPATCH OF


POWER IN HYBRID POWER SYSTEM BASED ON
PENGUIN SEARCH OPTIMIZATION
U.ASHWINI1, S.POONGOTHAI NACHIYAR2, Dr.A.RAVI,M.E.,Ph.D3.
1

PG student, Dept of EEE, FRANCIS XAVIER Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India.

PG student, Dept of EEE, FRANCIS XAVIER Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India.

Professor, Dept of EEE, FRANCIS XAVIER Engineering College, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract: The power system economic dispatch model was improved, which only considered the
feathers of cost and emission. It is of great significance to study coordinated and optimizing dispatch of largescale grid-connected system of hydro-power, thermal power, wind power, and photovoltaic for greatly
improving the operating efficiency of smart grid. However, there is a big challenge due to the intermittent
nature, volatility, and low predictability of intermittent power supplies, namely the effects which are from the
uncertainties in intermittent power supplies on the dispatch problem cannot be neglected. Robust
optimization has become an effective decision tool for achieving solutions with reasonable practicability,
economy, and reliability under uncertain circumstances. To achieve the cost efficient dispatch model, this
project is focusing about the robust optimization of uncertainty based on Penguin Search Optimization
Algorithm. This proposed optimization technique is taking full advantage of clean energy and improving
reliability of system. Moreover, a Penguin Search Optimization (PeSO)based approach is designed in this
project.
Keywords: Penguins Search Optimization Algorithm (PeSOA), Economic Dispatch Problem (EDP).

I.INTRODUCTION
The increasing integration of large scale
volatile and uncertain wind generation has brought
great challenges to power system operations should
be extended to the field of uncertainty optimization.
This good must be supplied on a continuous basis in
order to cover the daily requirements. Meanwhile,
both hydro-power, featuring lower generating cost
and short initiating time, and thermal power which is
stable and reliable in operation and easy to dispatch
will still be very important power sources in future
smart grid. Therefore, it is of great significance to
study coordinated and optimizing dispatch of large
scale grid connected system of hydro-power, thermal
power, wind power, and photovoltaic for greatly
improving the operating efficiency of smart grid. The
reduction of 2 emissions, the partial independency
from fossil fuels and the increase of energy
generation take advantage of every available
renewable energy source and to convert it into
hydrogen for the power plants fuel consumption, as
well as to exploit solar or geothermal energy to
support the steam generation for the heat recovery
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system or for an auxiliary boiler. Stochastic process


techniques are used to analyze problems which are
described by a set of random variables of known
distribution. Statistical methods used in the analysis
of experimental data and in the construction of
empirical models.
Hybrid renewable energy systems are
becoming popular as standalone power systems for
providing electricity in remote areas due to advances
in energy technologies and subsequent rise in prices
of petroleum products. A hybrid energy system,
or hybrid power, usually consists of two or more
renewable energy sources used together to provide
increased system efficiency as well as greater balance
in energy supply. PeSOA is a method for optimizing
nonlinear systems developed by Youcef Gheraibia
and Abdelouahab Moussaoui to solve optimization
problems, this is a simplified model of social
relations, which is the hunting of the Penguins. The
hunting strategy of the Penguins is a collaborative
work of effort and timing, they benefit of their dives
by optimizing the overall energy in the process of
collective hunting and nutrition. The primary
5

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)


Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

objective of the Economic Dispatch Problem (EDP)


of electric power generation is to schedule the
committed generating unit outputs so as to meet the
required load demand at minimum operating cost
while satisfying all unit and system equality and
inequality constraints. Improvements in scheduling
the unit outputs can lead to significant cost savings.
In traditional EDP, the cost function for each
generator has been approximately represented by a
single quadratic function and is solved using
mathematical programming based on optimization
techniques such as iteration method, gradient
method, Dynamic Programming (DP) method, These
techniques require incremental fuel cost curves
should be monotonically increasing to find global
optimal solution.

II. PENGUIN SEARCH OPTIMIZATION


A.PENGUINS SEARCH OPTIMIZATION
ALGORITHM (PESOA)
PeSOA is a method for optimizing nonlinear
systems developed by Youcef Gheraibia and
Abdelouahab Moussaoui in 2013 to solve
optimization problems; this is a simplified model of
social relations, which is the hunting of the Penguins.
We propose a new meta-heuristic algorithm called
penguins Search Optimization Algorithm (PeSOA),
based on collaborative hunting strategy of penguins.
In recent years, various effective methods, inspired
by nature and based on cooperative strategies, have
been proposed to solve NP-hard problems in which,
no solutions in polynomial time could be found. The
global optimization process starts with individual
search process of each penguin, who must
communicate to his group its position and the number
of fish found. This collaboration aims to synchronize
dives in order to achieve a global solution (place with
high amounts of food). The global solution is chosen
by election of the best group of penguins who ate the
maximum of fish. After describing the behaviour of
penguins, we present the formulation of the algorithm
before presenting the various tests with popular
benchmarks. Comparative studies with other metaheuristics have proved that PeSOA performs better as
far as new optimization strategy of collaborative and
progressive research of the space solutions.

B.HUNTING STRATEGY OF PENGUINS


The optimality theory of foraging behaviour
was modelled. These two studies hypothesized that
dietary behaviour may be explained by economic
reasoning: when the gain of energy is greater than the
expenditure required to obtain this gain, so it comes
to a profitable food search activity. Penguins, as
biological beings, use this assumption to extract
information about the time and cost of food searches
and energy content of prey, on one hand, and the

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choice to hunt or not in the selected area, depending


on its high resource and the distance between feeding
areas, on the other. The behaviour of air-breathing
aquatic predators including penguins. The surface is a
place for penguins as they are forced to return after
each foraging trip. A trip implies immersion in apnea.
The duration of a trip is limited by the oxygen
reserves of penguins, and the speed at which they use
it, that is to say their metabolism. The works in the
field of animal behavioural ecology of penguins has
given us clear and motivating ideas for the
development of a new optimization method based on
the behaviour of penguins. Penguins are sea birds,
unable to fly because of their adaptation to aquatic
life.

C.PESO ALGORITHM
The optimization algorithm based on the
hunting behaviour of penguins can be described in
numerous ways. While all methods agree to optimize
their objective functions such as maximizing the
amount of energy extracted from the energy invested,
we propose to simplify the optimization function by
using rules, de-scribed below, to guide the search
strategy by the penguins:
Rule 1: A penguin population is made up of several
groups.
Rule 2: Each group is composed of a variable
number of penguins that can vary depending on food
availability in a specific location.
Rule 3: They hunt in group and move randomly until
they find food when oxygen reserves are not
depleted.
Rule 4: They can perform simultaneous dives to a
depth identical.
Rule 5: Each group of penguins starts searching in a
specific position (holei) and random levels
(levelsj1, j2, ..., jn).
Rule 6: Each penguin looks for foods in random way
and individually in its group, and after rough number
of dives, penguins back on the ice to share with its
affiliates, the location (represented by the level or
depth of the dive) where he found food and plenty of
it (represented by the amount of eaten fich). This rule
ensures intra group communication.
Rule 7: At one level, one can have from 0 to N
penguins (penguin or any group) according to the
abundance of food.
Rule 8: If the number of fish in a hole is not enough
(or none) for the group, part of the group (or the
whole group) migrates to another hole. (This rule
ensures inter-group communication)
Rule 9: The group who ate the most fish delivers us
the location of rich food represented by the hole and
the level.

International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)


Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

start

Initialization: load data, bus data and load


demand data

Evolutionary algorithm: initialize penguins total number of iterations and error


tolerance
Fitness evaluation: calculate fitness value for all the penguins position

Optimum solution: the best penguins were elected as best penguins by


comparing with the previous results

Make dive: to search food make dive (movement) to all the penguin position
using position update equation

Global best evolution: compare the results and nominate the global best penguin
No
g=Gmax?
g=g+1
Yes
End
Fig 1 : Flowchart of the Penguin Search Optimization Algorithm

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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)


Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

III. DESCRIPTION OF SEVEN BUS


MODEL

The load curve for the corresponding day is shown in


the following fig 4

In fig 2 the 7 bus multi machine system is


taken here for the analysis purpose as shown in the
figure. It consists of 7 buses, 4 thermal generators, 1
wind generator, 1 PV generator and 1 hydro power
plant generator with 7 loads. The hydro plant in this
bus topology is in the operating rate as 300MW.

Fig2 : Single Line Diagram Of Seven Bus System


In seven-bus power system including four
thermal power units, one hydro power station, one
wind farm, and one photovoltaic power station is
taken as an example for the optimization dispatch
analysis.

