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07- PERFORMANCE TO DETERMINE EFFECTIVENESS AND

EFFICIENCY OF PIN FIN

AIM: To Determine The Efficiency And Effectiveness For A Pin And To Plot The Graph Of The Actual And
Analytical Temperature Distribution Along The Length Of The Pin Fin.

APPARATUS:
Iron pin fin, heater, Variac, thermocouples digital temperature indicator and thermometer
APPARTUS SPECIFICATIONS:
Length of the fin

Diameter of the fin

Distance between the thermocouples =


Thermal conductivity of copper

THEORY:
In many engineering situations, means are often sought to improve heat dissipation form a surface
to its surrounding. The Newton Rikhman relation

Q=hA(t-ta)
Reveals that the convective heat flow can be enhanced by increasing the film coefficient h, the
surface area A and the temperature difference (t - ta) The convective coefficient is a function of the
geometry, fluid properties and the flow rate control of h through these parameters to obtain its
optimum value. The surface area exposed to the surroundings is frequently increased by the
attachment of protrusions to the surfaces and the arrangement are called fins on spines and these
extensions can take a variety of forms the most common types are illustrated in fig.
A straight fin is an extended surface attached to a plane wall the cross-sectional area of the
fin may be uniform or it man very with distance from wall. Annular fins are attached
circumferentially to a cylindrical surface. However both the straight and annular fins are of
rectangular cross-section. Whose area can be expressed as a product of the fin thickness & and
width & for straight fins or the circumference 2r for annular fins In contrast a pin fin or a spine is
an extended surface of cross-section which may be uniform or non-uniform Thus a spine represents
a thin cylindrical or conical rod protruding from a wall.
Common applications of finned surfaces are with economizers for steam power plants
convectors for steam and hot water heating systems electrical transformers and with air-cooled
cylinders of aircraft engines, I.C. engines and air compressors.

STEADY FLOW OF HEAT ALONG A ROD:


(Governing differential equation)
Consider a straight circular fin protruding from a wall surface as in fig. The length of the fin is
constant cross-sectional area is A and circumferential perimeter is P Thus for the circular fin

Ac =

d2 : p = rl

The temperature at the base of the is to and the temperature of the ambient fluid into which the rod
extends is considered to be constant temperature tc. The base temperature to is highest and the
temperature along the fin length goes on diminishing,
Consider an infinitesimal element of the fin the element has thickness 8x and is located at a distance
x from the base wall.
Heat conducted into the element at plane x
Qx=-kAc(dt/dx)x
Heat conducted out of the element at plane (x + x)
Q(x + x)=-kAc(dt/dx)x + x
-kAc d/dx{t +(dt/dx) x}
Heat converted out of the element between the planes x and (x + x)
Qx = h(Px) (t ta)
A heat balance on the element gives.
Qx = Q(x + x) + Q(x)
= -kAc dt/dx = -kAc dt/dx(t + dt/dx x) + h P x (t - ta)
Upon rearrangement the simplification
d2t/dx2 hP/kAc (t ta) = 0
Above equation is further simplified by transforming the dependent variable by defining the
temperature excess as.
(x) = t(x) ta
Since the ambient temperature ta is constant we get by differentiation.
d/dx = dt/dx

d2A/dx2 = d2t/dx2

Thus,

d2/dx2 = m2 = 0

Where,

m = hP//kAc

Then the general solution for this linear, homogeneous a second order differential equation is
of the form.
= C1 exp[mx] + C2 exp[-mx]
The constants C1 and C2 are to be determined with the aid relevant boundary conditions.

HEAT DISSIPATION FROM AN INFINITELY LONG FIN:


The relevant boundary conditions are.
i.

t = t0 at x=0

in terms of excess temperature; ta = t0 - ta


or, -0 at x=0
ii.

t=ta at x=

Substitution of these boundary conditions in the equation (6) we get C1 +C2= 0


C1 exp[m()] + C2 exp[-m()] = 0
Since the term C2 exp[-m()] is zero, the equality is valid only if C1 = 0. Hence C2 = 0
Substituting values of C1 and C2 in the equation (6) we get,
= 0 exp[-mx]

(t-ta) = (t0-ta) exp[-mx]

Now the form rate equation corresponding to root section of the fin
Q = k Ar (dt/dx) x = 0
From the expression for temperature distribution
t = ta+ ( t0 ta) exp [-mx)
(dt/dx)x = 0 = [-m (t0 ta) exp]x = 0 = -m (t0 ta)
Now,

`m = ph/kAr
m = ph/kAr (t0 ta)

HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A FIN INSULATED AT THE FIN:


The relevant boundary conditions are:
i.

= 0 at x = 0

ii.

dt/dx = 0 at x = t

Applying these boundary conditions to equation (6) we get


C1 + C2 = 0
Further

t ta = C1 exp[mx] C2 exp[-mx]
dt/dx = m C1 exp[mx] mC2 exp[-mx]
(dt/dx)x = mC1 exp[ml] mC2 exp[-ml]
C1 exp [ml] C2 exp [-ml] = 0

Solving expressions (a) and (b),

C1 = 0

exp [ml]
exp [ ml ] + exp[ml]

C2 = 0

exp [ml]
exp [ ml ] + exp[ml]

Substituting constants C1 and C2 in equation (6),


exp [ m ( 1x ) ]+ exp [m ( 1x ) ]
=
0
exp [ ml ] +exp[ml]
Expressing in terms of hyperbolic functions.
1x
()

m
cosh

tta
=
=
0 t 0ta
The rate of heat flow from the fin is given by
Q = -kAr (dt/dx)x
From the expression for temperature distributions.

t ta(t0 - ta)

dt/dx = (t0 - ta)

1x
()

m
cosh

mlx
()
msinh
cosh ml

(dt/dx)x = 0 = m(t0 - ta) tanh(ml)


Q = kAcm(t0 - ta) tanh(ml)
= PhkAr (t0 - ta) tanh(ml)
HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A FIN LOSING AT THE TIP:
The relevant boundary conditions are:
i.

