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1/20/2017

Antenna: a transducer that converts electrical alternating current

oscillations at an RF frequency to an electromagnetic wave of the same
frequency.

ECE Elective
Antenna

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

Remson Mark C. Macawile, ECE

ANTENNA
Definition: a transducer that converts electrical alternating current
oscillations at an RF frequency to an electromagnetic wave of the same
frequency.
Definition: an electrical conductor or array of conductors that radiates
signal energy or collects signal energy

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
1. Radiation Pattern: a polar diagram or graph representing the field
strengths or power densities at various angular positions relative to an
antenna.
2. Antenna Polarization:
i. Vertical- electrical lines are perpendicular to the earths surface
ii. Horizontal- E-lines are horizontal to the earths surface
iii. Circular- vertical and horizontal component of electrical are
present with equal signal strength
iv. Elliptical- vertical and horizontal component of electrical are
present with unequal signal strength
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PRINCIPLES
Reciprocity: states that the pattern, directivity, aperture, and terminal
impedance of the antenna are the same when transmitting or receiving

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
3. Near Field & Far Field
i. Near Field: field pattern that is closed to the antenna.
ii. Far Field: field pattern that is at great distance from the antenna
where power that reach this region continues to radiates outward and
is never returned to the antenna.

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

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ANTENNA PARAMETERS
4. Resistance & Efficiency
antenna to the square of the current at the feed point.
: a hypothetical value, if replaced by an equivalent resistor, would
dissipate exactly the same amount of power that the antenna would
ii. Ohmnic Resistance (Rd) : represents the actual losses caused by
the convention of electrical energy to heat as a result of the resistivity
of the various conducting elements of the antenna.
: also called loss resistance
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
4. Resistance & Efficiency
iii. Antenna Power Loss (Pd): the difference between the power
delivered to the antenna to the actual power it radiates.
iv: Antenna Efficiency (): the ratio of the power radiated by an
antenna to the power delivered to the feed point.
: also, the ratio of the radiation resistance to the total antenna
resistance.

=
=
+
+

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
5. Bandwidth & Beamwidth
i. Bandwidth (BW): range of frequency over which an antenna will
ii. Beamwidth ():defined as the width, in degrees, of the major lobe
between the two directions at which the relative radiated power is
equal to one-half its value at the peak of the lobe (half power = 3dB)

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
6. Antenna Gain
i. Directive Gain(D): the ratio of the power density radiated in a
particular direction to the power density radiated to the same point
by a reference antenna.
Directivity: is defined as the maximum directive gain.
=

()
()

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
6. Antenna Gain
ii. Power Gain (G): the ratio between the amounts of energy
propagated in these directions compared to the energy that would be
propagated if the antenna were not directional.
: ratio between the power radiated by a directional antenna to the
power radiated by a reference antenna.
= = 10log

2
1

ANTENNA PARAMETERS
i. Effective Radiated Power(ERP): the product of antenna input power
and antenna power gain of or the product of power fed to the
antenna and its power gain.
= = + ()
ii. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power(EIRP): the product of the
radiated RF power of a transmitter and the gain of the antenna system
in a given direction relative to an isotropic radiator.
= + 2.14

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

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ANTENNA PARAMETERS
8. Effective Area(Aeff): it is the effective area upon which the antenna
collects electromagnetic energy from the incident wave. It takes into
account the efficiency of the antenna like its illumination efficiency.
=

9. Front-to-Back ratio: the ratio expressed in dB of the output in the most

optimum direction to the output 180 degrees away from the optimum
direction.
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

The method used to change the electrical length of an antenna . This keeps
the antenna in resonance with the applied frequency. It is accomplished by
inserting a variable inductor or capacitor in series with the antenna.
1. Inserting an inductor: in series with a short antenna compensate its
capacitive reactance thus effectively increasing its electrical length and
bandwidth, while the resonant frequency decreases.
2. Inserting a capacitor: in series with a long antenna compensate its
inductive reactance thus effectively decreasing its electrical length and
bandwidth, while the resonant frequency increases.
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA GROUNDING SYSTEM

The ground screen and counterpoise are used to reduce losses caused by
the ground in the immediate vicinity of the antenna.
1. Counterpoise: consists of structure made of wire erected at short
distance above the ground and insulated from the ground
2. Earth Mat(Ground Screen): consists of metal screen or wire mesh buried
15-30 cm below the ground. The screen should extend at least half
wavelength in every direction from the antenna.

ANTENNA FEED MECHANISM

1. Center Fed: if energy is applied at the geometrical center of the antenna
: the simplest type of antenna feeding using open wire parallel-conductor
feeders to the center of the antenna
2.Voltage Fed: if energy is applied to the point of high voltage along the
antenna length.
3. Current Fed: if energy is applied to the point of high circulating current
along the antenna length.

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

3 TYPES:
structure.
structure, approximately half-way between the feed point and the end.
the antenna

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

BASIC ANTENNAS
1. Elementary Doublet: electrically short dipole and is often reffered to
simply as Herzian dipole.
=

60

Where:
: induced field strength in V/m
I: antenna current in A

: effective antenna length

10
d: distance from the antenna in m

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

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BASIC ANTENNAS
2. Half-Wave Dipole: a resonant antenna, the total length of which is
nominally /2 at the carrier frequency.

BASIC ANTENNAS
3. Quarter-Wave Antenna: a half wave dipole placed vertically, with the
other half of the dipole being the ground.

Radiation resistance: 73 @ the feed point, 2500 at the ends
Effective length: /

Effective length: /

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

BASIC ANTENNAS
Actual length
Antenna Types

Exact Formula
246
=

Quarter-Wave Dipole
(Marconi or Long wire)

Half-Wave Dipole
(Hertz Antenna)

Considering End
effect(F=0.95)
234
=

492

468

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

ANTENNA ELEMENTS
1. Driven Element: a driven element obtains its power directly from the
transmitter or, as a receiving antenna, it delivers the received energy
2. Parasitic Element: located near the driven element from which it gets its
power. It is placed close enough to the driven element to permit coupling.

SPECIAL PURPOSE ANTENNA

1. Folded Dipole Antenna: the folded dipole is essentially a single antenna
made up of two elements. One element is fed directly, whereas the
other is conductively coupled at the ends.
2. Yagi-Uda Antenna: a linear array consisting of a dipole and two or more
parasitic elements.

SPECIAL PURPOSE ANTENNA

3. Turnstile Antenna: is formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to
each other, 90 out of phase. The radiation pattern is the sum of the
radiation patterns from the two dipoles, which produces a nearly
omnidirectional pattern.
4. Loop Antenna: a closed-circuit antenna, that is, one in which a conductor
is formed into one or more turns so its end are close together.

Antenna Element

Exact Formula

Considering the end effect

Parameter

Director

0.45

0.451

Induced Voltage

Driven Element

0.5

0.475

Reflector

0.55

0.5

Induced Voltage
(Tuned Loop Antenna)

Equation
=
=

B = magnetic flux density in Teslas

A = loop area in m2
N = number of turns in the loop
Q = quality factor

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SPECIAL PURPOSE ANTENNA

5. Helical Antenna: a circularly polarized antenna that is wound into a helix.
Two Principal Modes
1. In the normal (broadside) mode or, the dimensions of the helix are small
compared with the wavelength. The far field radiation pattern is similar
to an electrically short dipole o monopole.
2. In the axial (endfire) mode, the antenna produces true circular
polarization.
Equation
Gain of a helical antenna

3dB Beamwidth ()
=

i. Collinear array: usually uses two or more wire half-wave dipoles mounted
end-to-end. The pattern radiated by the collinear array is similar to that
produced by a single dipole. The addition of two or more radiator, however,
tends to intensity the pattern.
ii. Broadside array: designates an array in which the direction of maximum
radiation is perpendicular to the place containing these elements. In actual
practice, this term is confined to those arrays in which the elements
themselves are parallel, with respect to each other.
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA

A form of a dish antenna with reflecting surface that is geometric
paraboloid. Parabolic reflector resemble the shape of a plate or dish;
therefore, they are sometimes called parabolic dish antennas or simply dish
antenna.

Effective Area
Beamwidth

Bidirectional array: radiates in opposite directions along the line of

ii. Unidirectional array: radiates in only one general direction. Arrays cam
be described with respect to their radiation patterns and the types of
elements of which they are made.

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

MULTI-ELEMENT ARRAYS
2. In terms of Direction of Radiation

Aperture Number

i.

N = # of turns, 3 to 20 turns
S = pitch or spacing
D = helix diameter

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

Parameter

MULTI-ELEMENT ARRAYS
1. Multi-element arrays frequently are classified according to directivity

MULTI-ELEMENT ARRAYS
iii. End-fire array: is one in which the principal direction of radiation is alone
the plane of the array and perpendicular to that elements. Radiation is from
the end of the array, which is the reason this arrangement is referred to as
an end-fire array.
iv. Log-Periodic antenna: derives its name from the fact that the feedpoint
impedance is a periodic function of the operating frequency.
=

=
=

=
=

Parameter
Gain

2
4

= 70

HORN ANTENNA
Horn radiator is a tapered termination of a length of waveguide that
provides the impedance transformation between waveguide and free space
impedance.

Equation

= tan

= design constant (typically between 0.7 to 0.9)

= design angle in degrees
L1,L2 = element length from shortest to longest
d1,d2 = spacing between elements from apex
ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

H-plane Beamwidth
E plane Beamwidth

General Solution
7.5
2
70

56
=

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1. Calculate the efficiency of a dipole antenna that has a radiation

resistance of 67 and a loss resistance of 5, measured at the feed
point.
A. 93.05%
B. 93.15%
C. 93.30%
D. 93.50%

1. Calculate the efficiency of a dipole antenna that has a radiation

resistance of 67 and a loss resistance of 5, measured at the feed
point.
A. 93.05%
B. 93.15%
C. 93.30%
D. 93.50%

2. Calculate The gain of a certain antenna relative to a dipole antenna with a

gain of 5.3 dB with respect to an isotropic radiator. Also compute for the
power gain if the antenna has an efficiency of 95%.
A. 2.94 dB
B. 3.90 dB
C. 1.96 dB
D. 0.99 dB

2. Calculate The gain of a certain antenna relative to a dipole antenna with a

gain of 5.3 dB with respect to an isotropic radiator. Also compute for the
power gain if the antenna has an efficiency of 95%.
A. 2.94 dB
B. 3.90 dB
C. 1.96 dB
D. 0.99 dB

3. Calculate the captured power 10 km away from a half-wave dipole

transmitter with 10 W transmit power for the following antenna at 150 MHz;
a. Hertzian dipole
b. Half-wave dipole

3. Calculate the captured power 10 km away from a half-wave dipole

transmitter with 10 W transmit power for the following antenna at 150 MHz;
a. Hertzian dipole
b. Half-wave dipole

A.
B.
C.
D.

A.
B.
C.
D.

6.23 nW;6.81 nW
6.24 nW;6.82 nW
6.25 nW;6.83 nW
6.26 nW;6.84 nW

6.23 nW;6.81 nW
6.24 nW;6.82 nW
6.25 nW;6.83 nW
6.26 nW;6.84 nW

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4. Calculate the radiation resistance of a half-wave dipole antenna if the

feedpoint is 0.25 m from one end at 300 MHz.
A. 150
B. 250
C. 350
D. 450

5. Calculate the radiation resistance of a half-wave dipole antenna 0.1 m

from one end at 300 MHz.
A. 785.4
B. 78.54
C. 7.854
D. 785.5

6. What is the actual length in feet of one-half wavelength of a coax with

velocity factor of 0.63 at 28 MHz?
A. 11.07 ft.
B. 12.07 ft.
C. 13.08 ft.
D. 14.08 ft.

4. Calculate the radiation resistance of a half-wave dipole antenna if the

feedpoint is 0.25 m from one end at 300 MHz.
A. 150
B. 250
C. 350
D. 450

5. Calculate the radiation resistance of a half-wave dipole antenna 0.1 m

from one end at 300 MHz.
A. 785.4
B. 78.54
C. 7.854
D. 785.5

6. What is the actual length in feet of one-half wavelength of a coax with

velocity factor of 0.63 at 28 MHz?
A. 11.07 ft.
B. 12.07 ft.
C. 13.08 ft.
D. 14.08 ft.

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7. What is the actual length in feet of one-quarter wavelength of a coax with

velocity factor of 0.695 at 42MHz?
A. 4.07 ft.
B. 5.07 ft.
C. 6.14 ft.
D. 7.14 ft.

8. A Yagi-Uda antenna is designed to receive signals centered at 174 MHz.

Calculate the length of driven element, reflector, and director.

9. Calculate the gain and beamwidth of a helical antenna if the optimum

diameter is 80 mm, pitch of 62.5 mm, with eight turns and will operate at
1.2 GHz.
A. 14.8 dB;36.6
B. 1.48 dB;3.66
C. 13.9 dB;26.7
D. 1.39 dB;2.67

7. What is the actual length in feet of one-quarter wavelength of a coax with

velocity factor of 0.695 at 42MHz?
A. 4.07 ft.
B. 5.07 ft.
C. 6.14 ft.
D. 7.14 ft.

9. Calculate the gain and beamwidth of a helical antenna if the optimum

diameter is 80 mm, pitch of 62.5 mm, with eight turns and will operate at
1.2 GHz.
A. 14.8 dB;36.6
B. 1.48 dB;3.66
C. 13.9 dB;26.7
D. 1.39 dB;2.67

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

10. Calculate the directive gain and beamwidth between nulls for a
paraboloidal reflector antenna with a mouth diameter of 2.4 m and the
illumination efficiency is 0.55 operating at 6 GHz.
A. 41 dB;2.92
B. 40 dB;2.91
C. 39 dB;2.90
D. 38 dB;2.89

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

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10. Calculate the directive gain and beamwidth between nulls for a
paraboloidal reflector antenna with a mouth diameter of 2.4 m and the
illumination efficiency is 0.55 operating at 6 GHz.
A. 41 dB;2.92
B. 40 dB;2.91
C. 39 dB;2.90
D. 38 dB;2.89

11. To minimize interference, a 500 MHz dish needs to have a 1248

beamwidth. What diameter dish is required, in wavelength and meters?
A. 42 m
B. 24 m
C. 4.2 m
D. 2.4 m

11. To minimize interference, a 500 MHz dish needs to have a 1248

beamwidth. What diameter dish is required, in wavelength and meters?
A. 42 m
B. 24 m
C. 4.2 m
D. 2.4 m

ECE ELECTIVE. Antenna

12. Calculate the gain, beamwidth in the E and H plane if a pyramidal horn
antenna that has an aperture of 60 mm in the E-plane, 80 mm in the Hplane and operating at 6 GHz.