Fig4 : Load Demand For 12 Hrs.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS


The following fig 3 represents the generated
power from wind and solar power generation. And
the power generation is scaled for 12 hour time
horizon in this work.

Fig5 : Global Best Plot On Every Epoch


The subsequence section broadly showing
the performance of proposed penguin search based
economic dispatch. The optimized four thermal
generator power is showing in the following table
and also the fig showing the optimum power
generation curve of each generator.
Fig3 : Renewable Generation For 12 Hrs.

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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)


Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

Table 1: Optimized Thermal Power Generation


Tim PG1
PG2
PG3
PG4
e
(MW)
(MW)
(MW)
(MW)
1:00 30
254.499 102.482 175.7491
2
1
2:00 140.156 99.0978 368.058 188.3508
2
5
2
3:00 207.249 236.779 164.410 158.5188
8
4
4
4:00 47.4479 144.012 138.896 352.8496
9
4
9
5:00 122.278 133.194 183.643 154.8008
1
9
9
6:00 115.519 146.878 327.290 108.0713
7
2
2
7:00 128.181 281.994 232.048 185.1865
4
1
2
8:00 148.982 110.600 376.231 197.084
8
1
1
9:00 136.551 198.754 174.237 108.7251
1
1
1
10:0 74.8333 109.646 367.108 140.722
0
2
8
1
11:0 42.7937 187.086 242.515 106.9984
0
8
7
1
12:0 121.818 98.9620 144.107 108.6992
0
3
2
8

The reduced cost for the whole 12


processing hours is show in the following table 1 and
the maximum, minimum cost values are shown in the
next table.
Table2 : Reduced Cost and Emission values
Time

1:00

Reduced
Fuel
Cost
($/MW)
27594.44834

Reduced
Emission
(gal/MW)
2969.838351

2:00

24375.05556

5823.003773

3:00

28365.26191

5790.045175

4:00

20625.01768

2669.140199

5:00

18890.19391

2721.736245

6:00

20898.73179

5155.07967

7:00

28764.62604

6126.498085

8:00

25598.56147

6150.810496

9:00

19067.98136

4702.487363

10:00

20253.80649

4927.704482

11:00

19404.07615

4314.724209

12:00

12329.32757

3881.765608

Table3 : Minimum Maximum Distribution Of


Cost And Emission
Fuel Cost Emission
($)
(gal/Hr)
Maximum
value
Minimum
Value
Average
Value

28764.62604

6150.810496

12329.32757

2669.140199

22180.59069

4602.736138

The above table 3 gives the maximum value,


minimum value and the average value of the cost
function of the emission.

V.CONCLUSION

Fig6: Optimized Power Generation Curves For


Four Generators

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This
project
establishes
a
robust
optimization of economic dispatch problem for the
multi machine system. The uncertainties of
renewable energy resources like solar and wind
generations are heavily affecting the dispatch
schedule of the thermal generator. The main
objective of processing economic dispatch is to limit
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International Journal of Research in Advanced Technology IJORAT (ISSN ONLINE 2456-2769)


Vol. 2, Issue 1, JANUARY 2017

the emission effect from the thermal generators as


well as the fuel cost of it. The renewable energy
resources are actually affecting the economic
schedule of the thermal generators. This can be
solved by preparing the robust economic dispatch
solution among the systems. This work is devoted for
the later operation and also the proposed work is
handled with the high efficient penguin Search
optimization algorithm for solving the robust
economic dispatch. The work is implemented on
seven bus system where the solar wind and hydro
power plants are taken into account and economic
dispatch is prepared for four thermal generators
individually. Simulation results shown in the
previous section clearly describes about the
effectiveness of the proposed work. The reduced fuel
cost, reduced total emission and also the load demand
satisfaction are the key points to understand the
proposed work.

9. S. Boyd and L.Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization.


Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004.
10. C. Chen, Y. P. Li, G. H. Huang, and Y. F. Li, A robust
optimization method for planning regional-scale electric
power systems and managing carbon dioxide, Int. J. Elect.
Power Energy Syst., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 7084, 2012.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
First of all we would like to thank the almighty for giving
me sound health throughout my paper work. This research
was supported/partially supported by our college. We thank
our staffs from our department who provided insight and
expertise that greatly assisted the research, although they
may not agree with all of the interpretations/conclusion of
this paper.

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