= 0 at x = 0

ii.

The heat conducted to the fin at x = 1 equals the heat converted form the end to the
surroundings

-kAr(dt/dx)x = hAr (t ta)


At the of fin the cross-sectional area for heat conduction A equals the surface area A form
which the convective heat transport occurs Thus.
dt/dx = -h/ k

at

x=1

Applying these boundary conditions to equation (6)


C1 + C2 = 0
Further,

t ta = C1 exp [mx] + C2 exp [-mx]


dt/dx = mC1 exp [mx] mC2 exp [-mx]
(dt/dx)x =1 mC1 exp [mx] mC2 exp [-mx] = -h/k

Solving expressions (a) and (b).


C1 =

0[1h/km]exp [ml ]
[exp [ ml ] + exp [ml ] ]+ h/km[exp [ ml ] + exp [ ml ] ]

C2 =

0[1h/km ]exp [ml ]


[ exp [ ml ] + exp [ml ] ] + h/km[exp [ ml ] + exp [ ml ] ]

Substituting these values of C1 and C2 in equation (6) we get,


exp [ m ( 1x ) ] + exp [m ( 1x ) ]+ h/km {exp [ m ( 1x ) ] exp [m ( 1x ) ] }
=
0
[ exp [ ml ] +exp [ ml ] ] +h /km[exp [ ml ] +exp [ml ] ]

Expressing in terms of hyperbolic functions.


cosh m(1x )+h/km {sinh m (1x ) }

tta
=
=
0 t 0ta
cosh ml+ h/km[sinh ml]

The rate of heat flow from the fin is given by.


Q = -kAc (dt/dx)x = 0
From the expression for temperature distribution

t - ta =

dt/dx =

( t 0ta ) cosh m(1x)+h / km{sinh m ( 1x ) }


cosh ml +h/ km[sinh ml ]
( t 0ta ) msinh m(1x )m h/km {cosh m ( 1x ) }
cosh ml+ h/km[sinh ml]

(dt/dx)x 0 = -(t0-ta)

kAcm (t0-ta)

msinh mlm h/km{cosh ml }


cosh ml+ h/km[sinh ml]

sinh ml+h /km{cosh ml }


cosh ml +h/km[sinh ml ]

PhkAc (t0-ta)

sinh ml+h /km{cosh ml }


cosh ml +h/km[sinh ml ]
tanhml +

PhkAc (t0-ta)

1+

h
km

h
km [ tanh ml ]

Efficiency of fin:
Efficiency of the relate the performance of an actual fin to that of an ideal or fully effective fin. Fin
will be most effective, i.e. if would dissipate heat at maximum rate if the entire fin surface area is
maintained at the base temperature.
f =
Actual heat transfer rate

the fin
Heat that would be dissipated if the whole surface of the fin were maintained at thebase temperature

Thus for a fin insulated tip,


f =

PhkAc ( t 0ta ) tanh ml


h( pl) ( t 0ta )

The parameter pl represents the total surface area exposed for convective heat flow Upon
simplification,
f =

tanhml tanh ml
=
ph/kAc l
ml

Effectiveness of fin:
Effectiveness of fin represents the ratio of the fin heat transfer rate (heat dissipation with a
fin) to the heat transfer rate that would exist without a fin.
The heat transfer through the rood area A before fin attachment is

hAc (t0 ta)


After the attachment of a fin insulated at the tip, the heat transfer and through the fin area becomes.
= PhkAc (t0-ta) tanhml
Fin effectiveness =

PhkAc ( t 0ta ) tanh ml


hAc (t 0ta )
pk
hA

tanh ml

The deviation may occur due to the following reasons:


Steady state condition may not have been reached.
Thermocouple calibration may not be correct.
Velocity may not remain uniform.
PROCEDURE:
Connect the iron pin fin heater Variac digital temperature indicator and the voltmeter as
shown in the figure.
Switch on the supply for the heater & adjust the supply voltage using a Variac such that the
power supplied to the heater does not exceed its rated value which is 100W.
Wait till the steady state condition is achieved.
Set the knob of the digital temperature indicator to the first thermocouple and take the
temperature reading of the first thermocouple any in the same way take the temperature
reading of the other thermocouple also.
Also take the atmospheric air temperature reading.
OBSERVATIONS:
Sr. No.

1
2
3
4
5

Watt Meter

Dist. Of

Surface Temp.

Atm. Air Temp.

Reading

Thermocouple

Ts in 0C

Ta in 0C

in Watt

in cm

CALCULATION:

RESULT TABLE:

Sr.

Dist. Of Thermocouple

Surface Temp.

Atm. Air

Experimentally

Calculated

No.

in cm (x)

Ts in 0C

Temp. Ta in

Obtained Temp.

Value of

Temp. in 0C

1
2
3
4
5
GRAPH: DISTANCE V/S TEMPERATURE (EXPERIMENTAL AND CALCULATED)

CONCLUSION: